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STUDY GUIDE

BLOOD MODULE

FIRST YEAR MBBS


SEMESTER 1

15th Feb – 12th April 2017

LIAQUAT NATIONAL HOSPITAL


& MEDICAL COLLEGE
LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE

STUDY GUIDE FOR BLOOD MODULE

Page
S.No CONTENTS
No
1 Overview 3
2 Introduction to Study Guide 4
3 Learning Methodologies 5
4 Module 2: BLOOD 7
4.1 Introduction 7
4.2 Objectives and strategies 8
5 Learning Resources 18
6 Assessment Methods 20
7 Semester Examination Rules And Regulations of JSMU 22
8 Modular Examination Rules And Regulations (LNMC) 25
9 Schedule 26

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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE

Module name: Blood

Semester: One Year: One Duration: 8 weeks (Feb – April 2017)

Timetable hours: Lectures, Case-Based Learning (CBL), Self-Study, Practical, Skills,


Demonstrations, Field Visits, Visit to Wards & Laboratory

Credit hours: 6 credit hours in theory and 3 credit hours in practical

MODULE INTEGRATED COMMITTEE


MODULE COORDINATOR:  Professor S. Khursheed Hasan Hashmi
CO-COORDINATORS:  Professor Nighat Huda, DHCE
 Dr. Atif Hashmi (Pathology)

DEPARTMENTS’ & RESOURCE PERSONS’ FACILITATING LEARNING


BASIC HEALTH SCIENCES CLINICAL AND ANCILLARY DEPARTMENTS
ANATOMY FAMILY MEDICINE
 Professor Zia-ul-Islam  Dr. Faridah Amin
 Professor Faiz Muhammad Sheikh
BIOCHEMISTRY GENERAL MEDICINE
 Professor Jawed Altaf Baig  Professor KU Makki

COMMUNITY MEDICINE HEMATOLOGY


 Professor Rafiq Soomro  Professor Syed Muhammad Irfan
 Dr. Sadia Sultan
PATHOLOGY SURGERY & ALLIED
 Professor Naveen Faridi  Dr. Rufina Soomro
MICROBIOLOGY
 Professor S. Khursheed Hasan Hashmi
PHARMACOLOGY
 Professor Nazir Ahmad Solangi
PHYSIOLOGY
 Professor Syed Hafeezul Hassan
DEPARTMENT of HEALTHCARE EDUCATION
 Professor Nighat Huda  Dr. Mirza Aroosa Beg
LNH&MC MANAGEMENT
 Professor Amir Ali Shoro, Dean & Principal, Director FHS LNH&MC
 Dr. Shaheena Akbani, Controller A.A & R.T LNH&MC

STUDY GUIDE COMPILED BY:  Dr. Muhammad Suleman Sadiq


Department of Health Care Education  Dr. Rabia Mahmood
 Dr. Afifa Tabassum

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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE

INTRODUCTION

WHAT IS A STUDY GUIDE?

It is an aid to:
 Inform students how student learning program of the semester-wise module has been
organized
 Help students organize and manage their studies throughout the module
 Guide students on assessment methods, rules and regulations

THE STUDY GUIDE:


 Communicates information on organization and management of the module.
This will help the student to contact the right person in case of any difficulty.
 Defines the objectives which are expected to be achieved at the end of the module.
 Identifies the learning strategies such as lectures, small group teachings, clinical skills,
demonstration, tutorial and case based learning that will be implemented to achieve the
module objectives.
 Provides a list of learning resources such as books, computer assisted learning programs,
web- links, journals, for students to consult in order to maximize their learning.
 Highlights information on the contribution of continuous and semester examinations on the
student’s overall performance.
 Includes information on the assessment methods that will be held to determine every student’s
achievement of objectives.
 Focuses on information pertaining to examination policy, rules and regulations.

CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK
Students will experience integrated curriculum of 1st and 2nd semesters.

INTEGRATED CURRICULUM comprises of system-based modules such as foundation and blood which
links basic science knowledge to clinical problems. Integrated teaching means that subjects are
presented as a meaningful whole. Students will be able to have better understanding of basic
sciences when they repeatedly learn in relation to clinical examples.
Case-based discussions, computer-based assignments, early exposure to clinics, wards, and skills
acquisition in skills lab and physiotherapy department are characteristics of integrated teaching program.

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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE

LEARNING METHODOLOGIES

The following teaching / learning methods are used to promote better understanding:

 Interactive Lectures
 Hospital / Clinic visits
 Small Group Discussion
 Case- Based Learning
 Practicals
 Skills session
 E-Learning
 Self-Directed Study

INTERACTIVE LECTURES
In large group, the lecturer introduces a topic or common clinical conditions and explains the underlying
phenomena through questions, pictures, videos of patients’ interviews, exercises, etc. Students are
actively involved in the learning process.

HOSPITAL VISITS: In small groups, students observe patients with signs and symptoms in hospital or
clinical settings. This helps students to relate knowledge of basic and clinical sciences of the relevant
module.

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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE

SMALL GROUP DISCUSSION (SGD): This format helps students to clarify concepts acquire skills or
attitudes. Sessions are structured with the help of specific exercises such as patient case, interviews or
discussion topics. Students exchange opinions and apply knowledge gained from lectures, tutorials and
self study. The facilitator role is to ask probing questions, summarize, or rephrase to help clarify
concepts.

CASE- BASED LEARNING: A small group discussion format where learning is focused around a series of
questions based on a clinical scenario. Students’ discuss and answer the questions applying relevant
knowledge gained in clinical and basic health sciences during the module.

PRACTICAL: Basic science practicals related to anatomy, biochemistry, pathology, pharmacology and
physiology are scheduled for student learning.

SKILLS SESSION: Skills relevant to respective module are observed and practiced where applicable in
skills laboratory or Department of Physiotherapy.

SELF DIRECTED STUDY: Students’ assume responsibilities of their own learning through individual study,
sharing and discussing with peers, seeking information from Learning Resource Center, teachers and
resource persons within and outside the college. Students can utilize the time within the college
scheduled hours of self-study.

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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE

SEMESTER 1 MODULE 2 : BLOOD

INTRODUCTION

This module aims to provide the basic understanding of hematopoiesis and hemostasis at the molecular level.
It will also outline the basic pathological processes in the development of cancers. It will deal with the basic
pathophysiology and pharmacological aspects of infections and chemotherapeutic agents and integrate it with
clinical sciences.

The module will give the 1st year medical students, an opportunity to know the presentations and principles of
management of common hematological, immunological, inflammatory and neoplastic disorders. Overall, it
will provide the students with the necessary factual knowledge and stimulate them to apply this in the
interpretation of the disease.

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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE

COURSE OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES

At the end of the module the students will be able to:

LEARNING
TOPICS & OBJECTIVES FACULTY
STRATEGY

1. Importance of blood and blood cells along with their


synthesis, structure of hemoglobin with its different
variant
 Describe the development of blood elements Anatomy Interactive Lecture

 Describe components of blood and their functions, Interactive


identify source, sites and factors responsible for Physiology Lecture/Small
erythropoesis Group Discussion

Interactive
Lecture/Small
 Describe the composition of blood and biomedical Biochemistry
importance of plasma proteins Group
Discussion/Practical

 Discuss the structure of Heme, its synthesis and Interactive


abnormalities with biochemical role (Porphyrias) Biochemistry Lecture/Small
Group Discussion

 Describe variants of hemoglobin, structural Interactive


abnormalities related to hemoglobin (Sickle cell Biochemistry Lecture/Small
anemia and Thalassemia Group Discussion

 Identify on a given microscopic


slide/illustration/laboratory data the various
components of hematopoietic system with particular
reference to:
- RBCs
Anatomy Small Group
- Lymphocytes
- Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) (Histology) Discussion/Practical
- Basophils
- Eosinophils
- Monocytes
- Reticulocytes
- Platelets
 Demonstrate Erythrocytes Sedimentation Rate (ESR) Physiology Practical/Skill

 Demonstrate Estimation of Hemoglobin (Hb) Physiology Practical/Skill

 Demonstrate Packed Cell Volume (PCV) Physiology Practical/Skill

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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE
2. Lymphoid tissues and lymphatic system

 Describe the development of the components of Anatomy Interactive Lecture


lymphoid system
 Describe the production of lymph and pattern of
Anatomy Interactive Lecture
lymph flow from lymphatic capillaries to the venous
system
 Describe and identify the Microscopic structure of
Anatomy Practical
lymphoid organs which are lymph node, tonsil, spleen
and thymus
Small Group
Surgery and Allied
 Observe the examination of Lymphatic system Discussion

3. Anemia, it classification and drugs used

 Explain causes of quantitative and qualitative changes Interactive


in RBC including anemias Physiology Lecture/Small
Group Discussion

 Describe the metabolism of Iron and its relationship Interactive


with hemoglobin Biochemistry Lecture/Small
Group Discussion

 Describe metabolism, biological functions and Interactive


abnormalities due to vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and Folic Biochemistry Lecture/Small
acid Group Discussion

Interactive
 Discuss the biochemistry of RBC metabolism along Biochemistry Lecture/Small
with Anaerobic Glycolysis and HMP shunt Group Discussion

Interactive
 Classify different types of anemia on the basis of red Physiology Lecture/Case-Based
cell indices Discussion

Interactive
Physiology
 Interpret peripheral blood film Lecture/Practical

 Discuss aplastic anemia, its pathogenesis, etiology and


clinical course along with diagnostic and
morphological features
 Interpret the peripheral smear findings in microcytic, Hematology Interactive Lecture
normocytic and macrocytic anemia
 Describe the abnormal morphology and identification
of iron deficiency anemia, megaloblastic anemia and
thrombocytopenia
 Perform Hb electrophoresis Biochemistry Demonstration

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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE
 Perform estimation of serum Bilirubin and interpret Biochemistry Demonstration
lab findings of jaundice
 Describe thalassemia disease
 Explain thalassemia based on etiology,
pathophysiology and clinical features
Hematology Interactive Lecture
 Enlist the two general types of thalassemia and
describe the defect in each
 List the four types of alpha thalassemia and the defect
in each
 Discuss the causes and classification of anemia
 Describe the treatment of microcytic hypochromic
anemia with oral and injectable iron preparations Case-Based
Pharmacology
 Discuss the treatment of megaloblastic anemia Discussion
 Describe the role of erythropoietin in anemia
 Discuss the treatment of sickle cell Anemia
 Discuss haematopoietic growth factors
 Identify clinical findings through history and Small Group
Family Medicine
examination in an anemic patient Discussion

4. Polycythemia and its types


Bilirubinemia
Interactive
Physiology Lecture/Small
 Explain causes of polycythemia
Group Discussion

5. Quantitative and qualitative disorders of RBCs

Interactive
 Discuss the catabolism of heme and its related
Biochemistry Lecture/Small
disorders which include Jaundice and
hyperbilirubinemia Group Discussion

6. ABO-Rh Blood group system and its importance


relates to Transfusion
Interactive
Physiology Lecture/Small
 Discuss blood group and Rh system
Group Discussion

Case-Based
Physiology
 Explain Erythroblastosis Fetalis Discussion

 Perform the Blood grouping and cross matching Physiology Practical/Skill

 Explain the blood components therapy, its indication & Hematology Interactive Lecture
contraindications
 Discuss the visit of Blood Bank as place of public health Community
Field Visit
importance Medicine

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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE
7. Platelet function and its disorder

Interactive
 Enlist the contents and functions of platelet including Physiology Lecture/Small
platelet plug formation Group Discussion

 Classify the causes of thrombocytopenia


Hematology Interactive Lecture
 Identify the clinical findings in thrombocytopenic
patients
8. Bacteria and their pathogenesis

 Describe steps of Pathogenesis


 Differentiate between Endotoxin and Exotoxin Microbiology Interactive Lecture
 Describe different stages of an infectious disease
 Explain Koch’s postulates
 Perform Acid fast staining Microbiology Practical/Skills

 Perform Capsule and spore Microbiology Practical/Skills

9. Various clotting factor


Intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathway, and
various drugs interfering in this pathway
Interactive
 Discuss the metabolism of vitamin K and its role in Biochemistry Lecture/Small
blood clotting Group Discussion

Interactive
 Discuss mechanisms of extrinsic, intrinsic and common Physiology Lecture/Small
pathway of blood clotting and bleeding disorders Group Discussion

Interactive
Physiology
 Describe fibrinolytic mechanism Lecture/Small
Group Discussion
Interactive
 List the hemorrhagic and thrombo-embolic conditions Physiology Lecture/Small
and their effects on body system Group Discussion

 Demonstrate bleeding time/Clotting time Physiology Practical/Skill

 Discuss the visit of Pathology laboratory of LNH as Community


Field Visit
place of public health importance Medicine

10. Leucopoiesis along with their types and function

Interactive
 Describe myelopoesis, various WBCs, differentiate Physiology Lecture/Small
granulocytes and agranulocytes Group Discussion

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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE
Interactive
 Describe functions of WBC which include Physiology Lecture/Small
phagocytosis, Monocyte Macrophage system Group Discussion

Interactive
 Explain various characteristics of lymphocytes, their Physiology Lecture/Small
subtypes and functions Group Discussion

Physiology Practical/Skill
 Perform differential leukocyte count (DLC)
11. EPI and importance of cold chain

 Discuss the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) Community


Interactive Lecture
of Pakistan Medicine

 Discuss the visit of EPI centre as place of public health Community


Field Visit
importance Medicine

12. Inflammation and its different type, signs of acute


inflammation and role of cytokine
 Discuss inflammation and its types, purpose and signs Pathology Interactive Lecture
of acute inflammation
 Describe vascular and cellular events of acute
inflammation Pathology Interactive Lecture
 Discuss morphological types of inflammation based on
types of exudates
 Classify chemical mediators of inflammation and Pathology Interactive Lecture
mention role of cytokines
Interactive
 Discuss Eicosanoids and their biomedical role in Biochemistry Lecture/Small
inflammation and injury Group Discussion

 List the important eicosanoids


 Explain the systemic effects of PGE2, PGF2, PGI2, LTB4,
LTD4
 List the important sites of synthesis and the effects of
thromboxane and prostacyclin on the vascular system Pharmacology Interactive Lecture
 List the important therapeutic uses of prostaglandins
 List the therapeutic antagonists of leukotrienes and
prostaglandins, and their targets
 Explain the effects of aspirin on prostaglandin
synthesis and leukotriene synthesis
Medicine Interactive Lecture
 Describe of various inflammatory disorders
13. Chronic inflammation, its type and granulomas
formation
 Describe chronic inflammation, its types and Pathology Interactive Lecture
characteristics of particularly granuloma formation

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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE
14. Primary and secondary wound healing with its
complication
 Describe the process of tissue repair and wound Pathology Interactive Lecture
healing with emphasis on role of ECM
 Describe the role of growth factors in tissue repair Pathology Interactive Lecture

 Differentiate between primary and secondary wound


healing and list the factors affecting wound healing Pathology Interactive Lecture
 Explain the complications of wound healing

15. Chronic venous congestion and hemorrhage

 Discuss chronic venous congestion with examples


Pathology Interactive Lecture
 Describe hemorrhage, its cause and effects

16. Edema and its types

 Describe edema, its types and explain mechanisms of


Pathology Interactive Lecture
development

17. Thrombosis, emboli and their types


Various thrombolytic drugs
 Describe thrombus along with the factors involved in
Pathology Interactive Lecture
the process of thrombosis, its types and fate.
 Describe emboli and its various types
 Define the terms anticoagulant, antiplatelet,
thrombolytic
 List the antiplatelet and thrombolytic drugs
 Describe the mechanism of action of antiplatelet drugs
 List the indications and adverse effects for
the use of antiplatelet and thrombolytic drugs
 Describe adverse effects of antiplatelet and
thrombolytic therapy Case-Based
Pharmacology
 Discuss Fibrinolytic agents in detail Discussion
 Discuss the causes and treatment of bleeding
disorders
 Describe the mechanisms of action of heparin and
warfarin
 Discuss important drug interactions of warfarin
 Describe the advantages of low molecular weight
heparin
 List the direct thrombin inhibitors and their uses
18. Infarction and its types
Shock and its types
 Explain infarction its morphological types with
examples. Pathology Interactive Lecture
 Discuss shock, its causes and types

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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE
19. Epidemiology, causes and management of diarrhea

 Describe the various causes and types of diarrhea Community


Interactive Lecture
 Discuss the epidemiology, management and Medicine
prevention of the diarrhea
 Discuss the visit of Diarrhea centre of LNH as place of Community
Field Visit
public health importance Medicine

20. Normal flora and flora present in various system of


the body
 Describe the concept of normal flora of various parts
of the body
Microbiology Interactive Lecture
 Describe the normal flora of Skin, GI tract, Respiratory
tract, Urogenital tract

21. Pathogenesis and its different types


Host defense, its types and the role of antimicrobial
therapy
 Classify antimicrobial agents
 Describe mechanism of action of antimicrobial drugs
 Discuss the general mechanism of drug resistance
 List the types of therapies
 Identify the indications for the clinical use of
combination of antimicrobial agents
 Explain the difference between bacteriostatic and Pharmacology Interactive Lecture
bactericidal drugs
 Explain Minimum Inhibitory Concentration / Minimum
Bactericidal Concentration
 Explain the prophylactic use of antibiotics
 Discuss empirical and definitive therapy
 List the major adverse effects of various antibiotics

22. Sterilization, disinfection, role of sterilizing agent


and antimicrobial drugs
 Differentiate sterilization and disinfection
 Describe physical and chemical methods of
sterilization and disinfection Microbiology Interactive Lecture
 Describe different agents used for sterilization and
disinfection

23. Field visit report and its importance

 Carry out field visits for experiential learning to the Community


Interactive Lecture
places of public health importance and writing the Medicine
report
 Describe the infra structure, functions, staff and data Community
Interactive Lecture
of the activities on the places visited Medicine

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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE
24. Parasite, protozoa with pathogenesis, lab findings
and prevention
 Classify parasites
Microbiology Interactive Lecture
 Define different terms used in parasitology like Vector,
Intermediate host, definitive host, etc
25. Neoplasia with its etiology and carcinogenic agent
Nomenclature of neoplasia on basis of histology,
gross and microscopic findings
Difference between benign and malignant neoplasm
 Discuss Neoplasia and its nomenclature based on Pathology Interactive Lecture
histogenesis, gross and microscopic appearances
 Differentiate between benign and malignant
Pathology Interactive Lecture
neoplasms
 Explain metastasis
 Demonstrate gross and microscopic features of Benign Pathology Demonstration
and Malignant Tumors
 Differentiate between presentations of benign and Small Group
Surgery and Allied
malignant tumors Discussion

26. Grading and staging of malignant tumor with drugs


used to control it
 Describe grading and staging of malignant tumors
Pathology Interactive Lecture
 Discuss precancerous lesions with examples
 Describe briefly systemic effects of cancers
 List the causes of cancer
 Classify anticancer drugs
 Explain the treatment strategy for different types of
cancers
Pharmacology Interactive Lecture
 Explain cell cycle
 Describe the resistance to anticancer drugs
 Identify the adverse effects of anticancer drugs
 Discuss palliative therapy, combination therapy, pulse
therapy and rescue therapy
 Discuss the importance of lymphadenopathy and Small Group
Surgery and Allied
significance of examination of draining area of lymph Discussion
node
 Observe how to approach a patient with Small Group
Surgery and Allied
lymphadenopathy Discussion

27. Cancer on molecular basis with role of various gene


and clinical application of various drugs
 Discuss biochemistry of cancer and biochemical Biochemistry Interactive Lecture
markers
 Explain carcincogens and their various categories with Pathology Interactive Lecture
examples
 Describe the molecular basis of cancer with emphasis
Pathology Interactive Lecture
on role of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, DNA
repair genes and antiapoptotic genes
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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE
28. Plasmodia and blood parasites
Pathogenesis, clinical finding, lab diagnosis and
prevention
 Describe Pathogernesis, clinical findings, laboratory
diagnosis, and prevention of Amoebiasis.
 Describe the morphology, life cycle of the following:
o Plasmodium
Microbiology Interactive Lecture
o Leishmania
o Trypnosoma
 Describe clinical findings, laboratory diagnosis and
prevention of diseases caused by above mentioned
parasites
29. Termatode, its pathogenesis, clinical finding, lab
diagnosis and prevention
 Classify trematodes
 Describe pathogenesis, clinical findings, laboratory Microbiology Interactive Lecture
diagnosis and prevention of diseases caused by
Schistosomes
30. Immunity and its different types
Structure and function of antibodies
 Briefly describe Innate & Acquired Immunity
 Differentiate between active & passive immunity
 List the cells involved in antibody mediated and cell
mediated immunity
 Discuss cell-mediated immunity
Microbiology Interactive Lecture
 Describe briefly helper and cytotoxic T-cells
 Enlist the constituents of cell-mediated immune
system
 Describe briefly mechanism of Humoral immunity
 Describe the structure, their types and functions of
antibodies
31. Complement system and its role

 Discuss complement system and different pathways of


Microbiology Interactive Lecture
its activation
 Describe role of complement in immunity
32. Hypersensitivity, its various types and role of
antihistamine
Interactive Lecture/
 Describe hypersensitivity reactions and their effects on Physiology Case-Based
body system Discussion

 Describe type-I and type-II Hypersensitivity, Atopy and


ADCC
 Describe type III Hypersensitivity with arthus reaction Microbiology Interactive Lecture
& serum Sickness
 Describe type IV Hypersensitivty with clinically
important delayed Hypersensitivity reactions
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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE
 Explain the location of histamine receptors, synthesis
and release of histamine
 Describe the mechanism of action of histamine Case-Based
Pharmacology
 Explain the role of histamine in allergy and anaphylaxis Discussion
 Classify antihistamines
 Explain therapeutic uses and adverse effects of
histamine
33. MHC and its type
Transplantation and mechanism of graft rejection
 Describe MHC, its types and biologic importance
 Describe transplantation, its types and mechanism of
graft rejection Microbiology Interactive Lecture
 Describe briefly types of immunodeficiency
 Describe briefly the molecular defects of some
immunodeficiency states
34. Immunodeficiency and its different type, disorder
and role of immunosuppressant
 Define “Tolerance”
 Define “Autoimmunity”
 List the factors involved in Autoimmunity Microbiology Interactive Lecture
 List different Autoimmune disorders and the
mechanisms involved in their pathogenesis
 Describe SLE in detail
 Describe primary features of cell mediated and
humoral immunity
 Discuss immunosuppressants in detail.
 Discuss immunomodulating agents and their clinical Pharmacology Interactive Lecture
uses
 Explain the role of antibodies as immunosuppressants
 Describe the different type of allergic reactions to
drugs
35. Virus, their structure, pathogenesis and its
classification
Viral fever
 Describe the effects of viruses on Cells
 Describe in brief different types of interferon and their
effects
Microbiology Interactive Lecture
 Describe the structure, replication and transmission of
viruses
 Describe briefly the pathogenesis of viral infections
 Classify RNA and DNA viruses
Biochemistry Demonstration
 Demonstrate the ELIZA technique
Small Group
Family Medicine
 Discuss the incidence of viral fever in general practice Discussion

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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE

LEARNING RESOURCES

SUBJECT RESOURCES
A. GROSS ANATOMY
1. K.L. Moore, Clinically Oriented Anatomy
2. Neuro Anatomy by Richard Snell
B. HISTOLOGY
ANATOMY
1. B. Young J. W. Health Wheather’s Functional Histology
C. EMBRYOLOGY
1. Keith L. Moore. The Developing Human
2. Langman’s Medical Embryology

A. TEXTBOOKS
1. Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry
BIOCHEMISTRY 2. Lehninger Principle of Biochemistry
3. Biochemistry by Devlin

A. TEXT BOOKS
1. Community Medicine by Parikh
COMMUNITY MEDICINE 2. Community Medicine by M Illyas
3. Basic Statistics for the Health Sciences by Jan W Kuzma

A. TEXT BOOKS
1. Robbins & Cotran, Pathologic Basis of Disease, 9th edition.
2. Rapid Review Pathology, 4th edition by Edward F. Goljan MD
PATHOLOGY/MICROBIOLOGY
1. http://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/webpath.html
2. http://www.pathologyatlas.ro/

A. TEXT BOOKS
1. Lippincot Illustrated Pharmacology
PHARMACOLOGY
2. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology by Katzung

A. TEXTBOOKS
1. Textbook Of Medical Physiology by Guyton And Hall
2. Ganong ‘ S Review of Medical Physiology
3. Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood
4. Berne & Levy Physiology
5. Best & Taylor Physiological Basis of Medical Practice
PHYSIOLOGY B. REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Guyton & Hall Physiological Review
2. Essentials Of Medical Physiology by Jaypee
3. Textbook Of Medical Physiology by InduKhurana
4. Short Textbook Of Physiology by Mrthur
5. NMS Physiology

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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE

OTHER LEARNING RESOURCES

Students will be involved in Practical sessions and hands-on activities that


Hands-on Activities/ Practical
link with the blood module to enhance the learning.

Utilize the lab to relate the knowledge to the specimens and models
Labs
available.

A skills lab provides the simulated learning experience to learn the basic
Skills Lab skills and procedures. This helps build the confidence to approach the
patients.
Video familiarize the student with the procedures and protocols to assist
Videos
patients.

Computer To increase the knowledge, students should utilize the available internet
Lab/CDs/DVDs/Internet resources and CDs/DVDs. This will be an additional advantage to increase
Resources: learning.

Self Learning is scheduled to search for information to solve cases, read


Self Learning through different resources and discuss among the peers and with the
faculty to clarify the concepts.

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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE

ASSESSMENT METHODS:

Theory (knowledge): Best Choice Questions (BCQs) also known as MCQs (Multiple Choice Questions)
and EMQs (Extending Matching Questions) are used to asses objectives covered in each module.

BCQs:
 A BCQ has a statement or clinical scenario of four options (likely answers).
 Correct answer carries one mark, and incorrect ‘zero mark’. There is NO negative marking.
 Students mark their responses on specified computer-based sheet designed for LNHMC.

EMQs:
 An EMQ has:
o An option list of 5-15 nerve supply, functions, diagnosis, investigations etc
o A Lead In –Statement/Question
o Two to four Stems or Clinical Scenarios

 Correct answer carries one mark and incorrect ‘zero mark’. There is NO negative marking.
 Student mark their responses on a specified computer-based sheet for EMQs.

OSPE: Objective Structured Practical Examination


 The content may assess application of knowledge, or practical skills.
 Student will complete task in define time at one given station.

 All the students are assessed on the same content by the same examiner in the same allocated
time.
 There are observed, unobserved, interactive and rest stations.

 Rest station is a station where there is no task given, and in this time student can
organize his/her thoughts.

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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE

Internal Evaluation
 During the module, students will be assessed to determine achievement of module objectives.

 Module Examination: will be scheduled on completion of each module. The method of


examination comprises theory exam which includes BCQs, and practical (Objective
Structured Practical Examination).

 20% marks of internal evaluation will be added in theory of semester exam. That 20%
may include class tests, assignment, journals and the modular exam which all have
specific marks allocation.

Example : Number of Marks allocated for Semester Theory and Internal Evaluation
Internal Evaluation
Semester Examination
(Class tests + Journals + Total (Theory)
Semester Theory Marks
Assignments + Modular
Exam)
80% 20% 100%

Formative Assessment
 Individual department may hold quiz or short answer questions to help students assess
their own learning. The marks obtained are not included in the internal evaluation

More than 75% attendance is


needed to sit for the modular and
semester examinations

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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE

SEMESTER EXAMINATION RULES & REGULATIONS OF JINNAH SINDH MEDICAL UNIVERSITY


(JSMU)

 In one academic year there will be two semesters. The semester duration is approximately
sixteen weeks.
 Each semester may have two to three modules from two to eight weeks duration.

JSMU EXAMINATIONS:

 JSMU will schedule and hold Semester Examinations on completion of each semester.
 In one academic year, there will be two semester examinations and one Retake Examination.
MBBS First year:

 Semester I examination is scheduled on completion of Foundation & Blood Modules.


 Semester II Examination is scheduled on completion of Locomotor, Respiratory and CVS
Modules.

Examination Protocols:

 In each semester, module will be assessed by theory paper comprising MCQs and EMQs. For
example, semester 3 will have separate paper for Head & Neck, Neurosciences and
Endocrinology.
 There will be one OSPE (Objective Structured Practical Examination) which will cover all the
modules of semester 3.
1. Theory (Knowledge)

 Theory paper will comprise of 80 one best type MCQs and 20 EMQs.
 Time duration for theory paper will be 120 minutes.
 Students will mark their responses on JSMU specified response sheets assessed by computer
software.
 It will carry out 80% contribution in theory results of the Semester.
 There is no negative marking.

2. OSPE:

 It is held at the respective college unless specified by JSMU.


 It may comprise between 12- 25 stations. Each station will carry 10 marks.
 All students begin and end at the same time.
 The content assessed is the same for all students.
 The time allocated for each station is the same.
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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE

3. JSMU Grading System

 It will be based on GPA – 4 system

Marks obtained in
Numerical Grade Alphabetical Grade
Percentage range
80-100 4.0 A+
75-79 4.0 A
70-74 3.7 A-
67-69 3.3 B+
63-66 3.0 B
60-62 2.7 B-
56-59 2.3 C+
50-55 2.0 C
<50 Un-grade-able 0 U

 A candidate obtaining GPA less than 2.00 (50%) is declared un-graded (fail).

 Cumulative transcript is issued at the end of clearance of all modules.

4. Retake Examination
 The failures are to re-appear in subsequent examinations.

 It is held once a year that is after the even number semesters. For example at the end of second,
fourth, sixth, eighth or tenth semester.

 Retake examinations are for those students who fail in semester examinations, and who wish to
improve grades (GPA) secured in semester examinations.

 The candidate who has passed the semester examinations with GPA less than 3.0 GPA may re-
appear in respective retake examination to improve grades.

 MBBS first year Candidates failing in retake examinations may re-appear in semesters’
examinations of the following year. The format is exactly the same as in semester examinations.

EXAMPLE OF PROMOTION RULES:

A student who fails in Semester One Examination and passes Semester Two, s/he will take Retake for
Semester One Examination. S/he passes Semester one retake and is promoted to 2nd year. If that
student FAILS in Retake, s/he will be promoted to 2nd year BUT will have to Pass Semester One
examination in Second year along with Semester Three and Four examinations for promotion to third
year.

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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE

5. Promotion to next class

 Students who pass both semester examinations are promoted from first year to second year.

 Students who fail the MBBS first year semester retake examination will be promoted to second
year.

 Students will be promoted from second year to third year and onward only if they have passed
the semester examinations of that year.

 Clearance of all modules and their components of semester one to four are mandatory for
promotion from second year to third year (as per PMDC rules).

 As per PMDC rules any candidate failing to clear a module or its component in four (1+3)
attempts is NOT allowed to carry out further medical education.

 To pass all modules and their components of semester/s are mandatory for promotion from
third year onward.

(Albert Einstein)

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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE

MODULAR EXAMINATION RULES & REGULATIONS (LNH&MC)

 Student must report to examination hall/venue, 30 minutes before the exam.


 Exam will begin sharp at the given time.
 No student will be allowed to enter the examination hall after 15 minutes of scheduled
examination time.
 Students must sit according to their roll numbers mentioned on the seats.
 Cell phones are strictly not allowed in examination hall.
 If any student is found with cell phone in any mode (silent, switched off or on) he/she will be not
be allowed to continue their exam.
 No students will be allowed to sit in exam without University Admit Card, LNMC College ID Card
and Lab Coat
 Student must bring the following stationary items for the exam: Pen, Pencil, Eraser, and
Sharpener.
 Indiscipline in the exam hall/venue is not acceptable. Students must not possess any written
material or communicate with their fellow students.

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LIAQUAT NATIONAL MEDICAL COLLEGE 1ST YEAR MBBS, SEMESTER 1 BLOOD MODULE

SCHEDULE:

WEEKS 1ST YEAR SEMESTER 1 MONTH


WEEK 1 19th Dec 2016
WEEK 2
WEEK 3 FOUNDATION
WEEK 4 MODULE
WEEK 5
WEEK 6
WEEK 7
WEEK 8 10th Feb 2017
MODULAR EXAM 13 & 14th Feb 2017
th

WEEK 1 15th Feb 2017


WEEK 2
WEEK 3 BLOOD
WEEK 4 MODULE
WEEK 5
WEEK 6
WEEK 7
WEEK 8 12th April 2017*
MODULAR EXAM 13th & 14th April 2017*
PREPARATORY LEAVE
SEMESTER EXAM May 2017*

*Final dates will be announced later

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