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sport is an organized, competitive, entertaining, and skillful physical activity requiring

commitment, strategy, and fair play, in which a winner can be defined by objective means. It
is governed by a set of rules or customs. In sports the key factors are the physical capabilities
and skills of the competitor when determining the outcome (winning or losing). The physical
activity involves the movement of people, animals and/or a variety of objects such as balls
and machines or equipment. In contrast, games such as card games and board games, though
these could be called mind sports and some are recognized as Olympic sports, require
primarily mental skills and only mental physical involvement. Non-competitive activities, for
example as jogging or playing catch, are usually classified as forms of recreation.

Physical events such as scoring goals or crossing a line first often define the result of a sport.
However, the degree of skill and performance in some sports such as diving, dressage and
figure skating is judged according to well-defined criteria. This is in contrast with other
judged activities such as beauty pageants and body building, where skill does not have to be
shown and the criteria are not as well defined.

"Sport" comes from the Old French desport meaning "leisure." American English uses the
term "sports" to refer to this general type of recreational activity, whereas other regional
dialects use the singular "sport". The Persian word for "sport" is based on the root bord,
meaning "winning". The Chinese term for "sport," tiyu (体育; 體育) connotes "physical
training". The Modern Greek term for sport is Αθλητισμός (athlitismos), directly cognate
with the English terms "athlete" and "athleticism."

The oldest definition of sport in English (1300) is of anything humans find amusing or
entertaining.[1] Other meanings include gambling and events staged for the purpose of
gambling; hunting; and games and diversions, including ones that require exercise.[2] Roget's
defines the noun sport as an "Activity engaged in for relaxation and amusement" with
synonyms including diversion and recreation.[3] An example of a more sharply defined
meaning is "an athletic activity where one competitor or a team of competitors plays against
another competitor or group of competitors [with] a conclusive method of scoring...not
determined by a judge."[4]

[edit] History
Main article: History of sport
Roman bronze reduction of Myron's Discobolos, 2nd century AD.

There are artifacts and structures that suggest that the Chinese engaged in sporting activities
as early as 4000 BC.[5] Gymnastics appears to have been a popular sport in China's ancient
past. Monuments to the Pharaohs indicate that a number of sports, including swimming and
fishing, were well-developed and regulated several thousands of years ago in ancient Egypt.[6]
Other Egyptian sports included javelin throwing, high jump, and wrestling. Ancient Persian
sports such as the traditional Iranian martial art of Zourkhaneh had a close connection to the
warfare skills.[7] Among other sports that originate in ancient Persia are polo and jousting.

A wide range of sports were already established by the time of Ancient Greece and the
military culture and the development of sports in Greece influenced one another
considerably. Sports became such a prominent part of their culture that the Greeks created the
Olympic Games, which in ancient times were held every four years in a small village in the
Peloponnesus called Olympia.[8]

Sports have been increasingly organized and regulated from the time of the Ancient
Olympics up to the present century. Industrialization has brought increased leisure time to the
citizens of developed and developing countries, leading to more time for citizens to attend
and follow spectator sports, greater participation in athletic activities, and increased
accessibility. These trends continued with the advent of mass media and global
communication. Professionalism became prevalent, further adding to the increase in sport's
popularity, as sports fans began following the exploits of professional athletes through radio,
television, and the internet—all while enjoying the exercise and competition associated with
amateur participation in sports.

In the new millennium, new sports have been going further from the physical aspect to the
mental or psychological aspect of competing. Electronic sports organizations are becoming
more and more popular

1. ^ Douglas Harper. "sport (n.)". Online Etymological Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com.

Retrieved 2008-04-20.
2. ^ Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. The
Merriam-Webster Editorial Staff. Springfield, MA U.S.A.: G&C Merriam Company. 1967.
pp. 2206, sport.
3. ^ Roget's II: The New Thesaurus, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing
Company. 1995. http://thesaurus.reference.com/browse/sport.
4. ^ Andrew Goodman (July 27, 2007). "That's absurd, golf isn't a sport". New Jersey Herald
(newspaper). http://www.njherald.com/289450476013270.php. Retrieved 2008-05-16.
5. ^ "Sports History in China". http://chineseculture.about.com/library/weekly/aa032301a.htm.
6. ^ "Mr Ahmed D. Touny (EGY), IOC Member". http://www.ioa.leeds.ac.uk/1980s/84085.htm.
7. ^ "Persian warriors". http://www.kuwait-info.com/newsnew/NewsDetails1.asp?
8. ^ "Ancient Olympic Games". http://www.olympic.org/uk/games/ancient/index_uk.asp.

Adventist Youth Honors Answer

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Skill Level 1
North American Division
Year of Introduction: 1989

[hide ▲]Contents


• 1 1.
Know the basic rules of soccer.
• 2 2.
What is the meaning of “Good Sportsmanship?”
• 3 3.
Make a drawing of the soccer playing field.
• 4 4.
Demonstrate reasonable skill in playing the game of soccer.
• 5 5.
Describe the different skills required at each position.
• 6 6.
Know the meaning of and the Referee signals for the following:
o 6.1 a. Off sides
o 6.2 b. Holding
o 6.3 c. Corner kick
o 6.4 d. Indirect kick
o 6.5 e. Direct kick
o 6.6 f. Goal
• 7 7. Define the following terms:
o 7.1 a. Advantage
o 7.2 b. Booking
o 7.3 c. Clearing
o 7.4 d. Corner Arcs
o 7.5 e. Cross
o 7.6 f. Dribble
o 7.7 g. Drop ball
o 7.8 h. Drop kick
o 7.9 i. Dummy
o 7.10 j. Half volley
o 7.11 k. Touch
o 7.12 l. Volley
o 7.13 m. Heading
o 7.14 n. Juggling
o 7.15 o. Marking
o 7.16 p. Nutmeg
o 7.17 q. Out-of-bounds
o 7.18 r. Pass back
o 7.19 s. Penalty area
o 7.20 t. Slide tackle
o 7.21 u. Tackle
o 7.22 v. Throw
o 7.23 w. Trapping
o 7.24 x. Wall
• 8 8. Spend at least 4 hours helping less skilled or younger players improve
their skills.
• 9 9. Play a least 5 games with family or friends. Show good sportsmanship
during your practice and games.
• 10 10. Write a one page report on a famous soccer player. Discuss why
they are or are not a good Christian role model.
• 11 11. Discuss with your Pathfinder leader, pastor or teacher the problems
facing a Seventh-day Adventist youth considering sports in Jr. High, High
School or college. What alternatives are there that allow for continued
activity in sports.

• 12 References

The Soccer Honor is a component of the Sportsman Master Award .

[edit] 1. Know the basic rules of soccer.

Soccer is played with two teams of equal number of players, usually from 5 to 11 players.
The object for each team is to control a ball and place it into the opposing team's net. The
team that scores the most of goals wins. Players may control the ball with any part of their
body except hands and arms, with the exception of the goalkeeper, who may handle the ball
with hands or arms within a certain penalty area in front of the net that he is guarding.

Contact between opposing players with the intent of causing harm to a player or disrupting
his team's strategy is not allowed. A referee observes the game and stops play for any fouls,
and will order a free kick of the ball from the spot where the foul is committed. A foul
committed by a player in his own penalty area results in a penalty kick from a designated spot
in front of the goalkeeper and the goal. Fouls may also be given for unsportsmanlike conduct.
A referee may also "book" a player for a malicious foul by awarding a yellow card (a
caution), or a red card for more serious offenses or two yellow cards A red card results in the
player's expulsion from the game, in which case the ejected player cannot be replaced.

Free kicks may be awarded if a player or players is found to be offside (when offenders place
themselves ahead of the ball as well as the last opposing field player. The offside rule is to
prevent players from camping out in front of an opponent's net. A throw-in will occur when a
ball has traveled past the sideline of the playing field. It is thrown back into play by the team
whose opponent last touched the ball. Goal kicks to put a ball back into play by the goalie
will occur when a ball has traveled beyond the end line of the field and the opposing team is
the last to touch it and corner kicks, where a ball that has traveled beyond the end line is
kicked back into play from the nearest corner flag by a field player whose opponent last
touched it.
[edit] 2. What is the meaning of “Good Sportsmanship?”
Good sportsmanship means having good conduct and attitude by sports participants,
especially fair play, courtesy, striving spirit, and grace in losing. A good sport will not gloat
when he wins, nor will he sulk when he loses. He will offer help to his opponent, even if
doing so may cost him a win. He will understand that his opponent is more important than the

[edit] 3. Make a drawing of the soccer playing field.

[edit] 4. Demonstrate reasonable skill in playing the game

of soccer.
[edit] 5. Describe the different skills required at each
BASIC POSITIONS: The number of players who play on the field varies greatly by age and
league, and can range from 5 per team to a maximum of 11 per team.

GOALKEEPER There is always just one Goalkeeper per team. The Goalie's job is to defend
his team's goal and he usually stays close to his goal. You can identify the Goalie because he
wears a different colored shirt or a vest over his shirt. As long as he is in the "Penalty Box"
he can use his hands to pick up the ball, but if he comes out of the Penalty Box he cannot use
his hands. Except for Throw-ins and to pick up the ball in Re-start situations, the Goalie is the
only player who can legally use his hands.

DEFENDERS Fullbacks play closest to their goal (which is the goal their Goalie defends).
Along with the Goalie, they have the primary job of stopping the opponents from scoring.
However, to a degree, every player should be a defender when the opponent has the ball. One
way to teach this is by teaching the concepts of "First Defender" and "Second Defender".

MIDFIELDERS The Midfielders play between the Fullbacks and the Forwards. They are
often in the middle third of the field. There can be offensive midfielders who play closer to
the Forwards and defensive midfielders who play closer to the fullbacks.

FORWARDS Forwards play closer to the opponent's goal, which is the goal guarded by the
opposing Goalie. The forwards are the primary scorers, although midfielders sometimes score
and at older ages, fullbacks even occasionally score.

[edit] 6. Know the meaning of and the Referee signals for

the following:
Link to pictures of referee hand signals http://mysite.wanadoo-

[edit] a. Off sides

A player is in an offside position if that player is nearer to the opponent's goal line than the
ball, unless the player is in her own half of the field of play, or there are at least two
opponents as near to their own goal line as the opposing player. A player shall be declared
offside and penalized for being in an offside position only if at the moment the ball touches
or is played by a teammate, the player is, in the opinion of the referee, interfering with play,
or seeking to gain an advantage by being in that position.

[edit] b. Holding

Preventing the movement of a player by obstructing with the hands or grabbing parts of the

[edit] c. Corner kick

A direct free kick taken from a corner area by a member of the attacking team if the ball goes
out-of-bounds across a goal line and was last touched by a member of the defending team.

[edit] d. Indirect kick

A free kick that cannot score a goal without the ball first being touched by a player other than
the kicker. It is also a specific penalty called for minor infractions.
[edit] e. Direct kick

A type of "free kick" given after severe fouls such as hitting or kicking. A free kick that may
score a goal directly; that is, without the ball first being touched by another player.

[edit] f. Goal

There are two definitions: The metal or wooden structure which is at the center of each end
line & for adult play is 8 yards wide & 8 feet high; also, a "goal" is scored when the ball
totally crosses the end line inside the goal.

[edit] 7. Define the following terms:

[edit] a. Advantage

A clause in the rules that directs the referee to refrain from stopping play for a foul if a
stoppage would benefit the team that committed the violation.

[edit] b. Booking

There are 2 colors of "cards" which the referee will hold up to indicate serious fouls or
behavior which won't be tolerated. He carries these cards in his shirt pocket, so if he reaches
for his pocket it's a bad sign for the player who committed the foul. These cards are about the
size of a playing card and one is yellow and the other is red. When a card is to be given (it
isn't actually given to the offending player, it is actually just shown to him and to everyone
else) the referee will stop the game, call the player over, hold up the card and write the
player's name in his notebook. This is called "booking" the player and when it happens the
player has been "booked", (e.g., "she was booked"). Any time a Yellow or Red Card is
shown, a "direct" or "indirect kick" will also be awarded.

[edit] c. Clearing

(aka Clear the Ball). The first priority of defenders is to "clear the ball" (i.e., kick the ball) out
of the "Danger Zone" (i.e., out of scoring range). If the ball is in front of your goal and in
scoring range, the Defenders should "clear it" because a turnover would give the opponent a
scoring opportunity.

[edit] d. Corner Arcs

The small arc at each corner of the field.

[edit] e. Cross

To "cross the ball" means to kick the ball from the side of the field across the field toward the
area in front of the opponent's goal in order to create a scoring opportunity. A cross is a
"square pass" to the area in front of the goal
[edit] f. Dribble

(aka Carrying) A player can dribble with any part of the foot. "Control dribbling" is usually
with the inside or outside of the foot. "Speed dribbling" is often with the top of the foot (i.e.,
the "laces").

[edit] g. Drop ball

Dropped Ball: A dropped ball is used to restart the game after a temporary stoppage in play
due to an infraction other than a foul. The referee drops the ball onto the ground between two
opposing players. Play restarts when the ball touches the ground.

[edit] h. Drop kick

A "half-volley" by a goalkeeper (he is the only one who can hold the ball to drop it).

[edit] i. Dummy

Any type of feint or deceptive move.

[edit] j. Half volley

Kicking the ball the instant it starts to bounce up after it hits the ground.

[edit] k. Touch

A player's ability to control, use, and feel the ball

[edit] l. Volley

To kick the ball while it is still in the air.

[edit] m. Heading

A player using their head to pass, receive, shoot or "redirect" the ball.

[edit] n. Juggling

A training technique to teach touch & ball control, where any part of the body except the
arms is used to strike the ball upward & the player sees how many times he can "juggle" it
before it hits the ground.

[edit] o. Marking

Means to guard a man one-on-one

[edit] p. Nutmeg

When a ballhandler intentionally passes the ball through a defenders legs, then the defender
has been "nutmegged".

[edit] q. Out-of-bounds

Over sidelines. A ball that goes out of bounds on either side of the field is put back into play
immediately by the opposite team, at the point it went out of bounds. It must be put back into
play by a two-hand, overhead throw, with both of the player’s feet remaining on the ground.

[edit] r. Pass back

Passing the ball backward instead of forward.

[edit] s. Penalty area

An 18-by-44-yard area located directly in front of each goal. The goalkeeper may handle the
ball in this area, and penalty kicks are taken from here.

[edit] t. Slide tackle

When a defender slides on the ground and attempts to kick the ball away from the
ballhandler. If the tackle is careless, reckless or uses excessive force or the tackler first
contacts the ballhandler instead of the ball, a foul should be called.

[edit] u. Tackle

To steal the ball. Mostly done while standing. Bring your foot forward to intercept the ball
and keep a hold of it.

[edit] v. Throw

The method of putting the ball back into play after it has gone out-of-bounds over the
touchline. A member of the opposing team that last touched the ball must throw it onto the
field from over her head, using both hands and keeping a part of each foot on the ground
either behind or on the touchline. The ball is thrown in from the point where it went out-of-
bounds. A goal cannot be scored directly from a throw-in.

[edit] w. Trapping

There are occasions when a player should literally trap the ball; for example, if an "air ball" is
coming at his feet, he can use the bottom of his foot to trap the ball against the ground.
However, when someone uses the term "trap" or "trapping", they usually mean "receive" or
[edit] x. Wall

A human barrier of at least three players used to aid the goalkeeper in defending against free
kicks, when they are specifically so awarded. Players may line up 10 or more yards from the
ball to form a barrier between the kicker and the goal.

[edit] 8. Spend at least 4 hours helping less skilled or

younger players improve their skills.
[edit] 9. Play a least 5 games with family or friends. Show
good sportsmanship during your practice and games.
[edit] 10. Write a one page report on a famous soccer
player. Discuss why they are or are not a good
Christian role model.
Mia Hamm, David Beckham

[edit] 11. Discuss with your Pathfinder leader, pastor or

teacher the problems facing a Seventh-day Adventist
youth considering sports in Jr. High, High School or
college. What alternatives are there that allow for
continued activity in sports.
The most obvious problem faced by a Seventh-day Adventist who wishes to participate in
organized sports is the tendency for games to be scheduled during Sabbath hours.
Competitive sports and Sabbath observance are not compatible with one another. An
alternative would be to participate with a group of like-minded individuals. Many towns offer
city leagues, and it may be possible to form a team with other members of your church, with
the understanding that you will not compete on the Sabbath.

The Adventist athlete may also enjoy individual sports instead, or engage in informal pick-up

[edit] References
• http://www.soccerhelp.com
• http://www.huskers.com
• http://www.soccerdrillstips.com
Retrieved from
Categories: Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Honors | Adventist Youth
Honors Answer Book | Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Skill Level 1 |
Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Honors Introduced in 1989 | Adventist
Youth Honors Answer Book/Recreation | Adventist Youth Honors Answer
Book/North American Division | Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Sportsman
Master Award | Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Completed Honors

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