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FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCE

CHM 471
EXPERIMENT 5
(FREEZING POINT DEPRESSION AND MOLAR
MASS DETERMINATION)

NAME : NUR NABILAH BINTI HAIRMAN


STUDENT’S ID : 2016644614
CLASS : AS2022 M1
TEL NO : 017-7368933
INSTRUCTOR’S NAME : PN HAIRUL AMANI BINTI ABDUL
HAMID
OBJECTIVE :

 To determine freezing point depression of a solution and molal freezing point constant
of the solvent.
 To obtain the molar mass of a solute.

INTRODUCTIONS :

The physical properties of solutions to be studied in this experiment are called colligative
properties, because they depend mostly on the concentrations of particles in mixtures, not on
their chemical identities. All liquid solutions of non-volatile solutes (solutes that have no
tendency to evaporate) have lower vapor pressures than their pure solvents. The vapor
pressure of such solution is proportional to how much of the solution actually consists of the
solvent based on the Raoult’s Law.

Psolution = Xsolvent. P֯ solvent

Based on the Figure 12.17, if we look at where the solid-liquid and liquid-vapor lines cross
the 1 atm (760 torr) pressure line, we can find the normal freezing and boiling points. For
water (the blue lines), the freezing point is 0℃ and the boiling point is 100℃. Notice that the
solid-liquid line for the solution meets the 760 torr line at temperature below 0℃. In order
words, the freezing point of the solution is below that of pure water. The amount by which
the freezing point is lowered is called as the freezing point depression, ∆𝑇𝑓.

∆𝑇𝑓 = 𝑇𝑓𝑝𝑢𝑟𝑒 − 𝑇𝑓𝑜𝑏𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑒𝑑


Similarly, we can see that the liquid-vapor line for the solution crosses the 760 torr line at a
temperature above 100℃, so the solution boils at a higher temperature than pure water. The
amount by which the boiling point is raised is called the boiling point elevation, ∆𝑇𝑏.

∆𝑇𝑏 = 𝑇𝑜𝑏𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑒𝑑 − 𝑇𝑏𝑝𝑢𝑟𝑒

Freezing point depression and boiling point elevation are both colligative properties. The
magnitudes of ∆𝑇𝑓 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ∆𝑇𝑏 are proportional to the concentration of solute and solvent
molecules.

∆Tf = Kfm

∆𝑇𝑏 = 𝐾𝑏𝑚

Kf = molal freezing point depression constant

Kb = molal boiling point elevation constant

Molality (m) is the preferred concentration expression (rather than mole fraction or percent
by mass) because of the resulting simplicity of the equations relating ∆𝑇 to concentration.

𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒
Molality, m =
𝑘𝑔 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡

(𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 ÷𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠)


=
𝑘𝑔 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡

In this experiment, we will determine the freezing points of naphthalene (pure solvent), a
solution of a known solute ( 1,4-dichlorobenzene) dissolve in naphthalene and an unknown
solution of p-nitrotoluene in naphthalene.

APPARATUS :

 Boiling tubes
 Thermometer
 Conical flask
 Stop watch
 Weighing boat
 Water bath
 Analytical balance
 Retort stand and clamp
 Naphthalene, C10H8
 1,4-dichlorobenzene, C6H4Cl2
 p-nitrotoluene, C7H7NO2
METHOD :

(A) Determination of Freezing Point of Naphthalene.

1. 5g of naphthalene was weighed to the nearest 0.01g and was added to a clean and dry
boiling tube.
2. The naphthalene was melted completely in the hot water bath.
3. Rubber stopper containing the thermometer and copper wire was inserted into the
boiling tube.
4. The tube was taken out from the water bath when the temperature of naphthalene
reached 95°C.
5. The tube was set vertically in the conical flask by using a clamp.
6. Once the temperature of naphthalene dropped to 90°C, the temperature was recorded for
every 30 seconds to the nearest 0.1°C
7. The temperature of naphthalene was recorded until it dropped to about 60°C , in this
temperature range, the naphthalene freezed.
8. The naphthalene was kept for part B.

(B) Determination of Kf for Naphthalene.

1. 0.5 g of 1,4-dichlorobenzene was weighed to the nearest 0.01 g and was added to the
boiling tube containing naphthalene.
2. Steps 2 to 7 in part A was repeated.
3. The mixture that had solidified was melt in the hot water bath.
4. The solution was discarded in the waste container indicated by the instructor.

(C) Determination of Freezing Point of p-nitrotoluene

1. 5 g of naphthalene was weighed to the nearest 0.01g and was added to a clean dry
boiling tube.
2. 1 g of p-nitrotoluene was weighed and was added into the naphthalene in the boiling
tube.
3. Steps 2 to 7 in part A was repeated.
4. The mixture that had solidified was melt in the hot water bath.
5. The solution was discarded in the waste container indicated by the instructor.
DATA :
CALCULATIONS :

(A) Freezing point depression constant, Kf for naphthalene.

𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒
i) Molality =
𝑘𝑔 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡

(𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 ÷𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠)


=
𝑘𝑔 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡

(0.5115 ÷147.012)𝑚𝑜𝑙
=
(4.9538 ÷1000)𝑘𝑔

= 0.7024 mol/kg.

ii) ∆ 𝑇𝑓 = 𝐾𝑓𝑚

| 78.0 −71.5 |℃
= Kf
0.7024 𝑚𝑜𝑙 /𝑘𝑔

Kf = 9.254 ℃ kg/ mol

|𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒−𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒|


iii) Percentage error = × 100%
𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

|9.254−6.94 |
= × 100%
6.94

= 33.3 %

(B) Molar mass of p-nitrotoluene

i) ∆ 𝑇𝑓 = 𝐾𝑓𝑚

|𝑇𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡 − 𝑇𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛| = 𝐾𝑓𝑚

|78.0 − 70.0| = 9.254 (𝑚)

8.0 = 9.254 (m)

m = 0.8645 mol/kg
(𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 ÷𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠)
ii) m =
𝑘𝑔 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡

(0.9535 ÷ 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠)


0.8645 =
(4.9538 ÷1000)𝑔

Molar mass = 222.65 g/mol

|𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒−𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒|


iii) percentage error = × 100%
𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

|222.65−137.136 |
= × 100%
137.136

= 62.4 %

DISCUSSION :

The purpose of this experiment is to determine freezing point depression of a solution and
molal freezing point constant of the solvent. Besides that, we also want to determine the
molar mass of solute. This experiment is divided into three parts. In part A, the mass of
naphthalene used was 4.9538 g. Based on the data that we obtained through this experiment,
the freezing point of naphthalene from cooling curve is 78.0 ℃. Naphthalene was used as
solvent for this experiment.

In part B, the mass of 1,4-dichlorobenzene is 0.5115g. the freezing point of solution (1,4-
dichlorobenzene dissolved in naphthalene) is 71.5 ℃. The freezing point of this solution
should be at 75.0 ℃, which is far different from our result. This may be due to some errors
during handling this experiment. One of the possible errors is impurities of the 1,4-
dichlorobenzene. From the calculation, the Kf of the solution is 9.254 ℃ kg/ mol.
Theoretically, the Kf for naphthalene is 6.94℃ kg/ mol. The percentage error obtained for
this part is 33.3 %.

For part C, the mass of naphthalene and p-nitrotoluene used were 4.9922g and 0.9535g
respectively. The freezing point of this solution is 70℃. Hence, the molar mass of p-
nitrotoluene is 222.65 g/mol. From periodic table, the actual molar mass of p-nitrotoluene is
137.136 g/mol. The percentage error for the molar mass of p-nitrotoluene is 62.4 %. There
was a huge error happen in this part which is the mass of p-nitrotoluene is not accurately
weighed as 5.0g.

There are many possible errors that occurred while doing this experiment. For example, the
position of the eyes is not perpendicular to the scale of the thermometer. This is known as
parallax error. To overcome this error, the analyst should make sure that the position of
he/her eyes must perpendicular to the scale of the thermometer in order to get accurate
reading. Furthermore, the error that occurred may be due to the impurities of the 1,4-
dichlorobenzene or naphthalene. To avoid this error, students should not use the same spatula
(spatula to take naphthalene) to take 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

Students are advised to wear lab coats, gloves and masks because all the naphthalene
materials used in this lab (naphthalene, p-nitrotoluene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene) will released
toxic vapors.

CONCLUSION :

The freezing point depression of naphthalene is 78.0℃. Meanwhile, the molal freezing point
constant of naphthalene (solvent) is 9.254 ℃ kg/ mol . The molar mass of the p-nitrotoluene
(solute) is 222.65 g/mol.

QUESTIONS :

1) Supercooling happens when a solution momentarily drops below its freezing point, and
then warms again before solidification. What event is likely to give rise to supercooling ?

- supercooling occur when the molecules of a substance are not organized in the exact form to
form a solid.

2) A 0.5g sample of a non-volatile solute dissolves in 10.0g of acetic acid. The freezing point
of the solution is 15.9 ֯C. ( Kf of acetic acid is 3.9 ֯C kg mol-1 and freezing point is 17 ֯ C.)

(a) What is the molality of the solute in the solution ?

∆ 𝑇𝑓 = 𝐾𝑓𝑚

|𝑇𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡 − 𝑇𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛| = 𝐾𝑓𝑚

17.0− 15.9 = m (3.9)

m = 0.2821 mol/kg

(b) Calculate the molar mass of the solute.

𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒
Molality =
𝑘𝑔 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡

(𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 ÷𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠)


0.2821 =
𝑘𝑔 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡
𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠
0.2821 (10.0 ÷ 1000g) =
𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠

(0.5 ÷1000𝑔)
2.821 × 10-3 =
𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠

Molar mass = 177.2 g/mol

(c) The same mass of solute is dissolved in 10g of t-butanol instead of acetic acid. What is the
expected freezing point change of the solution ? (Kf of t-butanol is 9.1 ֯ C kg mol-1 and
freezing point is 25.5 ֯ C).

∆ 𝑇𝑓 = 𝐾𝑓𝑚

|𝑇𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡 − 𝑇𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛| = 𝐾𝑓𝑚

25.5 –Tf solution = (9.1)(0.1772)

Tf solution = 23.89 ℃

Tf solution change = (23.89 – 15.90) ℃

= 7.99 ℃

REFFERENCES :

 “Molar mass by freezing point depression”,


https://blogs.nvcc.edu/alchm/files/2016/01/112.04MolarMassbyFPDSpring2016.pd

 “Molar Mass Determination by Depression of the Freezing Point”,


https://columbiasc.edu/files/wid/Sample_Lab_Report.pdf

 “vapor pressure - Volatile and non-volatile solutes in solution”,


https://chemistry.stackexchange.com/questions/16078/volatile-and-non-volatile-
solutes-in-solution
- Graph temperature vs time (naphthalene) -
- Graph temperature vs time (naphthalene + 1,4-dichlorobenzene) -
- Graph temperature vs time (naphthalene + p-nitrotoluene -