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Exam

Name___________________________________

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1) Which of the following disinfectants acts by disrupting the plasma membrane? 1)


A) heavy metals
B) soaps
C) bisphenols
D) halogens
E) aldehydes
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

2) Which of the following substances is used for surgical hand scrubs? 2)


A) soap
B) chlorhexidine
C) chlorine bleach
D) glutaraldehyde
E) phenol
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

3) Which of the following regarding antimicrobial control agents is FALSE? 3)


A) Some agents are utilized as both an antiseptic and a disinfectant.
B) A true antimicrobial control agent is equally effective against both bacteria and viruses.
C) Contaminating organic debris such as blood or sputum will decrease effectiveness.
D) Some agents kill by denaturing microbial cell proteins.
E) Some agents affect microbial cell membranes by dissolving lipids.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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4) Which one of the following is most resistant to chemical biocides? 4)
A) gram-negative bacteria
B) viruses with lipid envelopes
C) protozoan cysts
D) mycobacteria
E) gram-positive bacteria
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

5) Which of the following methods is used to preserve food by slowing the metabolic processes of 5)
foodborne microbes?
A) ionizing radiation
B) nonionizing radiation
C) lyophilization
D) pasteurization
E) freezing
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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Figure 7.1
A suspension of 106 Bacillus cereus endospores was put in a hot-air oven at 170°C. Plate counts were used to
determine the number of endospores surviving at the time intervals shown.

6) In Figure 7.1, the decimal reduction time (D value) for the culture is approximately 6)
A) 0 minutes.
B) 10 minutes.
C) 30 minutes.
D) 40 minutes.
E) 60 minutes.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

7) Which of the following is a limitation of the autoclave? 7)


A) It cannot be used with glassware.
B) It requires an excessively long time to achieve sterilization.
C) It cannot kill endospores.
D) It cannot inactivate viruses.
E) It cannot be used with heat-labile materials.
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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8) Which of the following treatments is the most effective for controlling microbial growth? 8)
A) 63°C for 30 minutes
B) 72°C for 15 seconds
C) 140°C for 4 seconds
D) They are equivalent treatments.
E) None of the answers is correct.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

9) If you were preparing nutrient agar at home and did not have an autoclave, what could you use to 9)
sterilize the nutrient agar?
A) boiling for one hour
B) hydrogen peroxide
C) pressure cooker at 121°C for 15 minutes
D) oven at 121°C for one hour
E) bleach
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

10) The preservation of beef jerky from microbial growth relies on which method of microbial control? 10)
A) ionizing radiation
B) filtration
C) lyophilization
D) desiccation
E) supercritical CO2
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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Figure 7.2
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Assume 10 E. coli cells/ml are in a flask.

11) Which graph in Figure 7.2 best depicts the effect of placing the culture at 7°C at time x? 11)
A) a B) b C) c D) d E) e
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

12) Which of the following best describes the pattern of microbial death? 12)
A) All the cells in a culture die at once.
B) The cells in a population die at a constant rate.
C) The pattern varies depending on the species.
D) The pattern varies depending on the antimicrobial agent.
E) Not all of the cells in a culture are killed.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

13) Disinfection of water is achieved by all of the following EXCEPT 13)


A) UV radiation.
B) chlorine.
C) peracetic acid.
D) copper sulfate.
E) ozone.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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14) Application of heat to living cells can result in all of the following EXCEPT 14)
A) alteration of membrane permeability.
B) breaking of hydrogen bonds.
C) denaturation of enzymes.
D) damage to nucleic acids.
E) decreased thermal death time.
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

15) All of the following substances are used to preserve foods EXCEPT 15)
A) potassium sorbate.
B) biguanides.
C) sodium nitrite.
D) calcium propionate.
E) nisin.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

16) All of the following factors contribute to hospital-acquired infections EXCEPT 16)
A) some bacteria metabolize disinfectants.
B) bacteria may be present in commercial products such as mouthwash.
C) invasive procedures can provide a portal of entry for bacteria.
D) gram-negative bacteria are often resistant to disinfectants.
E) None of the answers is correct; all of these factors may contribute to hospital-acquired
infection.
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

17) Which of the following could be used to sterilize plastic Petri plates in a plastic wrapper? 17)
A) ultraviolet radiation
B) microwaves
C) sunlight
D) gamma radiation
E) autoclave
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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18) Oxidizing agents include all of the following EXCEPT 18)
A) ozone.
B) hydrogen peroxide.
C) chlorine.
D) glutaraldehyde.
E) iodine.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

19) Which of the following results in lethal damage to nucleic acids? 19)
A) heat
B) radiation
C) certain chemicals
D) heat and radiation
E) heat, radiation, and some chemicals
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

Table 7.1
A disk-diffusion test using Staphylococcus gave the following results:

Disinfectant Zone of inhibition (mm)


A 0
B 2.5
C 10
D 5

20) In Table 7.1, which compound was the most effective against E. coli? 20)
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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Figure 7.1
A suspension of 106 Bacillus cereus endospores was put in a hot-air oven at 170°C. Plate counts were used to
determine the number of endospores surviving at the time intervals shown.

21) In Figure 7.1, what is the thermal death time? 21)


A) 120 minutes
B) 100°C
C) 60 minutes
D) 150°C
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

22) Which of the following chemical agents is used for sterilization? 22)
A) alcohol
B) phenolics
C) soap
D) chlorine
E) ethylene oxide
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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Figure 7.2
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Assume 10 E. coli cells/ml are in a flask.

23) Which graph in Figure 7.2 best depicts the effect of placing the culture in an autoclave for 15 23)
minutes at time x?
A) a B) b C) c D) d E) e
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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Figure 7.1
A suspension of 106 Bacillus cereus endospores was put in a hot-air oven at 170°C. Plate counts were used to
determine the number of endospores surviving at the time intervals shown.

24) In Figure 7.1, the thermal death point for this culture is 24)
A) 15 minutes.
B) 50°C.
C) 170°C.
D) 30 minutes.
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

25) All of the following substances are effective against nonenveloped viruses EXCEPT 25)
A) chlorine.
B) ethylene oxide.
C) ozone.
D) alcohol.
E) None of the answers is correct; all of these are equally effective against nonenveloped viruses.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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26) Which of the following pairs is mismatched? 26)
A) alcohols — open wounds
B) H2 O2 — open wounds
C) CuSO4 — algicide
D) organic acids — food preservation
E) Ag — wound dressings
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

27) Which of the following does NOT achieve sterilization? 27)


A) supercritical fluids
B) dry heat
C) ethylene oxide
D) pasteurization
E) autoclave
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

28) Ethylene oxide 28)


A) requires high heat to be effective.
B) is the active chemical in household bleach.
C) is a sterilizing agent.
D) is a good antiseptic.
E) is not sporicidal.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

29) Which of the following regarding antimicrobial control agents is FALSE? 29)
A) Contaminating organic debris such as blood or sputum decrease effectiveness.
B) Some agents inactivate viruses by attacking cell membrane lipids.
C) Some agents affect microbial cell membranes by dissolving lipids.
D) Some agents kill by denaturing microbial cell proteins.
E) Silver is used for treating antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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Table 7.3
The following data were obtained by incubating gram-positive bacteria in
nutrient medium + disinfectant for 24 hr, then transferring one loopful to
nutrient medium (subculturing). (+ = growth; - = no growth)

30) In Table 7.3, which disinfectant is the most effective at stopping bacterial growth? 30)
A) Doom
B) K.O.
C) Mortum
D) Sterl
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

31) An agent used to reduce the number of bacteria on a toilet would most accurately be called a(n) 31)
A) virucide.
B) disinfectant.
C) fungicide.
D) antiseptic.
E) aseptic.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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32) Which of the following is the best method to sterilize heat-labile solutions? 32)
A) freezing
B) membrane filtration
C) dry heat
D) pasteurization
E) autoclave
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

33) Which concentration of ethanol is the most effective bactericide? 33)


A) 100 percent
B) 70 percent
C) 50 percent
D) 40 percent
E) 30 percent
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

Table 7.2
The fate of E. coli O157:H7 in apple cider held at 8°C for 2 weeks,
with and without preservatives, is shown below:

Bacteria/ml
Cider only 2.2
Cider with potassium sorbate 2.0
Sodium benzoate 0
Potassium sorbate + sodium benzoate 0

34) In Table 7.2, which preservative is most effective? 34)


A) potassium sorbate B) sodium benzoate
C) potassium sorbate + sodium benzoate D) no preservative
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)

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Table 7.3
The following data were obtained by incubating gram-positive bacteria in
nutrient medium + disinfectant for 24 hr, then transferring one loopful to
nutrient medium (subculturing). (+ = growth; - = no growth)

35) In Table 7.3, which disinfectant was most effective against Salmonella? 35)
A) K.O.
B) Sterl
C) Doom
D) Mortum
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

36) Bone and tendons for transplant are decontaminated by 36)


A) ethylene oxide.
B) plasma sterilization.
C) glutaraldehyde.
D) supercritical fluids.
E) peroxygens.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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Table 7.1
A disk-diffusion test using Staphylococcus gave the following results:

Disinfectant Zone of inhibition (mm)


A 0
B 2.5
C 10
D 5

37) In Table 7.1, which compound was the most effective against Staphylococcus? 37)
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

38) Which of the following pairs is mismatched? 38)


A) ultraviolet radiation — desiccation
B) supercritical fluids — CO2
C) ionizing radiation — hydroxyl radicals
D) plasma sterilization — free radicals
E) ozone — takes electrons from substances
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

39) The antimicrobial activity of chlorine is due to which of the following? 39)
A) the formation of a hypochlorite ion
B) the formation of hydrochloric acid
C) disruption of the plasma membrane
D) the formation of ozone
E) the formation of hypochlorous acid
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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40) All of the following are effective for destroying prions EXCEPT 40)
A) NaOH + autoclaving at 134°C.
B) incineration.
C) proteases.
D) boiling.
E) None of the answers are correct; each of these will destroy prions.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

41) All of the following are methods of food preservation EXCEPT 41)
A) osmotic pressure.
B) microwaves.
C) high pressure.
D) ionizing radiation.
E) desiccation.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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Table 7.3
The following data were obtained by incubating gram-positive bacteria in
nutrient medium + disinfectant for 24 hr, then transferring one loopful to
nutrient medium (subculturing). (+ = growth; - = no growth)

42) In Table 7.3, which disinfectant was bactericidal? 42)


A) Doom
B) Sterl
C) K.O.
D) Mortum
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

43) Which of the following pairs of terms is mismatched? 43)


A) sterilant — destroys all living microorganisms
B) bacteriostatic — kills vegetative bacterial cells
C) fungicide — kills yeasts and molds
D) germicide - kills microbes
E) virucide - inactivates viruses
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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Table 7.1
A disk-diffusion test using Staphylococcus gave the following results:

Disinfectant Zone of inhibition (mm)


A 0
B 2.5
C 10
D 5

44) In Table 7.1, which compound was bactericidal? 44)


A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

45) An iodophor is a(n) 45)


A) agent that reduces oxygen.
B) form of formaldehyde.
C) phenol.
D) iodine mixed with a surfactant.
E) quaternary ammonium compound.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

46) Ultraviolet light (UV) causes irreversible breaks in DNA strands. 46)
Answer: True False
Explanation:

47) Autoclaving is the most effective method of moist heat sterilization. 47)
Answer: True False
Explanation:

48) The pH of the medium has no effect on the activity of the disinfectant being applied. 48)
Answer: True False
Explanation:

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49) Pseudomonas has been found growing in quaternary ammonium compounds (quats). 49)
Answer: True False
Explanation:

50) Microorganisms placed in high concentrations of salts and sugars undergo lysis. 50)
Answer: True False
Explanation:

51) The thermal death time is the time needed to kill all the bacteria in a particular culture at a certain 51)
temperature.
Answer: True False
Explanation:

52) Any process that destroys the non-spore forming contaminants on inanimate objects is 52)
sterilization.
Answer: True False
Explanation:

53) Some antimicrobial chemicals are considered to be disinfectants and antiseptics. 53)
Answer: True False
Explanation:

54) Moist heat destroys organisms by denaturing proteins. 54)


Answer: True False
Explanation:

55) Desiccation is a reliable form of sterilization. 55)


Answer: True False
Explanation:

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

56) Assume that you are responsible for decontaminating materials in a large hospital. How would you sterilize
each of the following? Briefly justify your answers.
a. a mattress used by a patient with bubonic plague
b. intravenous glucose-saline solutions
c. used disposable syringes
d. tissues taken from patients
Answer:

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Table 7.4
The results below were obtained from a use-dilution test of two disinfectants.
Cultures were inoculated into tubes with varying concentrations of disinfectants
and incubated for 24 hr at 20°C, then subcultured in nutrient media without disinfectants.
(+ = growth; - = no growth)

57) In Table 7.4, what is the minimal bacteriostatic concentration of each disinfectant? Which compound is
bactericidal? At what concentration?
Answer:

Table 7.5
The following results were obtained from a use-dilution test of two disinfectants.
Cultures were inoculated into tubes containing varying concentrations of the disinfectants,
incubated for 10 min. at 20°C, and then transferred to growth media without disinfectant.
(+ = growth; - = no growth)

58) In Table 7.5, which disinfectant is most effective? Against which group of bacteria is Disinfectant A most
effective?
Answer:

59) How is hydrogen peroxide antimicrobial?


Answer:

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60) Why must most milk sold in the U.S. be refrigerated at all times while evaporated canned milk and
milk in cardboard containers sold in Europe do not need to be refrigerated until they are opened?
Answer:

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Answer Key
Testname: C7

1) C
2) B
3) B
4) A
5) E
6) B
7) E
8) D
9) C
10) D
11) D
12) B
13) C
14) E
15) B
16) E
17) D
18) D
19) E
20) E
21) C
22) E
23) B
24) E
25) D
26) A
27) D
28) C
29) B
30) A
31) B
32) B
33) B
34) B
35) E
36) D
37) C
38) A
39) E
40) D
41) B
42) D
43) B
44) E
45) D
46) FALSE
47) TRUE
48) FALSE
49) TRUE
50) FALSE
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Answer Key
Testname: C7

51) TRUE
52) FALSE
53) TRUE
54) TRUE
55) FALSE
56)
57)
58)
59)
60)

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