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ANFIS Based Kinematic Analysis of a 4-DOFs


SCARA Robot
Jyotindra Narayan Ashish Singla
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Department of Mechanical Engineering Thapar University
Thapar University Patiala-147004, India
Patiala-147004, India ashish.singla@thapar.edu

Abstract—Robot kinematics plays a crucial role in recent solution which rely on starting point and not functional
advancements within industrial sectors and numerous medical near singularity region.
applications. Finding forward kinematics, using DH
convention is an easy task. As compared to forward As degrees-of-freedom increase, traditional techniques for
kinematics, finding the inverse kinematics solution is far more inference of inverse kinematic solutions become
challenging problem, especially when degrees-of-freedom insufficient because of unavailability of a unique solution;
(DOFs) are more. That is why; there is no general solution to
the inverse kinematic problem of a given serial manipulator. leads to highly time consuming approach. All these issues
This led to the development of alternate technique like fuzzy can be resolved by applying the concept of fuzzy logic and
inference system (FIS) and neural network approach (NNA). neural networks as a conjugate, having qualitative feature
This paper uses the combination of above two techniques, of fast computation.
called as adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS),
along with Gaussian membership function, in order to address Fuzzy Logic is the most significant approach in soft
the kinematic analysis of a 4-DOFs SCARA robot. The inverse computing field as it is fully accomplished to comprehend
kinematic solutions obtained using ANFIS are further utilized human expertise in terms of precursor IF and successor
for desired path generation by the SCARA robot. Further, the THEN formats. Nature of the system in this dominion is
complete analytical solution is developed in MATLAB described by using linguistic expressions. The classic
environment for the validation purpose. It has been architecture of these systems is initiated by Wang [7],
demonstrated with simulation runs that ANFIS results are
Tagaki and Sugeno [8] and Jang [9]. In [7], the proposed
satisfactory and are found in close approximation with
analytical solutions. inference system is formed constitutes Gaussian
membership function, product inference concept and
Keywords—Inverse kinematics, path generation, ANFIS, weighted average defuzzifier. In [8], defuzzification part is
Gaussian membership function, SCARA robot established in terms of dynamic systems. The qualitative
feature of this concept is that under certain restraints,
I. INTRODUCTION stability of systems can be interpreted.
It is a well-knownthat robots perform a vital role in many Artificial Neural Network is a knowledge proceeding
industrial applications like pick and place operations, paradigm that is motivated with the functioning of
welding, soldering, painting etc. [1]. In medical assisted biological nervous system, such as brain. It comprises of
surgery, importance of end effector’s position of a robotic highly interrelated components (neurons) combining in
device is really appreciable for better accuracy and unified way to resolve distinct problems. Main advantages
precision [2]. The protein position in the metabolism of of this system are: adaptive skills, self-association, real
human being can also be determined using robot kinematics time management and fault tolerance with redundant data
[3]. coding. In order to address the inverse kinematics problem,
Literature survey reveals that with the use of D-H different researchers have worked purely on neural
convention, forward kinematics is an easy task, for position networks approach [10] and also on the combination of
analysis [4]. Traditionally, for solving the inverse neural networks and fuzzy logic [11]. There are multiple
kinematics problem, three techniques are proposed: options after combining neural networks and fuzzy logic so
geometric, algebraic[5] and iterative [6]. However, these that they can subjugate their disadvantages as well as grasp
three techniques come with certain demerits like geometric the advantages from each other’s classified qualities.
method is only applicable if closed form solutions exist; The literature shows so many conjunctions of Adaptive
algebraic method does not give any guarantee of closed Neural Networks and Fuzzy Inference Systems as a hybrid:
form solution; and iterative method converges to only one Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS) [12].

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Manjaree presented comparative analysis of inverse


kinematics solution for 5-DOFs industrial robotic
manipulator with wrist movement [13] along with
experimental validation.
Within 4-DOFs robotic class, kinematic modeling and
simulation of SCARA robot has been proposed by Schilling
[14]. A neural network based approach is also elaborated
by Jha and Biswal [15], for finding inverse kinematic
solutions. However, they did not emphasize on the idea of
trajectory tracking through ANFIS technique.For the path

Fig. 1. CAD model of the SCARA robot.

generation with only neural networks committee approach, The 4-DOFs robotic manipulator presented in this paper is
by Koker et al. [16], positioning errors of less than 10 mm shown in Fig. 1. The same has been designed in the
were achieved. SOLIDWORKS software. Systematic assignment of
different frames using D-H conventions is shown in Fig. 2.
In this paper, a 4-DOFs SCARA robot is being taken into
consideration for kinematic analysis using ANFIS and
comparingthe inverse kinematics solutions with analytical
solutions graphically. Furthermore, a desired path is being
generated with ANFIS and analytic one for a pre-defined
workspace.
The remaining paper is organized as follows. In section II,
description of 4-DOFs SCARA robotic manipulator is
discussed. Section III is focused on analytical formulations
for the forward and inverse kinematic problem. In Section
IV, ANFIS architecture with knowledge of Gaussian
Membership functions is described. In Section V,
application of ANFIS method on 4-DOFs SCARA robot is
done. In section VI, solutions of joint variables and
tracking for desired path obtained from both methods are
comparatively presented. Section VII highlights the
conclusions of the paper.
II. DESCRIPTION OF SCARA ROBOT Fig. 2. DH frame representation of SCARA robot.

In this paper, a 4-DOFs SCARA manipulator is taken into


consideration. The robotic manipulator constitutes RRPR III. ANALYTICAL FORMULATIONS FOR FORWARD AND
configuration. The detailed description of the movements INVERSE KINEMATICS
of joints and end-effector is tabulated in TABLE I. The kinematic analysis [14] for any multi-DOFs robotic
TABLE I. DESCRIPTION OF WORKSPACE FOR MOVEMENTS OF SCARA manipulator can be classified as: forward kinematics and
MANIPULATOR
inverse kinematics. With n degree of freedom, joint
S. No. Type Part of Movement Workspace variables can be denoted by ߠ௜ ൌ ߠሺ‫ݐ‬ሻǡ ‫ ݅׊‬ൌ ͳǡ ʹǡ ͵ǡ ǥ ǡ ݊
Robot and position variables by ‫ݔ‬௝ ൌ ‫ݔ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻǡ ‫ ݆׊‬ൌ ͳǡ ʹǡ ͵ǡ ǥ ǡ
1. Link 1 Waist Left/Right 0 - ʌ/4 (rad) ݉ǤThe expression between end effector‫ݔ‬௧ and joint angle
2. Link 2 Shoulder Left/Right 0 - ʌ/4 (rad)
ߠሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ can be formulated by forward kinematic equation as

3. Link 3 Elbow Up/Down 100-130(mm)


࢞ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ࢌ൫ࣂሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ൯ (1)
where,ࢌ is a nonlinear, continuous and differentiable
4. Wrist Wrist Roll Clockwise/ 0 - ʌ/4 (rad)
Anticlockwise function. Due to availability of DH convention, finding
forward kinematics is an easy task. On the other hand,
finding joint variables for the given position and orientation
is described by inverse kinematicequation, given as

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ࣂሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ࢌԢ൫࢞ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ൯ (2) Furthermore, using above formulations, the joint variables
in the terms of position variables can be found, which
With comparison to the forward kinematics, finding
denotes the inverse kinematics equations,
solution of(2) is complicated task as of non-existence of
unique solution due to its nonlinear and time-varying ‫݌‬௫ ଶ ൅ ‫݌‬௬ ଶ െ ܽଵ ଶ െ ܽଶ ଶ
ߠଶ ൌ േܽ‫ ݏ݋ܿܿݎ‬ቈ ቉
nature. In this section, the analytical method for solving the ʹܽଵ ܽଶ (8)
inverse kinematic problem for 4-DOFs SCARA
ܽଶ ܵߠଶ ‫݌‬௫ ൅ ሺܽଵ ൅ ܽଶ ‫ߠܥ‬ଶ ሻ‫݌‬௬ (9)
manipulator is described using algebraic approach. The DH ߠଶ ൌ ܽ‫ ݊ܽݐܿݎ‬ቈ ቉
convention has been used to formulate the forward ሺܽଵ ൅ ܽଶ ‫ߠܥ‬ଶ ሻ‫݌‬௫ െ ܽଶ ܵߠଶ ‫݌‬௬
kinematic equations, as tabulated in TABLE II. ݀ଷ ൌ ݀ଵ െ ‫݌‬௭ െ ݀ସ (10)
TABLE II. DH PARAMETERS OF SCARA ROBOT ܵߠଵିଶିସ (11)
ߠସ ൌ ߠଵ െ ߠଶ െ ܽ‫ ݊ܽݐܿݎ‬൤ ൨
‫ߠܥ‬ଵିଶିସ
S. Joint Joint offset Link Length Twist
No. Angle ࢊ࢏ (mm) ࢇ࢏ (mm) Angle
ࣂ࢏ (rad) ࢻ࢏ (rad) It is quite evident from equations(8) - (11), that there exist
1. ߠଵ ݀ଵ ൌ ͶͲͲ ܽଵ ൌ ʹͷͲ Ͳ multiple solutions, which are cumbersome to obtain
analytically. Moreover, as number of linkages increase,
2. ߠଶ Ͳ ܽଶ ൌ ͳͷͲ ߨ there will be lot of implications in solving inverse
3. Ͳ ݀ଷ Ͳ Ͳ
kinematic equations because of their non-closure forms.
This leads to the evolution of artificial intelligent
4. ߠସ ݀ସ ൌ ͳͷͲ Ͳ Ͳ techniques. Worthwhile, ANFIS is one of the promising
technique for finding the inverse kinematics problem with
The general transformation matrix‫ܭ‬௜௜ିଵ amid two adjacent advantage of its non-time consuming nature.
frames Fi-1 and Fi is as follows in(3),
‫ߠܥ‬௜ െܵߠ௜ ‫ߙܥ‬௜ ܵߠ௜ ܵߙ௜ ܽ௜ ‫ߠܥ‬௜
IV. ANFIS ARCHITECTURE WITH GAUSSIAN
ܵߠ ‫ߠܥ‬௜ ‫ߙܥ‬௜ െ‫ߠܥ‬௜ ܵߙ௜ ܽ௜ ܵߠ௜
‫ܭ‬௜௜ିଵ
ൌ൦ ௜ ൪ (3) MEMBERSHIP FUNCTION
Ͳ ܵߙ௜ ‫ߙܥ‬௜ ݀௜
Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ANFIS technique [13] is a hybrid neuro-fuzzy approach
After incorporating the DH parameters from TABLE II in which combines the concept of artificial neural networks
and fuzzy logics; utilizing the discrete primacy. It is
equation(3), the forward kinematics equations can be
practically identical to Sugeno fuzzy inference system. It
formulated for 4-DOFs SCARA manipulator by
forms a bridge between fuzzy inference system and
multiplying‫ܭ‬ଵ ,‫ܭ‬ଶ , ‫ܭ‬ଷ and‫ܭ‬ସ are as
learning potential of artificial network; where membership
‫ܭ‬ସ଴ ൌ ܴଷൈଷ ‫݌ ڭ‬ଵൈଷ functions for inferences are adjusted by back propagation
൥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ൩ method or conjunctionof least square method.
Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ‫ڭ‬ ͳ
ൌ ‫ߠܥ‬ଵିଶିସ െܵߠଵିଶିସ Ͳ ܽଵ ‫ߠܥ‬ଵ ൅ ܽଶ ‫ߠܥ‬ଵିଶ
ܵߠ ‫ߠܥ‬ଵିଶିସ Ͳ ܽଵ ܵߠଵ ൅ ܽଶ ܵߠଵିଶ
൦ ଵିଶିସ ൪(4)
Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ݀ଵ െ ݀ଷ െ ݀ସ
Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ
where,‫ߠܥ‬௜ ൌ ܿ‫ݏ݋‬ሺߠ௜ ሻǡ ܵߠ௜ ൌ •‹ሺߠ௜ ሻǡ ‫ߙܥ‬௜ ൌ
ܿ‫ݏ݋‬ሺߙ௜ ሻandܵߙ௜ ൌ ‫݊݅ݏ‬ሺߙ௜ ሻ,‫ߠܥ‬௜ି௝ ൌ ܿ‫ݏ݋‬൫ߠ௜ െ
ߠ௝ ൯,ܵߠ௜ି௝ ൌ ‫݊݅ݏ‬൫ߠ௜ െ ߠ௝ ൯,‫ߠܥ‬௜ି௝ି௞ ൌ ܿ‫ݏ݋‬൫ߠ௜ െ ߠ௝ െ
ߠ௞ ൯,ܵߠ௜ି௝ି௞ ൌ ‫݊݅ݏ‬൫ߠ௜ െ ߠ௝ െ ߠ௞ ൯ ,
Using equation (4),
Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of ANFIS architecture
‫݌‬௫ ൌ ܽଵ ‫ߠܥ‬ଵ ൅ ܽଶ ‫ߠܥ‬ଵିଶ (5)
The architecture of ANFIS method is illustrated with five
‫݌‬௬ ൌ ܽଵ ܵߠଵ ൅ ܽଶ ܵߠଵିଶ (6)
layers as depictedin Fig. 3. The functionof respective layer
‫݌‬௭ ൌ ݀ଵ െ ݀ଷ െ ݀ସ (7) is summarized as:
where, ‫݌‬௫ǡ ‫݌‬௬ ǡ ‫݌‬௭ denotes translation about x-, y-, z- axis Layer 1: The Node Layer
respectively.

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This layer provides the input parameters to the succeeding The literature survey suggests that based on the selection
layer. Every node itself forms a complete fuzzy set and criteria of being flat and non-zero at all points, Gaussian
output in corresponding fuzzy set works as the input (gaussmf and gauss2mf), sigmoidal (dsigmf and psigmf),
௝ generalized bell curve (gbellmf) and spline based curve
parameters membership class. Here, the node function ܱ௜
௧௛ ௧௛
(for ݅ position of ݆ layer) is evaluated as: (pimf) could be applied for the decision of membership
function. From these six, only Gaussian Membership
ܱ௜ଵ ൌ ‫ݎ‬஺௜ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻǢܱ௜ଵ ൌ ‫ݎ‬஻௜ ሺ‫ݕ‬ሻǢܱ௜ଵ ൌ ‫ݎ‬஼௜ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ (12) Function (MF) is procuring admissible results. The detailed
description of Gaussian MF is as follows:
where, (‫ݎ‬஺௜ , ‫ݎ‬஻௜ , ‫ݎ‬஼௜ ) is membership function for that Gaussian Membership Function
particular input and (x, y, z) is the input vector.
For fuzzification process, Gaussian MFs with product
inference rule are utilized; on the other hand, for
defuzzification process, weighted average method is
Layer 2: The Membership Layer
applied. A symmetric Gaussian MF is defined by (17),
In layer 2, the output of every node which indicates the
firing strength is calculated as product of all membership where parameter ‘ߪ’ denotes width of the curve and ‘a’
function; giving the specification of degree with which shows the distance from the origin.Representation of
input parameters for the next layer is decided. Gaussian MF is shown in Fig. 4.
షሺೣషೌሻమ (17)
ܱ௜ଶ ൌ ܴ௜ ൌ ‫ݎ‬஺௜ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ‫ݎ‬஻௜ ሺ‫ݕ‬ሻ‫ݎ‬஼௜ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻǡ ݅ ൌ ͳǡʹǡ͵ (13) ߤሺ‫ݔ‬Ǣ ߪǡ ܽሻ ൌ ݁ మ഑మ

Layer 3: The Rule Layer


In this, computation of activation level of every rule is done
by comparing each of the firing strengths with summation
of every firing strengths. It comprises of static nodes which
computes the ratio of firing strength of the rules.
ܴ௜ (14)
ܱ௜ଷ ൌ ൬ ൰
ܴଵ ൅ ܴଶ ൅ ܴଷ

Layer 4: The Defuzzification Layer


In this layer, each IF-THEN rule as resulting output is
inferred by precursor/premise limit or linear grouping of Fig. 4. Gaussian Membership Function
input fuzzy individuals of ANFIS with constant
expressions. V. APPLICATION OF ANFIS TECHNIQUE ON 4-DOFS
SCARA MANIPULATOR
ܱ௜ସ ൌ ܴ௜ ‫ܭ‬௜ ൌ ሺ‫ݑ‬௜ ‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ݒ‬௜ ‫ ݕ‬൅ ‫ݓ‬௜ ‫ ݖ‬൅ ܿ௜ ሻ (15)
ANFIS method performs in two segments -training and
where, ሺ‫ݑ‬௜ ǡ ‫ݒ‬௜ ǡ ‫ݓ‬௜ ǡ ܿ௜ ሻrepresents a consequent design testing segment. In trained ANFIS data, the ‫ݔ‬, ‫ݕ‬and‫ݖ‬
parameters set. coordinates of tip of the SCARA manipulator behave as the
inputs and joint angles; ș1, ș2, d3and ș4 as the outputs. In
Here, fuzzy IF-THEN rules are defined as:
fourth data set, effect of wrist roll is considered. Here, four
If x is A and y is B and z is C, then ‫ ܭ‬ൌ ‫ ݔݑ‬൅ ‫ ݕݒ‬൅ ‫ ݖݓ‬൅ training data sets consisting of coordinates and joint angles
ܿwhere, A, B and C are fuzzy sets in precursor, and u, v, w, has been regardedas (‫ݔ‬, ‫ݕ‬, ‫ݖ‬, ș1), (‫ݔ‬, ‫ݕ‬, ‫ݖ‬, ș2), (‫ݔ‬, ‫ݕ‬, ‫ݖ‬, d3)
c are design parameters that are found in the training and (‫ݔ‬, ‫ݕ‬, ‫ݖ‬, ܵߠଵିଶିସǡ ‫ߠܥ‬ଵିଶିସ ǡș4), respectively.
procedure. The corresponding MF’s and number of rules have been
Layer 5: The Output Layer designated for each training data set. First three data set
In this layer, summation of all inputs coming from layer 4; comprisesof three MFs for each tip coordinate, leads to27
consequently, whole ANFIS setup is automatically tuned rules. Last data set contains three MFs for each tip
up by the application of least square approximation and coordinate and wrist roll angle, leads to a total of 243 rules.
back propagation structure for the required membership The epochs used for the training data set are 10. The basic
function. procedure of ANFIS approach is defined in four steps; as
shown in Fig. 5.
ܱ௜ହ ൌ ෍ ܱ௜ସ ൌ ෍ ܴ௜ ‫ܭ‬௜  ሺͳ͸ሻ In the testing segment, the premise and consequent limitsin
௜ ANFIS approach are modifiable as they are adaptive in

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character. This adaptive procedure of ANFIS approach is The radius of the path is denoted by ‘r’. ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ ݖ†ƒݕ‬are the
subdivided into two steps. In the first step, training of position coordinates along the respective directions.
consequent parameter is done with the help of least square SCARA as a spatial robot, z coordinates
method because linear combination of same parameters varysimultaneously with x and y coordinates throughout the
gives ANFIS output. The premise parameters are static path generation process. Using MATLAB, the responses
during the first step. In the next step, back propagation of for joint variables (ș1, ș2, d3, ș4) for the desired path are
approximation error is done byapprising premise shown in Fig. 6.
parameters over each layer. This fraction of learning
process is in accordance with gradient descent principle
which is correspondent to training of back propagation
algorithm in neural networks.

Fig. 6 (a). Response of ‘ș1’ with ‘Number of samples’

Fig. 6 (b). Response of ‘ș2’ with ‘Number of samples’

Fig. 5. ANFIS procedure


This hybrid learning procedure is computationally
inexpensive than gradient descent method as the search
domain of initial back propagation neural network is far
decreased and ANFIS converges with less number of
iterations.
VI. SIMULATION RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
A. For joint variables Fig. 6(c). Response of ‘d3’ with ‘Number of samples’
Here, the workspace for which 4-DOF SCARA
manipulatoris trained, tabulated in TABLE I. Thedesired path
is defined as
‫ݔ‬଴ ൌ ͲǢ
‫ݕ‬଴ ൌ ͲǢ
‫ݎ‬ ൌ ͶͲͲǢ
‫ݔ‬ ൌ ‫ݔ‬଴ ൅ ‫ߠݏ݋ܿݎ‬Ǣ
‫ݕ‬ ൌ ‫ݕ‬଴ ൅ ‫ߠ݊݅ݏݎ‬Ǣ
Fig. 6 (d). Response of ‘ș4’ with ‘Number of samples’
‫ݖ‬ ൌ ͳ͵ͷ േ ͳͷǢ
where, Ͳ ൑ ߠ ൑ Ͷͷ (degrees) B. For path generation
After obtaining the joint variables, desired pathis back
where, ‫ݔ‬଴ƒ†‫ݕ‬଴ are the manipulators base or foot positions. propagated using ANFIS approach and compared with

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analytical solutions. A combined comparative analysis for VII. CONCLUSIONS


analytical and ANFIS solutions with respect to desired path In this paper, it is concluded that finding inverse kinematic
is shown in Fig. 7(a) and 7(b) within two different views. solutions for 4-DOFs SCARA robot with conjugation of
Furthermore, in Fig. 7(c), the simulation runs for desired fuzzy logic andneural networks as an artificial intelligent
solutions is shown along with 4-DOFs SCARA links, technique supports potential conformity with respect to the
where tip of robot is coordinated with analytical and analytical approach at much lower computational cost. One
ANFIS solutions, simultaneously. of the remarkable advantage of this artificial intelligent
technique is the avoidance of non-linear and non-closed
form solutions for higher DOFs manipulators. Even,
inverse kinematic equations are not required in this
approach for finding the joint parameters, unlikely in
analytical one. Thereafter, path generation by the same
manipulator for desired path within the trained workspace
has been done by ANFIS approach, showing quite less
error. However, if the desired path is out of the trained
domain, the ANFIS solutions may behave erratically.
Further work can be done on the training parameters like
Fig. 7 (a). Analytical and ANFIS solutions for desired path in XY plane number and type of membership functions, number of
epochs etc. Moreover, complex shape path and obstacle
avoidance using ANFIS approach is possible and will be
presented in future.

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