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The American Society of
Mechanical Engineers

A N
A M E R I C A N A T I O N A S
L T A N D A R D

BELOW-THE-HOOK
LIFTING DEVICES

SAFETY STANDARD FOR CABLEWAYS, CRANES, DERRICKS, HOISTS,HOOKS, JACKS, AND SLN
I GS
COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Date of Issuance: October 11, 1999

The 1999 edition of this Standard is being issued with an automatic addenda
subscription service. The use of an addenda allows revisions made in
response to public review comments or committee actions to be published on
a regular yearlybasis; revisions publishedin addenda will become effective1
year after the Date of Issuance of the addenda. The next edition of this
Standard is scheduled for publication in 2004.

ASME issues written replies to inquiries concerning interpretationsof


technical aspects of this Standard. The interpretations will be included with
the above addenda service.

ASME is the registered trademark of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

This code or standard was developed under procedures accreditedas meeting the criteria for
American National Standards. The Standards Committee that approved the code or standard
was balanced to assure that individuals from competent and concerned interests have had an
opportunity to participate. The proposed code or standard was made available for public review
and comment, which provides an opportunityfor additional public input from industry,
academia,
regulatory agencies, and the public-at-large.
ASME does not "approve," "rate," or "endorse" any item, construction, proprietary device,
or activity.
ASME does not take any position with respect to the validity of any patent rightsasserted in
connection with any items mentionedin thisdocument, anddoes not undertake to insure anyone
of any applicableLetters Patent, nor assume
utilizing a standard against liability for infringement
any such liability. Users of a code or standard are expressly advised that determination of the
validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, is entirely their
own responsibility.
Participation by federalagency representativek) or person(s) affiliated with industry is not to
be interpreted as government or industry endorsement of this code or standard.
ASME accepts responsibilityfor only those interpretations issued in accordance with governing
ASME procedures and policies, which preclude the issuance of interpretations by individual
volunteers.

No part of this document may be reproduced in any form,


in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of the publisher.

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers


Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990

Copyright 1999 by
THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS
All Rights Reserved
Printed in U.S.A.

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FOREWORD

This American National Standard, Safety Standard for Cableways, Cranes, Derricks, Hoists,
Hooks, Jacks, andSlings,hasbeen developed undertheproceduresaccredited by the
AmericanNational Standards Institute(formerlytheUnited States of America Standards
Institute). This Standardhaditsbeginning in December 1916, whenan eight-page Code
of Safety Standards forCranes,prepared by anASME Committee ontheProtection of
Industrial Workers, waspresented to the annual meeting of the ASME.
Meetings and discussions regarding safety on cranes, derricks, and hoists were held from
1920 to 1925, involvingtheASMESafetyCode Correlating Committee, theAssociation
ofIronandSteelElectricalEngineers,theAmericanMuseum of Safety, theAmerican
Engineering Standards Committee (later changedtoAmerican Standards Associationand
subsequently to the USA Standards Institute), Department of Labor - State of New Jersey,
DepartmentofLaborandIndustry - State of Pennsylvania,andtheLocomotive Crane
Manufacturers Association. On June 1 I , 1925, the American Engineering Standards Committee
approvedtheASMESafetyCode Correlating Committee’s recommendationand authorized
the project with the U.S. Department of the Navy, Bureau of Yards and Docks, and ASME
as sponsors.
In March 1926, invitations wereissued to 50 organizations to appoint representatives to
a Sectional Committee. The call for organization of this Sectional Committee was sent out
October 2, 1926, andthe committee organizedNovember 4, 1926, with 57 members
representing 29 nationalorganizations. The SafetyCodefor Cranes, Derricks,and Hoists,
ASA B30.2, 1943, was created fromthe eight-page documentreferred to in the first
paragraph. This document was reaffirmed in 1952 and widely accepted as a safety standard.
Duetochanges in design, advancement intechniques,andgeneralinterest of laborand
industry in safety, theSectional Committee, under the joint sponsorship ofASMEand the
NavalFacilitiesEngineering Command, U.S. Department of theNavy,wasreorganized as
anAmerican National StandardsCommittee onJanuary 3 I , 1962, with 39 members
representing 27 national organizations.
The format of the previous code was changed so that separate standards (each complete
as to construction and installation; inspection, testing,andmaintenance;and operation)
would cover thedifferenttypes of equipment included in the scope of B30.
In 1982, theCommitteewasreorganized as an AccreditedOrganization Committee,
operating under procedures developed by the ASME and accredited by the American National
Standards Institute.
This Standard presents a coordinated set of rules that may serve as a guide to government
and other regulatorybodiesandmunicipal authorities responsibleforthe guarding and
inspection oftheequipment falling withinits scope. Thesuggestions leadingto accident
prevention are givenboth as mandatoryandadvisoryprovisions; compliance withboth
types may be required by employers of their employees.
In case of practical difficulties, new developments, or unnecessary hardship, the administra-
tive or regulatoryauthority may grantvariancesfromtheliteralrequirements or permitthe
useof other devices or methods,butonlywhen it isclearly evident thatan equivalent
degree of protectionisthereby secured. To secureuniformapplicationandinterpretation
of this Standard,administrative or regulatory authorities are urgedto consult the B30

...
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S T D - A S M E B30.20-ENGL L999 m 0759h70 Ob13295 bTh m

Committee, in accordance with the format described in Section III, before rendering decisions
on disputed points.
This volume of the Standard, which was approved by the B30 Committee and by ASME,
was approved byANSIand designated as an American National Standard on July 13, 1999.
Safety codes and standards are intended to enhance public safety. Revisions result from
committee consideration of factors such as technological advances, new data, and changing
environmental andindustry needs. Revisions do notimplythat previous editions were
inadequate.

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ASME B30 COMMllTEE
Safety Standards for Cableways, Cranes, Derricks,
Hoists, Hooks, Jacks, and Slings
(The following is the roster of the Committee
at the time of approval of this Standard.)

OFFICERS
P. S. Zorich, Chair
B. D. Closson, Vice Chair
J. Pang, Secretary

COMMllTEE PERSONNEL*
ALLIANCE OF AMERICAN INSURERS
T. A. Christensen, Liberty Mutual Insurance Co.
G. D. Tolbert, Alternate, Liberty Mutual Insurance Co.
ASSOCIATED GENERAL CONTRACTORS OF AMERICA
C. L. Huneywtt, J. A. Jones Construction
W. P. Rollins, Alternate, J. A. Jones Construction
ASSOCIATED WIRE ROPE FABRICATORS
D. Sayenga, Associated Wire Rope Fabricators
D, J. Bishop, Alternate, Bishop Lifting Products, Inc.
ASSOCIATION OF CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT MANAGERS
H. E. Livermore, Bechtel Leasing, Inc.
J. C. Ryan, Boh Bros. Construction Co.
ASSOCIATION OF IRON AND STEEL ENGINEERS
J. W. Rowland, Bethlehem Steel
EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS INSTITUTE
D. N. Wolff, National Crane Corp.
J. H. Crowley, Alternate, Equipment Manufacturers Institute
FORGING INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
G. F. Hoffa, Consultant, Columbus McKinnon Corp.
E. K. Marburg, Alfernate, Columbus McKinnon Corp.
INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS
W. J. Smith, Jr., International Union of Operating Engineers
S. C. Buck, Alternate, International Union of Operating Engineers, Local 150
NATIONAL ERECTORS ASSOCIATION
B. E. Weir, Jr., Norris Brothers Co., Inc.
J. Conant, Alternate, Conant Crane Rental Co.
POWER, CRANE, AND SHOVEL ASSOCIATION BUREAU OF THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (CIMA)
N. C. Hargreaves, Terex Corp.
D. G. Quinn, Alternate, FMC Construction Equipment Corp.

* Themembers listed,except for thoselistedundertheheadingforindividualmembers,werenominatedbytheir


respective organizations.

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SPECIALIZED CARRIERS AND RIGGING ASSOCIATION
H. I. Shapiro, Howard I. Shapiro & Associates
R. M. Kohner, Alternate, Landmark Engineering Service
STEEL PLATE FABRICATORS ASSOCIATION
K. Miller, CBI NA-CON, Inc.
W. Romsos, Alternate, Consultant
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
E. E. Rudy, Mobility Technology Center, U.S. Army
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
J. E. Richardson, Naval Facilities Engineering Command
WIRE ROPE TECHNICAL BOARD
L. D. Means, Wire Rope Corp. of America, Inc.
D. A. Henninger, Alternate, Pauken Wire Rope Corp.

INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS
T. Asenato, Jr., Eastman Kodak Co.
R. J. Bolen, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Inc.
A. D. Brown, OSHA, US. Department of Labor
P. L. Rossi, Alternate, OSHA, US. Department of Labor
K. J. Chlad, Material Handling Division of Caterpillar
J. W. Downs, Jr., Alternate, Downs Crane and Hoist Co., Inc.
B. D. Closson, North American Crane Bureau West
T. L. Blanton, Alternate, North American Crane Bureau
J. P. Colletti, J.P. Colletti & Assoc., Inc.
R. A. Dahlin, Walker Magnetic Group, Inc.
D. W. Eckstine, Grove Worldwide
A. Miller, Alternate, Grove Worldwide
R. H. Fowler, U S . Department of the Air Force
J. L. Franks, South Carolina State Port Authority
R.C. Slater, Alternate, McKay International Engineers
J. J. Headley, Crane Institute of America, Inc.
C. W. Ireland, Amclyde Engineered Products
L. S. Johnson, American Equipment
G. L. Owens, Alternate, Granite Construction Co.
J. M. Klibert, Honorary Member, Lift-All Co., Inc.
H. G. Leidich, Ingersoll-Rand Co.
J. T. Perkins, Alternate, Ingersoll-Rand Co.
C. Lucas, Crosby Group
P. A. Boeckman, Alternate, Crosby Group
T. S. McKosky, Honorary Member, Consultant
R. W. Parry, Honorary Member, Consultant
R. R. Reisinger, FKI Industries, Inc.
J. L. Gordon, Alternate, FKI Industries, Inc.
A. R. Toth, Consultant, Harnischfeger Industries, Inc.
S. J. McCormick, Alternate, P & H Material Handling
R. C. Wild, U S . Army Corps of Engineers
R. E. Scott, Alternate, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
P. S. Zorich, RZP International Ltd.

vi

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CONTENTS

............................................................................ ...
Foreword 111
Committee Roster .................................................................... v
Summary of Changes ................................................................. ix
Introduction
General .................................................................... 1
Section I scope ............................................................... 2
Section H Purpose ............................................................. 2
Section III Interpretations ....................................................... 2
Section IV New and Existing Installations ....................................... 3
Section V MandatoryandAdvisory
Rules ....................................... 3
Section VI Metric
Conversions .................................................. 3
Chapter 20-0 Scope.Definitions.andReferences
Section 20-0.1 Scope of ASME B30.20 ............................................. 5
Section 20-0.2 Definitions - General ............................................... 5
Section 20-0.3 Definitions for Chapter 20-1 ......................................... 5
Section 20-0.4 Definitions for Chapter 20-2 ......................................... 6
Section 20-0.5 Definitions for Chapter 20-3 ......................................... 7
Section 20-0.6 Definitions for Chapter 20-4 ......................................... 8
Section 20-0.7 ReferencestoOtherCodesand Standards ............................. 8
Chapter 20-1 Structural andMechanical Lifting Devices
Section 20- 1 .1 Scope ............................................................... 17
Section 20-1.2 Markingsand Construction ........................................... 17
Section 20-1.3 Inspection ............................................................ 17
Section 20- 1.4 Testing ............................................................. 18
Section 20- 1.5 Maintenance ......................................................... 18
Section 20-1.6 Operation ........................................................... 19
Chapter 20-2 VacuumLiftingDevices
Section 20-2.1 scope ............................................................... 21
Section 20-2.2 Marking.Construction.
and Installation ............................... 21
Section 20-2.3 Inspection.
Testing.
and
Maintenance ................................. 22
Section 20-2.4 Operation ........................................................... 25
Section 20-2.5 Manuals ............................................................ 26
Chapter 20-3 CloseProximity Operated Lifting Magnets
Section 20-3.1 Scope ............................................................... 27
Section 20-3.2 Marking,Construction.
and Installation ............................... 27
Section 20-3.3 Inspection.
Testing.
andMaintenance ................................. 29
Section 20-3.4 Operation ........................................................... 31
Chapter 20-4 Remotely Operated Lifting Magnets
Section 20-4.1 Scope ............................................................... 33
Section 20-4.2 Marking,
Construction.
and Installation ............................... 33

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Section 20-4.3 Inspection. Testing. and Maintenance ................................. 34
Section 20-4.4 Operation ........................................................... 35
Section 20-4.5 Instruction Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Figures
I Grip Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2 Load Supporting Lifters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IO
3 Pressure Gripping Lifters . Indentation-type Lifters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4 Pressure Gripping Lifters . Friction-type Lifters ...................... 12
5 Manipulating Lifters ................................... , , . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6 VacuumLifters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7 Magnetic Lifters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Table
I MinimumInspection for Below-the-Hook LiftingDevices .............. 20

...
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ASME B30.20-1999
SUMMARY OF CHANGES

The 1999 edition of ASME B30.20 includes editorial changes, revisions, and corrections introduced in
B30.20a-1996, B30.20b-1996, and B30.20~-1998as well as the following changes identified by (99).
Page Location Change
1 General B30 volume listing updated
5 Section 20-0.1 Revised
Section 20-0.2 Definition of qualified person revised
8, 9 Section 20-0.7 Reference
ANSVAWS
to D l . 1 deleted and
replaced with ANSVAWS D14.1
17 Section 20- l. 1 Revised
1.2.2 20- First
revised
paragraph
Revised 20-1.2.2(a)
21 Section 20-2.1 Revised
22 20-2.2.2(f) Revised
Revised 20-2.2.2(g)
27 Section 20-3.1 Revised
28 20-3.2.2(a)(3) Revised
20-3.2.2(a)(4) Added
33 Revised
Section 20-4.1
20-4.2.2(a)(4) Revised
20-4.2.2(a)(5) Added

SPECIAL NOTE
The interpretations to ASME B30.20 are included as a separate section for the user’s convenience.

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ASME 830.20-1999

SAFETY STANDARD FOR CABLEWAYS, CRANES,


DERRICKS, HOISTS, HOOKS, JACKS, AND SLINGS
INTRODUCTION

(99) General B30.21 Manually Lever OperatedHoists


B30.22 ArticulatingBoom Cranes
This Standard is one of a series of safety standards
B30.23 PersonnelLifting Systems
on various subjects thathavebeenformulatedunder
B30.24 Container Cranes'
the general auspicesof the American National Standards
B30.25 Scrap andMaterialHandlers
Institute. One purposeoftheStandardis to serve as
a guide to governmental authorities having jurisdiction If adopted for governmentaluse,the references to
over subjects withinthescope of the Standard. It is othernational codes andstandards in thespecificvol-
expected, however, that the Standard will find a major umesmaybe changed torefer to the corresponding
application in industry, serving as a guide to manufactur- regulations of thegovernmental authorities.
ers, purchasers, andusers oftheequipment. The use of cableways, cranes, derricks, hoists, hooks,
For the convenience oftheuser,theStandardhas jacks, and slings is subject to certain hazards that
been divided into separate volumes: cannot be metbymechanicalmeansbut only by the
exercise of intelligence, care, and common sense. It is
B30.1 Jacks
therefore essential to havepersonnelinvolvedinthe
B30.2 Overhead andGantry Cranes (TopRunning
useandoperationofequipmentwho are competent,
Bridge, Single or MultipleGirder, Top
careful, physicallyandmentallyqualified,andtrained
RunningTrolleyHoist)
in the safe operation of the equipment and the handling
B30.3 Construction Tower Cranes
of the loads. Serious hazards are overloading, dropping
B30.4 Portal, Tower, andPedestal Cranes
or slipping of the load caused by improper hitching
B30.5 Mobile andLocomotive Cranes
or slinging, obstructing the free passage of the load,
B30.6 Derricks
andusingequipment for a purpose for which it was
B30.7 Base MountedDrumHoists
notintended or designed.
B30.8 FloatingCranes andFloatingDerricks
TheStandardsCommittee fully realizes the impor-
B30.9 Slings
tance of proper design factors, minimum or maximum
B30.10 Hooks
sizes, and other limiting dimensions of wirerope or
B30.11 Monorails andUnderhung Cranes
chainand their fastenings, sheaves, sprockets, drums,
B30.12 Handling LoadsSuspendedFrom Rotorcraft
and similar equipment covered by the Standard, all of
B30.13 Storage/Retrieval ( S R ) Machinesand
which are closely connected with safety.Sizes, strengths,
AssociatedEquipment
and similar criteria are dependent onmany different
B30.14 Side Boom Tractors
factors, often varyingwiththeinstallationanduses.
B30.15 Mobile Hydraulic Cranes
These factors depend on the condition of the equipment
Note:B30.15-1973hasbeenwithdrawn.
or material; on the loads; on the acceleration or speed
The revisionofB30.15isincluded in the
of the ropes, chains, sheaves, sprockets, or drums; on
latest edition of B30.5.
thetypeof attachments; on the number, size, and
B30.16 Overhead Hoists(Underhung)
arrangement of sheaves orother parts; on environmental
B30.17 Overhead andGantry Cranes (TopRunning
conditions causing corrosion or wear; and on many
Bridge, Single Girder, UnderhungHoist)
variables thatmust be considered in each individual
B30.18 Stacker Cranes (Top or UnderRunning
case. The rules given in the Standard must be interpreted
Bridge, Multiple Girder With Top or
UnderRunningTrolley Hoist)
830.19 Cableways
B30.20 Below-the-HookLiftingDevices ' B30.24 is in thedevelopmental stage.

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ASME 830.20-1999 BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES

accordingly, and judgment used in determining their car or barge pullers, conveyors, excavating equipment,
application. or equipment coming within the scope of the following
Some of the provisions of this Standard require Committees: Alo, A17, A90, A92, A120, B20, B56,
compliance with information found in manuals or other andB77.
documents supplied by the manufacturer with the equip-
ment. The information includes recommendations, re- Section II: Purpose
quirements, and instructions (e.g., “the reevingshall
be checked for compliance with the recommendations This Standard is designed to:
of the manufacturer”). ( a ) guard against andminimizeinjuryto workers,
Compliance with the provisions should not preclude and otherwise provide fortheprotection of life,limb,
thepossibility of consulting a qualifiedperson. This andproperty by prescribing safety requirements;
is true particularlywhen:the equipment hasbeen (b) provide direction to owners, employers, supervi-
altered, repaired, or modified; the manuals or documents sors, and others concerned with, or responsible for, its
supplied by the manufacturer are no longer available; application; and
or the manufacturer or a successor isno longer in ( c ) guide governments and other regulatory bodies
business and themanuals are no longer available. in the development, promulgation, and enforcement of
However, the purpose of consulting a qualified person appropriate safety directives.
shall not be toavoid contacting the manufacturer and
usingtheinformation supplied by the manufacturer. Section 111: Interpretations
The Standards Committee will be glad toreceive Upon request,the B30 Committeewillrender an
criticisms of this Standard’s requirements and sugges- interpretation of any requirement of the Standard. Inter-
tions for its improvement, especially thosebasedon pretations can only be rendered in response to a written
actual experience in application of therules. requestsenttothe Secretary of theB30 Committee,
Suggestions for changes tothe Standard should be ASME, Three ParkAvenue, New York, NY 10016-
submitted tothe Secretary of theB30 Committee, 5990.
ASME, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016- The request for interpretation should be clear and
5990, and should be in accordance with the following unambiguous. It is further recommended that theinquirer
format: submithisrequestutilizingthefollowing format.
(a) cite the specificparagraph designation ofthe
pertinent volume; Subject: Cite the applicable paragraph number(s)
(b) indicate the suggested change (addition, deletion, and provide a concise description.
revision, etc.);
(c) briefly state thereasonand/or evidence for the Edition: Cite the applicable edition of the pertinent
suggested change; volume for which the interpretation is being
(d) submit suggested changes to more than one para- requested.
graph inthe order thatthe paragraphs appear in the Question: Phrasethequestion as a request for an
volume. interpretation of a specific requirement suit-
The B30 Committee will consider each suggested able for general understanding and use, not
change in a timelymanner in accordance with its as a request for approval of a proprietary
procedures. design or situation. The inquirer may also
includeanyplansor drawings that are
Section I: Scope necessary to explain the question; however,
theyshould not containany proprietary
This Standard applies to the construction, installation,
names or information.
operation, inspection, and maintenance of jacks; power-
operated cranes, monorails, and crane runways; power- Requests that are not in this format will be rewritten
operated andmanually operated derricks and hoists; i n this format by the Committee prior to being answered,
lifting devices, hooks,and slings; and cableways. which could change theintent of the original request.
This Standard does not apply to track and automotive ASME procedures provide for reconsideration of any
jacks, railway or automobile wrecking cranes, shipboard interpretation when or if additional information, which
cranes, shipboard cargo-handling equipment, well-drill- might affect an interpretation, is available. Further,
ing derricks, skip hoists, mine hoists, truck body hoists, persons aggrieved byan interpretation may appeal to

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BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES ASME B30.20-1999

the cognizant ASME Committee or Subcommittee. It is not the intent of this volumeto require retrofitting
ASME does not“approve,” “certify,” “rate,” or “en- of existing equipment. However, when an item is being
dorse” any item, construction, proprietary device, or modified, its performance requirement shall be reviewed
activity. relative to the current volume. If the performance differs
substantially, the need to meet the current requirement
Section IV: New and ExistingInstallations shall be evaluated by a qualifiedperson selected by
the owner (user). Recommended changes shall be made
( a ) Effective Date. The effective date of this volume by theowner (user) within one year.
for the purpose of defining new and existing installations
shallbe one year after its date ofissuance. Section V: Mandatory and Advisory Rules
(b) New Installations. Construction, installation, in-
spection, testing, maintenance, and operation of equip- Mandatory rules of this volume are characterized by
mentmanufacturedand facilities constructed after the use of the word shall. If a provision is of an advisory
effective date of this volumeshallconformwiththe nature, it isindicated byuseof the word should and
mandatory requirements of this volume. is a recommendation to be considered, the advisability
( c ) Existing Installations. Inspection, testing, mainte-
ofwhich depends onthe facts in each situation.
nance,andoperationofequipmentmanufacturedand
Section VI: Metric Conversions
facilities constructed prior to the effective date of this
volume shall be done, as applicable, in accordance with The values stated in US. Customary units are to be
the requirements of thisvolume. regarded as thestandard.

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BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES ASME 630.20-1999

BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES

Chapter 20-0
Scope, Definitions, and References

(99) Section 20-0.1:Scope of ASME B30.20 rated load: themaximumload for whichthe equip
ment is designated by the manufacturer.
Volume B30.20 includes provisions that apply to the
marking, construction, installation, inspection,testing, shall: indicates that the rule ismandatoryandmust
maintenance,andoperation of below-the-hook lifting be followed.
devices, other than slings, used for attaching loads to
hoist. Thedevices are arranged in four chapters as should: indicates that the rule is arecommendation,
follows: the advisability of which depends on the facts in each
situation.
Chapter 20-1: Structural andMechanical Lifting
Devices
Chapter 20-2: Vacuum Lifting Devices
Chapter 20-3: Operated Close ProximityLifting Section 20-0.3: Definitions forChapter 20-1
Magnets
Chapter 20-4: RemotelyOperated Lifting Magnets chaidhandwheel: a device for manually operating
a lifter.
Section 20-0.2: Definitions - General friction-typepressure gripping lifters: lifters that grip
administrative or regulatoryauthority: governmental the load without significant or harmful permanentdefor-
agency, or the employer in the absence of governmental mationof the load surface (see Fig. 4).
jurisdiction.
gripratio: the ratio ofthesumofthehorizontal
appointed: assigned specific responsibilities by the forces on one side oftheload to the live weightof
employer or the employer’s representative. the load. For example, if thetotalhorizontal force on
one side of the loadis 100,OOO lb andthe live load
authorized: appointed by a duly constituted adminis- is 50,000 lb, the grip ratio is 2. For purposesof this
trative or regulatoryauthority. calculation, theweight of the load does not include
designatedload: thespecified size, shape, andweight theweightofthe lifter (see Fig. 1).
of material to be lifted.
grippingforce: the force the lifting device exerts on
designatedperson: a person selected or assigned by theload.
the employer or the employer’s representative as being
competent to performspecific duties. indentation-typepressuregrippinglifters: lifters that
carrytheload by applying force to indentthe sides
n o r m a l operatingconditions:conditions during which of the load (see Fig. 3).
the lifter isperformingfunctionswithinthe scope of
the original design. ingot turnover grub: manipulating
a lifter [Fig. 5
sketch (e)].
(99) qualified person: a person who,bypossession of a
recognized degree in an applicable field or certificate of latch: adevice for holding a lifter intheopen or
professional standing, or who, by extensive knowledge, closed position.
training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated
the ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the latch,automatic: a sequencing latch mechanism oper-
subject matterandwork. atedby lifter motion.

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ASME 830.20-1999 BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES

Load
FH
Grip ratio = -
load

FIG. 1 GRIP RATIO

lifting beam(spreaderbeam): a load supporting lifter supportinglifter: a lifter that carries theloadonrigid
[see Fig. 2 sketch (a)]. projection(s) or bearing surface(s) (see Fig. 2 ) .
lock bar sheet lifer: a supporting lifter [see Fig. 2
sketch u)].
manipulating lifter: a lifter thatrotatestheloadabout Section 20-0.4: DefinitionsforChapter 20-2
one or more axes during the lifting process (see Fig. 5).
breakawayforce: the external force thatisrequired
mechanicallifting device: a mechanism composed of to separate thevacuum pad or vacuum lifting device
two or more rigid parts, whichmove with respect to from the load when applied perpendicular to the attach-
each other for attaching a loadto a hoisting device. ment surface.
service, heavy: that service, which involves operation four-pad-powered vacuum lifer: see Fig. 6 sketch (d).
within the rated load limit that exceeds normal service.
four-pad-powered vacuum lifer manipulator: see Fig.
service, normal: that distributed service, which in-
6 sketch (e).
volves operation with various weights within the rated
load limit, or uniform loads less than 65% of rated load. high-temperature surface: a condition where the sur-
service,severe: that service, whichinvolvesnormal face towhichthevacuumpad (or pads) is attached
or heavy service with abnormal operating conditions. isabove 250°F (120°C).

structural lifting device: a lifter consisting of an as- horizontal lift: a condition where the surface to which
sembly of rigid parts designed to holdandattach a the vacuum pad (or pads) is attached is in a horizontal
loadto a hoistway device. plane.

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES ASME 630.20-1999

low-temperature service: a condition where the surface vertical lift: a conditionwhere the surface to which
to which the vacuum pad (or pads) is attached is below a vacuumpad is attached is in a verticalplane.
0°F (-18°C).
multiple-pad mechanical
vacuum lijìer: see Fig. 6 Section 20-0.5: Definitions for Chapter 20-3
sketch (c). batterysystem(backup): batteriesusedtoguard
nonporous material: a materialthatisnotpermeable against inadvertent load release due to the loss of
by fluid. primary power to the magnet system.
peel ofi a prying action that takes place when deflec- coldcurrent: that current drawn by themagnetwhen
tion of an overhanging load exceeds the compensating its coil is at 68°F (20°C) and at ratedvoltage.
ability of the vacuumpad or vacuumlifting device
duty cycle: an 8, 16, or 24 hrratingwith
resulting in loss ofload.
porous material: a material that is permeable by fluid. time on
duty cycle =
sealing ring: thatpartofthevacuumpad,which time on + time off x 1 0 0
forms the sealofthevacuum chamber betweenthe
vacuumpadbody or vacuumlifting device andthe and is expressed as a percentage (with a maximum of
attached material. 10 mintime on toavoid overheating themagnet).
service,heavy: that service, whichinvolvesoperation
EXAMPLE: 3 min on, 2 min off equal:
within the rated load limit that exceeds normal service. 343 + 2) x l o o = 60%
service, nonnal: thatdistributed service, whichin-
volves operation with various weights within the rated force, breakaway: the force thatmustbe applied to
load limit, or uniform loads less than 65% of rated load. a magnet to remove it from a piece of ferromagnetic
material to which it is magnetically attached.
service,severe: that service, whichinvolvesnormal
or heavy service withabnormal operating conditions. indicator,internalcontrolfunction: anindicator,
which shows thatthepermanentmagnetmaterialin
shearbreakaway force: theexternal force that is
onetypeof electrically controlled permanentmagnet
required to separate or slide the vacuum pad or vacuum
has been positioned internally to provide full magnetic
lifting device on theloadwhenthe force is applied
attraction.
parallel to theattachedload surface.
load (capacity), rated: themaximumloadthatthe
single-padmechanicalvacuumlifter: seeFig. 6
sketch (b). lifting magnet is designated to handle by the manufac-
turer.
two-padmechanicalvacuumlifter: seeFig. 6
sketch (a). load (capacity), specijìedapplication: a loadapplied
to the lifting magnetwhen it isused to handle a
vacuum: pressurelessthanambientatmospheric specifiedload.
pressure.
load (maximum), specijìed: a load identified by a part
vacuum lifter: a below-the-hook lifting device for number or other controlled definition.
lifting andtransportingloads in a fixed attitude using
aholding force by means of vacuum(seeFig. 6). magnet, lifting:
electromagnet,battery-powered: a magnet thatre-
vacuum manipulator: a vacuum lifter capable of repo- quires continuous current supplied by a battery to
sitioning the loadwhilesuspended. maintainholding force [see Fig. 7 sketch (a)].
vacuum pad: adevice that applies a holding force electromagnet,externallypowered: a magnetsus-
on the load by means of vacuum. pended from a crane that requires power from a source
externaltothe crane.
vacuum reservoir: theevacuatedportion of thevac- permanent magnet, electrically controlled: a magnet
uum system whose function is to compensate for leakage that derives holding force from permanentmagnet
into the vacuum system or to provide a vacuum reserve materialandrequires current onlyduring theperiod
inthe event ofvacuum generator failure. of attachment or release [see Fig. 7 sketch (b)].

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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ASME B30.20-1999 BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES

permanentmagnet,manuallycontrolled: a magnet dutycycle: an 8, 16, or 24hr rating with


that derives holding force from permanentmagnet
materialand requires a manual effort during period of time on
duty cycle = . x loo
attachment or release [see Fig. 7 sketch (c)]. tme on + time off

magnet,lifting,
close
proximity
operated: a lifting
magnet used in such a fashion that the operator manually and is expressed as a percentage (with a maximum of
positions the magnet on the load, and manually guides I O min time on toavoid overheating themagnet).
themagnetandload during a lift. EXAMPLE: 3 min on, 2 min off equal:
3/(3 + 2 ) x 1 0 0 = 60%
magnet,lifting,generalapplication: lifting magnets
that are intended by the manufacturer to be used on load (capacity), rated: themaximumloadthatthe
a number of different geometrical shapes and do not lifting magnet is designated to handle by the manufac-
fallunderthe category ofremotely operated lifting turer.
magnets.
magnet,lifting,
close
proximity
operated: a lifting
magnet,lifting,remotelyoperated: a liftingmagnet magnet used in such a fashion that the operator manually
that does not require the operator or other personnel positions the magnet on the load, and manually guides
tobe in close proximitytothemagnet or itsload themagnetandload during a lift.
whilethemagnetis in use. magnet,lifting,remotelyoperated: a lifting magnet
that does notrequirethe operator or other personnel
magnet.lifting,specijedapplication: lifting magnets tobe in close proximity to the magnet or itsload
that are designed for lifting specified geometrical con- whilethemagnet is in use [see Fig. 7 sketches (d)
figurations andweights of designatedparts,identified and (e)].
by part number or other controlled definition and used
in a controlled manner. magnet,
lifting,
submersible: a special
magnetthat
hasbeendesignedtobeimmersed in liquid.
service, heavy duty: that service, which involves opera- service, heavy duty: that service, which involves opera-
tion withintherated load limitthat exceeds normal tion withinthe rated loadlimitthatexceedsnormal
service. service.

service,normal: ratedload (capacity) at 50% duty service,normal: ratedload (capacity) at 50% duty
cycle over one shift (8 hr). cycle over one shift (8 hr).
service,severe: that service, which involves normal
service,severe: that service, which involvesnormal or heavy service with abnormal operating conditions.
or heavy service with abnormal operating conditions.
Section 20-0.7: References to Other
Codes (991
test, application breakawuyforce: a test that is camed
and Standards
out in accordance with instructions fromthemanufac-
turerofthe lifting magnet in order toestablishthe Within the text, references are made to the following
application breakaway force. publications, copies of which may beobtainedfrom
the publishers as indicated. Copies of American National
test, ratedbreakaway force: a testthatis carried out Standards may be obtained from the American National
per para. 20-3.3.2(b)(2) in order to establish therated Standards Institute,Inc. (ANSI), I l West42nd Street,
breakaway force. New York, NY 10036.
ANSVNFPA 70-1987, NationalElectrical Code
Publisher: National Fire Protection Association (NFPA),
1 BatterymarchPark, Quincy, MA 02269
Section 20-0.6: Definitions forChapter 20-4
Specification for theDesign,Fabricationand Erection
coldcurrent: that current drawn by themagnetwhen of Structural Steel for Buildings, 8th EditionMan-
itscoil is at 68°F (20°C) and at ratedvoltage. ual,1980

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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BELOW-THE-HOOK LlFI"NG DEVICES ASME 830.20-1999

Publisher:AmericanInstitute of SteelConstruction
(AISC), 1 East WackerDrive, Chicago, IL 6061 1
ANSL'.4WS D14.1-1985,Specification for Welding of
Industrial and Mill Cranes and Other Material Han-
dling Equipment (Reaffirmed 1991)
Publisher: American Welding Society (AWS), 550 NW
LÆ Jeune Road, Miami, FL 33 135
NEMA ICs I-ICS6, 1978
Publisher: National ElectricalManufacturers Association
(NEMA), 2101 L Street, N W , Washington, DC 20037
ASMEB30.9-1984, Slings (ANSUASMEB30.9-1984
ASME B30.10-1982, Hooks (ANSUASMEB30.10-
1982)
Publisher:AmericanSociety of Mechanical Engineers
(ASMEInternational),Three ParkAvenue, New
York, NY 10016-5990; ASME Order Department:
22LawDrive, Box 2300, Fairfield, NJ 07007-2300

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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ASME 830.20-1999 BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES

(a) Lifting
Beam (Spreader
Beam) (b) Balanced Pallet
Lifter (c) Coil
Lifting (d) Telescoping Coil
Grab
BeamHook

(e) Balanced "C" (f) Parallel


Grab
Coil (g) Rack Lifter (h) Telescoping Sheet Lifter
Hook

(i)Simple
Sheet Lifter (i) Bar
Lock Sheet
Lifter (k) Edge Sheet
Grip
Clamps

(I)Hook,
End Chain-Type (m)Hook,
End Spring-Type

FIG. 2 LOAD SUPPORTING LIFTERS

IO

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES ASME B30.20-1999

Automatic
latch

(a) Automatic Slab Tong


(Four
Pointl (bl Automatic Slab Tong (Two Pointl

FIG. 3 PRESSURE GRIPPING LIFTERS - INDENTATION-TYPE LIFTERS

II

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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ASME B30.20-1999 BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES

(1)

NOTE:
Reproduced with permission from American National Standard 2229.1 1982,-
Safety Requirements for Shops Fabricating Structural Steel and Steel Plate,
Copyright 1982 by the American National Standards Institute. Copies of this
Standard may be purchased fromANSI, 11 West 42nd St., 13th FI, New York, N Y
10036.

(a) Plate Clamps

(b) Bar Tong (c) VerticalAxis Coil Grab

-
(e) Roll Grab, Core Grip

(dl Motor Driven Roll Grab, End Grip

FIG. 4 PRESSURE GRIPPING LIFTERS - FRICTION-TYPE LIFTERS

12

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES ASME 830.20-1999

(b) Coil Positioning Hook


la) Drum Turner

IC)Power Rotator

U
Id) Crane Suspend Coil Positioner (e) Ingot Turner Grab

FIG. 5 MANIPULATING LIFTERS

13

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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ASME 830.20-1999 BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES

...
,

(al Two-Pad Mechanical


Vacuum Lifter

(b) Single-Pad Mechanical Vacuum Lifter

(dl Four-Pad Powered Vacuum Lifter

( e ) Four-Pad Powered Vacuum Lifter Manipulator

FIG. 6 VACUUM LIFTERS

14

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES ASME 830.20-1999

(c) Close Proximity Manually Controlled


Permanent Magnet

(b) Close Proximity Operated Electrically


Controlled Permanent Magnet

(dl Remote Operated Lifting (e) Remote Operated Lifting


Electromagnet- Circular -
Electromagnet Rectangular

FIG. 7 MAGNETIC LIFTERS

15

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES ASME 630.20-1999

Chapter 20-1
Structural and Mechanical Lifting Devices

Section20-1.1:Scope lifter, or one whose components have beenmodified,


shall be tested according to Section 20-1.4. New rated
Chapter 20-1 applies to the classification,marking,
load shall be displayed inaccordancewithpara. 20-
construction, installation,inspection,testing,mainte-
1.2.1.
nance, and operation of structural and mechanical lifting
devices. Within Chapter 20- 1, the structural and mechan-
ical lifting devices are categorized as supporting lifters, Section20-1.3: Inspection
indentation-type pressure grippinglifters,and friction-
type pressure gripping lifters. 20-1.3.1 InspectionClassification
( a ) InitialInspection
Section20-1.2: Markings andConstruction ( 1 ) Newandreinstalled lifting devices shall be
20-1.2.1 Markings inspected by adesignatedperson prior to initialuse
to verify compliance with applicable provisions of this
(a) Rated Load Marking. The rated load of the lifting
volume.
device shall be markedonthemain structure where
(2) Altered, repaired, or modified lifting devices
it is visible. If the lifting device is made up of several
shall be inspected by a designated person. The inspection
lifters, eachdetachablefrom the group,these lifters
may be limited to the provisions affected by the alter-
shall also be marked with their individual rated loads.
ation, repair, or modification, as determined by a quali-
(b) Zdentijìcatiun. A nameplate or other permanent
fiedperson.
marking shall be affixed displaying the following infor-
mation: (b) Inspection Intervals. Inspection procedure for
( 1 ) manufacturer’snameand address; lifters in regular service isdivided into two general
classifications based upon the intervals at which inspec-
(2) serial number;
tionshouldbe performed,The intervals inturn are
(3) lifter weight, if over 100 lb (45 kg);
dependent uponthe critical components of the lifters
(4) rated load.
and the degree of their exposure to wear, deterioration,
20-1.2.2 General Construction. The load bearing or malfunction. Thetwo generalclassifications are
structural components of a lifter shallbedesigned to herein designated asfrequent and periodic, with respec-
withstand the stresses imposed by its ratedloadplus tive intervals between inspections as definedbelow.
the weight of the lifter, with a minimum design factor ( 1 ) Frequent Inspection. This consists ofvisual
of three, based on yieldstrength of thematerial,and examinations by the operator or other designated person-
with stress ranges that do not exceed the values given nelwithrecordsnotrequired.
inANSVAWS D14.1 for the applicable conditions. ( a ) normal service - monthly;
( a ) Welding. All welding shall be in accordance with (6) heavy service - weekly to monthly;
ANSVAWS D14.1. ( c ) severe service - dailyto weekly;
(b) Guardsfur Moving Parts. Exposed moving parts, (d) special or infrequent service - as recom-
such as, butnot limited to, gearing, projectingshafts, mended by aqualifiedpersonbeforeand after each
and chain drives, that constitute a hazard under normal occurrence.
operating conditions, should be guarded. (2) PeriodicInspection. This consists ofvisual
( c ) Electrical Equipment. Electricalequipmentand inspection by an appointed person who makes records
wiring shall comply withArticle 610 of ANSVNFPA 70. of apparent external conditions to provide the basis for
( d ) Modijìcatiuns. Structural andmechanical lifters a continuing evaluation. An external code mark on the
may be modified or rerated, provided such modifications lifter isan acceptable identification in lieu of records.
are analyzed by aqualifiedperson or amanufacturer ( a ) normal service -equipment at site of use -
of structural or mechanical lifting devices. A rerated yearly;

17
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COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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ASME 630.20-1999 BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES

(b) heavy service - as in (a) above, unless ( I ) Moving Parts. Lifters with moving parts shall
external conditions indicate that disassembly should be be tested to determine that the lifter operates in accord-
done topermit detailed inspection - semi-annually; ance with manufacturer's instructions.
(c) severe service - as in (b) above - quar- (2) Larches. Lifters withmanually operated or
terly; automatic latchesshall be tested to determine that
(d) special or infrequent service - asrecom- thelatch operates in accordance with manufacturer's
mended by a qualifiedperson before thefirstsuch instructions.
occurrence and as directed by thequalifiedperson for (b) Altered, repaired, or modified lifting devices shall
any subsequent occurrences. betested by a designated personunderthe direction
of a qualified person. This test maybe limited to
20-1.3.2 Frequent Inspection (See Also Table theprovisions affected by the alteration, repair, or
1). Items such as the following shall be inspected at modification, as determined by a qualified person with
intervals as defined in para. 20-1.3.I(b)(l). In addition, guidance fromthe manufacturer.
visual observations should be conducted during regular
service for any damage or evidence of malfunction that
appears betweenregular inspections. Anydeficiencies, 20-1.4.2 Rated Load Test
suchaslistedbelow,shallbe carefully examined, and (a) Prior to initial use,all new, altered, modified,
determination madeastowhetherthey constitute a or repaired lifting devices should be tested and inspected
hazard. by or under the direction of a qualifiedpersonand a
( a ) structural deformation, cracks, or excessive wear written report be furnished by such a person, confirming
onanypart of the lifter. theloadratingofthelifter. The loadrating should
(b) loose or missing guards, fasteners, covers, stops, not- be more than 80% of the maximum load sustained
or nameplates. during the test. Test loads shall not be more than 125%
(c) all functional operating mechanisms and auto- of theratedloadunless otherwise recommended by
matic hold and release mechanisms for misadjustments the manufacturer. Test reports should be available.
interfering with operation. (6) The rated load test, if made, shall consist of the
following operations as a minimum requirement:
20-1.3.3 PeriodicInspection (See Also Table ( I ) Hoistthetestload a sufficient distance to
1). Complete inspection of the lifter shall be performed ensure theloadis supported by the lifter, or apply the
at intervals as defined in para. 20-1.3.1(b)(2). Any required load if the test is made using a testing machine.
deficiencies, suchaslistedbelow,shall be examined (2) After the test load is released, visually inspect
and determination made as towhetherthey constitute the lifter for deformation, cracks, or other defects.
a hazard. These inspections shallincludethe require-
ments of para. 20-1.3.2, and, in addition, itemssuch
as the following:
Section 20-1.5: Maintenance
( a ) loosebolts or fasteners;
(b) cracked or worn gears, pulleys, sheaves, sprock-
20-1.5.1 Maintenance. A maintenance program
ets, bearings, chains, and belts;
should be established and be based on recommendations
(c) excessive wearof friction pads, linkages, and
made by thelifter manufacturer or a qualified person.
other mechanicalparts;and
(d) excessive wear at hoist hooking points andload
support clevises or pins. 20-1.5.2 Adjustments and Repairs. Any hazards
disclosed during an inspection shall be corrected before
thelifting device is putback in service. Adjustments
Section 20-1.4 Testing andrepairsshall be done onlyunderthe direction of,
or by, a qualifiedperson.
20-1.4.1 Operational Tests
( a ) New and reinstalled lifting devices shall be tested
by a designated personpriortoinitialusetoverify 20-1.5.3 ReplacementParts. Replacement parts
compliance with applicable provisions of thisvolume, shall be atleast equal tothe original manufacturer's
including the following: specifications.

18

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BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES ASME 830.20-1999

Sgction20-1.6: Operation properly,theyshould be adjusted or repairedbefore


operations are begun.
20-1.6.1Operators. Below-the-hook lifting de- (i) The operator shall not ride or allow others to
vicesshallbe operated only by appointedpersonnel. ride loads.

20-1.6.2Qualifications. Qualificationsforopera- 20-1.6.4LiftingDevice Operating Practices


tors of below-the-hook lifting devices are as follows. ( a ) Lifting devices shall be operated onlyby the
(a) Theoperator shall be instructed in theuseof followingqualifiedpersonnel:
the device by a designated person. Instructions should ( I ) designated persons;
include, butnot be limited to,thefollowing: (2) trainees under the direct supervision of a desig-
( I ) application of the lifter to the load and adjust- nated person;
ments, if any, that adapt the lifter to various sizes or (3) maintenanceandtestpersonnel,whenitis
kinds of loads;
necessaryintheperformanceof their duties; and
(2) any special operations or precautions; (4) inspectors (lifting devices).
(3) condition of the load itself required for opera-
(b) The lifting device shall not be loaded in excess
tion ofthe lifter, such as balance,degree of order
of itsratedload or handle anyload for which it is
of stacked loads, surface cleanliness, bending,load
notdesigned.
thickness, etc.;
(c) The lifter shall be applied to the load in accord-
(4) storage of the lifter toprotectitfromdam-
ancewithestablished procedures.
age; and
(d) Beforelifting,the operator shallmake sure that
( 5 ) not exceeding theratedload ofthe lifting
lifter ropes or chains are not kinked, and that multiple
device northe capacity of thehoistingequipment
partlines are nottwistedaround each other.
by thecombinedweightoftheload,thelifting
device, and rigging. (e) Care shouldbe taken to makecertain the load
is correctly distributed for the lifter beingused.
(6) Theoperator shall demonstrate theabilityto
operate the lifter as instructed before assuming responsi- The temperatureof the loadshouldnot exceed
bility for usingthe lifter. themaximum allowable limits of the lifter.
(g) The lifter shall be brought over the load in such
20-1.6.3 Conduct of Lifting Device Operators a manner as to minimizeswinging.
(a) The operator shall give attention to the operation (h) Care shall be takenthatthere is notsudden
of the lifts during a lifting sequence. acceleration or deceleration of the load.
(b) Whenphysically or otherwise unfit, an operator ( i ) Do not allow load or lifter to come into contact
shall not engage in the operationoftheequipment. with any obstruction.
(c) The operator shall be responsible for those opera- (j) The operator shall avoid carrying the load over
tions under hisher direct control.Wheneverthere is people.
any doubt as to safety, the operator shall consult with (k) The liftershallnot be used for side pulls or
the supervisor beforehandlingtheload. slidingtheloadunlessspecifically authorized by a
(d) Theoperator shallrespondonlytoinstructions qualifiedperson.
fromdesignated persons.However,theoperatorshall
obey a stop order at all times, no matter who gives it. 20-1.6.5Miscellaneous Operating Practices
(e)The operation of thelifter shall be observed (a) An operator shallnotuse a lifting device that
beforeuseand during a shift. A defectobservedshall istagged “Out of Service” or otherwise designated
be carefully examined byanappointedperson. If the as nonfunctioning.
defect constitutes a hazard, the lifter shall be removed (b) “Out of Service” tagson lifting devices shall
from service. notberemovedwithouttheapprovaloftheperson
’( The operator shall be familiar with standard hand placingthem or an authorized person.
signals when applicable. (c) The lifter, whennotinuse,shouldbestored at
( g ) Theoperator shall landanyattachedloadand an assigned location.
store the lifter beforeleavingthe lifting device. ( d ) Caution should be taken that operating markings
(h) All controls shall be tested by the operator before or tags shall not be removed or defaced. Those removed
use during a shift. If any controls do not operate or defacedshallbereplaced.

19

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TABLE 1 MINIMUM INSPECTION FOR BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES
Normal Service Heavy Service Severe Service
Visual, Record Visual, Weekly Record Visual, Daily Record
Monthly Yearly to Monthly Semiannually to Weekly Quarterly
Item [Note (111 [Note (2)l [Note (111 [Note (311 [Note (311 [Note (311

Frequent Inspection (refer to para. 20-1.3.2) - structural

Licensed by Information Handling Services


deformation, cracks, or excessive wear of any part of
the lifter X X X

Loose or missing guards, fasteners, covers, stops, or

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


nameplates X X X

All functional operating mechanisms and automatic


hold and release mechanisms for misadjustments
interfering with operation X X X

Periodic Inspection (refer to para. 20-1.3.3) - loose


bolts or fasteners X X X

Cracked or worn gears, pulleys, sheaves, sprockets,


bearings, chains, and belts X X X

Excessive wear of linkages and other mechanical parts X X X

EI!
Excessive wear at hoist hooking points and load n-
support clevises, or pins X X r
w
W
NOTES: P
(1) By operator or designated person with records not required. CP
(2) Visual inspection by designated person making records of apparent external conditions to provide the basis for a continuing evaluation. -I
(3) As in Note (2) unless external conditions indicate that disassembly should be done to permit detailed inspection. ru
w
BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES ASME 630.20-1999

Chapter 20-2
Vacuum Lifting Devices

Section 202.1: Scope (3) rated load(if altered) [as describedinpara.


20-2.2.1(a)].
Chapter 20-2 applies to the marking, construction,
installation, inspection, testing, maintenance, and opera-
( e ) Warnings or Other Signal Words. All vacuum
lifting devices shall have affixed to them in a readable
tion ofvacuumbelow-the-hook lifting devices. The
provisions of Chapter 20-2 apply to all power operated position a label or labels displaying the following
and mechanically operated vacuum lifting and manipu- information concerning operating procedures:
lating devices, except thosevacuum lifting devices (1) the word “WARNING’ or other legendde-
handlingporousmaterialsthatrequirespecialdesign signed to bring the label to the attention of the opera-
construction. tor; and
( 2 ) cautionarylanguage against:
( a ) exceeding theratedload, or lifting loads
Section 20-2.2: Marking, Construction,and notspecifiedintheinstructionmanual;
Installation (b) operating a damaged or malfunctioning unit,
or a unit withmissing parts;
20-2.2.1 Marking (c) operating whenthevacuum indicator or
( a ) Rated Load. The ratedload,maximumwidth, indicators showinadequatevacuum;
maximum length, andminimumthicknessoftheload ( d ) operating whenthevacuumpads are not
shall be legibly markedon the mainstructure. If the spaced for equal loading;
vacuum lifting device has shutoff valves on individual ( e ) incorrect positioning of lifter on load;
pads or groups ofpads,theratedloadofeachpad lifting people;
shall also be marked. (g) lifting loads over people;
(6) Identìjcation. Allnewvacuum lifting devices ( h ) removing or obscuring warning labels;
shall be marked with, but not limited to, the following (i) operating withouthavingreadandunder-
information: stoodthe operating manual;
(1) manufacturer’s nameand address; (j) operating lifter when rated load lifter weight
(2) model number; or safety markingsare missing;
(3) serial number; ( k ) lifting loads higher than necessary and leav-
(4) lifter weight; ingsuspended loads unattended; and
(5) electrical power(when applicable); ( I ) making alterations or modifications to lifter.
(6) pressure and volume of compressed air (when (3) Where size or shape ofunitprohibits the
applicable); inclusion of all or any such markings, a label shall be
(7) ratedload [as described in para.20-2.2.1(a)]. affixed referring the user to the manufacturer’s instruc-
(c) Repaired vacuum lifting devices, other than those tionmanual.
repairs covered by paras. 20-2.3.5(a) and 20-2.3.5(c), (4) If the vacuum lifting device has manual shutoff
shall bemarkedwithidentification displaying, butnot valves on individual pads or groups of pads, the valves
limitedto, the following information: shallbemarked to show operating position. Should
( I ) nameandaddressoftherepairer; thismarking be sometypeof coding, then a label or
( 2 ) date oftherepair. tag shall be attached at or near the valve, whichexplains
(d) Allmodifiedvacuum lifting devices shallbe such markings.
provided with identification displaying, but not limited
to,the following information: 20-2.2.2 Construction
(1) nameand address ofthemodifier; (a) Vacuum Pad Rating. The ultimatepad capacity
(2) new lifter weight(if altered); (UPC) shall be determined by thefollowing formula:

21

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ASME 830.20-1999 BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES

( I ) Inch-Pound Method decreasing morethan 10% in 4 min with power off


on a clean, dry, and nonporous load. The vacuum lifting
UPC = A ( H g R ) device shall be designed so that when in operation, all
available vacuum reservoirs of the machine shallbe
where channeled to the vacuum pads in use during a “vacuum-
A = effective area of thevacuumpad expressed power-off’ condition.
in square inches enclosed between the pad and ( j ) Vacuum LifterStructuralDesign. The loadbear- (991
the material when the pad is fully compressed ing structural components of a vacuum lifter shall be
against thematerial surface to be lifted. designed to withstand the stresses imposed by its rated
Hg = systemvacuum expressed in inches of mer- loadplustheweight of the lifter, with a minimum
cury. Reductions for altitude, efficiency, con- design factor of three, based on yield strength of the
sistency, andwear of vacuum source shall material, and with stress ranges that do not exceed the
be considered. valuesgiven in ANSYAWS D14.1 for the applicable
2 = division constant for inch-pound method. conditions.
(g) Welding. All weldingshall be in accordance with (99)
EXAMPLE ANSVAWS D14.1.
Effective padarea = 1 0 0 sq in.
System vacuum = 24 in. Hg 20-2.2.3 Installation
UPC = 1 0 0 sq in. (24/2) ( a ) The vacuumlifting device shall be assembled
UPC = 1200 lb
and installed in accordance withthe manufacturer’s
instructions.
( 2 ) Metric Method
( b ) The installer shall ensure thatthepower supply
isthesameasthatshownonthe nameplate.
UPC = A(Hg173.6)
( c ) The electrical power supply to the vacuum lifter
shall be connected to the line side of the crane disconnect
where or toan independent circuit.
A = effective area of the vacuum pad expressed ( d ) The installer shall check for correct rotation of
in square centimeters betweenthe padand all pumps.
the material when the padis fully com- ( e ) Prior toinitialuse,the lifter shallbetested per
pressed against thematerial surface to be para. 20-2.3.4.
lifted. ( f ) Operating instructions, maintenance, andparts
Hg = system vacuum expressed in centimeters of
informationshall be furnished by the manufacturer.
mercury. Reductions for altitude, efficiency,
( R ) Externalpowersupplyand electrical equipment
consistency, andwear of vacuumsource
for below-hook-lifters shall comply with ANSI/NFPA
shall be considered.
70.
73.6 = division constant for metricmethod.

EXAMPLE: Section 20-2.3: Inspection,Testing, and


Effective pad1 area = 100 sq cm Maintenance
System vacuum = 10 cm H g
UPC = 1 0 0 sq cm (10/73.6) 20-2.3.1 InspectionClassification
UPC = 13.6 kg ( a ) InitialInspection
( b ) Horizontal Surface Lifts. The ratedloadshall ( 1 ) Newand reinstalled lifting devices shall be
not be greater than 50% of the UPC forhorizontal inspected by a designatedperson prior toinitialuse
surface lifts. to verify compliance with applicable provisions of this
( c ) Vertical Su$ace Lifts. The ratedloadshallnot volume.
be greater than 25% of the UPC for vertical surface lifts. ( 2 ) Altered, repaired, or modified lifting devices
(d) Load Type. These factors are for clean, flat, dry, shall be inspected by a designated person. The inspection
nonporous loads, and shall be increased as required by may belimited to the provisions affected by the alter-
the surface conditions of materialstobelifted. ation, repair, or modification, as determined by a quali-
( e ) Vacuum Reserve System. The vacuum lifting fied person.
device shall incorporate a vacuum reservoir of sufficient ( b ) InspectionIntervals. Inspection procedure for
size to prevent thevacuumlevelunderthepadsfrom vacuumlifting devices in regular service is divided

22

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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STD ASME B30 20:ENGL 510 W

BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES ASME 830.20-1999

into three general classifications based upon the intervals (a) allload-carryingportionsofthemachine for
at which inspection should be performed. The intervals deformation, cracks, and excessive wear;
in turn are dependent uponthenature of the critical (b) thevacuum generator for output;
components of the vacuum lifting device and the degree (c) all vacuum pad seal rings for cuts, tears, excessive
of their exposure to wear, deterioration, or malfunction. wear,andpresenceofforeignparticles;
The three general classifications are designated as every ( d ) allvacuum lines andvacuum line connections
lif, frequent, and periodic, with respective intervals for leakage, cuts, kinks, and collapsed areas of hoses;
between inspections as definedbelow. ( e ) thevacuumreservoir for leaks andvisual dam-
( I ) Every Lifr Inspection. The following items are age;and
to be inspected by theoperatorbeforeand/orduring cf) the entire vacuumsystem,including indicator
every lift withrecordsnotrequired: lights, gages, horns,bells,pointers or other warning
(a) surface of the load for debris; devices, andvacuum level indicators,by attaching a
(6) seal ofthevacuumpad for debris; nonporous,clean surface tothevacuumpad or pads
(c) conditionandoperation of the controls; andthenstopping the vacuum source. The vacuum
( d ) conditionandoperation of the indicators, levelinthesystem shall not decrease by morethan
meters,andpumpswhereapplicable. the manufacturer’s specifiedrate.
(2) Frequent Inspection. Visual examinations by 20-2.3.3PeriodicInspection. Complete inspec-
the operator or other designatedpersonswithrecords tions ofthevacuum lifting deviceshall be performed
not required.
at intervals asdefinedinpara.20-2.3.1@)(2).Any
(a) normal service - monthly; deficiencies,such as listedbelow,shall be examined,
(6) heavy service - weekly to monthly; and determination made as to whetherthey constitute
( c ) severe service - daily to weekly; a hazard.Theseinspectionsshall include the require-
( d ) special or infrequent service - as recom- mentsofpara.20-2.3.2, and, in addition, items such
mended by a qualifiedpersonbeforeand after each as the following:
occurrence. ( a ) external evidence of
(3) PeriodicInspection. Visualinspection by a (I) looseness;
qualified person who makes recordsof apparent external (2) wear;
conditions to provide the basis for a continuing evalua- (3) deformation;
tion. An external coded markonthevacuum lifting (4) cracking;
device is an acceptable identification in lieu of records. (5) corrosion;
(a) normal service - equipment in place - (b) external evidence of damageto:
yearly; ( I ) supporting structure;
( b ) heavy service - as in (a)above, unless (2) motors;
external conditions indicate that disassembly should be (3) controls;
done to permit detailed inspection - semi-annually; ( 4 ) other auxiliary components.
( c ) severe service - as in (b) above - quar- (c) warning label required by para.20-2.2.1(c).
terly;
(d) special or infrequentservice - as recom- 20-2.3.4Testing
mended by a qualified person before the first occurrence 20-2.3.4.1 Operational Tests
and as directed by the qualified person for any subse- (a) New and reinstalled lifting devices shall be tested
quent occurrences. by a designatedpersonpriortoinitialuse to verify
compliance with applicable provisions of this volume,
20-2.3.2 Frequent Inspection. Itemssuch as the including, butnotlimitedto,thefollowing:
following shall beinspected at intervals as defined in ( I ) moving parts;
para. 20-2.3.1(b)( 1). In addition, visualobservations (2) latches;
should beconducted during regular service for any (3) stops;
damage or evidence of malfunction that appears between (4) limit switches;
regular inspections. Any deficiencies,such as listed (5) control devices;
below, shall be carefully examined,anddetermination (6) vacuumpad seals;
made as to whether they constitute a hazard. Examine: (7) vacuumlines.

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ASME B30.20-1999 BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES

(b) Altered, repaired, or modified lifting devices shall 20-2.3.5 Maintenance


betested by a designated person. This test maybe ( a ) PreventiveMaintenance. A preventive mainte-
limitedtothe provisions affected by the alteration, nanceprogram should be established andbebasedon
repair, or modification,as determined by a qualified recommendations made by thevacuumlifting device
personwith guidance fromthe manufacturer. manufacturer or a qualified person.
(c) The seals and connections shall be tested for ( I ) All vacuum pads, sealing rings, mufflers, and
leaks by attaching a smooth, nonporous, clean material filters should be cleaned per the manufacturer’s recom-
to the vacuumpad or padsandthen stopping the mendations.
vacuum source. Vacuumlevel in thesystemshallnot (2) The vacuum generator should bemaintained
decrease by more than the manufacturer’s specified rate. according tothe manufacturer’s recommendations.
( d ) All indicator lights, gages, horns, bells, pointers, (3) Replacement parts shall beat least equal to
or other warning devices andvacuumlevel indicators theoriginal manufacturer’s specifications.
shall be tested by thesamemethod as in para.20- ( h ) MaintenanceProcedure
2.3.4.2 below. ( I ) Before adjustments and repairs are started on
( e ) Dated reports of all operational tests shall be filed. a vacuum lifting device, the following precautions
20-2.3.4.2 Load Test should be taken.
( a ) Prior to initial use, all new, altered, repaired, or ( a ) Locatethevacuum lifting device where it
modifiedvacuum lifting devices shall beloadtested will cause the least interference with other operations
and inspected by, or under the direction of, a qualified in the area.
person. A written reportshall
beprepared by the ( h ) Placeall controls in the “off’ condition.
qualified person and placed on file, confirming the load ( c ) Pull the vacuum lifting device’s main power
rating of the vacuum lifting device. The loadrating disconnect switch and lock it in the deenergized position.
should notbemorethan 80% of themaximumload This switch may or may not be located on the vacuum
sustained during the test. Test loads shall not be more lifting device.
than125% of theratedload of the system, unless (d) Provisions should be made for qualified
otherwise recommended by the manufacturer or a quali- persons toworkon energized equipment when adjust-
fied person. mentsandtests are required.
(6) Altered, repaired, or modifiedvacuum lifting (2) After adjustments and repairs have been made,
devices shall be tested by a designated person. This the
vacuum lifting device shall not be
restored to
test may belimitedtotheprovisions affected by the service until all guards havebeen reinstalled, safety
alteration, repair, or modification, as determined by a devices reactivated, and maintenance equipment re-
qualified person with guidance fromthe manufacturer. movedfromthevacuum lifting device.
( c ) The ratedloadtestshall consist of one of the (c) Adjustments and Repairs. Any hazardous condi-
following procedures: tions disclosed by the inspection requirements of para.
( 1 ) ActualLoadTest 20-2.3.1 shallbe corrected before normaloperation of
( a ) Attachpads tothe designated test load. thevacuumlifting device is resumed.
(b) Raisethe test load a minimum distance to ( I ) Adjustments and repairs shall be done only
ensure theload is supported by thevacuum lifting by qualified personnel.
device. (2) Adjustments shall be maintainedto assure
(c) Holdtheloadfor 2 min. correct functioning of components.
( d ) Lower theload for release. (3) Repairs or replacements shall be madeas
( 2 ) SimulatedLoadTest. Using a test fixture, needed.
apply forces to all load-bearing components, either ( 4 ) Replacementpartsshallbeatleastequalto
individually or in assemblies, equivalent tothe force theoriginal manufacturer’s specifications.
encountered by the components if they were supporting ( 5 ) I f repairs of load-sustaining members are made
a loadthatwas 125% of therated load. by welding,identification of materials shallbemade
( d ) After the test, thevacuumlifting device shall and appropriate welding procedure shall be followed.
be visually inspected. Any deficiencies shallbe corrected (d} Lubrication. All movingparts ofthevacuum
before the lifting device isplaced in service. If the lifting device for which lubrication is specifiedshould
correction affects the structure, then the lifter shall be be regularly lubricated. Care should be taken to follow
retested. manufacturer’s recommendations astopointsand fre-

24

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES ASME B30.20-1999

quency of lubrication, maintenance of lubrication levels, be carefully examined byanappointedperson. If the


and types of lubricant tobeused. defect constitutes a hazard, the lifter shall be removed
from service.

Section20-2.4: Operation
cfl The operator shall be familiar with standard hand
signals whenapplicable.
20-2.4.1Operators. Below-the-hook lifting de- (g) The operator shalllandanyattachedloadand
vices shall be operated only by a designated person(s). store the lifter beforeleavingthe lifting device.
(h) All controls shall be tested by the operator before
20-2.4.2 Qualifications. Qualifications for opera- use duringa shift. If any controls do not operate
tors of below-the-hooklifting devices are as follows. properly,theyshould be adjusted or repaired before
(a) Theoperator shall beinstructedintheuse of operations are begun.
the device by a designated person.Instructionsshould (i) The operator shall not ride or allow others to
include, butnotbelimitedto,the following: rideloads.
( 1 ) application of the lifter to the load and adjust-
ments of the lifts, if any, that adapt it to various sizes
or kinds of loads; 20-2.4.4 Lifting Device Operating Practices
(2) instructions in any special operations or precau-
( a ) Lifting devices shallbeoperatedonlybythe
tions;
following qualifiedpersonnel:
(3) condition of the load itself required for opera-
tionofthe lifter suchas balance, or degree of order ( 1 ) designated persons;
of stacked loads, or surface cleanliness, bending,load (2) trainees under the direct supervision of a desig-
thickness, etc.; nated person;
(4) storage of lifter toprotectitfromdamage; (3) maintenanceandtestpersonnel,when it is
(5) thattheratedload ofthelifting device not necessary in theperformance of their duties; and
be exceeded nor the capacity of the hoisting equipment (4) inspectors (lifting devices).
be exceeded by the combined weight of the load, the (b) The lifting device shall notbeloadedin excess
lifting device, andrigging; of its ratedload or handleanyload for which it is
(6) charging ofthebattery(if required); not designed.
(7) thepurpose of indicators,meters, or alarms
(c) The lifter shall be applied to the load in accord-
on thevacuum lifter; and
ance withtheinstructionmanual.
(8) the proper attachment of adaptors tovacuum
lifters for special loadhandling. (dl Before lifting, the operator shallmake sure that
(b) Theoperator shall demonstrate theabilityto lifter ropes or chains are not kinked, and that multiple
operate the lifter as instructed before assuming responsi- partlines are nottwistedaroundeachother.
bility for usingthe lifter. (e) Care shouldbetakentomakecertaintheload
is correctly distributed for the lifter beingused.
20-2.4.3 Conduct of Lifting Device Operators (f) The temperature oftheloadshouldnot exceed
( a ) The operator shall give attention to the operation themaximum allowable limits of thelifter.
ofthe lifts during a lifting sequence. (g) The lifter shall be brought over the load in such
( b ) Whenphysically or otherwise unfit,an operator a manner as to minimize swinging.
shall not engage in the operationofthe equipment. ( h ) Care shallbetakenthatthereisnot sudden
(c) The operator shall be responsible for those opera- acceleration or deceleration of theload.
tions under hisher direct control. Wheneverthereis
any doubt as to safety, the operator shall consult with
(i) Do not allow load or lifter to come into contact
a designated personbeforehandlingtheload. withany obstruction.
(d) Theoperator shallrespondonly to instructions ( j ) The operator shall avoidcarryingtheload over
from designated persons.However,theoperatorshall people.
obey a stop order at all times, no matter who gives it. ( k ) The lifter shallnotbeused for side pulls or
( e ) Theoperation oftheliftershall be observed sliding the loadunlessspecificallyauthorized by a
before useand during a shift. A defect observed shall qualifiedperson.

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COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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ASME 830.20-1999 BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES

(1) If power goes off while making a lift, the operator 20-2.4.5MiscellaneousOperatingPractices
shall immediately warn all persons in thevicinity of ( a ) An operator shallnotuse a lifting device that
the lifter and land the load if at all possible to do so. is tagged “Out of Service” or otherwise designated as
(m)The vacuum lines shall be free from kinks and nonfunctioning.
twists, and shall not be wrapped around or looped over (6) “Out of Service” tags on lifting devices shall
portions of the lifter that will move during the lift. notberemovedwithout the approval of theperson
placingthem or an authorized person.
(n) The pad contact surface shallbecleanand free (c) The lifter, when not in use, should be stored at
of loose particles. an assigned location.
(o) Before starting to lift, verifythatthevacuum ( d ) Caution should be taken that operating markings
level indicator hasreachedtherequiredlevel. or tags shall not be removed or defaced. Those removed
( P ) Before starting to lift, raise the load a few inches or defacedshall be replaced.
to establish thatthevacuum lifting device hasbeen
correctly applied and that a stable vacuum level exists. Section 20-2.5: Manuals
(4) The operator shallnotleave suspended loads Operating instructions and maintenance and parts
unattended. information shall be furnished by the manufacturer.

26

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES ASME 630.20-1999

Chapter 20-3
Close Proximity Operated Lifting Magnets

(99) Section20-3.1:Scope (a) manufacturer’snameandaddress;


Chapter 20-3 applies to themarking, construction, ( b ) manufacturer’s model or unit identification;
installation, inspection, testing, maintenance, and opera- (c) weight of lifting magnet.
tion ofall lifting magnetswhenused for single or (2) All repaired or modifiedmagnetsshall be
multiple steelpiecehandling operations in which the provided with identification displaying, but not limited
operator of the magnet is required to manually position to, the following information:
the magnet on theloadandmanuallyguidetheload (a) name and address of the repairer or modifier;
during its movement, or in remotely operated magnets (b) repairer’sunit identification;
when operated in close proximity to people. For multi- (c) weight of lifting magnet.
magnetsystems whereindividual lifting magnetsare
( 3 ) All new, repaired, or modified battery-powered
suspended from a spreader beam or its equivalent, this
and externally powered lifting electromagnets and elec-
section applies only to theindividual lifting magnet,
tricallycontrolledpermanent magnet lifting magnets,
excluding the spreader beam or its equivalent and the
where applicable, shall, in addition, bemarkedwith:
associated control equipment.ThisChapterdoes not
apply to remotelyoperated lifting magnetsin areas (a) the voltage of the battery or primary power
wherepeople areexcludedduringnormal operation. supply;
( b ) thecold current or watts at 68°F (20°C)
and rated voltage;and
Section 20-3.2:Marking,Construction,and (c) duty cycle.
Installation
(d) Product Safety Labels
20-3.2.1Marking ( I ) All lifting magnets shall have affixedlabels
( a ) Rated h a d (Capacity) that include theappropriate signal word,according to
( I ) Generalapplicationmagnetsshallincludethe ANSI 2535.4, to bringthelabel to theattentionof
rated load (capacity) ofthemagnetmarked on the the operator, and should include the following language:
lifting magnet or on a tag attached to it. This capacity (a) Do notoperatethemagnetwithouthaving
rating shall refer to the instruction manual for informa- readtheOperationManual.
tion relating to decreases in rating due to theload (b) Do not exceedtheratedcapacityof the
surface condition, thickness, percentage of contact with crane withthemagnetand suspended load.
the magnet, temperature, metallurgical composition, and ( c ) Stay clear ofthesuspended load.
deflection. ( d ) Do not lift people.
(2) Specified application magnets shall include the ( e ) Donot lift suspended loads over people.
application load (capacity) of the magnet on the lifting
magnet or on a tag attached to it. This capacity rating
(2) Battery-operatedmagnet labels shall provide
additionalcautionarylanguage about operating when
shall refer to the specific loads for which this capacity
thebatterycapacityis inadequate.
applies.
( 6 ) Controls. The position of thecontrolswitch or (3) Externally powered electromagnet labels shall
handle of a lifting magnet shall be marked with “Lift,” contain additionalcautionarylanguageagainst:
“Off,” and “Drop,” or equivalents to indicate the mode (a) exceedingmagnet duty cycle; and
of operation oftheliftingmagnet. ( b ) disconnectingmagnetwithpower on.
( c ) Identijcation ( 4 ) Electrically controlled permanent magnet labels
(I) All new lifting magnetsshall be provided shall contain additional cautionarylanguage about opera-
with identification displaying, but not limitedto, the tioniftheinternalcontrolfunctionindicator,where
following information: applicable, doesnotindicate acomplete cycle.

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COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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ASME 630.20-1999 BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES

(5) Manually controlled permanent magnet labels ( d ) Battery Backup Systems. Battery backup systems
shall contain additional precautionary language about shall have an audible and visible signaltowarnthe
operating with the control handle latch not fully in the operator when the primary power to the electromagnet
“Lift” position. isbeing supplied by the battery(ies).
( e ) Power Disconnects
20-3.2.2Construction (I) A crane using an externally powered electro-
( a ) General magnetshallhave a separate magnet circuit switch of
( I ) Lifting magnet electrical components shall be the enclosed type with provision for locking, flagging,
guarded or locatedto minimize operator injury or or tagging in the open (off) position. Means for discharg-
the entry of foreign objects during normal operating ing the inductive energy of the magnet shall be provided.
conditions. The magnet disconnect switch shall be connected on
(2) The control handle of a manually controlled the line side (power supply side) of the crane disconnect
permanent magnet shall include a device that will hold switch.
the magnetic circuit in either the “Load” or “Release” (2) Disconnects are notrequiredon externally
position to prevent inadvertent changes. powered electromagnets operating from a 120 V AC
( 3 ) The loadbearing structural components of a single-phase power source.
magnet shall be designed towithstandthe stresses
imposed by its rated load plus the weight of the magnet, 20-3.2.4 Installation. Determine thatthe external
with a minimum design factor of three, based on yield power input is in accordance withparas. 20-3.2.3(a)
strength of the material, and with stress ranges that do and (e), is of the correct voltage, and thatthepower
not exceed the valuesgiven in ANSVAWS D14.1 for conductors and controls are of adequate rating, and
the applicable conditions. insulated andprotected against accidental interruption
( 4 ) Welding. All welding shall be in accordance or damage.
withANSVAWS D14.1.
(b) Lifting magnets may be
modified or rerated 20-3.2.5 Instruction Manual. The manufacturer
provided such modifications and the supporting structure shall providean instruction manualwith every lifting
are analyzed by a qualifiedpersonormanufacturer of magnet. In addition to operating and preventive mainte-
lifting magnets. A rerated lifting magnet or one whose nance instructions, the manual shall provide a statement
load-supporting components havebeenmodified shall of those factors that alter the magnet’s lifting capacity
conform to para. 20-3.2.2(a)(3) and be tested in accord- and the degree towhich it is affected. Some of these
ance withpara.20-3.3.2. New ratedload (capacity) factors arenotedbelow.
and application load (capacity) shall be displayed in (a) Load Thickness. The magnetic flux flowing from
accordance withpara.20-3.2.1. a magnetinto a load increases asthe thickness of the
load increases. Consequently, as a magnet’s lifting
20-3.2.3ElectricalEquipment capacity is a function of this flux, the lift capacity
(u) General increases with load thickness. For every magnet there
(I) External power supply and electrical equipment is a critical load thickness whereall of the magnet’s
for electromagnets shallcomplywithANSI/NFPA 70. available flux flows into theloadandthe lift capacity
(2) Control circuit voltage of remote controls shall reaches maximum.
not exceed 150 V for AC or 300 V forDC. (b) Load Alloy. Many alloys of iron do not accept
(b) Magnet Controllers magnetic flux as easily as do low carbon steels. Conse-
( I ) All lifting magnet controllers should have volt- quently, loads of such alloys will not accept all of the
age and amperage indicated. flux available in the magnet, which reduces the magnet’s
(2) Provisions shall be made for guarding the lift capacity.
control switch in the “Lift” position to protect it from ( c ) LoadSurface Conditions. Anything that creates
being inadvertently turned off, if this would result in an air gap or nonmagnetic separation between a magnet
release of the load. andtheload reduces the flux flowing from the magnet
(3) Battery-operated electromagnets shall contain into the load, whichreducesthe lifting capacity of a
a device indicating existing battery conditions. magnet. A rough surface finish, paper, dirt, rust, paint,
( c ) Battery Enclosures for Battery-Operated Mug- and scale produce such gaps.
nets. Housing for wetcell batteries shall be ventedto ( d ) LoadLength or Width. Asthelength or width
prevent accumulation of gases. of theload increases, theloadbeginstodeflectand

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COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES ASME 830.20-1999

to peel at the magnet face. This may create an air gap (a) normal service - monthly;
between the loadandthemagnet,whichreducesthe (6) heavy service - weekly to monthly;
lifting capacity per para. 20-3.2.5(c). (c) severe service - daily to weekly.
( e ) Attitude of Load. As the attitude of the surface (3) Periodic Inspection. Visualinspection by a
oftheloadtowhich a magnetis attached (lifting qualifiedpersonmakingrecords of apparent external
surface) changes from horizontal to vertical, the lifting conditions to provide the basis for a continuing evalu-
capacity of the magnet reaches a minimum and becomes ation.
dependent upon the coefficient of friction of the lifting ( a ) normal service - equipment inplace -
surface. yearly;
Portion of MagnetFace in Contact With Load. ( b ) heavy service - equipment in place -
The full face of themagnetmust contact theload if quarterly, unless external conditions indicate that disas-
themagnetistoachievemaximum capabilities. semblyshould occur to permit detailed inspection;
(g) Load Temperature. The temperature oftheload ( c ) severe service - equipment in place -
can cause damage tothemagnet and, if high enough, monthly, unless external conditions indicate that disas-
even change themagnetic characteristics of theload. semblyshould occur topermit detailed inspection;
Consequently, the manual shall contain the manufactur- ( d ) special or infrequent service - as recom-
er’s recommendationspertainingto operation ofthe mended by a qualifiedpersonbeforeand after each
magnet on loadsattemperaturesexceedingnormal instance of special or infrequent service.
ambient temperatures.
20-3.3.1.2Every Lift Inspection. Items, such
as the following, shallbeinspectedby the operator
Section 20-3.3:Inspection,Testing,and before and/orduringevery lift for anyindication of
Maintenance damage as specifically indicated, including observations
during operation for anydamagethatmight occur
20-3.3.1 Inspection
during the lift:
20-3.3.1.1 InspectionClassification ( a ) lifting magnetfaceforforeignmaterialsand
( a ) InitialInspection smoothness;
( I ) Newandreinstalledlifting devices shallbe (b) condition and operation of the control handle of
inspected by a designatedperson prior to initial use a manuallycontrolledpermanentmagnet;and
to verify compliance with applicable provisions of this (c) condition and operation of indicators and meters,
volume. where applicable.
(2) Altered, repaired, or modifiedlifting devices
shall be inspected by a designated person. The inspection 20-3.3.1.3FrequentInspection. Items, such
may be limited to the provisions affected by the alter- as the following, shall be inspected for damage at
ation, repair, or modification, as determined by a quali- intervals as defined in para. 20-3.3. l . l(b)(2). A qualified
fiedperson. person shall determine whether any indications of dam-
(6) InspectionIntervals. Inspection procedures for age constitute a hazard or willrequiremore frequent
magnets in regular service are divided into three general inspection.
classifications based on the intervals at whichthe
For all lifting magnets,inspect:
inspections shall be performed. The intervals in turn ( a ) lifting magnet face for foreignmaterialsand
are dependent upon the nature of the critical components smoothness;
of the lifting magnet and the degree of their exposure ( b ) condition of liftingbail or sling suspension;
to wear, deterioration, or malfunction. The three general (c) condition and operation of controlhandle;
classifications are designated as every li@, frequent, and ( d ) condition and operation of indicators and meters,
periodic, withrespectiveintervalsbetweeninspections where applicable;
as definedbelow. ( e ) for all lifting magnets, except manually controlled
( 1 ) Every L$ Inspection. Visualexamination by permanent magnets, inspect all electrical conductors that
the operator beforeandduringeach lift made by the arevisiblewithoutdisassembly for loose connections,
magnet. continuity, corrosion, and damage to insulation;
(2) FrequentInspection. Visualexamination by (f) for battery-operated electromagnets, inspect for
the operator or other designated personnel with records proper level of battery electrolyte and for corrosion of
not required. either thebatteryposts or connectors;

29

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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ASME B30.20-1999 BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES

(gj cracked housings, welds,andloosebolts;and the provisions affected by the alteration, repair, or
(h) labels andmarkings. modification, as determined by a qualified person with
guidance fromthe manufacturer.
20-3.3.1.4PeriodicInspection. Complete in-
spections of lifting magnetsshallbeperformedand (c) All indicator lights, gages, horns, bells, alarms,
recorded at intervals as defined in para. 20-3.3. l . 1(b)(3). pointers, or other warning devices andvacuumlevel
Any deficiencies, such as those listed, shall be examined indicators shall be tested.
by a qualifiedpersonand determination made as to (d) Dated reports of all operational tests shall be filed.
whetherthey constitute a hazard. These inspections 20-3.3.2.2LoadTest
shall include the requirements of para. 20-3.3.1.3 and, ( u ) Prior to initial use, all new, modified, or repaired
in addition, items suchasthe following: lifting magnetsshall be tested by a qualifiedperson
(a) All members, fasteners, locks, switches, warning and a recordbefurnishedconfirmingtheloadrating
labels, and lifting parts shall be inspected for deforma- of the lifting magnet.
tion, wear,and corrosion. (1) General applicationmagnetsshallberequired
(bj All electrical components described in para. 20- tosatisfytheratedbreakaway force test. The rated
3.2.2, including meters, indicators, or alarms, shallbe load of the magnet shall be less than 50% of the rated
tested for proper operationand condition. breakawayforcemeasured in this test.
(c) Magnet coil shall be tested for ohmic and ground (2) Special application magnets shall be required
readingsandcompared to manufacturer’s standards. tocomply with the application breakaway force test.
20-3.3.1.5 Lifting Magnets Not in Regular The specified application loadshall be less than 50%
Use. A lifting magnet that hasbeenidle for a period of the application breakaway force measured in this test.
of one month or more is to be given an inspection in (b) The ratedbreakaway force test shall establish
accordance withpara. 20-3.3.1.3 beforebeingplaced thebreakaway force requiredto vertically removethe
into service. liftingmagnetfrom a low-carbon, rolledsteel plate of
the minimum thickness stated by the magnet manufac-
20-3.3.1.6 InspectionRecords. Datedinspec-
turer. The portion of thisplatethatis in contact with
tion reports shall be made on critical items, such as those
themagnetshallnotexceed a 125 kin. (3.2 x
listed in para. 20-3.3. I .4. Records should be available to
mm) finishandbeflat within 0.002 in./ft (0.05 mm/
appointed personnel for each periodic inspection and
m), without exceeding 0.005 in. (0.I27 mm) total. The
when the magnet is either modified or repaired.
full operating face of the lifting magnet shall be in
20-3.3.1.7Repairs. Any indications of damage contact withthesteelplate,whichshallbebetween
disclosed by the inspection requirements of Section 20- 60°F (15OC) and 120°F (50°C). Battery-operated electro-
3.3 shall be corrected, according tothe procedures magnetsand externally powered electromagnets shall
outlined in para. 20-3.3.3, before operation of the lifting be operated at the manufacturer’s recommended voltage
magnetis resumed. and current levels.
(c) The application breakaway force test shall estab-
20-3.3.2Testing
lishthe application breakaway forces of the lifting
20-3.3.2.1 OperationalTests magnetunderthevariety of loading conditions for
( a ) New and reinstalled lifting magnetsshall be whichthemagnet is specified. The details of thistest
tested by a designated person,underthedirection of should be supplied by the manufacturer of thelifting
a qualified person, prior to initial use to verify compli- magnet.
ance with applicable provisions of this volume including, (dl Altered, repaired, or modified lifting magnets
butnotlimited to, the following: shall be tested by a designatedperson. This test may
(I) movingparts; be limited totheprovisions affected by the alteration,
(2) latches; repair, or modification, as determined by a qualified
(3) stops; person with guidance fromthe manufacturer.
( 4 ) switches;
( 5 ) any control devices; 20-3.3.3Maintenance
(6) alarms. ( u ) MaintenanceProcedure
(6) Altered, repaired, or modified lifting magnets ( I ) Before adjustment andrepairs are started on
shall be tested by a designated person under thedirection a lifting magnet or controls, the following precautions
of a qualified person. The testmaybelimitedto shall be taken.

30

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


Licensed by Information Handling Services
BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES ASME B30.20-1999

(a) All sources of magnet power shall be discon- 20-3.4.3 Conduct of Lifting Device Operators
nectedandlocked out, tagged, or flagged. (a) The operator shall give attention to the operation
(b) A magnet removed for repair shall be tagged of the lifts during a lifting sequence.
as “Out of Service.”
(b) When physically or otherwise unfit, an operator
(2) Only qualified personnel shall work on equip- shallnot engage intheoperation of the equipment.
mentwhen adjustments and tests are required.
(c) Operators shallbe responsible for thoseopera-
(3) Replacement parts’ shall be at least equal to
tions under their direct control. Whenever there is any
the original manufacturer’sspecifications.
doubt as to safety, the operator shall consult with the
(4) After adjustments and repairs have been made,
designatedpersonbeforehandlingtheload.
the lifting magnet shall not be returned to service until
it hasbeeninspectedaccordingtopara. 20-3.3.1(c). ( d ) The operator shallrespondonly to instructions
(5) Datedrecords of repairsandreplacements from designated persons.However,the operator shall
should be available. obey a stop order at all times, no matter who gives it.
(6) Any hazardous condition disclosed by the in- (e) Theoperation ofthe lifter shall be observed
spection requirements of para.20-3.3.1shall be cor- before use and during a shift. Any deficiency observed
rected before operation of the lifting magnet is resumed. shall be carefully examined by a designated person. If
Repairs shall be done only by qualifiedpersons. thedeficiency constitutes a hazard, the lifter shall be
removedfrom service.
( f ) The operator shall be familiar with standard hand
Section20-3.4: Operation signals when applicable.
20-3.4.1Operators. Below-the-hookliftingde- (g) The operator shalllandany attached load and
vicesshallbeoperatedonly by trained, appointed store the lifter beforeleavingthe lifting device.
personnel. ( h ) All controls shall be tested by the operator before
useduring a shift. If any controls do not operate
20-3.4.2 Qualification. Qualifications for operators properly,theyshouldbeadjusted or repairedbefore
of below-the-hook liftingdevicesare as follows. operations are begun.
(a) Theoperator shallbeinstructedintheuseof (i) Theoperator shallnot ride or allow others to
the device by a designatedperson. Instructions should rideloads.
include, butnotbelimitedto,the following: (j) The operator and other personnel shall stay clear
( I ) application of the lifter to the load and adjust- of the load. Loads shall be guided by pushing or pulling
ments, if any, thatadapttheliftertovarious sizes or at the edge in such a manner as to avoid endangering
kinds of loads; hands or other bodyparts as the loadis lowered, or
(2) any special operations or precautions; if it drops.
(3) condition of the load itself required for opera-
tionof the lifter, such as balance, surface cleanliness,
flatness,bending,loadthickness, etc.; 20-3.4.4 Lifting Device Operating Practices
( 4 ) storage of the lifter to protect it from damage; (a) Lifting devices shallbeoperatedonly by the
( 5 ) not exceeding theratedloadofthe lifting followingqualifiedpersonnel:
device nor the capacity of thehoistingequipment by (1) designated persons;
the combined weight oftheload,the lifting device, (2) trainees under the direct supervision of a desig-
and rigging; natedperson;
(6) charging ofthe lifting magnetbattery(ifre-
(3) maintenanceandtestpersonnel,when it is
quired);
necessary in the performance of their duties; and
(7) thepurpose of indicators,meters, oralarms
( 4 ) inspectors (lifting devices).
on the lifting magnet;and
(8) the properattachment of adaptors to lifting (b) The lifting device shallnotbeloaded in excess
magnets for specialloadhandling. of itsratedload or handleanyloadforwhich it is
(b) Theoperator shalldemonstratetheability to notdesigned.
operate the lifter as instructed before assuming responsi- (c) The lifter shall be applied to the load in accord-
bility for usingthe lifter. ancewiththe instruction manual.

31

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


Licensed by Information Handling Services
520 m

ASME 630.20-1999 BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES

( d ) Before lifting, the operator shallmakesurethat ( r ) Electrically Controlled Permanent Magnets. Be-
lifter ropes or chains are not kinked and that multiple fore lifting, the operator should check the internal
part lines are nottwisted around each other. control function indicator, where applicable, to confirm
( e ) Care should be takentomake certain theload proper operation of the lifting magnet.
is correctly distributed forthelifterbeingused. ( S ) Manually Controlled Permanent Magnets. Before

(f) The temperature oftheload should not exceed lifting, the operator shouldconfirmthatthe control
themaximum allowable limits of thelifter. handle is in the “lift” or “on” position and the control
(g) The lifter shall be brought over the load in such handlelatchis operating.
a manner as to minimize swinging. ( t ) BatteryCharging of Battery-OperatedElectro-
( h ) Care shall betakenthatthereisnotsudden magnets or BatteryBackupSystems
acceleration or deceleration of the load. ( I ) Ventedwetcell batteries shallbe recharged
(i) Do not allow load or lifter to come into contact at the first indication of current flow or voltage below
with any obstruction. the manufacturer’s recommendedrange.
( j ) The operator shallavoid carrying theloadover (2) Ventedwetcell batteries shall be charged
people. ( a ) in a well-ventilated area to avoid accumula-
( k ) The lifter shallnot beused for side pulls or tionof combustible gases; and
sliding theloadunless specifically authorized by a ( b ) wherepersonnel are leastlikelyto be ex-
qualified person. posedtovented fumes or electrolyte spillage.
( I ) The lifting magnet face andthemagnet contact ( 3 ) All batteries shall be charged prior tobeing
area ontheloadshallbe clean. returnedto service according tothe recommendations
( m ) The load to be lifted shall be within the magnet’s supplied by themagnet manufacturer.
rated load (capacity) or application load (capacity) and ( 4 ) Eye,hand, and bodyprotection shall beworn
lifting equipment ratedload (capacity). while servicing batteries.
( u ) The operator shall notleave any lifted load
( n ) The operator shall observe all meters and indica-
torson the lifting magnettoconfirmproperoperation unattended.
priorto making a lift. ( v ) Before lifting, the operator shallwarn people
nearthe lift.
(o) Before starting the lift, the operator shall lift the
( W ) The operator should notreenergizethemagnet
load a’ few inches to establish that the load is securely
attached to the magnet. until it hasbeenplaced in contact with thenextload
to be lifted.Prematurely energizing themagnet could
( p ) Al/ Magnets. Beforeraisingtheloadmorethan
cause unwanted materials to be attracted to the magnet.
2 in. (50 mm),anyadjustableinput control should be
switchedtothe “full power” or “full on” positionand 20-3.4.5 MiscellaneousOperatingPractices
remainin this positionuntiltheloadisremovedfrom ( a ) An operator shallnot use a lifting device that
themagnet. istagged “Out of Service” or otherwise designated as
(9) Battery-OperatedElectromagnets nonfunctioning.
( I ) Before lifting, the operator should confirm that ( b ) “Out of Service” tagsonlifting devices shall
the device indicating correct current flow remains stable notbe removedwithouttheapproval of theperson
for a minimum of 5 sec. placingthem or an authorized person.
(2) For a lift of extended duration, the operator ( c ) The lifter, whennot in use,should be stored at
should observe the device indicating existing battery an assigned location.
conditions every 5 min. (d) Caution should be taken that operating markings
( 3 ) The operator shouldopentheventilation lid or tags shall not be removed or defaced. Those removed
before charging the battery. ordefacedshall be replaced.

32

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES ASME 630.20-1999

Chapter 20-4
Remotely Operated Lifting Magnets

Section 20-4.1 : Scope (4) The loadbearing structural components ofa (99)
magnetshall be designed to withstandthe stresses
Chapter 20-4 applies to the marking, construction,
imposed by its rated load plus the weight of the magnet,
installation, inspection, testing, maintenance, and opera-
with a minimum design factor of three, based on yield
tion of remotely operated lifting magnets. This Chapter
strength of the material, and with stress ranges that do
applies to remotelyopertated lifting magnetsin areas
notexceedthevaluesgivenin ANSYAWS D14.1 for
where people are excludedduring normaloperation.
the applicable conditions.
This Chapter does not apply to close proximity operated
(S) Welding. Allwelding shall be in accordance (99)
magnets.
with ANSVAWS D14.1.
(b) Power Requirements
( I ) The external power supply andelectrical equip
Section 20-4.2: Marking, Construction,and
Installation
ment for electromagnetsshallcomply with ANSI/
NFPA 70.
20-4.2.1 Marking (2) The control circuit voltage of remote controls
shallnotexceed 150 V for AC or 300 V for DC.
(a) Allnew lifting magnetsshallbeprovidedwith
(3) Indication or signal lights should be provided
identification displaying, but not limited to, the follow-
to indicate poweris“on” or “off.” If used,the lights
ing information:
shall be located so that they are visible by the operator
( I ) manufacturer’snameand address; andfrom the floor. Multiple bulbs maybeused to
(2) manufacturer’s model or unitidentification; avoidconfusion due to aburned-outbulb.
(3) weight of lifting magnet; ( c ) Magnet Controllers
(4) duty cycle; ( I ) All lifting magnet controllers should have the
(5) cold current; voltageandamperageindicated.
(6) voltage. (2) If the crane is remote controlled, loss of the
(b) Allrepaired or modifiedmagnetsshallbepro- radio control signal shall not result in deenergizing the
vided with identification displaying, but not limited to, magnet.
the following information:’ (d) PowerDisconnects
( I ) name and address of the repairer or modifier; ( I ) A craneusingan externally powered electro-
(2) repairer’s unitidentification; magnet shall have a separate magnet circuit switch of
(3) weight of lifting magnet; the enclosed type with provision for locking, flagging,
(4) duty cycle; or tagging in the open (off)position. Means for discharg-
( 5 ) cold current; ing the inductive energyof the magnet shall be provided.
(6) voltage. The magnetdisconnectswitch shall beconnected on
the line side ofthe crane disconnect switch.
(2) Disconnects arenotrequired on externally
20-4.2.2Construction powered electromagnets operating froma 120 V AC
( a ) General single phasepowersource.
( I ) Liftingmagnet electrical components shallbe (e) Lifting magnetsmaybemodified or rerated
guarded or located to minimize operator injury or provided such modifications andthe supporting structure
theentryofforeign objects during normaloperating have been analyzed by a qualified person or manufac-
conditions. turer of lifting magnets. A rerated lifting magnet or
(2) Liftingmagnetsshould be weatherresistant. one whose load
supporting componentshave been
(3) Lifting magnet suspension devices should meet modifiedshallconformtopara.20-4.2.2(a)(4)andbe
the magnetmanufacturer’srecommendations. testedin accordance withpara.20-4.3.2.

33

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


Licensed by Information Handling Services
ASME 830.20-1999 BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES

20-4.2.3 Installation. Determine thatthe external (c) severe service - equipment in place -
powerinput is in accordance withparas. 20-4.2.2(b) monthly, unless external conditions indicate that disas-
and (d), is of the correct voltageand amperage, and sembly should occur to permit detailed inspection;
that the power conductors and controls are of adequate (d) special or infrequent service - as recom-
ratingand insulated and protected against inadvertent mended by a qualifiedpersonbeforeand after each
interruption or damage. instance of special or infrequent service.
20-4.3.1.2 FrequentInspection. Items, such
as the following, shall be inspected for damage at
intervals as defined in para. 20-4.3.1.1(b)( 1). A qualified
Section20-4.3:Inspection,Testing,and
person shall determine whether any indications of dam-
Maintenance
age constitute a hazardorwill require more frequent
inspection.
20-4.3.1 Inspection For all lifting magnets, inspect:
(a) lifting magnet face for foreign materials and
20-4.3.1.1 InspectionClassification smoothness, if applicable;
(a) InitialInspection ( b ) magnetsuspension system;
(1) Newand reinstalled lifting devices shall be ( c ) all electrical conductors that are visible without
inspected by a designated person prior toinitial use disassembly; and
to verify compliance with applicable provisions of this (d) cracked housings,welds,and loose bolts.
volume.
20-4.3.1.3Periodic Inspection. Complete in-
( 2 ) Altered, repaired, or modified lifting devices spections of liftingmagnets shall be performed and
shall be inspected by a designated person. The inspection recorded at intervals as defined in para. 20-4.3. I . 1 (b)(2).
maybelimitedtothe provisions affected by the alter- Any deficiencies, such as those listed, shall be examined
ation, repair, or modification, as determined by a quali- by a qualifiedpersonand determination madeas to
fied person. whetherthey constitute a hazard. These inspections
(b) Inspection Intervals. Inspectionprocedures for shall include the requirements of para. 20-4.3.1.2 and,
magnets in regular service are divided into two general in addition, itemssuch as the following:
classifications based on the intervals at which the ( a ) Allmembers, fasteners, andliftingpartsshall
inspections shall be performed. The intervals in turn be inspected for deformation, wear,and corrosion.
are dependent upon the nature of thecritical components ( b ) All electrical components described in para. 20-
of the lifting magnet and the degree of their exposure 4.2.2, including meters, indicators, or alarms, shall be
to wear, deterioration, or malfunction. The two general tested for properoperation and condition.
classifications are designated as frequent and periodic,
(c) Magnet coil shall be tested for ohmic and ground
with respective intervals between inspections as defined
readingsandcomparedto manufacturer’s standards.
below.
( I ) FrequentInspection. Visualexamination by 20-4.3.1.4 Lifting MagnetsNot in Regular
the operator or other designated personnel with records Use. A lifting magnetthathasbeenidle for a period
notrequired. of onemonth or more shall be given an inspection in
( a ) nomal service - monthly; accordance with para. 20-4.3.2 before being placed into
service.
(b) heavy service - weeklytomonthly;
(c) severe service - daily to weekly. 20-4.3.1.5 InspectionRecords. Dated inspec-
( 2 ) Periodic Inspection. Visualinspection by a tion reports shall be made on critical items, such as those
qualifiedpersonmakingrecords of apparent external listed in para. 20-4.3.1.3. Records should be available to
conditions to provide the basis for a continuing evalu- appointed personnel for each periodic inspection and
ation. when the magnet is either modified or repaired.
( a ) normal service - equipment in place - 20-4.3.1.6 Repairs. Any indications of damage
yearly; disclosed by the inspection requirements of Section 20-
(b) heavy service - equipment in place - 4.3shall be corrected according totheprocedures
quarterly, unless external conditions indicate that disas- outlined in para. 20-4.3.3 before operation of the lifting
sembly should occur topermit detailed inspection; magnet is resumed.

34

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


Licensed by Information Handling Services
STD=ASME B30-20-ENGL L797 m 0759b70 Ob13333 23T

BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES ASME 830.20-1999

20-4.3.2Testing (5) not exceeding therated load of the lifting


(a) Operational Tests. Prior to initial use, all new and device nor the capacity of thehoisting equipment by
modified or repaired lifting magnets shall be subjected to thecombinedweight of the load, the lifting device,
( I ) a visualinspection to verifythatthelifting and rigging;
magnet contains no visible indications of hazardous (6) charging of the lifting magnetbattery(ifre-
conditions; and quired);
(2) a checkfor proper operationof all electrical (7) the purpose of indicators, meters, or alarms
equipment contained in para.20-4.2.2. on the lifting magnet; and
(8) the properattachment of adaptors to lifting
20-4.3.3 Maintenance magnets for specialloadhandling.
(a) Maintenance Procedure (b) Theoperator shall demonstrate the ability to
( I ) Beforemaintenance is startedon a lifting operate the lifter as instructed before assuming responsi-
magnet or controls, the following precautions shall be bility for usingthelifter.
taken:
(a) All sources of magnet power shall be discon- 20-4.4.3 Conduct of Lifting Device Operators
nectedandlocked out, tagged, or flagged. ( a ) The operator shall give attention to the operation
(b) A magnet removed for repair shall be tagged of the lifts during a lifting sequence.
as “Outof Service.” (6) When physically or otherwise unfit, an operator
(2) Only qualified personnel shall work on equip- shallnot engage intheoperation oftheequipment.
mentwhenmaintenanceandtests are required. (c) Operators shallberesponsible for thoseopera-
(3) Replacementpartsshallbe at leastequalto tions under their direct control. Whenever there is any
the original manufacturer’sspecifications. doubt as to safety, the operator shall consult withthe
(4) After repairs have been made, the lifting mag- designated personbeforehandling the load.
net shall notbereturned to serviceuntil it hasbeen (d) Theoperator shallrespondonlyto instructions
inspectedaccording topara.20-4.3.1(c). from designated persons.However,the operator shall
(5) Datedrecords of repairsshouldbemade. obey a stop order at all times, no matter who gives it.
(6) Anyindication of hazardous conditions dis- (e) The operation of the lifter shallbe observed
closed by the inspection requirements of para. 20-4.3.1 beforeuseandduring a shift. Itemssuch asthose
shall be corrected before operation of the lifting magnet listed inparas.20-4.3.1(b)and (c) shall be carefully
is resumed. Repairsshallbedone by a designated examined by a designatedperson. The lifter shall be
person. tagged “Out of Service’’ if it is determined that condi-
tions found constitute a hazard.
Section20-4.4:Operation The operator shall be familiar with standard hand
signals when applicable.
20-4.4.1Operators. Below-the-hookliftingde- (g) The operator shalllandany attached load and
vices shall beoperatedonly by trained, appointed store the lifter beforeleavingthe lifting device.
personnel. (h) All controls shall be tested by the operator before
use during a shift. If any controls do not operate
20-4.4.2 Qualifications. Qualifications for opera- properly, theyshouldbeadjusted or repairedbefore
torsofbelow-the-hooklifting devices are as follows. operations are begun.
(a) The operator shallbeinstructed in theuse of (i) The operator shallnotride or allow others to
the device by a designatedperson.Instructionsshould rideloads.
include, butnot be limitedto,thefollowing:
( I ) application of the lifter to the load and adjust- 204.4.4 LiftingDevice Operating Practices
ments, if any, thatadaptthelifter to varioussizes or (a) Lifting devicesshallbeoperated only by the
kindsof loads; following qualifiedpersonnel:
(2) anyspecial operations or precautions; ( I ) designated persons;
(3) condition of the load itself required for opera- (2) trainees under the direct supervision of a desig-
tion of the lifter, suchas,butnotlimitedto,balance, nated person;
surface cleanliness, flatness, bending, and load thickness; ( 3 ) maintenanceandtestpersonnel,when it is
(4) storage of the lifter to protect it from damage; necessary in theperformance of their duties; and

35

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


Licensed by Information Handling Services
ASME 830.20-1999 BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES

(4) inspectors (lifting devices). ( k ) The lifter shall notbeused for side pulls or
(6) The lifting device shallnotbeloaded in excess sliding theloadunless specifically authorized by a
of its rated load or handleanyload for which it is qualifiedperson.
not designed.
(c) The lifter shall be applied to the load in accord-
20-4.4.5Miscellaneous Operating Practices
ance with the instruction manual. (a) An operator shall notuse a lifting device that
(d) Before lifting, the operator shall make sure that is tagged“Out of Service” or otherwise designated as
lifter ropes or chains are not kinked and that multiple nonfunctioning.
part lines are nottwistedaround each other. (b) “Out of Service” tags on lifting devices shall
(e) Care should betakentomake certain theload notberemovedwithout the approval of theperson
is correctly distributed for the lifter beingused. placing them or an authorized person.
cf) The temperature of the load should not exceed ( c ) The lifter, whennot in use, should be stored at
the maximum allowable limits of the lifter. an assigned location.
(8)The lifter shall be brought over the load in such
a manner as tominimize swinging. Section 20-4.5: Instruction Manual
( h ) Care shall betakenthatthereisnotsudden The magnet manufacturer shall provide an instruction
acceleration or deceleration of the load. manualwithevery lifting magnet. In addition to op-
(i) Do not allow load or lifter to come into contact erating and preventive maintenance instructions, the
withany obstruction. manualshallprovide a statement of those factors that
( j ) The operator shallavoid carrying theload over alter themagnet’s lifting capacity and the degree to
people. which it is affected.

36

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


Licensed by Information Handling Services
STDmASME B30-2U-ENGL 1779 m U759b70 Ub13337785 I

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COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Licensed by Information Handling Services