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IN
SEARCH M

OF THE
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OPTIMAL
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BRAIN
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DIET The field of nutritional psychiatry is


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taking off as scientists home in on the I

ingredients for good mental health and N

cognitive staying power D

By Bret Stetka

IN BRIEF
DAVID MALAN Getty Images

Research indicates that traditional diets These diets all feature fish, one of the have helped drive the evolution of the toms, and mental health practitioners
from the Mediterranean, Scandinavia best sources of omega-3 fatty acids— human brain. may start to complement therapy and
and Japan help to preserve our psycho- nutrients that play a vital role in pro- Studies indicate that diet changes may pharmaceutical treatments with recom-
logical and cognitive well-being. moting neuronal health and that may alleviate a range of psychiatric symp- mended eating plans in the near future.

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R arolyn feels great these days. She exercises. She ’ s socially


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active. She spends as much time with her four grandchildren as
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possible. But it wasn’t always that way. A retired radiology film
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librarian from Pittsburgh, she began feeling apathetic and isolated
seven years ago. “I’d just lost my mother, and my two sons had
moved away,” recalls Carolyn, now 75. She also struggled with ex­­
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cess weight, diabetes and chronic lung disease. She was grieving,
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eating a worrisome amount of junk food and slipping into what looked a lot like depression.

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A few years later a friend told Carolyn about a depression- professional and being proactive about getting better in and of
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prevention study at the University of Pittsburgh. She signed up itself may have helped participants feel more upbeat. In Caro-
E immediately. All 247 participants were, like her, older adults lyn’s view, however, she had reversed her downward spiral large-
with mild depressive symptoms—people who without treatment ly by changing how she ate.
face a 20  to 25  percent chance of succumbing to major depres- She is not alone in making that connection. Among scientists
M sion. Half received about five hours of problem-solving therapy, and clinicians there is a growing appreciation of the critical in-
a cognitive-behavioral approach designed to help patients cope terplay between diet and brain health. The evidence is prelimi-
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with stressful life experiences. The rest, including Carolyn, re- nary, and it is hard to tease out cause and effect. Perhaps people
N ceived dietary counseling. Guided by a social worker, she discov- who eat well are also apt to have other healthy brain habits, such
ered that she liked salmon, tuna and a number of other “brain- as regular exercise and good sleep routines. Or maybe depressed
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healthy” foods—which quickly replaced all the chips, cake and people tend to self-medicate with Oreos. But the data continue
candy she was eating. to accumulate. Every year the list of correlations between cer-
When the trial concluded in 2014, the results came as a sur- tain foods and mental well-being grows: fish and other sources
prise—to the researchers at least. The dietary counseling was not of omega-3 fatty acids might help fend off psychosis and depres-
meant to have any substantial effect; Carolyn’s group was the ex- sion; fermented foods such as yogurt, pickles and sauerkraut
periment’s control. And yet psychiatrist Charles Reynolds and his seem to ease anxiety; green tea and antioxidant-rich fruits may
colleagues discovered that both interventions had significantly re- help keep dementia at bay. And so on.
duced the risk of depression—by approximately the same amount. There is probably no single ingredient, no happy seed from
When they reviewed the data, all the patients scored on average the jungles of beyond, that is sure to secure a better mood or
40  to 50  percent lower on the Beck Depression Inventory test, a mental acuity into old age. But there do appear to be specific di-
common measure of depressive symptoms, 15 months after their etary patterns—calibrated by millions of years of human evolu-
sessions ended. What is more, only about 8 percent, regardless of tion—that boost our cognitive and psychological fitness. Within
the therapy they received, had fallen into major depression. the nascent field of nutritional psychiatry, consensus is building
It cannot be ruled out that a placebo effect contributed to the about just what types of diets are best. And perhaps most excit-
improvements seen in both groups. Meeting with a health care ing is the prospect that dietary intervention could serve as a

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ON THE MENU

Traditional Diets for Healthy Brains


Mediterranean Okinawan Scandinavian
Research consistently finds the dietary patterns According to the World Health Organization, the Swedish meatballs aside, Scandinavians cook,
of cultures hugging the Mediterranean Sea to Japanese have the highest life expectancy in the collect and cultivate a host of foods that together
be among the healthiest in the world. Ingredients world—in part thanks to the population of Okinawa. constitute the new Nordic diet, one of the world’s
common to Greek, Italian, Spanish and Middle Staples of the island group’s traditional diet (below) healthiest. It is associated with reduced inflammation
Eastern cuisine (below) are linked with improved include the nutrient-rich purple sweet potato, often and decreased risk for cardiovascular disease and
cardiovascular, mental and neurological function. eaten in place of rice. Indeed, Okinawans tend diabetes, both of which can influence brain health.
to eat less fish, meat, rice and sugar—and fewer Of particular note, Scandinavians tend to cook with
Olive oil calories overall—than do those in other parts canola oil, also called rapeseed oil, which contains
Omega-3-rich fish of the country. far more omega-3 fatty acids than olive oil.
(sardines, tuna, salmon)
Antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables (tomatoes, Antioxidant-rich vegetables Fruits (lingonberries)
peppers, eggplant) (Okinawan purple sweet potatoes) Vegetables (potatoes)
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Whole grains Seaweed Nuts/whole grains (rye breads very common)
Legumes Some fish Seafood Y
Moderate amounts of lean meat and red wine Some meat Moderate amounts of meat and dairy
Limited sugar and processed food Limited sugar and white rice intake Canola (rapeseed) oil S

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valuable adjunct to medication and other thera- R
pies for mental disorders—just as it does in so
many other areas of medicine. I

E
GOOD DIET, BAD DIET
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When it comes to promoting b  rain health,
the diet supported by the strongest data draws
on traditional eating patterns from Italy, Greece
and Spain. The so-called Mediterranean diet O

consists primarily of fruits, vegetables, nuts, F


whole grains, fish, lean meats in moderation, ol-
ive oil and maybe a little red wine. Earlier this
year the first-ever randomized controlled clini- T
cal trial to test a prescribed diet to treat depres-
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sion was published in BMC Medicine. The
“SMILES” trial reported that after 12 weeks of E
consuming a Mediterranean-like diet, patients
suffering from moderate to severe depression
experienced significantly greater improvements M
on a commonly used depression symptom mea-
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sure called the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression
Rating scale (MADRS), compared with the con- N
trol group. In 2011 public health expert Almude-
D
na Sánchez-Villegas of the University of Las Pal-
mas de Gran Canaria and her colleagues as-
sessed the relation between this diet and
depression in more than 12,000 healthy Span-
iards over the course of a median of six years
each. They found that compared with people
who did not eat a Mediterranean diet, those who
did were significantly less likely to succumb to
depression. For the subjects who followed the
diet most closely, the risk dropped by a substan-
tial 30 percent.
Sánchez-Villegas later confirmed the associ- EVIDENCE LINKS STEREOTYPICAL W  estern diets, which are heavy in
ation in another large trial. The PREDIMED processed and fatty foods, to higher rates of ­depression and ­anxiety. Unhealthy
(Prevention with Mediterranean Diet) study—a diets most likely contribute to a range of neuropsychiatric disorders by
ALAMY

multicenter research project evaluating nearly ­increasing inflammation.

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S COLD-WATER FISH, s uch as salmon, tuna and sardines


7,500 men and women across Spain—initially looked at wheth- (shown here), are rich sources of DHA, a fatty acid that con­
er a Mediterranean diet, supplemented with extra nuts, protects tributes to the growth, structure and function of nerve cells.
O against cardiovascular disease. It does. But in 2013 Sánchez-Vil-
F legas and other investigators also analyzed depression data
among PREDIMED’s participants. Again, compared with sub- Scientists have proposed a number of possible mechanisms to
jects who ate a generic low-fat diet, those who adhered to the explain this damage. Jacka’s findings parallel other research re-
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nut-enriched Mediterranean diet had a lower risk for depression. vealing that high-sugar diets can prompt runaway inflammation
This was especially true among people with diabetes, who saw a and trigger a cascade of other metabolic changes that ultimately
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40 percent drop in risk. Perhaps these patients, who cannot ad- impair brain function. Ordinarily inflammation is part of our im-
E equately process glucose, benefited the mune system’s arsenal to fight infection and
most because the Mediterranean diet min- encourage healing, but when it is misdirect-
imized their sugar intake. A STUDY OF MORE ed or overly aggressive, it can destroy
M Indeed, a central feature of the diet is THAN 12,000 healthy tissues as well. According to numer-
that it is low in sugar, as well as processed ous studies, inflammation plays a role in a
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foods and fatty meats, which are common-
HEALTHY SPANIARDS range of brain disorders—from depression
N place on most Western menus. Nutritional FOUND THAT THOSE and bipolar disorder to possibly autism,
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psychiatry researcher and SMILES trial WHO CLOSELY schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease.
lead author Felice  N. Jacka of Deakin Uni- FOLLOWED A Two meta-analyses from 2010 and 2012
versity and the University of Melbourne in collectively reviewed data from 53 studies
Australia was one of the first to demon-
MEDITERRANEAN DIET and reported significantly elevated levels
strate an association between stereotypical HAD A 30 PERCENT of several blood markers of inflammation
Western diets and depression and anxiety. REDUCED RISK in depressed patients. And numerous stud-
Most recently, she has drawn another link OF DEPRESSION. ies have reported increased or altered ac-
between poor diet and, quite literally, a tivity of immune cells called microglia—
shrinking brain. In September 2015 she and which play a key role in the brain’s inflam-
her colleagues discovered that older adults who consumed a matory response—in patients with psychiatric disorders,
Western diet for four years not only suffered higher rates of mood including depression and schizophrenia. It is not clear whether
MOHR MICHAEL Getty Images

disorders but also had a significantly smaller left hip­po­campus inflammation causes mental illness in some cases, or vice versa.
on MRI scans. The hip­po­campus, composed of two seahorse- But the evidence suggests that many if not most known risk fac-
shaped arcs of brain tissue deep underneath our temples, is crit- tors for psychiatric disorders, especially depression, promote in-
ical to memory formation. Jacka focused on the hip­po­campus be- flammation; these include abuse, stress, grief and certain genet-
cause animal studies have also noted diet-related changes there. ic predilections.

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B R A I N E VO L U T I O N

By Land or
by Sea?
Experts debate how
human ancestors found
enough fatty acids to build
better brains

Omega fatty acids, including docosa-


hexaenoic acid, or DHA, are key to brain
health and most likely helped to drive the M
evolution of the modern human brain.
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But how did early humans access these
vital nutrients? The answer is a matter S
of some debate.
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For nearly two decades archaeologist EVEN BEFORE EARLY HUMANS b  egan foraging for seafood, they may
Curtis W. Marean, associate director of have incorporated nutrient-rich fish from lakes and rivers into their diets, E

Arizona State University’s Institute of helping them to build healthy brains. R


Human Origins, has overseen excavations
at a site called Pinnacle Point on South sumed omega-3-­rich plants and grains. that aquatically sourced food was crucial I

Africa’s southern coast, near where a Others disagree, at least in part. “I’m to human evolution. But he believes that E
newly discovered early human species, afraid the idea that ample DHA was before MIS6, inland hominins had already
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Homo naledi, was recently unearthed. available from the fats of animals on the incorporated fish from lakes and rivers
His work there suggests that sometime savanna is just not true,” says psychiatrist into their diet for millions of years.
between 195,000 and 123,000 years ago, Michael A. Crawford of Imperial College He suggests that it was not just ome-
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during a glacial period known as Marine London. “The animal brain evolved 600 ga-3s but a cluster of nutrients found in
Isotope Stage 6 (MIS6), humans made million years ago in the ocean and was fish (including iodine, iron, zinc, copper F
a significant shift in their eating habits, dependent on DHA and compounds and selenium) that contributed to our big
moving from foraging for terrestrial essential to the brain such as iodine, which brain. “I think DHA was hugely important
plants, animals and the occasional inland is also in short supply on land. To build a to our evolution and brain health, but I T
fish to relying on the rich, predictable brain, you would need building blocks don’t think it was a magic bullet all by
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shellfish beds in the area. that were rich at sea and on rocky shores.” itself,” Crawford says.
Marean believes that this change Crawford’s early biochemical work All three researchers are confident E
occurred when early humans learned to focused on showing that DHA is not that higher intelligence evolved gradually
exploit the bimonthly spring tides. And to readily accessible from the muscle tissue over millions of years as mutations inched
do so, he says, our brains were already fair- of land animals. Using DHA tagged with the cognitive needle forward, conferring M
ly well evolved. “Accessing the marine a radioactive isotope, he and his col- survival and reproductive advantages. But
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food chain could have had huge impacts leagues also demonstrated that “ready- advantages such as, say, figuring out how
on fertility, survival and overall health, made” DHA—such as that found in shell- to shuck oysters—as well as track the N
including brain health,” Marean explains, fish—is incorporated into the developing spring tides—threw open the Darwinian
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in part because of the high return on ome- rat brain with 10-fold greater efficiency floodgates. Cunnane comments: “Once
ga-3 fatty acids. But before MIS6, he spec- than plant-sourced DHA. we were able to access the coastal food
ulates, hominins would have had access to Crawford’s colleague and collaborator, chain in Africa—far more rich and reliable
plenty of brain-healthy terres­trial nutrition, physiologist Stephen Cunnane of the Uni- than inland sources of fish—brain and
including by feeding on animals that con- versity of Sherbrooke in Quebec, also feels cultural evolution exploded.” —B.S.

Jacka’s work repeatedly points to traditional diets such as brain diet include fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, fish, lean
Mediterranean, Japanese and Scandinavian ones—all of which meats and healthy fats such as olive oil.”
tend to be noninflammatory—as being best for our neurological
EVERETT COLLECTION

and mental health. “There is no doubt that stress and uncom- BRAIN-BUILDING FATTY ACIDS
fortable emotions can cause us to reach for the biscuit tin—they Increasingly, researchers are finding that the power of these
don’t call them comfort foods for nothing!” she admits. “But con- more traditional diets extends beyond just supplanting bad food
sistently the data show that the main constituents of a healthy with good. In the summer of 2015 neuroscientists Amandine

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Pelletier, Christine Barul, Catherine Féart and their colleagues,


all then at the University of Bordeaux in France, discovered that
a Mediterranean diet may actually help physically preserve
neuronal connections in the brain. They used a highly sensitive
neuroimaging analysis technique called voxel-based morphom-
etry to identify subtle changes in brain anatomy over time. And
in September 2015 nutritional epidemiologist Martha C. Morris
of Rush University and her co-workers reported that the MIND
diet—a hybrid of the Mediterranean and the high-nutrient, low-
salt DASH diet—may help slow cognitive decline and possibly
even help prevent Alz­heimer’s. When they tested cognitive abil-
ity in 960 older adults, those who had followed the MIND diet
for roughly five years achieved scores matching those of people
7.5 years younger.
M Our evolutionary backstory could explain these neuroprotec-
tive effects. Sometime between 195,000 and 125,000 years ago, hu-
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mans may have nearly gone extinct. A glacial period had set in that
S probably left much of the earth icy and barren for 70,000 years.
The population of our hominin ancestors plummeted to possibly
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only a few hundred in number, and most experts agree that every- IN BOTH ANIMAL AND HUMAN studies, typical unhealthy
E one alive today is descended from this group. Exactly how they— Western diets appear to cause damage to the hippocampus
or early modern humans, for that matter—managed to stay alive (yellow on MRI scan), a brain structure that plays an essential
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during recurring glacial periods is less clear. But as terrestrial re- role in learning and memory. In one recent study, older adults
I sources dried up, foraging for marine life in reliable shellfish beds who had consumed poor-quality diets over the course of four
E surrounding Africa most likely became essential for survival. Grad- years had a smaller left hippocampus compared with peers who
uate student Jan De Vynck of Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Uni- ate more healthfully.
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versity in South Africa has shown that one person working those
shellfish beds can harvest a staggering 4,500 calories an hour.
The archaeological record corroborates the idea and indi- colonize our bodies and constitute the majority of our cells came
O cates that our ancestors depended on a diet heavy in shellfish along for the ride. This so-called microbiota—and its collective
F and cold-water fish—both rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids. genes, the microbiome—makes a critical contribution to the for-
These fats may have driven the evolution of our uniquely com- mation and function of our digestion and immune system. A
plex brains, which are 60 percent fat in composition. One ome- growing number of findings now suggest that disrupting it
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ga-3 in particular, docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA, is arguably the through poor eating habits comes at a cost to the brain.
single nutrient most strongly associated with brain health.
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In 1972 psychiatrist Michael  A. Crawford, now at Imperial A BLOW TO THE GUT
E College London, co-published a paper concluding that the brain I n o n e s t r i k i n g (if slightly nauseating) experiment in 2014,
is dependent on DHA and that DHA sourced from the sea was then 23-year-old student Tom Spector wiped out about a third
critical to mammalian brain evolution, especially human brain of the bacterial species in his gut by limiting his diet to McDon-
M evolution. For more than 40 years he has argued that the rising ald’s fast food. It took only 10 days. Spector played the guinea pig
rates of brain disorders are a result of post–World War II dietary for two reasons: as a project to complete his genetics degree and
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changes—especially a move toward land-sourced food and, sub- to provide data for his father, Tim, a genetic epidemi­ology pro-
N sequently, the embrace of low-fat diets. He feels that omega-3s fessor at King’s College London, who studies how processed di-
from seafood were critical to the human species’ rapid neural ets affect gastrointestinal bacteria. The Spector family’s research
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march toward higher cognition [see box on preceding page]. did not assess specific health consequences—they were measur-
Many studies have confirmed DHA’s importance to the devel- ing only the drop in floral diversity in Tom’s gut—but Tom did
opment, structure and function of the human brain: it is a compo- report feeling lethargic and down after days of burgers, fries and
nent of neuronal cell membranes, facilitates neuron-to-neuron sugary soda. The decline in species was so drastic that Tim sent
communication, and is also thought to boost levels of brain-de- the results to three laboratories for confirmation.
rived neurotrophic factor, a protein that supports the growth and Diet-induced shifts in the microbiota of the kind Spector
survival of brain cells. Given the starring role this and other ome- brought on himself can rapidly ratchet up inflammation in the
ga-3 fatty acids play in shaping and maintaining our most complex gut. On top of the ill effects just described, gastrointestinal in-
organ, it makes intuitive sense that incorporating more of them flammation can deplete our supply of serotonin, a neurotrans-
COURTESY OF NICOLAS CHERBUIN

into our diet—by emphasizing seafood—might, as the nutritional mitter long tied to depression and other psychiatric disorders.
data suggest, protect the brain from going haywire. Also of note, About 90 percent of our serotonin is produced in the gut when
DHA appears to decrease chronic brain-harming inflammation. certain microbes interact with cells lining the gastrointestinal
Fatty acids aside, there is another important link between our tract (some microbes even produce a portion of our serotonin
ancestors’ diets, inflammation and mental health. As we evolved, themselves). But by-products of inflammation convert sero-
the trillions of bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms that tonin’s metabolic precursor, tryptophan, to a compound that

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generates neurotoxic metabolites linked with depression, schizo- integration of nutrition-based approaches into mental health
phrenia and Alzheimer’s. care. “The emerging and compelling evidence for nutrition as a
The good news is that dietary changes can not only wreck our crucial factor in the high prevalence and incidence of mental dis-
microbial diversity, they can boost it, reducing gastrointestinal orders,” they wrote, “suggests that diet is as important to psychi-
inflammation in the process. In 2015 a group at the University atry as it is to cardiology, endocrinology, and gastroenterology.”
of Pittsburgh conducted a study in which 20 African-Americans Thanks to our evolutionary lineage (and plenty of fish), at-
from Pennsylvania swapped diets with 20 rural black South Af- tention to our diets may prove critical to reversing the rising
ricans. In place of their usual low-animal-fat, high-fiber diet, the rates of mental illness around the world, lowering the propor-
Africans consumed burgers, fries, hash browns, and the like. The tion of people struggling with various forms of dementia, and
Americans eschewed their normal fatty foods and refined carbo- staving off milder psychiatric symptoms and disorders. There is
hydrates for beans, vegetables and fish. little doubt that eating right can help
After just two weeks the Americans’ co- shuttle us through tough times—just as it
lons were less inflamed, and fecal sam-
DIET MAY BE may have done 160,000 years ago for a
ples showed a 250 percent spike in bu­ty­ “AS IMPORTANT small group of humans huddled in coast-
rate-producing bacterial species. Buty­ TO PSYCHIATRY AS IT al African caves. M
rate is thought to reduce the risk of IS TO CARDIOLOGY, One of the leading proponents of lev­
Y
cancer. The South Africans, on the other eraging diet to better brain health, Jacka
hand, underwent microbial changes as-
ENDOCRINOLOGY, AND is encouraged that interventional stud- S
sociated with increased cancer risk. GASTRO­ENTER­OLOGY,” ies—in which patients are actually “pre-
“Dietary changes are the easiest way SAYS A 2015 REPORT scribed” a particular diet and tracked
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to alter your microbiome and help to IN THE LANCET over time, as they were in her own E
control inflammation,” says psychiatrist SMILES study—are finally getting under
Emily Deans of Harvard Medical School.
PSYCHIATRY. way. Such research will be able to offer
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She believes diet is every bit as impor- more definitive proof of the connection I

tant as pills and psychotherapy in managing mental illness—a between diet and mental and cognitive well-being. E
view informed by her own clinical practice. “I discuss nutrition More and more doctors and patients are beginning to see di-
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with just about all of my patients,” she adds, “and I think it can etary interventions as a beacon of hope after several decades of
really help in managing conditions like depression, at least in disappointing psychiatric drug development. Too many patients
some people.” Deans also feels that timing of meals can influ- suffering from mental illness or dementia do not respond ade-
ence mood, and research suggests that eating on a  regular quately to existing medications, if at all. For example, selective O

schedule can improve mental health. serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as Prozac—one of the most F
Deans acknowledges that science has a long way to go before commonly prescribed drug classes for treating depression—ap-
we fully understand the brain-diet relation. She is also wary of pear effective only in severe cases; they are often no better than
the massive probiotic industry that has, like the supplement in- placebo for mild to moderate disease. As scientists learn more T
dustry in general, barreled ahead of the minimal but growing sci- about the pathologies behind mental and cognitive disorders,
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entific evidence suggesting that probiotics might be effective in new and promising therapeutic targets will surely emerge. But
preventing or treating mental illness. “You can do studies with, it is clear that nutrition-based treatment plans—free from side E
for example, certain vitamins, and some might turn out positive effects and low in cost—will also figure prominently in the fu-
and others negative,” she explains. “But the truth is vitamins ex- ture of dementia and psychiatric care. 
ist in all sorts of different chemical states in food and in just one M
state in supplements.” This difference in form between nutrients Bret Stetka is an editorial director at Medscape (a subsidiary of WebMD) and a frequent
I
in food versus pills explains why the data tend to favor nutrition contributor to Scientific American. His writing has appeared in Wired and online for
through diet rather than supplementation. “I think we can safe- the Atlantic and NPR. N
ly say that certain dietary patterns seem to promote a healthy mi-
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crobiome,” Deans speculates, “like the Mediterranean diet and
M O R E TO E X P L O R E
diets that include lots of fiber, fermented foods and fish.” And a
healthy microbiome may be essential for a healthy brain. Mediterranean Dietary Pattern and Depression: The PREDIMED Randomized
Trial. A
 lmudena Sánchez-Villegas et al. in BMC Medicine, Vol. 11, Article No. 208;
September 20, 2013.
FOOD FOR THOUGHT Early Intervention to Preempt Major Depression among Older Black and White
For seven years now C  arolyn has been eating better—focus- Adults. C aharles F. Reynolds et al. in P sychiatric Services, Vol. 65, No. 6, pages 765–
ing on seafood and cutting back on sugar. She has lost weight, and 773; June 2014.
her diabetes is under control. “It’s part of a whole new way of life,” The Origins and Significance of Coastal Resource Use in Africa and Western
Eurasia. C urtis W. Marean in Journal of Human Evolution, Vol. 77, pages  17–40;
she says, “knowing that what I eat can affect how I feel.” That December 2014.
awareness is building momentum among patients and practitio- Nutritional Medicine as Mainstream in Psychiatry. J erome Sarris et al. in Lancet
ners alike. In March 2015 a large team of clinicians and research- Psychiatry, Vol. 2, No. 3, pages 271–274; March 2015.
ers published a report in the Lancet Psychiatry on behalf of the Western Diet Is Associated with a Smaller Hippocampus: A Longitudinal
International Society for Nutritional Psychiatry Research—an or- Investigation. Felice N. Jacka et al. in BMC Medicine, Vol. 13, Article No. 215;
September 8, 2015.
ganization Jacka co-founded in 2013. Citing modest therapeutic
gains yielded by many psychiatric drugs, the authors called for the s c i e n t i f i c a m e r i c a n . c o m /m a g a z i n e /s a

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