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Every good thing start with

“BISMILLAH”
BIOCHEMISTRY
BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS IN HUMAN BODY
BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS IN HUMAN
BODY

GROUP MEMBERS;
Syeda shehla Qayyum
Amna Liaquat
Saba Waseem
Sidra Hasan
Yaar Khan
Uzaid Huzaifa
CONTENTS
AMNA LIAQUAT

Difference between chemical and biochemical reaction

what is biochemical reaction

basic types of biochemical reaction

SHEHLA QAYYUM

Types of biochemical reactions (detail)

SIDRA HASAN

Metabolism

importance of biochemical reaction


conternts (cont’d)

YAAR KHAN

What are enzymes role in biochemical reaction

Activation energy graph

Factors that affect the rate of biochemical reaction

SABA WASEEM

Purpose of biochemical reaction

CONCLUSION

(oVER ALL PRESENTATION )


Difference between chemical and
biochemical reaction
●  process that involves rearrangement of the molecular
or ionic structure of a substance, as distinct from a
change in physical form or a nuclear reaction is called
chemical reaction.
● A biochemical reaction is the transformation of one
molecule to a different molecule inside a
cell. Biochemical reactions are mediated by enzymes,
which are biological catalysts that can alter the rate
and specificity of chemical reactions inside cells.
DEFINATION

● A biochemical reaction is the transformation of one


molecule to a different molecule inside a
cell. Biochemical reactions are mediated by enzymes,
which are biological catalysts that can alter the rate
and specificity of chemical reactions inside cells.
Cont’d
All living cells depend on biochemical reactions to maintain
homeostasis. All of the biochemical reactions in an
organism are collectively referred to as metabolism, which
is of 2 basic types: catabolic: reactions

That “break down” molecules

anabolic: reactions

That build new molecules

• generally energy releasing or exergonic

• generally energy requiring or endergonic **exergonic


reactions provide energy for endergonic ones!*
Types of bio chemical reactions
Chemical reactions associated with biological processes
are of following main types:
❖ Oxidation-reduction
❖ Hydrolysis
❖ Condensation
❖ Neutralization
OXIDATION REDUCTION REACTION

Chemical reaction that involves a transfer of electrons


between two species. Redox reaction is any chemical
reaction in which the oxidation number of a molecule, atom
or ion changes by gaining or losing an electron.
HYDROLYSIS REACTION

● Hydrolysis reactions are the reverse of condensation


reactions
● In these reactions water is added to a substance to
cleave or split certain chemical bonds to form new
compounds

Applications:

1 .Corn syrup is made from the hydrolysis of corn starch


2. Soap is made from the hydrolysis of fats
Condensation Reaction (DEHYDRATION
SYNTHESIS)

● Dehydration refers to the removal of water


● In a dehydration synthesis reaction, a water molecule is
removed from the reacting molecule to create
something new
● In carbohydrates dehydration synthesis removes a
water to create a glycosidic linkage between two
carbohydrates

EXAMPLE ;
NEUTRALIZATION REACTION

● Acids and bases react to form a water and a salt


● Acids dissolve in water to produce hydrogen ions (H+)
● Bases dissolve in water to produce hydroxide ions (OH-)
● When acids and bases are mixed water is produced
● Neutralization reactions can help control the pH of a
solution
APPLICATIONS.
1. Antacid tablets help neutralize gastric acid in the
stomach
2. Fertilizers can be used to reduce the pH of soil
Exothermic reaction
● Exothermic reactions in organisms are called catabolic
reactions. These reactions break down molecules into
smaller units and release energy. An example of
a catabolic reaction is the breakdown of glucose,
which releases energy that cells need to carry out life
processes.
Endothermic reaction

● Endothermic reactions in organisms are called anabolic reactions.


These reactions build up bigger molecules from smaller ones. An
example of an anabolic reaction is the joining of amino acids to
form a protein.
Metabolism
● Metabolism is a term that is used to describe all
chemical reactions involved in maintaining the living
state of the cells and the organism. Metabolism can be
conveniently divided into two categories:
● Catabolism - the breakdown of molecules to obtain
energy.
● Anabolism is the process by which the body utilizes
the energy released by catabolism to synthesize
complex molecules. 
Importance
● Two of the most important biochemical reactions are
photosynthesis and cellular respiration. ... Enzymes
are biochemical catalysts that speed up biochemical
reactions. Without enzymes, most
chemical reactions in living things would occur too
slowly to keep organisms alive
Enzymes

● Enzymes are biochemical catalysts that speed


up biochemical reactions. Without enzymes, most
chemical reactions in living things would occur too
slowly to keep organisms alive
Activation energy
Factors affect the rate of biochemical
reactions
● a catalyst.Factors that influence the reaction rates of
chemical reactions include the concentration of
reactants, temperature, the physical state of reactants
and their dispersion, the solvent, and the presence of
How does particle size affect the rate of a
chemical reaction?

● If you increase the concentration of a reactant, there


will be more of the chemical present. More
reactant particles moving together allow more
collisions to happen and so the reaction rate is
increased. The higher the concentration of reactants,
the faster the rate of a reaction will be.
Purpose of biochemical reactions
● The metabolic rate, or rate of metabolism, has to do
with the amount of energy the organism uses. And that
energy is used to drive the chemical reactions in cells
— or the biochemical reactions. And, of course, it is all
the biochemical reactions that allow the
cells function properly, and maintain life.
● Trillions of chemical reactions happens
CONCLUSION: simultaneously in the body. The lead the processes
that keep a human body alive .

● They are collectively known as Metabolism.

● Metabolism is made up of numerous metabolic path


ways

● A metabolic path way is a sequence of series of


chemical reactions that follows a set of instructions
contains in the body’s DNA

● enzymes are biochemical reaction that alters the


rate of chemical reaction .However, unlike most
chemical catalyst enzymes are highly selective and
only promote specific reactions .