in
PHYSICS
VOLUME  I
Content Creation
The wise
possess all
II
CONTENTS
PHYSICS
UNIT I Electrostatics 01
Practical 303
Glossary 336
III
Learning Objectives:
• Overview of the unit
• Gives clarity on the goals and objective of the topics
ICT • To harness the digital skills to class room learning and experimenting
Practical • List of practical and the description of each is appended for easy access.
V
Chennai Mathematical Institute Entrance Examination Integrated Msc. Physics
BITSAT Birla Institute of Science And Technology Admission Test Central Uiversities through CUCET
AIEEE – All India Engineering Entrance Exam Central Research Institutes like IISER using KVPY, JEE
CUCET – Central Universities Common Entrance Test Advanced , IISER M.Sc Physics in IIT’s and NIT’s through JAM
JIPMER  Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Aptitude Test Integrated Phd in IISER’s and IISc through JAM and JEST
www.tntextbooks.in
Research
Top 1% students in State board are eligible for IISER Aptitude M.Sc Physics in Central Universities throught CUCET
CLAT – Common Law Admission Test Test
HSEE Humanities and Social Sciences Entrance Examination Admission in NISER through NEST M.Sc in Energy Physics, Applied Physics in IIT’s through JAM
AIPVT All India PreVeterinary Test B.Sc Photonics Integrated Phd in IMSc, TIFR, JNCASR through JEST score
NDA – National Defence Academy Examination B.Sc Hons in Mathematics and Physics in CMI Integrated Phd in TIFR through JEST and TIFR exam
B.Sc Hons in Mathematics and Computer Science in CMI M.Sc Photonics, Reactor physics, Nuclear Engineering ,
After Graduation FiveYear Dual degree In IIST ( B.Tech + Master of Science) M.Sc Medical Physics
Master of Science (Astronomy and Astrophysics, Solid State M.Sc Biophyiscs
JAM Joint Admission Test Physics) Research Institutes in abroad like CERN, NASA, LIGO offer
JEST – Joint Entrance Screening Test Summer internship programmes for motivated Indian students
GATE Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering Note
pursuing Undergraduate course in physics
CAT – Common Admission Test(for MBA) Students admitted to IISc, IIT’s, NIT’s Indian Academy of Science & various other research institutes
Exams conducted by Respective Universities IISER’s, IIST, will get a Scholorship equivalent to INSPIRE offer paid Summer Internship for science students to get an
Assured placement in ISRO and other divisions for hands on experience in research.
the students of IIST
After Post Graduation
Institutes and their ranking can be found in www.nirfindia.org
04032019 11:04:43
Opportunities after B.Sc. Physics
VI
• DRDO – Defence Research and Development Organisation • International Olympiad Medalists Qua
• Indira Gandhi Scholarship for single girl child for full time regular Master's Degree Plas
• DAE Department of Atomic Energy • Post Graduate Merit Scholarship for University rank holders in UG level Mete
• Women Scientist Scheme (WOS A) Strin
• DoS  Department of Science Eligibility Criteria: Women who are pursuing M.Sc or Ph.D
www.tntextbooks.in
Opti
• Mathematics Training and Talent Search(MTTS) Programme Con
• IMD Indian Meteorological Department Eligibility Criteria: Students who studied Maths at UG or PG level Cryp
• Dr. K S Krishnan Research Associateship (KSKRA) Math
• ONGC Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Eligibility Criteria: Students who posses Master's Degree or Ph.D in science or engineering Crys
• IGCAR JRF Ato
• ATC – Air Traffic Controller Eligibility Criteria: Passing JEST, GATE, NET Exams Biop
• Promotion of Science Education (POSE) Scholarship Scheme Nucl
• Teaching faculty in schools and colleges through SET, NET,TET • Dhirubhai Ambani Scholarship Programme Ener
• Foundation for Academic Excellence and Access Scholarship(FAEA) Geo
• Scientist post in various research institutes in India • Central Sector Scheme of National Fellowship and Scholarship for Higher Education of ST Qua
students
• Pre  Matric and Post  Matric Scholarship for students belonging to
minority communities to pursue their School and Collegiate education by
the Ministry of Minority affairs, Government of India.
• Pre Matric and Post Matric Scholarship for students with Disabilities to
pursue their School and Collegiate Education by the Department of
Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities, Government of India.
04032019 11:04:44
Institutes in india to pursue research in physics
VII
Plasma physics Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) www.tifr.res.in
Meteorology and Atmospheric science Bhaba Atomic Research Centre(BARC) www.barc.gov.in
String Theory, Quantum Gravity www.igcar.gov.in
Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research(IGCAR)
Optics and Photonics
www.tntextbooks.in
04032019 11:04:45
www.tntextbooks.in
UNIT
1 ELECTROSTATICS
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
(i) When an object is pushed, the atoms in after rubbing with animal fur attracted
our hand interact with the atoms in the small pieces of leaves and dust. The amber
object and this interaction is basically possessing this property is said to be
electromagnetic in nature. ‘charged’. It was initially thought that amber
(ii) When we stand on Earth's surface, the has this special property. Later people found
gravitational force on us acts downwards that not only amber but even a glass rod
and the normal force acts upward to rubbed with silk cloth, attracts pieces of
counter balance the gravitational force. papers. So glass rod also becomes ‘charged’
What is the origin of this normal force? when rubbed with a suitable material.
Consider a charged rubber rod hanging from
It arises due to the electromagnetic a thread as shown in Figure 1.1. Suppose
interaction of atoms on the surface of another charged rubber rod is brought near
the Earth with the atoms present in the first rubber rod; the rods repel each
the feet of the person. Though, we are other. Now if we bring a charged glass rod
attracted by the gravitational force of the close to the charged rubber rod, they attract
Earth, we stand on Earth only because each other. At the same time, if a charged
of electromagnetic force of atoms. glass rod is brought near another charged
(iii) When an object is moved on a surface, glass rod, both the rods repel each other.
static friction resists the motion of the From these observations, the following
object. This static friction arises due to inferences are made
electromagnetic interaction between (i) The charging of rubber rod and that of
the atoms present in the object and glass rod are different from one another.
atoms on the surface. Kinetic friction (ii) The charged rubber rod repels another
also has similar origin. charged rubber rod, which implies
From these examples, it is clear that that ‘like charges repel each other’. We
understanding electromagnetism can also arrive at the same inference
is very essential to understand the by observing that a charged glass rod
universe in a holistic manner. The repels another charged glass rod.
basic principles of electromagnetism (iii) The charged amber rod attracts the
are dealt in XII physics volume 1. charged glass rod, implying that the
This unit deals with the behaviour and other charge in the glass rod is not the same
related phenomena of charges at rest. This kind of charge present in the rubber.
branch of electricity which deals with Thus unlike charges attract each other.
stationary charges is called Electrostatics. Therefore, two kinds of charges exist
in the universe. In the 18th century, Benjamin
Franklin called one type of charge as
positive (+) and another type of charge as
1.1.1 Historical background
negative (). Based on Franklin’s convention,
of electric charges
rubber and amber rods are negatively
Two millenniums ago, Greeks noticed charged while the glass rod is positively
that amber (a solid, translucent material charged. If the net charge is zero in the
formed from the resin of a fossilized tree) object, it is said to be electrically neutral.
2 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
Rubber Rubber
F
__ ___ __ ___
F F
(a)
+ ++ +
(b) __ ___ Rubber
Glass
F
Figure 1.1 (a) Unlike charges attract each other (b) Like charges repel each other
4 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
vector pointing from charge q1 to q2 .It of the magnitude of two point charges
is shown in the Figure 1.2. Likewise, the and gravitational force is directly
force on the charge q1 exerted by q2 is proportional to the product of two
along r12 (i.e., in the direction opposite masses. But there are some important
to r12 ). differences between these two laws.
1 • The gravitational force between two
(iii) In SI units, k = and its value is
4πε o masses is always attractive but Coulomb
9 × 109 N m2 C2. Here εo is the permittivity force between two charges can be
of free space or vacuum and the value attractive or repulsive, depending on
1
of ε o = = 8.85×10−12 C 2 N −1m−2 . the nature of charges.
4 πk
(iv) The magnitude of the electrostatic • The value of the gravitational constant
force between two charges each of one G = 6.626 × 1011 N m2 kg2. The value
coulomb and separated by a distance of of the constant k in Coulomb law is
1 m is calculated as follows: k = 9 × 109 N m2 C2. Since k is much
more greater than G, the electrostatic
9×109 ×1×1 force is always greater in magnitude
F = = 9×109 N . This is a huge
12 than gravitational force for smaller size
quantity, almost equivalent to the weight objects.
of one million ton. We never come across • The gravitational force between two
1 coulomb of charge in practice. Most of masses is independent of the medium.
the electrical phenomena in daytoday life
For example, if 1 kg of two masses
involve electrical charges of the order of µC
are kept in air or inside water, the
(micro coulomb) or nC (nano coulomb).
gravitational force between two masses
(v) In SI units, Coulomb’s law in vacuum remains the same. But the electrostatic
1 q1q2 force between the two charges depends
takes the form F21 = r12 . In
4 πε r 2 on nature of the medium in which the
a medium of permittivity ε, the force two charges are kept at rest.
between two point charges is given by • The gravitational force between two
1 q1q2
F21 = r12 . Since ε>εo, the force
point masses is the same whether two
4 πε r 2
between two point charges in a medium masses are at rest or in motion. If the
other than vacuum is always less than charges are in motion, yet another
that in vacuum. We define the relative force (Lorentz force) comes into play in
permittivity for a given medium as addition to coulomb force.
ε (vii) The force on a charge q1 exerted by a
εr = . For vacuum or air, εr = 1 and
ε point charge q2 is given by
for all other media εr> 1.
(vi) Coulomb’s law has same structure 1 q1q2
F12 =
r21
as Newton’s law of gravitation. Both 4 πε r 2
are inversely proportional to the Here r21 is the unit vector from charge
square of the distance between the q2 to q1.
particles. The electrostatic force is
directly proportional to the product But
r21 = −
r12 ,
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 5
E X A M P L E 1.2
F12 F21
Consider two point charges q1 and q2 at + _ x
rest as shown in the figure. q1 q2
y
(a) q1 = +2 μC, q2 = +3 μC, and r = 1m.
Both are positive charges. so the force will
be repulsive
Force experienced by the charge q2 due to
x q1 is given by
q1 q2
1 q1q2
1m F21 =
r 12
4 πε r 2
They are separated by a distance of 1m. Here r12 is the unit vector from q1 to q2.
Calculate the force experienced by the two Since q2 is located on the right of q1, we
charges for the following cases: have
6 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 7
9×109
q = 8.9 x 109 C = 8.9 nC
mg
E X A M P L E 1.4
In the xdirection, the acceleration of the
charged sphere is zero. Calculate the electrostatic force and
gravitational force between the proton and
Using Newton’s second law (Ftot = ma ), we the electron in a hydrogen atom. They are
have separated by a distance of 5.3 × 1011 m.
The magnitude of charges on the electron
T sinθ
i −Fe
i =0
and proton are 1.6 × 1019 C. Mass of the
T sinθ= Fe (1) electron is me = 9.1 × 1031 kg and mass of
proton is mp = 1.6 × 1027 kg.
Here T is the tension acting on the charge
due to the string and Fe is the electrostatic Solution
force between the two charges. The proton and the electron attract each
other. The magnitude of the electrostatic
In the ydirection also, the net acceleration
force between these two particles is given by
experienced by the charge is zero.
2
T cosθ
j −mg
j =0 2
ke 9×109 ×(1.6×10−19 )
Fe = = 2
Therefore, T cosθ= mg .(2) r2 (5.3×10 )−11
9×2.56
By dividing equation (1) by equation (2), = ×10−7 = 8.2 × 108 N
28.09
8 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 9
E X A M P L E 1.5
F14 sin F14
Consider four equal charges q1,q2, q3 and q4
= q = +1μC located at four different points
on a circle of radius 1m, as shown in the F14 cos
figure. Calculate the total force acting on q1 + F13
the charge q1 due to all the other charges. F12cos
y
q2 F12 sin F12
+
The charges q2 and q4 are equidistant from
q3 q1 q1. As a result the strengths (magnitude)
+ + of the forces F12 and F14 are the same
x
even though their directions are different.
Therefore the vectors representing these
two forces are drawn with equal lengths.
+ But the charge q3 is located farther
q4
compared to q2 and q4. Since the strength
of the electrostatic force decreases as
Solution distance increases, the strength of the force
F13 is lesser than that of forces F12 and F14 .
According to the superposition principle,
Hence the vector representing the force F13
the total electrostatic force on charge q1 is drawn with smaller length compared to
is the vector sum of the forces due to the
that for forces F12 and F14 .
other charges,
From the figure, r21 = 2 m = r41 and r31 = 2 m
F1tot = F12 + F13 + F14
The magnitudes of the forces are given by
The following diagram shows the direction kq 2 9×109 ×10−12
F13 = 2 =
of each force on the charge q1. r31 4
10 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
= 4.5 × 103 N
1.3.1 Electric Field
From the figure, the angle θ = 45o. In terms
of the components, we have The interaction between two charges is
determined by Coulomb’s law. How does the
F12 = F12 cos θ
i −F12 sin θ
j interaction itself occur? Consider a point
charge kept at a point in space. If another
1 1 point charge is placed at some distance from
= 4.5×10−3 × i −4.5×10−3 × j
2 2 the first point charge, it experiences either
an attractive force or repulsive force. This
F13 = F13
i = 2.25×10−3 N
i
is called ‘action at a distance’. But how does
F14 = F14 cos θ
i +F14 sin θ
j the second charge know about existence of
the first charge which is located at some
1 1
= 4.5×10−3 × i +4.5×10−3 × j distance away from it? To answer this
2 2
question, Michael Faraday introduced the
Then the total force on q1 is, concept of field.
According to Faraday, every charge in the
F1tot = (F12 cos θ j ) + F13
i −F12 sin θ i universe creates an electric field in the
+(F14 cos θ j )
i +F14 sin θ surrounding space, and if another charge
is brought into its field, it will interact
F1tot = (F12 cos θ + F13 + F14 cos θ )
i with the electric field at that point and will
+(−F12 sin θ + F14 sin θ)
j experience a force. It may be recalled that
the interaction of two masses is similarly
Since F12 = F14, the jth component is zero. explained using the concept of gravitational
Hence we have field (Refer unit 6, volume 2, XI physics).
Both the electric and gravitational forces are
F1tot = (F12 cos θ + F13 + F14 cos θ)
i
noncontact forces, hence the field concept
is required to explain action at a distance.
substituting the values in the above
equation, Consider a source point charge q located at
a point in space. Another point charge qo
4.5 4.5 (test charge) is placed at some point P which
=
2
+ 2.25 +
2
(
i = 4.5 2 + 2.25
i ) is at a distance r from the charge q. The
electrostatic force experienced by the charge
F1tot = 8.61×10−3 N
i qo due to q is given by Coulomb’s law.
kqq0 1 qq0 1
The resultant force is along the positive x F= 2
r = 2
r where k =
r 4 πε 0 r 4 πε 0
axis.
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 11
q
(iii) The equation (1.4) implies that the
r electric field is independent of the test
+ charge qo and it depends only on the
source charge q.
For a negative
source charge, (iv) Since the electric field is a vector
the electric quantity, at every point in space,
field at P points
radially inward → this field has unique direction and
E P
toward q. magnitude as shown in Figures 1.6(a)
and (b). From equation (1.4), we can
q
infer that as distance increases, the
_ r
electric field decreases in magnitude.
Note that in Figures 1.6 (a) and (b)
Figure 1.4 Electric field of positive and the length of the electric field vector is
negative charges shown for three different points. The
strength or magnitude of the electric
(ii) If the electric field at a point P is E, then field at point P is stronger than at the
the force experienced by the test charge points Q and R because the point P is
qo placed at the point P is closer to the source charge.
12 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 13
(a)
A positive point charge +1 µC is Case (b)
placed at the origin The magnitude of the electric field at point
(b)
A negative point charge 2 µC is P
kq 1 q 9×109 ×2×10−6
placed at the origin EP = 2 = =
r 4 πε 0 r 2 4
y
= 4.5 × 103 N C1
Q Since the source charge is negative, the
electric field points towards the charge. So
4m
the electric field at the point P is given by
2m
+1C
+ P x
EP = −4.5×103
i NC −1
Ep
9×109 ×2×10−6
For the point Q, EQ =
36
= 0.5 × 103 N C1
y
ER = 0.56×103
i NC −1
6m 2m
Q –2C
– P x y
EQ
Q
4m
Solution
2m
Case (a) +1C
+ P x
Ep
The magnitude of the electric field at point
P is
1 q 9×109 ×1×10−6
EP = =
4 πε 0 r 2 4
y
= 2.25×103 NC −1
Since the source charge is positive, the
electric field points away from the charge. So
the electric field at the point P is given by
EQ
EP = 2.25×103N C −1
i 6m 2m
Q –2C
– P x
For the point Q Ep
9×109 ×1×10−6
EQ = = 0.56×103 NC −1
16
Hence EQ = 0.56×103
j
14 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
= 2.25×109
j +2.25×109
i = 2.25×109 (
i +
j) etc., it is very difficult to look at individual
charges in these charged bodies. Therefore,
The magnitude of electric field it is assumed that charge is distributed
2 2
EA = (2.25×10 ) + (2.25×10 )
9 9
continuously on the charged bodies and the
discrete nature of charges is not considered
= 2.25× 2 ×109 N C −1
here. The electric field due to such
The direction of E A is given by continuous charge distributions is found by
invoking the method of calculus.
EA 2.25×109 (
i +
j ) (
i +j)
= = , which
EA 2.25× 2 ×109 2 Consider the following charged object
of irregular shape as shown in Figure
is the unit vector along OA as shown in the
1.9. The entire charged object is divided
figure.
into a large number of charge elements
∆q1 , ∆q2 , ∆q3 ......∆qn and each charge element
y Eq 1 EA
∆q is taken as a point charge.
q1 = +1µC
+ A
Eq2
2mm aA
q1
2mm
+ x
q2 r1
O q1 = +1µC q3
r2
r3
r2 r1
The acceleration experienced by an
electron placed at point A is r3
F qE A
aA = = p
m m
(−1.6×10−19 )×(2.25×109 )(i + j ) E3
= E2
9.1×10−31 E1
= −3.95×1020 (
i +
j )N
Figure 1.9 Continuous charge
The electron is accelerated in a direction distributions
exactly opposite to E A .
The electric field at a point P due to a
charged object is approximately given by the
1.3.3 Electric field due
sum of the fields at P due to all such charge
to continuous charge
elements.
distribution
The electric charge is quantized 1 ∆q1 ∆q ∆q
E≈ 2 r1P + 2 2 r2 P +.......... + 2 n
r nP
4 πε 0 r1P r2 P rnP
microscopically. The expressions (1.2),
(1.3), (1.4) are applicable to only point 1 n ∆qi
≈ ∑ riP
4 πε 0 i=1 riP2
charges. While dealing with the electric field
due to a charged sphere or a charged wire (1.9)
16 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
E X A M P L E 1.8
P
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 17
18 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
point charge the electric field lines point line at that point. This is shown in
radially outward and for a negative Figure 1.12
point charge, the electric field lines
point radially inward. These are shown E
in Figure 1.11 (a) and (b). P

_ q
(b)
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 19
1
as the distance increases E ∝ 2 . So the Electric field lines
r
electric field has greater magnitude at the
surface A than at B. Therefore, the number
of lines crossing the surface A is greater than
the number of lines crossing the surface B.
+
Note that at surface B the electric field lines
are farther apart compared to the electric +q
field lines at the surface A.
• No two electric field lines intersect each
other. If two lines cross at a point, then (a)
there will be two different electric field Electric field lines
vectors at the same point, as shown in
Figure 1.14.
_
P
2q
= Electric field
= Electric field lines
(b)
Figure 1.14 Two electric field lines never
intersect each other Figure 1.15 Electric field lines and
magnitude of the charge
As a consequence, if some charge is placed
in the intersection point, then it has of the first charge, the number of field lines
to move in two different directions drawn for 2q is twice in number than that
at the same time, which is physically for charge +q.
impossible. Hence, electric field lines
do not intersect. E X A M P L E 1.9
• The number of electric field lines that
The following pictures depict electric field
emanate from the positive charge or
lines for various charge configurations.
end at a negative charge is directly
proportional to the magnitude of the
charges.
For example in the Figure 1.15, the electric
field lines are drawn for charges +q and q2
2q. Note that the number of field lines q1
emanating from +q is 8 and the number
of field lines ending at 2q is 16. Since the
(a)
magnitude of the second charge is twice that
B
20 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
A + C +
(a)
B charges are equal (N=18). So the
charges are equal. At point A,
C the electric field lines are denser
A + +
compared to the lines at point B. So
the electric field at point A is greater
in magnitude compared to the field
(b) at point B. Further, no electric field
line passes through C, which implies
that the resultant electric field at C
due to these two charges is zero.
q1 _ q2 q3 (iii)
In the figure (c), the electric field
lines start at q1 and q3 and end at q2.
This implies that q1 and q3 are positive
charges. The ratio of the number
(c) q1 8 q 1
of field lines is = = 3 = ,
q2 16 q2 2
(i)
In figure (a) identify the signs of two
implying that q1and q3are half of the
q1 magnitude of q2. So q1 = q3 = +10 nC.
charges and find the ratio
q2
(ii)
In figure (b), calculate the ratio of 1.4
two positive charges and identify the
strength of the electric field at three ELECTRIC DIPOLE AND
points A, B, and C ITS PROPERTIES
(iii)
Figure (c) represents the electric field
lines for three charges. If q2 = 20 nC, 1.4.1 Electric dipole
then calculate the values of q1 and q3 Two equal and opposite charges separated
Solution by a small distance constitute an electric
dipole. In many molecules, the centers of
(i)
The electric field lines start at q2 and positive and negative charge do not coincide.
end at q1. In figure (a), q2 is positive Such molecules behave as permanent
and q1 is negative. The number dipoles. Examples: CO, water, ammonia,
of lines starting from q2 is 18 and HCl etc.
number of the lines ending at q1 is Consider two equal and opposite point
6. So q2 has greater magnitude. The charges (+q, q) that are separated by a
q1 N 6 1 distance 2a as shown in Figure 1.16(a).
ratio of = 1 = = . It implies
q2 N 2 18 3 The electric dipole moment is defined as
that q2 = 3 q1 p = qr+ − qr− .
Here r+ is the position vector of +q from
(ii)
In figure (b), the number of field
the origin and r is the position vector of q
lines emanating from both positive from the origin. Then, from Figure 1.16 (a),
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 21
y n
p = ∑ qi ri (1.12)
i =1
p
_
where ri is the position vector of charge qi
+
q
a a x from the origin.
+q
(a) E X A M P L E 1.10
a a x a x
(b)
+ + + +
+q +q +q +q
charge is zero, then the electric dipole 1.4.2 Electric field due to a
moment will be the same irrespective of dipole
the choice of the origin. It is because of this Case (i) Electric field due to an electric
reason that the electric dipole moment of dipole at points on the axial line
an electric dipole (total charge is zero) is Consider an electric dipole placed on the
always directed from –q to +q, independent xaxis as shown in Figure 1.17. A point C is
of the choice of the origin. located at a distance of r from the midpoint
Case (c) p =( −2q)aj+q(2a)( −j ) = −4qaj. O of the dipole along the axial line.
Note that in this case p is directed from Axial line
→
p → →
2q to +q. A B E– E+
_ +
a O a
Case (d) p = −2qa(−
i ) + qaj +qa( −
j) q +q C
= 2qa
i r
The water molecule (H2O) has this charge
configuration. The water molecule has Figure 1.17 Electric field of the dipole
three atoms (two H atom and one O along the axial line
atom). The centers of positive (H) and
negative (O) charges of a water molecule The electric field at a point C due to +q is
1 q
lie at different points, hence it possess E+ = along BC
4 πε 0 (r − a)2
permanent dipole moment. The OH bond
length is 0.958 × 1010 m due to which the Since the electric dipole moment vector p
electric dipole moment of water molecule is from –q to +q and is directed along BC,
has the magnitude p = 6.1 x 1030 Cm. The the above equation is rewritten as
electric dipole moment p is directed from 1 q
E+ =
p (1.13)
center of negative charge to the center of 4 πε 0 (r − a)2
positive charge, as shown in the figure.
where p is the electric dipole moment unit
H vector from –q to +q.
+ The electric field at a point C due to –q is
Center of
p1 positive charge 1 q
O
p E− = −
p (1.14)
–p
+ 4 πε 0 (r + a)2
2 Since +q is located closer to the point C than
Center of
negative + –q, E+ is stronger than E . Therefore, the
H
charge length of the E+ vector is drawn larger than
0.958Å H that of E vector.
+ +q The total electric field at point C is calculated
using the superposition principle of the
O
2q – 104 electric field.
Etot = E+ + E−
+q
1 q 1 q
+
H = 2
p −
p
4 πε 0 (r − a) 4 πε 0 (r + a)2
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 23
→ Equatorial plane
E+
→
→ E+sinθ
C E+
→
Etot
→ →
E– r E+cosθ θ
→ →
A θ –p θ B E–cosθ θ
– +
q a O a +q
→ →
E– E–sinθ
Figure 1.19 Electric field due to a dipole at a point on the equatorial plane
24 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
The magnitudes E+ and E are the same and electric field due to a point charge. The
are given by reason for this behavior is that at very
large distance, the two charges appear
1 q
E+ = E− = (1.19) to be close to each other and neutralize
4 πε 0 (r + a 2 )
2
each other.
By substituting equation (1.19) into equation (iii) The equations (1.17) and (1.21) are
(1.18), we get valid only at very large distances
1 2q cos θ (r>>a). Suppose the distance
Etot = − p
4 πε 0 (r 2 + a 2 ) 2a approaches zero and q approaches
infinity such that the product of
1 2qa
=− 3
p 2aq = p is finite, then the dipole is
4 πε 0
(r 2
+a 2 2
) called a point dipole. For such point
a dipoles, equations (1.17) and (1.21)
since cosθ =
r + a2
2 are exact and hold true for any r.
1 p
Etot = − 3
4 πε 0 1.4.3 Torque experienced
(r 2 + a2 )2
since p = 2qap (1.20) by an electric dipole in the
At very large distances (r>>a), the equation uniform electric field
(1.20) becomes Consider an electric dipole of dipole
moment p placed in a uniform electric field
1 p
Etot = − (r >> a) (1.21) E whose field lines are equally spaced and
4 πε r 3
point in the same direction. The charge +q
Important inferences will experience a force q E in the direction
(i) From equations (1.17) and (1.21), it is of the field and charge –q will experience
inferred that for very large distances, a force q E in a direction opposite to the
the magnitude of the electric field at field. Since the external field E is uniform,
points on the dipole axis is twice the the total force acting on the dipole is zero.
magnitude of the electric field at points These two forces acting at different points
on the equatorial plane. The direction of will constitute a couple and the dipole
the electric field at points on the dipole experience a torque as shown in Figure 1.20.
axis is directed along the direction of This torque tends to rotate the dipole. (Note
that electric field lines of a uniform field
dipole moment vector p but at points
on the equatorial plane it is directed are equally spaced and point in the same
opposite to the dipole moment vector, direction).
The total torque on the dipole about the
that is along  p .
(ii) At very large distances, the electric point O
1
field due to a dipole varies as 3 . Note
r
that for a point charge, the electric τ = OA×(−qE ) + OB ×qE (1.22)
1
field varies as 2 . This implies that the
r Using righthand corkscrew rule (Refer
electric field due to a dipole at very large
distances goes to zero faster than the XI, volume 1, unit 2), it is found that total
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 25
→
E that experienced by –q. In addition to the
+q + B qE
→
torque, there will be net force acting on the
a
dipole. This is shown in Figure 1.21.
2a sinθ
θ
O → →
Non uniform E qE1
a
+
+q
qE
→
– θ
A q
Torque is into the paper
O
Figure 1.20 Torque on dipole
→
qE2
– q
torque is perpendicular to the plane of the
paper and is directed into it. Net torque, Net force
The magnitude of the total torque
Figure 1.21 The dipole in a nonuniform
τ = OA (−qE ) sin θ + OB qE sin θ
electric field
τ = qE ⋅ 2a sin θ (1.23)
E X A M P L E 1.11
where θ is the angle made by p with E .
A sample of HCl gas is placed in a uniform
Since p = 2aq, the torque is written in terms
electric field of magnitude 3 × 104 N C1.
of the vector product as
The dipole moment of each HCl molecule
is 3.4 × 1030 Cm. Calculate the maximum
τ = p× E (1.24)
torque experienced by each HCl molecule.
The magnitude of this torque is τ = pE sin θ
Solution
and is maximum when θ = 90 .
The maximum torque experienced by the
This torque tends to rotate the dipole and
dipole is when it is aligned perpendicular
align it with the electric field E . Once p
to the applied field.
is aligned with E , the total torque on the
dipole becomes zero. τ max = pE sin 90 = 3.4 ×10−30 ×3×104 N m
If the electric field is not uniform, then the τ max = 10.2×10−26 N m
force experienced by +q is different from
26 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
1.5 to the coulomb force (Fext = −Fcoloumb ). The
ELECTROSTATIC work done is
POTENTIAL AND P
POTENTIAL ENERGY W = ∫ Fext ⋅ dr (1.25)
R
P ∫ q′ R
+
q electric potential difference between P and
R and is denoted as VP – VR = ∆V.
Figure 1.22 Work done is equal to
In otherwords, the electric potential
potential energy
difference is defined as the work done by an
external force to bring unit positive charge
The test charge q′ is brought from R to P from point R to point P.
with constant velocity which means that
P
external force used to bring the test charge
VP − VR = ∆V = ∫ −E ⋅ dr (1.30)
q′ from R to P must be equal and opposite R
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 27
Higher gravitational
potential
E X A M P L E 1.12
Lower gravitational
potential
(a)
Calculate the electric potential at
Earth
points P and Q as shown in the figure
O below.
(b)
Suppose the charge +9µC is replaced
Mass moves from higher
gravitational potentail to lower by 9µC find the electrostatic
gravitational potentail
potentials at points P and Q
VP > VQ > VR VP < VQ < VR
+ + – +
+q P +q´ Q R
(a) Positive charge +q´ moves from
q P Q +q´ R
(c) Positive charge +q´ moves from
+ 10m P
6m Q
higher electric potential to
lower electric potential
higher electric potential to +9µC
lower electric potential
+
VP > VQ
–
> VR
–
VP <
–
VQ < VR
(c)
Calculate the work done to bring a
+q P Q –q´ R –q P –q´ Q R test charge +2µC from infinity to the
point P. Assume the charge +9µC
(b) negative charge –q´moves from lower (d) negative charge –q´ moves from lower
electric potential to higher electric potential electric potential to higher electric potential
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 29
Solution E X A M P L E 1.13
(a)
Electric potential at point P is given by Consider a point charge +q placed at
9 −6 the origin and another point charge 2q
VP = 1 q = 9×10 ×9×10 = 8.1×103 V placed at a distance of 9 m from the charge
4 πε rP 10
+q. Determine the point between the two
Electric potential at point Q is given by
charges at which electric potential is zero.
9 −6
VQ = 1 q = 9×10 ×9×10 = 5.06×103 V Solution
4 πε rQ 16
According to the superposition principle,
Note that the electric potential at point Q
the total electric potential at a point is
is less than the electric potential at point
equal to the sum of the potentials due to
P. If we put a positive charge at P, it moves
each charge at that point.
from P to Q. However if we place a negative
charge at P it will move towards the charge Consider the point at which the total
+9µC. potential zero is located at a distance x
from the charge +q as shown in the figure.
The potential difference between the points
P and Q is given by 9m
∆V = VP − VQ = +3.04 ×103 V + _
x P 9x
+q 2q
(b)
Suppose we replace the charge +9 µC
by 9 µC, then the corresponding The total electric potential at P is zero.
potentials at the points P and Q are,
1 q 2q
3
VP = −8.1×10 V , VQ = −5.06×10 V 3 Vtot = − = 0
4 πε x (9 − x )
Note that in this case electric potential at
q 2q
the point Q is higher than at point P. which gives =
x (9 − x )
The potential difference or voltage between 1 2
or =
the points P and Q is given by x (9 − x )
(c)
The electric potential V at a point
P due to some charge is defined as 1.5.3 Electrostatic potential
the work done by an external force at a point due to an electric
to bring a unit positive charge from dipole
infinity to P. So to bring the q amount
of charge from infinity to the point P, Consider two equal and opposite charges
work done is given as follows. separated by a small distance 2a as shown
in Figure 1.26. The point P is located at a
W = qV distance r from the midpoint of the dipole.
Let θ be the angle between the line OP and
WQ = 2×10−6 ×5.06×103 J = 10.12×10−3 J .
dipole axis AB.
30 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
1
P 1 1 2a
−
2
= 1 − cosθ
r1 r r
r2 Since
a
<<1 , we can use binomial theorem
r
r r1 and retain the terms up to first order
→ 1 1 a
A 180θ
θ
p B = 1 + cosθ (1.36)
_ +
r1 r r
q O +q
a a Similarly applying the cosine law for triangle
Figure 1.26 Potential due to electric dipole AOP,
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 31
But the electric dipole moment p = 2qa and (ii) The potential due to a point charge is
we get, spherically symmetric since it depends
1 p cos θ only on the distance r. But the potential
V= due to a dipole is not spherically
4 πε 0 r 2
symmetric because the potential
Now we can write p cosθ = p ×r , where
r is
depends on the angle between p and
the unit vector from the point O to point P.
position vector r of the point.
Hence the electric potential at a point P due However the dipole potential is axially
to an electric dipole is given by
symmetric. If the position vector r
1 p ⋅ r is rotated about p by keeping θ fixed,
V= (r>>a)(1.38)
4 πε r 2
then all points on the cone at the same
Equation (1.38) is valid for distances very distance r will have the same potential
large compared to the size of the dipole. as shown in Figure 1.27. In this figure,
But for a point dipole, the equation (1.38) is all the points located on the blue curve
valid for any distance. will have the same potential.
Special cases
Case (i) If the point P lies on the axial line axial
r
of the dipole on the side of +q, then θ = 0. line
Then the electric potential becomes q +q
_ +
A O
p
1 p
V= (1.39)
4 πε r 2
Case (ii) If the point P lies on the axial line
of the dipole on the side of –q, then θ = 180o,
then Figure 1.27 Dipole potential is axially
symmetric
1 p
V =− (1.40)
4 πε r 2
1.5.4 Equipotential Surface
Case (iii) If the point P lies on the equatorial
line of the dipole, then θ = 90o. Hence Consider a point charge q located at some
point in space and an imaginary sphere of
V = 0 (1.41) radius r is chosen by keeping the charge q
at its center (Figure 1.28(a)). The electric
Important points
potential at all points on the surface of the
(i) The potential due to an electric dipole given sphere is the same. Such a surface is
1
falls as 2 and the potential due to a called an equipotential surface.
r 1
single point charge falls as . Thus the An equipotential surface is a surface on
r
potential due to the dipole falls faster which all the points are at the same potential.
than that due to a monopole (point For a point charge the equipotential surfaces
charge). As the distance increases from are concentric spherical surfaces as shown
electric dipole, the effects of positive in Figure 1.28(b). Each spherical surface is
and negative charges nullify each other. an equipotential surface but the value of the
32 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
E E 1.5.5 Relation between
(b) electric field and potential
Consider a positive charge q kept fixed
Figure 1.28 Equipotential surface of at the origin. To move a unit positive charge
point Charge
by a small distance dx in the electric field E,
Equipotential surfaces
E E
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 33
the work done is given by dW = −E dx. The From 0 to 1 cm, the slope is constant and
minus sign implies that work is done against dV
= 25V cm−1 . So E = −25V cm
−1
so i
the electric field. This work done is equal to dx
electric potential difference. Therefore, From 1 to 4 cm, the potential is constant,
dW = dV. dV
V = 25 V. It implies that = 0. So E = 0
(or) dV = −E dx(1.42) dx
Hence
E =−
dV
(1.43) From 4 to 5 cm, the slope dV = −25V cm−1 .
dx dx
So E = +25V cm i .
−1
E X A M P L E 1.14 37.5
25
The following figure represents the electric 12.5
potential as a function of x – coordinate. 0 1 2 3 4 5 x(cm)
Plot the corresponding electric field as a 12.5
function of x. 25
37.5
V(volts)
30
25
20 1.5.6 Electrostatic potential
15 energy for collection of point
charges
10
The electric potential at a point at a distance r
5
from point charge q1 is given by
0 1 2 3 4 5 1 q1
x(cm) V=
4 πε r
This potential V is the work done to bring
a unit positive charge from infinity to the
Solution
point. Now if the charge q2 is brought from
In the given problem, since the potential infinity to that point at a distance r from q1,
dV the work done is the product of q2 and the
depends only on x, we can use E = − i electric potential at that point. Thus we have
dx
¶V ¶V
(the other two terms and are zero) W = q2V
¶y ¶z
34 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
This work done is stored as the electrostatic electric field created by the charge q1.
potential energy U of a system of charges So the work done on the charge q2 is
q1 and q2 separated by a distance r. Thus we W = q2 V1B. Here V1B is the electrostatic
have potential due to the charge q1 at point B.
1 q1q2
U = q2V = (1.45) 1 q1q2
4πε r U= (1.46)
4 πε r12
The electrostatic potential energy depends
only on the distance between the two point Note that the expression is same
charges. In fact, the expression (1.45) is when q2 is brought first and then q1 later.
derived by assuming that q1 is fixed and (iii) Similarly to bring the charge q3 to the
q2 is brought from infinity. The equation point C, work has to be done against the
(1.45) holds true when q2 is fixed and q1 is total electric field due to both charges
brought from infinity or both q1 and q2 are q1 and q2. So the work done to bring
simultaneously brought from infinity to a the charge q3 is = q3 (V1C + V2C). Here
distance r between them. V1C is the electrostatic potential due
Three charges are arranged in the following to charge q1 at point C and V2C is the
configuration as shown in Figure 1.30. electrostatic potential due to charge q2
at point C.
q3
The electrostatic potential is
C
r13 1 q1q3 q2q3
r23 U= + (1.47)
4 πε r13 r23
q1 q2
(iv) Adding equations (1.46) and (1.47), the
A r12 B total electrostatic potential energy for
the system of three charges q1, q2 and
Figure 1.30 Electrostatic potential q3 is
energy for Collection of point charges
1 q1q2 q1q3 q2q3
U= + + (1.48)
To calculate the total electrostatic potential 4 πε r12 r13 r23
energy, we use the following procedure. We
bring all the charges one by one and arrange Note that this stored potential energy U
them according to the configuration as is equal to the total external work done to
shown in Figure 1.30. assemble the three charges at the given
locations. The expression (1.48) is same if
(i) Bringing a charge q1 from infinity to the the charges are brought to their positions
point A requires no work, because there in any other order. Since the Coulomb force
are no other charges already present in is a conservative force, the electrostatic
the vicinity of charge q1. potential energy is independent of the
(ii) To bring the second charge q2 to the manner in which the configuration of
point B, work must be done against the charges is arrived at.
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 35
E X A M P L E 1.15 1 q q
WR = q × − +
Four charges are arranged at the corners 4 πε a 2a
of the square PQRS of side a as shown 1 q 2 1
= −1 +
in the figure.(a) Find the work required 4 πε a 2
to assemble these charges in the given
(iv)
Work required to bring the
configuration. (b) Suppose a charge q′
fourth charge –q at the position
is brought to the center of the square,
S = q × potential at the point S
by keeping the four charges fixed at the
due the all the three charges at
corners, how much extra work is required
the point P, Q and R
for this?
+q q 1 q q q
a WS = −q × + −
2a
+ –
4 πε a a
P Q
1 q 1
WS = − 2 −
O a 4 πε a 2
a
q´ (b)
Work required to bring the charge
q′ to the center of the square = q′ ×
S R potential at the center point O due
– +
q a to all the four charges in the four
+q
corners
Solution The potential created by the two +q charges
are canceled by the potential created by the
(a)
The work done to arrange the q charges which are located in the opposite
charges in the corners of the square corners. Therefore the net electric potential
is independent of the way they are at the center O due to all the charges in the
arranged. We can follow any order. corners is zero.
(i)
First, the charge +q is brought Hence no work is required to bring any
to the corner P. This requires no charge to the point O. Physically this
work since no charge is already implies that if any charge q′ when brought
present, WP = 0 close to O, then it moves to the point O
(ii)
Work required to bring the without any external force.
charge –q to the corner Q = (q)
× potential at a point Q due to
+q located at a point P. 1.5.7 Electrostatic potential
energy of a dipole in a
1 q 1 q2 uniform electric field
WQ = −q × =−
4 πε a 4 πε a
Consider a dipole placed in the uniform
(iii)
Work required to bring the electric field E as shown in the Figure 1.31.
charge +q to the corner R= q × A dipole experiences a torque when kept
potential at the point R due to in an uniform electric field E . This torque
charges at the point P and Q. rotates the dipole to align it with the
36 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
→
E The potential energy stored in the system of
+q + B dipole kept in the uniform electric field is
given by
a
θ U = − pE cosθ = − p ⋅ E (1.51)
O 2a sinθ
a
In addition to p and E, the potential energy
A – θ
also depends on the orientation θ of the
q 2a cosθ
electric dipole with respect to the external
electric field.
Figure 1.31 The dipole in a uniform The potential energy is maximum when the
electric field dipole is aligned antiparallel (θ = π) to the
external electric field and minimum when
direction of the electric field. To rotate the the dipole is aligned parallel (θ = 0) to the
dipole (at constant angular velocity) from external electric field.
its initial angle θ¢ to another angle θ against
the torque exerted by the electric field, an E X A M P L E 1.16
equal and opposite external torque must be A water molecule has an electric dipole
applied on the dipole. moment of 6.3 × 1030 Cm. A sample
The work done by the external torque contains 1022 water molecules, with all the
to rotate the dipole from angle θ¢ to θ at dipole moments aligned parallel to the
constant angular velocity is external electric field of magnitude 3 × 105
θ N C1. How much work is required to rotate
W = ∫ τ ext dθ (1.49) all the water molecules from θ = 0o to 90o?
θ′
Solution
Since τ ext is equal and opposite to τ E = p× E ,
we have When the water molecules are aligned in
the direction of the electric field, it has
τ ext = τ E = p× E (1.50) minimum potential energy. The work
Substituting equation (1.50) in equation done to rotate the dipole from θ = 0o to 90o
(1.49), we get is equal to the potential energy difference
θ between these two configurations.
W = ∫ pE sinθ dθ
θ′ W = ∆U = U (90 ) −U (0 )
W = pE (cos θ′ − cos θ)
From the equation (1.51), we write
This work done is equal to the potential U = − pE cosθ, Next we calculate the work
energy difference between the angular done to rotate one water molecule from
positions θ and θ′. θ = 0o to 90o.
U (θ) −U (θ′) = ∆U = − pE cos θ + pE cos θ′ For one water molecule
If the initial angle is θ′ = 90 and is taken as W = − pE cos 90 + pE cos 0 = pE
reference point, then U (θ′) = pE cos90 = 0 .
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 37
W = 6.3×10−30 ×3×105 = 18.9×10−25 J these elements have the same area, the
number of electric field lines crossing
For 1022 water molecules, the total work the element in region A is more than that
done is crossing the element in region B. Therfore
the electric flux in region A is more than
Wtot = 18.9×10−25 ×1022 = 18.9×10−3 J
that in region B. The electric field strength
for a point charge decreases as the distance
1.6 increases, then for a point charge electric
GAUSS LAW AND ITS flux also decreases as the distance increases.
APPLICATIONS The above discussion gives a qualitative idea
of electric flux. However a precise definition
of electric flux is needed.
1.6.1 Electric Flux
Electric flux for uniform Electric field
The number of electric field lines crossing
a given area kept normal to the electric Consider a uniform electric field in a region
field lines is called electric flux. It is usually of space. Let us choose an area A normal to
denoted by the Greek letter Φ E and its unit the electric field lines as shown in Figure
is N m2 C1. Electric flux is a scalar quantity 1.33 (a). The electric flux for this case is
and it can be positive or negative. For a
simpler understanding of electric flux, the Φ E = EA (1.52)
following Figure 1.32 is useful.
Suppose the same area A is kept parallel to
the uniform electric field, then no electric
field lines pierce through the area A , as
shown in Figure 1.33(b). The electric flux
for this case is zero.
B
Φ E = 0 (1.53)
A
+ If the area is inclined at an angle θ with the
+q field, then the component of the electric
field perpendicular to the area alone
contributes to the electric flux. The electric
field component parallel to the surface area
will not contribute to the electric flux. This
is shown in Figure 1.33 (c). For this case, the
electric flux
Figure 1.32 Electric flux
Φ E = (E cosθ) A (1.54)
The electric field of a point charge is Further, θ is also the angle between the
drawn in this figure. Consider two small electric field and the direction normal to the
rectangular area elements placed normal to area. Hence in general, for uniform electric
the field at regions A and B. Even though field, the electric flux is defined as
38 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
→
Here A = A n̂
→ → →
E E E
n̂
n̂ s
n̂ E co
→
E sin E
A A A
(a)Electric flux = EA (b)Electric flux = 0 (c)Electric flux = (E cos
Φ E = E ⋅ A = EA cosθ (1.55) Solution
Here, note that A is the area vector A = An . The electric flux
Its magnitude is simply the area A and
the direction is along the unit vector n Φ E = E ⋅ A = EA cos θ = 100×5×10×10−4 × cos 60
perpendicular to the area as shown in Figure ⇒ Φ E = 0.25 N .m2C −1
1.33. Using this definition for flux, Φ E = E ⋅ A ,
equations (1.53) and (1.54) can be obtained For θ = 0o,
as special cases.
In Figure 1.33 (a), θ = 0o so Φ E = E ⋅ A = EA Φ E = E ⋅ A = EA = 100×5×10×10−4 = 0.5 N .m2C −1
In Figure 1.33 (b), θ = 90o so Φ E = E ⋅ A = 0
Electric flux in a non uniform electric field
and an arbitrarily shaped area
E X A M P L E 1.17 Suppose the electric field is not uniform
Calculate the electric flux through the and the area A is not flat (Figure 1.34),
rectangle of sides 5 cm and 10 cm kept in then the entire area is divided into n small
the region of a uniform electric field 100 area segments ∆A1 , ∆A2 , ∆A3 ......... ∆An such
NC1. The angle θ is 60o. Suppose θ becomes that each area element is almost flat and
zero, what is the electric flux? the electric field over each area element is
considered to be uniform.
Area A The electric flux for the entire area A is
approximately written as
n̂ →
E
Φ E = E1 ⋅ ∆A1 + E2 ⋅ ∆A2 + E3 ⋅ ∆A3 .......En ⋅ ∆An
n
= ∑ Ei ⋅ ∆Ai
(1.56)
i =1
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 39
E Ei
i
(a)
dA
dA
Figure 1.34 Electric flux for non
uniform electric Field
By taking the limit ∆Ai → 0 (for all i) the (b)
summation in equation (1.56) becomes
Figure 1.35 Electric flux over a closed
integration. The total electric flux for the
surface
entire area is given by
Φ E = ∫ E ⋅ dA (1.57) (1.58) is a closed surface integration and for
each areal element, the outward normal is
From Equation (1.57), it is clear that the
the direction of dA as shown in the Figure
electric flux for a given surface depends on
1.35(b).
both the electric field pattern on the surface
The total electric flux over a closed surface
area and orientation of the surface with
can be negative, positive or zero. In the
respect to the electric field.
Figure 1.35(b), it is shown that in one area
element, the angle between dA and E is less
1.6.2 Electric flux for closed
than 90o, then the electric flux is positive
surfaces
and in another areal element, the angle
In the previous section, the electric flux for between dA and E is greater than 90o, then
any arbitrary curved surface is discussed. the electric flux is negative.
Suppose a closed surface is present in the In general, the electric flux is negative if the
region of the nonuniform electric field as electric field lines enter the closed surface
shown in Figure 1.35 (a). and positive if the electric field lines leave
The total electric flux over this closed the closed surface.
surface is written as
1.6.3 Gauss law
⋅ dA (1.58)
ΦE = ∫ E
A positive point charge Q is surrounded by
Note the difference between equations (1.57) an imaginary sphere of radius r as shown
and (1.58). The integration in equation in Figure 1.36. We can calculate the total
40 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
electric flux through the closed surface of The equation (1.61) is called as Gauss’s law.
the sphere using the equation (1.58). The remarkable point about this result is
that the equation (1.61) is equally true for
E ⋅ dA =∫ E dA cosθ
ΦE = ∫ any arbitrary shaped surface which encloses
the charge Q and as shown in the Figure
The electric field of the point charge is
1.37. It is seen that the total electric flux is
directed radially outward at all points on
the same for closed surfaces A1, A2 and A3 as
the surface of the sphere. Therefore, the
shown in the Figure 1.37.
direction of the area element dA is along
the electric field E and θ = 0° .
+
Q
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 41
be chosen arbitrarily.
+
(ii) The total electric flux is independent +Q
of the location of the charges inside the
closed surface. +q
+
42 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
+ +
+ +
+ + A2
+ +
+ +
+ +
R
+ +
Q
+ r E + r P E
+ +
P
+ +
+ + S
+ +
+ +
+ + A1
+ +
+ +
+ +
+ (a) + (b)
Figure 1.38 Electric field due to infinite long charged wire
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 43
surface = 2πrL. Substituting this in equation Figure 1.40 Electric field due to charged
(1.65), we get infinite planar sheet
σ
E ⋅ dA
ΦE = ∫ In vector form, E =
2ε
n (1.71)
Qencl
= ∫ E ⋅ dA + ∫ E ⋅ dA + ∫ ⋅ dA = ε0
E
Curved
surface
P P′ Here n is the outward unit vector normal
(1.68) to the plane. Note that the electric field
The electric field is perpendicular to the area due to an infinite plane sheet of charge
element at all points on the curved surface depends on the surface charge density and
and is parallel to the surface areas at P and is independent of the distance r.
P ′ (Figure 1.40). Then, The electric field will be the same at any
point farther away from the charged plane.
Qencl
Φ E = ∫ E dA + ∫ E dA = (1.69) Equation (1.71) implies that if σ > 0 the
ε0
P P′ electric field at any point P is outward
Since the magnitude of the electric field perpendicular n to the plane and if σ < 0 the
at these two equal surfaces is uniform, E electric field points inward perpendicularly
is taken out of the integration and Qencl is ) to the plane.
( n
given by Qencl = σA , we get For a finite charged plane sheet, equation
σA (1.71) is approximately true only in the
2 E ∫ dA =
P
ε0 middle region of the plane and at points far
The total area of surface either at P or P′ away from both ends.
(iii)
Electric field due to two parallel
∫ dA = A
charged infinite sheets
P
+σ –σ
+ –
+ –
+ + – –
+ –
+ + – –
+ –
+
+
+ – –
E+ E– + + E+ –
E– E+
– –
+
+
+ P1 –
P3 + –
–
–
P2
+
+
+ E– – –
+ + –
+ – –
+ + –
+ – –
+ + –
+ –
+
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 45
The electric field between the plates and (iv) Electric field due to a uniformly
outside the plates is found using Gauss law. charged spherical shell
The magnitude of the electric field due to Consider a uniformly charged spherical
σ shell of radius R and total charge Q as shown
an infinite charged plane sheet is and it
2ε in Figure 1.42. The electric field at points
points perpendicularly outward if σ > 0 and
points inward if σ < 0. outside and inside the sphere is found using
Gauss law.
At the points P2 and P3, the electric field Case (a) At a point outside the shell (r > R)
due to both plates are equal in magnitude Let us choose a point P outside the shell
and opposite in direction (Figure 1.41). As at a distance r from the center as shown
a result, electric field at a point outside the in Figure 1.42 (a). The charge is uniformly
plates is zero. But inside the plate, electric distributed on the surface of the sphere
fields are in same direction i.e., towards the (spherical symmetry). Hence the electric
right, the total electric field at a point P1 field must point radially outward if Q > 0 and
point radially inward if Q < 0. So we choose
σ σ σ a spherical Gaussian surface of radius r is
Einside = + = (1.72)
2ε 2ε ε chosen and the total charge enclosed by this
Gaussian surface is Q. Applying Gauss law
The direction of the electric field inside the
plates is directed from positively charged Q
plate to negatively charged plate and is ∫ E ⋅ dA = (1.73)
ε
Gaussian
uniform everywhere inside the plate. surface
For points outside the sphere, For points inside the sphere,
a large, spherical gaussian a spherical gaussian surface
surface is drawn concentric smaller than the sphere is
with the sphere. drawn.
P
r
R P Gaussian
r sphere
R
Q
Gaussian
(a) sphere (b)
46 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
The electric field E and d A point in the Q
same direction (outward normal) at all
∫ E ⋅ dA =
ε
Gaussian
surface
the points on the Gaussian surface. The Q
E ⋅ 4 πr 2 = (1.77)
magnitude of E is also the same at all points ε
due to the spherical symmetry of the charge
Since Gaussian surface encloses no charge,
distribution.
So Q = 0. The equation (1.77) becomes
Q
Hence E ∫ dA =
ε
(1.74)
E=0 (r < R) (1.78)
Gaussian
surface
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 47
1.7
E E
ELECTROSTATICS OF  +
 +
CONDUCTORS AND  +
DIELECTRICS 
Eint +
 +
 +
 E
+
1.7.1 Conductors at  +
electrostatic equilibrium  +
An electrical conductor has a large number
Figure 1.44 Electric field of conductors
of mobile charges which are free to move in
the material. In a metallic conductor, these
mobile charges are free electrons which are Before applying the external electric
not bound to any atom and therefore are field, the free electrons in the conductor
free to move on the surface of the conductor. are uniformly distributed in the
When there is no external electric field, the conductor. When an electric field is
free electrons are in continuous random applied, the free electrons accelerate
motion in all directions. As a result, there to the left causing the left plate to be
is no net motion of electrons along any negatively charged and the right plate
particular direction which implies that the to be positively charged as shown in
conductor is in electrostatic equilibrium. Figure 1.44.
Thus at electrostatic equilibrium, there is no Due to this realignment of free electrons,
net current in the conductor. A conductor at there will be an internal electric field
electrostatic equilibrium has the following created inside the conductor which
properties. increases until it nullifies the external
electric field. Once the external electric
(i) The electric field is zero everywhere field is nullified the conductor is said
inside the conductor. This is true to be in electrostatic equilibrium. The
regardless of whether the conductor is time taken by a conductor to reach
solid or hollow. electrostatic equilibrium is in the order
This is an experimental fact. Suppose of 1016s, which can be taken as almost
the electric field is not zero inside the instantaneous.
metal, then there will be a force on (ii) There is no net charge inside the
the mobile charge carriers due to this conductors. The charges must reside
electric field. As a result, there will be only on the surface of the conductors.
a net motion of the mobile charges, We can prove this property using Gauss
which contradicts the conductors being law. Consider an arbitrarily shaped
in electrostatic equilibrium. Thus the conductor as shown in Figure 1.45.
electric field is zero everywhere inside A Gaussian surface is drawn inside the
the conductor. We can also understand conductor such that it is very close to
this fact by applying an external uniform the surface of the conductor. Since the
electric field on the conductor. This is electric field is zero everywhere inside
shown in Figure 1.44.
48 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
Gaussian
E
E
surface
E
Conductor
Qnet=0

 E=0


 Conductor
Since electric field is normal to the surface inside both hollow and solid conductors is
of the conductor, the curved part of the zero. It is a very interesting property which
cylinder has zero electric flux. Also inside has an important consequence.
the conductor, the electric field is zero. Consider a cavity inside the conductor as
Hence the bottom flat part of the Gaussian shown in Figure 1.48 (a). Whatever the
surface has no electric flux. charges at the surfaces and whatever the
Therefore the top flat surface alone electrical disturbances outside, the electric
contributes to the electric flux. The electric field inside the cavity is zero. A sensitive
field is parallel to the area vector and the electrical instrument which is to be protected
total charge inside the surface is σA. By from external electrical disturbance is kept
applying Gaus’s law, inside this cavity. This is called electrostatic
σA
shielding.
EA = Faraday cage is an instrument used to
ε
σ demonstrate this effect. It is made up of metal
In vector form, E= n (1.79)
ε bars configured as shown in Figure1.48 (b).
Here n represents the unit vector outward If an artificial lightning jolt is created
normal to the surface of the conductor. outside, the person inside is not affected.
Suppose σ < 0, then electric field points
inward perpendicular to the surface.
(iv) The electrostatic potential has the
same value on the surface and inside
of the conductor. Electric field line
During lightning accompanied by a The negative charge of the rod repels the
thunderstorm, it is always safer to sit inside a electrons in the conductor to the opposite
bus than in open ground or under a tree. The side. As a result, positive charges are induced
metal body of the bus provides electrostatic near the region of the charged rod while
shielding, since the electric field inside is negative charges on the farther side.
zero. During lightning, the charges flow Before introducing the charged rod, the free
through the body of the conductor to the electrons were distributed uniformly on the
ground with no effect on the person inside surface of the conductor and the net charge
that bus. is zero. Once the charged rod is brought near
the conductor, the distribution is no longer
uniform with more electrons located on the
1.7.3 Electrostatic induction
farther side of the rod and positive charges
In section 1.1, we have learnt that an are located closer to the rod. But the total
object can be charged by rubbing using an charge is zero.
appropriate material. Whenever a charged (ii) Now the conducting sphere is connected
rod is touched by another conductor, to the ground through a conducting
charges start to flow from charged rod to wire. This is called grounding. Since the
the conductor. Is it possible to charge a ground can always receive any amount
conductor without any contact? The answer of electrons, grounding removes the
is yes. This type of charging without actual electron from the conducting sphere.
contact is called electrostatic induction. Note that positive charges will not flow
(i) Consider an uncharged (neutral) to the ground because they are attracted
conducting sphere at rest on an insulating by the negative charges of the rod
stand. Suppose a negatively charged rod (Figure 1.49(b)).
(iii) When the grounding wire is removed
is brought near the conductor without
from the conductor, the positive charges
touching it, as shown in Figure 1.49(a).
remain near the charged rod (Figure
    1.49(c))
   
 ++
+
 ++
+ (iv) Now the charged rod is taken away from
+ +
the conductor. As soon as the charged
–
–
– –
– –
–
–
rod is removed, the positive charge gets
distributed uniformly on the surface of
(a)   (b) the conductor (Figure 1.49 (d)). By this
 

process, the neutral conducting sphere
 
 
 ++
+
+ becomes positively charged.
+
+
+ For an arbitrary shaped conductor, the
+
intermediate steps and conclusion are the
same except the final step. The distribution
(c) (d) of positive charges is not uniform for
arbitrarilyshaped conductors. Why is it not
Figure 1.49 Various steps in electrostatic uniform? The reason for it is discussed in
induction
the section 1.9
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 51
2g qE
its motion is the same as usual projectile 2 g +
m
motion of a mass m which we studied in
Kinematics (unit 2, vol1 XI physics). Range R v 2 sin 2θ v 2 sin 2θ
Here, in this problem, in addition to g g + qE
downward gravitational force, the charge m
also will experience a downward uniform
electrostatic force. Note that the time of flight, maximum
height, range are all inversely proportional
The acceleration of the charged ball due to to the acceleration of the object. Since
gravity = g j
g + qE > g for charge +q, the quantities T,
The acceleration of the charged ball due to m
qE hmax, and R will decrease when compared to
uniform electric field =  j
m the motion of an object of mass m and zero
The total acceleration of charged ball in net charge. Suppose the charge is –q, then
qE
downward direction a = − g + j g − qE < g , and the quantities T, h and
m m max
52 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
+– – +
→
p
q
_ (a) (b)
+
Figure 1.50 (a) Non polar molecules
→
v without external field (b) With the
0
_
+
_
external field
x
+
θ +
_
+q q=0 q Polar molecules
In polar molecules, the centers of the positive
and negative charges are separated even
in the absence of an external electric field.
1.7.4 Dielectrics or They have a permanent dipole moment.
insulators Due to thermal motion, the direction of
A dielectric is a nonconducting material each dipole moment is oriented randomly
and has no free electrons. The electrons in (Figure 1.51(a)). Hence the net dipole
a dielectric are bound within the atoms. moment is zero in the absence of an external
Ebonite, glass and mica are some examples electric field. Examples of polar molecules
of dielectrics. When an external electric field are H2O, N2O, HCl, NH3.
is applied, the electrons are not free to move When an external electric field is applied,
anywhere but they are realigned in a specific the dipoles inside the polar molecule tend
way. A dielectric is made up of either polar to align in the direction of the electric field.
molecules or nonpolar molecules. Hence a net dipole moment is induced in it.
Then the dielectric is said to be polarized by
Nonpolar molecules an external electric field (Figure 1.51(b)).
A nonpolar molecule is one in which
centers of positive and negative charges Polar molecules are
randomly oriented in
When an external
electric field is applied,
coincide. As a result, it has no permanent the absence of an
external electric field.
the molecules partially
align with the field.
dipole moment. Examples of nonpolar +
Eext
_
+ _
molecules are hydrogen (H2), oxygen (O2),
–σb +σb
_
+
+
+
_
– – – + – +
+ –
+ _
–
+ +
_
+ – + – – – +
– +
_
+
When an external electric field is applied,
+
–
+
Eext
+ _
+
–
Eint
–
+
_
+ –
+
+
– –
+ _
–
(a) (b)
induces dipole moment in the direction of
the external electric field. Then the dielectric Figure 1.51 (a) Randomly oriented polar
molecules (b) Align with the external
is said to be polarized by an external electric
electric field
field. This is shown in Figure 1.50.
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 53
+ _
+
+ +
_
+ – + – – – +
– +
_
+
–
+ _
Eext
+ +
+
–
Eint
–
+
_
+ –
+
+
– –
+ _
–
+ + – + – _
– _
+ – +
+
+
– – +
_
+ _
+
Eext
(a) (b)
54 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
+  + 
apart so that the bound charges become
V
free charges. Then the dielectric starts to
conduct electricity. This is called dielectric (a) (b) (c)
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 55
Q
E= (1.82)
Aε
56 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 57
Q2 1
UE = = CV 2 (∴ Q = CV ) (1.87)
2C 2
(a) Most people are now familiar with 1.8.4 Effect of dielectrics in
the digital camera. The flash which capacitors
comes from the camera when we
take photographs is due to the energy In earlier discussions, we assumed that
released from the capacitor, called a the space between the parallel plates of a
flash capacitor (Figure 1.57 (a)) capacitor is either empty or filled with air.
Suppose dielectrics like mica, glass or paper
(b) During cardiac arrest, a device called are introduced between the plates, then the
heart defibrillator is used to give a capacitance of the capacitor is altered. The
sudden surge of a large amount of dielectric can be inserted into the plates in
electrical energy to the patient’s chest to two different ways. (i) when the capacitor is
retrieve the normal heart function. This disconnected from the battery. (ii) when the
defibrillator uses a capacitor of 175 μF capacitor is connected to the battery.
charged to a high voltage of around
2000 V. This is shown in Figure 1.57(b). (i)
when the capacitor is disconnected
(c) Capacitors are used in the ignition from the battery
system of automobile engines to Consider a capacitor with two parallel
eliminate sparking plates each of crosssectional area A and are
(d) Capacitors are used to reduce power separated by a distance d. The capacitor is
fluctuations in power supplies and charged by a battery of voltage V0 and the
to increase the efficiency of power charge stored is Q0. The capacitance of the
transmission. capacitor without the dielectric is
However, capacitors have disadvantage
Q0
as well. Even after the battery or power C0 = (1.90)
V0
supply is removed, the capacitor stores
charges and energy for some time. For The battery is then disconnected from
example if the TV is switched off, it is the capacitor and the dielectric is inserted
always advisable to not touch the back between the plates. This is shown in
side of the TV panel. Figure 1.58.
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 59
Q0 Q
C= = ε r 0 = ε r C0 (1.93)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+  V V0
d
→
E0
+
d
→ εr
E
ε r ε 0 A εA
– – – – – C= = (1.94)
d d
(b)
where ε = εr εo is the permittivity of the
Figure 1.58 (a) Capacitor is charged with dielectric medium.
a battery (b) Dielectric is inserted after The energy stored in the capacitor before
the battery is disconnected the insertion of a dielectric is given by
60 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
ε0 A
Now,
C0 =
d
Movable plate
εA
and
C= (1.99) Insulator
d (dielectric)
The energy stored in the capacitor before Fixed plate
the insertion of a dielectric is given by
1
U 0 = C0V02 (1.100)
2 When the key is pressed, the separation
Note that here we have not used the between the plates decreases leading to
1 Q02 an increase in the capacitance. This in
expression U 0 = because here, both turn triggers the electronic circuits in
2 C0
charge and capacitance are changed, whereas the computer to identify which key is
in equation (1.100), Vo remains constant. pressed.
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 61
Table 1.2
Dielectric Charge Voltage Electric field Capacitance Energy
S. No
is inserted Q V E C U
When the battery
1 Constant decreases Decreases Increases Decreases
is disconnected
When the battery
2 Increases Constant Constant Increases Increases
is connected
62 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
C1 C2 C3
+ – + – + –
+ – + – + –
+ – + – + –
+ – + – + – CS
V1 V2 V3
+ – + –
V V
(a) (b)
Figure 1.60 (a) Capacitors connected in series (b) Equivalence capacitors CS
–Q are transferred from negative terminal If three capacitors in series are considered
to the right plate of C3 which pushes the to form an equivalent single capacitor Cs
electrons of same amount Q from left shown in Figure 1.60(b), then we have
plate of C3 to the right plate of C2 due to Q
V= . Substituting this expression into
electrostatic induction. Similarly, the left CS
plate of C2 pushes the charges of –Q to the equation (1.104), we get
right plate of C1 which induces the positive
charge +Q on the left plate of C1. At the same Q 1 1 1
= Q + +
time, electrons of charge –Q are transferred CS C1 C2 C3
from left plate of C1 to positive terminal of
the battery. 1 1 1 1
= + + (1.105)
By these processes, each capacitor stores the CS C1 C2 C3
same amount of charge Q. The capacitances
of the capacitors are in general different, so Thus, the inverse of the equivalent
that the voltage across each capacitor is also capacitance CS of three capacitors connected
different and are denoted as V1, V2 and V3 in series is equal to the sum of the inverses
respectively. of each capacitance. This equivalent
The total voltage across each capacitor must capacitance CS is always less than the
be equal to the voltage of the battery. smallest individual capacitance in the series.
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 63
+ Q1 Q2 Q3
+ Q
 
V C1 C2 C3 V CP
(a) (b)
Figure 1.61 (a) capacitors in parallel (b) equivalent capacitance with the same total charge
Q = Q1 +Q2 +Q3(1.106)
1µF 4µF
4 µF 4µF 2µF
6µF
P Q P Q P Q P Q
Q = C1V + C2V + C3V(1.107) 6µF
64 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
from which we conclude that But from the conservation of total charge, Q
= q1 + q2, we get q1 = Q – q2. By substituting
σr = constant (1.114) this in the above equation,
66 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
outer surface of the sphere. This process The electric field on the surface of the
continues until the outer surface produces sphere(by Gauss law) is given by
the potential difference of the order of 107
which is the limiting value. We cannot store 1 Q
E=
charges beyond this limit since the extra 4 πε R 2
charge starts leaking to the surroundings The potential on the surface of the hollow
due to ionization of air. The leakage of metallic sphere is given by
charges can be reduced by enclosing the
machine in a gas filled steel chamber at very 1 Q
high pressure. V= = ER
4πε R
The high voltage produced in this Van de
Graaff generator is used to accelerate positive with Vmax = EmaxR
ions (protons and deuterons) for nuclear
disintegrations and other applications. V
Here Emax = 3×106 . So the maximum
m
potential difference created is given by
E X A M P L E 1.24
Dielectric strength of air is 3 × 106 V m1. Vmax = 3 × 106 × 0.5
Suppose the radius of a hollow sphere in
the Van de Graff generator is R = 0.5 m, = 1.5 × 106 V (or) 1.5 million volt
calculate the maximum potential difference
created by this Van de Graaff generator.
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 69
SUMMARY
70 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
Electric field inside a conductor is zero. The electric field at the surface of the
σ
conductor is normal to the surface and has magnitude E = .
ε
The surface of the conductor has the same potential, at all points on the surface.
Conductor can be charged using the process of induction.
A dielectric or insulator has no free electrons. When an electric field is applied, the
dielectric is polarised.
Q
Capacitance is given by C = .
V
ε A
Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor: C =
d
1
Electrostatic energy stored in a capacitor: U = CV 2
2
The equivalent capacitance for parallel combination is equal to the sum of individual
capacitance of capacitors.
For a series combination: The inverse of equivalent capacitance is equal to sum of
inverse of individual capacitances of capacitors.
The distribution of charges in the conductors depends on the shape of conductor.
For sharper edge, the surface charge density is greater. This principle is used in the
lightning arrestor
To create a large potential difference, a Van de Graaff generator is used.
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 71
CONCEPT MAP
ELECTROSTATICS
Van de Graff
Generator
72 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
EVALUATION
I Multiple choice questions 1 25
(a) (b)
1. Two identical point charges of 5 11
magnitude –q are fixed as shown in the 11
(c) 5 (d)
figure below. A third charge +q is placed 25
midway between the two charges at 4. An electric dipole is placed at an
the point P. Suppose this charge +q is alignment angle of 30o with an electric
displaced a small distance from the field of 2 × 105 N C1. It experiences a
point P in the directions indicated torque equal to 8 N m. The charge on
by the arrows, in which direction(s) the dipole if the dipole length is 1 cm is
will +q be stable with respect to the (a) 4 mC (b) 8 mC
displacement?
(c) 5 mC (d) 7 mC
B1
5. Four Gaussian surfaces are given below
+q
with charges inside each Gaussian
– +
surface. Rank the electric flux through
+
A1 P A2 +q
q
B2 each Gaussian surface in increasing
order.
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 73
+
+q
q 10. A thin conducting spherical shell
of radius R has a charge Q which is
uniformly distributed on its surface.
The correct plot for electrostatic
potential due to this spherical shell is
80q q
(a) (b)
ε 40ε
V V V
q q
(c) (d)
80ε 160ε
O r O r O
R R R
7. Two identical conducting balls having (a) (b) (c)
positive charges q1 and q2 are separated
by a center to center distance r. If they
V V V V
are made to touch each other and then
separated to the same distance, the
Oforce between them
r willO be r O r O r
R R R R
(NSEP(a)0405) (b) (c) (d)
(a) less than before
11. Two points A and B are maintained at
(b) same as before
a potential of 7 V and 4 V respectively.
(c) more than before
The work done in moving 50 electrons
(d) zero from A to B is
8. Rank the electrostatic potential (a) 8.80 × 1017 J
energies for the given system of charges
(b) 8.80 × 1017 J
in increasing order.
(c) 4.40 × 1017 J
(d) 5.80 × 1017 J
Q
+
r
Q
–
Q
– r
Q
–
Q
–
r
2Q
– +
Q
2r
2Q
–
12. If voltage applied on a capacitor is
increased from V to 2V, choose the
(a) (b) (c) (d)
correct conclusion.
(a) Q remains the same, C is doubled
(a) 1 = 4 < 2 < 3 (b) 2 = 4 < 3 < 1
(b) Q is doubled, C doubled
(c) 2 = 3 < 1 < 4 (d) 3 < 1 < 2 < 4
(c) C remains same, Q doubled
9. An electric field E = 10 xi exists in (d) Both Q and C remain same
a certain region of space. Then the
74 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 75
19. What is dielectric strength? 14. Obtain the expression for electric field
20. Define ‘capacitance’. Give its unit. due to an uniformly charged spherical
shell.
21. What is corona discharge?
15. Discuss the various properties of
conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.
III Long Answer questions 16. Explain the process of electrostatic
1. Discuss the basic properties of electric induction.
charges. 17. Explain dielectrics in detail and how
2. Explain in detail Coulomb’s law and its an electric field is induced inside a
various aspects. dielectric.
3. Define ‘Electric field’ and discuss its 18. Obtain the expression for capacitance
various aspects. for a parallel plate capacitor.
4. How do we determine the electric 19. Obtain the expression for energy stored
field due to a continuous charge in the parallel plate capacitor.
distribution? Explain. 20. Explain in detail the effect of a dielectric
5. Calculate the electric field due to a placed in a parallel plate capacitor.
dipole on its axial line and equatorial 21. Derive the expression for resultant
plane. capacitance, when capacitors are
connected in series and in parallel.
6. Derive an expression for the torque
experienced by a dipole due to a 22. Explain in detail how charges are
uniform electric field. distributed in a conductor, and
the principle behind the lightning
7. Derive an expression for electrostatic
conductor.
potential due to a point charge.
23. Explain in detail the construction and
8. Derive an expression for electrostatic
working of a Van de Graaff generator.
potential due to an electric dipole.
9. Obtain an expression for potential
Exercises
energy due to a collection of three
point charges which are separated by 1. When two objects are rubbed with
finite distances. each other, approximately a charge of
50 nC can be produced in each object.
10. Derive an expression for electrostatic
Calculate the number of electrons that
potential energy of the dipole in a
must be transferred to produce this
uniform electric field.
charge.
11. Obtain Gauss law from Coulomb’s law.
Ans: 31.25 × 1010 electrons
12. Obtain the expression for electric field 2. The total number of electrons in the
due to an infinitely long charged wire. human body is typically in the order of
13. Obtain the expression for electric field 1028. Suppose, due to some reason, you
due to an charged infinite plane sheet. and your friend lost 1% of this number
76 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ 
force between you and your friend +
+


+ 
separated at a distance of 1m. Compare k
m,Q
+
→
E
+
+


+   v→0
this with your weight. Assume mass 
+
+ +q q
+
+

of each person is 60 kg and use point
x=0











(a) (b) (c)
charge approximation.
Ans:
Ans: Fe = 9 × 1061 N, W = 588 N
3. Five identical charges Q are placed N T
qE
equidistant on a semicircle as shown
kx qE
in the figure. Another point charge q is QE
N T
qE
y
kx qE
QE
mg
Q mg mg
Q
(a) (b) (c)
R
6. Consider an electron travelling with a
Q q x speed vo and entering into a uniform
electric field E which is perpendicular
Q
Q to v as shown in the Figure.
Ignoring gravity, obtain the electron’s
acceleration, velocity and position as
1 qQ functions of time.
Ans: F =
4 πε R 2
(
1+ 2 N
i )
4. Suppose a charge +q on Earth’s surface y
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 77
5cm 60°
9. A spark plug in a bike or a car is used Ans: ∆U = 3.246 J, negative sign implies
to ignite the airfuel mixture in the that to move the charge 2µC no external
engine. It consists of two electrodes work is required. System spends its stored
78 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
energy to move the charge from point a to (a) Calculate the time of flight for both
point b. electron and proton (b) Suppose if a
11. Calculate the resultant capacitances for neutron is allowed to fall, what is the
each of the following combinations of time of flight? (c) Among the three,
capacitors. which one will reach the bottom first?
(Take mp = 1.6 x 1027 kg, me = 9.1 x 1031
P kg and g = 10 m s2)
C0 C0 C0 C1 Ans: C C C
2 0 0
C0 C0
C0 C0 C0 R 2Shme P Q
C0 C0
C
(a) t e =C4 ≈ 1.5 ns (ignoring the gravity),
3 eE C0
C 0
Q
(a) (b) (c) (d) 2hme (e)
tp = ≈ 63 ns (ignoring the gravity)
P eE
C0 C1 C2 C0 C0
2h
C0 C0 P (b) tn = ≈ 14.1ms
C0 C0 R S Q g
C3 C4 C0
C0
(c) electron will reach first
Q
) (c) (d) (e)
13. During a thunder storm, the movement
of water molecules within the clouds
2 creates friction, partially causing the
Ans: (a) C (b) C (c) 3 C
3 bottom part of the clouds to become
(d) across PQ:
negatively charged. This implies
C1C2C3 + C2C3C4 + C1C2C4 + C1C3C4 that the bottom of the cloud and the
(C1 + C2 )(C3 + C4 ) ground act as a parallel plate capacitor.
across RS: If the electric field between the cloud
and ground exceeds the dielectric
C1C2C3 + C2C3C4 + C1C2C4 + C1C3C4
breakdown of the air (3 × 106 Vm1 ),
(C1 + C2 )(C3 + C4 ) lightning will occur.
(e) across PQ: 2 Co
12. An electron and a proton are allowed + + + + + + + + + + +
to fall through the separation between + + + + + + + + + + +
– – – – – – – – – –
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
x
– Negative charge
– – – – – – – – –
– – – – – – – – –
– – – – – – – – – –
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 79
c d P Q
8µF 2µF 8µF
a
ε A 2ε A ε
+  Ans : CP = (1 + εr ), CQ = r
9V 2d d 1 + ε r
1. Douglas C.Giancoli, , “Physics for Scientist & Engineers with Modern Physics”, Pearson
Prentice Hall, Fourth edition
2. James Walker, “Physics”, Pearson Addison Wesley Publishers, Fourth Edition
3. Purcell, Morin, “Electricity and Magnetism”, “Cambridge University Press, Third Edition.
4. Serway and Jewett, “Physics for Scientist and Engineers with Modern Physics”, Brook/Coole
Publishers, Eighth Edition
5. Tipler, Mosca, “Physics for scientist and Engineers with Modern Physics”, Freeman and
Company, Sixth Edition
6. Tarasov and Tarasova, “Questions and problems in School Physics”, Mir Publishers
7. H.C.Verma, “Concepts of Physics: Vol 2, Bharthi Bhawan Publishers
8. Eric Roger, Physics for the Inquiring Mind, Princeton University Press
80 Unit 1 E lectrostatics
ICT CORNER
Electrostatics
STEPS:
• Open the browser and type “phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/legacy/capacitorlab” in the
address bar. Go to the tab ‘Dielectric’.
• Change the plate area, distance between the plate and dielectric. Identify what you would
maximize or minimize to make a capacitor with the greatest capacitance.
• Explore the relationships between charge, voltage, and stored energy for a capacitor. Design
a capacitor system to store the greatest energy.
• Charge the capacitor with 1.0 v using the battery. Disconnect the battery. Now insert a
dielectric between the plates. Discus how electric field changes in between the plates when
dielectric is introduced.
• What is the effect of introducing a dielectric between plates? (Change dielectric materials)
Step1 Step2
Step3 Step4
Connect capacitors parallel and series combination and ﬁnd the eﬀective capacitance.
Note:
Install Java application if it is not in your system. You can download all the phet
simulation and works in off line from https://phet.colorado.edu/en/oﬄineaccess .
URL:
https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/legacy/capacitorlab
* Pictures are indicative only.
* If browser requires, allow Flash Player or Java Script to load the page.
Unit 1 E lectrostatics 81
UNIT
2 CURRENT ELECTRICITY
We will make electricity so cheap that only the rich will burn candles
– Thomas A. Edison
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
High potential
Equal potential
Flow of water
(a) Equal gravitational (b) Water flows from high gravitational potential
potentialNo water flow to low gravitational potential
(c) (d) I
B A
–
Copper wire
+
A B
I
2.1.1 Conventional Current
Figure 2.2 Charges flow across the area A
Direction of current
I
If a net charge Q passes through any
cross section of a conductor in time t, then
+
Q V
the current is defined as I = . But charge –
t
flow is not always constant. Hence current
can more generally be defined as
Flow of electrons
∆Q
I avg = (2.1) Figure 2.3 Direction of conventional
∆t
current and electron flow
Where ∆Q is the amount of charge that
passes through the conductor at any cross In an electric circuit, arrow heads are used
section during the time interval ∆t. If the to indicate the direction of flow of current.
rate at which charge flows changes in time, By convention, this flow in the circuit should
the current also changes. The instantaneous be from the positive terminal of the battery
current I is defined as the limit of the average to the negative terminal. This current is
current, as ∆t ® 0 called the conventional current or simply
∆Q dQ current and is in the direction in which a
I = lim = (2.2)
∆t →0 ∆t dt positive test charge would move. In typical
circuits the charges that flow are actually
The SI unit of current is the ampere (A) electrons, from the negative terminal of
1C the battery to the positive. As a result, the
1A =
1s flow of electrons and the
direction of conventional
That is, 1A of current is equivalent to
current points in opposite
1 Coulomb of charge passing through a
direction as shown in
perpendicular cross section in 1second. The
Figure 2.3. Mathematically,
electric current is a scalar quantity.
a transfer of positive charge
84 Unit 2 CURRENT ELECTRICIT Y
is the same as a transfer of negative charge electric field accelerates the electrons, while
in the opposite direction. ions scatter the electrons and change the
direction of motion. Thus, we have zigzag
paths of electrons. In addition to the zigzag
motion due to the collisions, the electrons
move slowly along the conductor in a
direction opposite to that of E as shown in
the Figure 2.4.
Ions
Any material is made up of neutral
atoms with equal number of electrons
Electric current is not only produced and protons. If the outermost electrons
by batteries. In nature, lightning bolt leave the atoms, they become free
produces enormous electric current electrons and are responsible for
in a short time. During lightning, very electric current. The atoms after losing
high potential difference is created their outer most electrons will have
between the clouds and ground so more positive charges and hence are
charges flow between the clouds and called positive ions. These ions will not
ground. move freely within the material like the
free electrons. Hence the positive ions
will not give rise to current.
2.1.2 Drift velocity
In a conductor the charge carriers
are free electrons. These electrons move →
vd
freely through the conductor and collide
repeatedly with the positive ions. If there
is no electric field, the electrons move in –
random directions, so the directions of
their velocities are also completely random
direction. On an average, the number of 
electrons travelling in any direction will be
equal to the number of electrons travelling
in the opposite direction. As a result, there is →
E
no net flow of electrons in any direction and
hence there will not be any current.
Figure 2.4 Electric current
Suppose a potential difference is set
across the conductor by connecting a
battery, an electric field E is created in the This velocity is called drift velocity vd . The
conductor. This electric field exerts a force drift velocity is the average velocity acquired
on the electrons, producing a current. The by the electrons inside the conductor when
When we say ‘battery has no charge’, Substituting for dx from equation (2.7)
it means, that the battery has lost ability in (2.8)
to provide energy or provide potential = (A vd dt ) n
difference to the electrons in the circuit. Total charge in volume element dQ =
When we say ‘mobile is charging’, it implies (charge) × (number of electrons in the
that the battery is receiving energy from AC volume element)
power supply and not electrons.
dQ = (e)(Avddt)n
dQ neAv d dt
2.1.3 Microscopic model of Hence the current I = =
dt dt
current
I = ne Avd .(2.9)
Consider a conductor with area of cross
section A and an electric field E applied from Current density (J)
right to left. Suppose there are n electrons per The current density ( J ) is defined as the
unit volume in the conductor and assume current per unit area of cross section of the
that all the electrons move with the same conductor.
I
drift velocity vd as shown in Figure 2.5. J=
A
The S.I unit of current density is A2 (or) A m2
dx m
neAvd
J= (from equation 2.9)
A
→
v
 d J = ne vd (2.10)
A
The above expression is valid only when
e 
the direction of the current is perpendicular
to the area A. In general, the current density
vd dt is a vector quantity and it is given by
J = nevd
Figure 2.5 Microscopic model of current
Substituting vd from equation (2.4)
The drift velocity of the electrons = vd n ⋅ e2 τ
J =− E (2.11)
The electrons move through a distance m
dx within a small interval of dt
J = −σE
vd = dx ; dx = vd dt(2.7) But conventionally, we take the direction
dt of (conventional) current density as the
Since A is the area of cross section of direction of electric field. So the above
the conductor, the electrons available in the equation becomes
volume of length dx is J = σE (2.12)
= volume × number per unit volume ne 2 τ
where σ = is called conductivity.
m
= Adx ´n(2.8) The equation 2.12 is called microscopic
form of ohm’s law.
Unit 2 CURRENT ELECTRICIT Y 87
Solution I=
q ne
=
t t
The relation between drift velocity of
electrons and current in a wire of cross It
n=
sectional area A is e
I 0. 2 32×1
vd = = n=
ne A 8.4 ×10 ×1.6×10−19 ×0.5×10−6
28
1.6×10−19 C
2.2
I = JA cos
V
Figure 2.6 Current is a scalar
Figure 2.7 Current through the conductor
V = IR (2.16)
Materials for which the current against
voltage graph is a straight line through the
From the above equation, the resistance
origin, are said to obey Ohm’s law and their
is the ratio of potential difference across
behaviour is said to be ohmic as shown in
the given conductor to the current passing
Figure 2.8(a). Materials or devices that do
through the conductor.
not follow Ohm’s law are said to be non
V
R= (2.17) ohmic. These materials have more complex
I
relationships between voltage and current.
The SI unit of resistance is ohm (Ω). A plot of I against V for a nonohmic
From the equation (2.16), we infer that the material is nonlinear and they do not have
graph between current versus voltage is a constant resistance (Figure 2.8(b)).
straight line with a slope equal to the inverse
Unit 2 CURRENT ELECTRICIT Y 89
E X A M P L E 2.6 B
C
B
C
(a) V (b) V
Solution
If a potential difference of V is applied
R1 = 20 Ω, R2= ?
between the two faces A and B of the block
Let the original length (l1) be l. (figure (a)), the current IAB is observed.
The new length, l2 = 8l1 (i.,e) l2 =8l Find the current that flows if the same
potential difference V is applied between
l1
The original resistance, R1 = ρ the two faces B and C of the block (figure
A1
(b)). Give your answers in terms of IAB.
l2 ρ(8l )
The new resistance R2 = ρ =
A2 A2 Solution
Though the wire is stretched, its volume is In the first case, the resistance of the block
unchanged.
length C
Initial volume = Final volume RAB = ρ =ρ
Area AB
A1l1= A2l2 , A1l = A28l V V AB
The current I AB = = ⋅ (1)
A1 8l RAB ρ C
= =8
A2 l In the second case, the resistance of the
y dividing equation R2 by equation R1,
B block RBC = ρ A
BC
we get V V BC
The current I BC = = ⋅ (2)
R2 ρ(8l ) A1 RBC ρ A
= ×
R1 A2 ρl
To express IBC interms of IAB, we multiply
R2 A1 and divide equation (2) by AC, we get
= ×8
R1 A2
A1 V BC AC V AB C 2 C 2
Substituting the value of , we get I BC = ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ I AB
A2 ρ A AC ρ C A2 A2
R2
= 8×8 = 64 Since C > A, the current IBC > IAB
R1
R2 = 64 × 20=1280 Ω
Hence, stretching the length of the wire has The human body contains a large
increased its resistance. amount of water which has low
resistance of around 200 Ω and
the dry skin has high resistance of
E X A M P L E 2.7
around 500 k Ω. But when the skin is wet, the
Consider a rectangular block of metal of resistance is reduced to around1000 Ω. This is
the reason, repairing the electrical connection
height A, width B and length C as shown
with the wet skin is always dangerous.
in the figure.
Resistor
R1 R2
2kΩ
–
4Ω 6Ω
Resistor
3kΩ
I
I
Solution I
Resistors in parallel I
(b) Equivalent resistance (RP) has the same current
Resistors are in parallel when they are
connected across the same potential
1kΩ
difference as shown in Figure 2.10 (a).
In this case, the total current I that leaves
2kΩ
the battery is split into three separate paths.
Let I1, I2 and I3 be the current through the 3kΩ
resistors R1, R2 and R3 respectively. Due to
Battery
the conservation of charge, total current in
– +
the circuit I is equal to sum of the currents
through each of the three resistors.
(c) Resistors in parallel(Actual photo)
I = I1 + I2 + I3(2.24)
Figure 2.10 Resistors in parallel
Since the voltage across each resistor
Here RP is the equivalent resistance of the
is the same, applying Ohm’s law to each
parallel combination of the resistors. Thus,
resistor, we have
when a number of resistors are connected
V V V in parallel, the sum of the reciprocal of the
I1 = , I 2 = , I 3 = (2.25)
R1 R2 R3 values of resistance of the individual resistor
Substituting these values in equation is equal to the reciprocal of the effective
(2.24),we get resistance of the combination as shown in
the Figure 2.10 (b)
V V V 1 1 1
I= + + =V + + Note: The value of equivalent resistance
R1 R2 R3 R
1 R2 R3 in parallel connection will be lesser than
V each individual resistance.
I= House hold appliances are always
RP
connected in parallel so that even if one
1 1 1 1
= + + (2.26) is switched off, the other devices could
RP R1 R2 R3
function properly.
Unit 2 CURRENT ELECTRICIT Y 93
E X A M P L E 2.9 Solution
I
I2
∴ R1R2 = 56
+ –
R2 = 56 Ω (3)
24 V 15
Substituting for R2 in equation (1) from
Solution equation (3)
Since the resistances are connected in 56
R1 + = 15
parallel, therefore, the equivalent resistance R1
in the circuit is R12 + 56
Then, = 15
R1
1 1 1 1 1
= + = + R12+ 56 = 15 R1
RP R1 R2 4 6
1 5 12
= Ω or RP = Ω R1215 R1+ 56 = 0
RP 12 5
he above equation can be solved using
T
The resistors are connected in parallel, the factorisation.
potential (voltage) across each resistor is
R128 R17 R1+ 56 = 0
the same.
R1 (R1– 8) – 7 (R1– 8) = 0
V 24V
I1 = = = 6A (R1– 8) (R1– 7) = 0
R1 6Ω
V 24 If (R1= 8 Ω)
I2 = = = 4A
R2 6
using in equation (1)
The current I is the total of the currents in
the two branches. Then, 8 + R2 = 15
I = I1 + I2= 6 A + 4 A = 10 A R2 = 15 – 8 = 7 Ω ,
R2 = 7 Ω i.e , (when R1 = 8 Ω ; R2 = 7 Ω)
E X A M P L E 2.10
If (R1= 7 Ω)
When two resistances connected in series
Substituting in equation (1)
and parallel their equivalent resistances
56 7 + R2 = 15
are 15 Ω and Ω respectively. Find the
15 R2 = 8 Ω , i.e , (when R1 = 8 Ω ; R2 = 7 Ω )
individual resistances.
94 Unit 2 CURRENT ELECTRICIT Y
E X A M P L E 2.11
1Ω 2Ω 3Ω
A B 6Ω
2Ω 4Ω 6Ω
A B
Solution
Parallel connection
E X A M P L E 2.12
Part 1
Five resistors are connected in the
1 1 1
= + configuration as shown in the figure.
R p1 R1 R2
Calculate the equivalent resistance between
1 1 1 2 the points a and b.
= + = R p1 = 1Ω
R p1 2 2 2
c
4Ω 6Ω
1Ω 1Ω 1Ω
A RP1 B
4Ω 6Ω
5Ω
a b
Part II
1Ω 1Ω
1 1 1 2 1 1
= + = , = , R p2 = 2 Ω
R p2 4 4 4 R p 2 d
2
6Ω
Solution
1Ω 6Ω
A
R
B Case (a)
P2
6Ω
To find the equivalent resistance between
the points a and b, we assume that current
Part III
is entering the junction a. Since all the
1 1 1 2 resistances in the outside loop are the same
= + =
R p3 6 6 6 (1Ω), the current in the branches ac and
1 1 ad must be equal. So the electric potential
= , R p3 = 3 Ω
R p3 3 at the point c and d is the same hence no
current flows into 5 Ω resistance. It implies
R = R p1 + R p2 + R p3 that the 5 Ω has no role in determining
the equivalent resistance and it can be
R=1+2+3R=6Ω
removed. So the circuit is simplified as
The circuit became: shown in the figure.
(Ωm)
ρ
ρ (Ωm)
0 T
(K)
T(K)
ρ0
0
T
Figure 2.14 Temperature dependence of
resistivity for a semiconductor
E X A M P L E 2.13 I
Solution
a d
R0= 3 Ω, T = 100 C, T0 = 20 C
0 0
α = 0.004/0C, RT= ?
RT= R0(1 + α(TT0)) Figure 2.15 Energy given by the battery
R100 = 3(1 + 0.004 × 80)
R100 = 3(1 + 0.32) Assume that a positive charge of dQ
R100 = 3(1.32) moves from point a to b through the battery
R100 = 3.96 Ω and moves from point c to d through the
resistor and back to point a. When the charge
Unit 2 CURRENT ELECTRICIT Y 99
moves from point a to b, it gains potential Usually these voltage rating refers AC
energy dU = V.dQ and the chemical potential RMS voltages. For a given bulb, if the voltage
energy of the battery decreases by the drop across the bulb is greater than voltage
same amount. When this charge dQ passes rating, the bulb will fuse.
through resistor it loses the potential energy
Using Ohm’s law, power delivered to the
dU = V.dQ due to collision with atoms in the
resistance R is expressed in other forms
resistor and again reaches the point a. This
process occurs continuously till the battery
is connected in the circuit. The rate at which P = IV = I (IR) = I2R(2.33)
the charge loses its electrical potential
energy in the resistor can be calculated. V V2
P = IV = V= (2.34)
The electrical power P is the rate at which R R
the electrical potential energy is delivered,
The Tamilnadu
Electricity Board is charging
for the amount of energy you
use and not for the power. A current
of 1A flowing through a potential
difference of 1V produces a power of
Figure 2.16 Electrical bulbs with power
rating 1W.
E X A M P L E 2.16
c d Two electric bulbs marked 20 W – 220 V
and 100 W – 220 V are connected in series
– to 440 V supply. Which bulb will be fused?
a
+
b
V Solution
To check which bulb will be fused, the
Solution voltage drop across each bulb has to be
he power delivered by the battery
(a) T calculated.
P = VI. Since the bulbs are connected The resistance of a bulb,
in parallel, the voltage drop across
2
each bulb is the same. If the voltage is V 2 (Rated voltage)
R= =
kept fixed, then the power is directly P Rated power
proportional to current (P ∝ I). For 20W220V bulb,
So 60 W bulb draws twice as much
2
as current as 30 W and it will glow (220)
R1 = Ω = 2420 Ω
brighter then others. 20
o calculate the resistance of the
(b) T For 100W220V bulb,
V2
bulbs, we use the relation P = . 2
R (220)
R2 = Ω = 484 Ω
In both the bulbs, the voltage drop 100
is the same, so the power is inversely
proportional to the resistance or Both the bulbs are connected in series. So
resistance is inversely proportional the current which passes through both the
bulbs are same. The current that passes
to the power R ∝ 1 . It implies V
P through the circuit, I =
Rtot
.
440
V2 = IR2 = × 484 ≈ 73.3 V
2904
+ –
Terminal Terminal
Carbon + – Zinc
electrode electrode
(+) ()
Sulfuric acid
I + V
–
R
(b)
V
Figure 2.19 Measuring the emf of a cell
Figure 2.20 Internal resistance of the cell
Electromotive force determines the
amount of work a battery or cell does to The emf of cell ξ is measured by
move a certain amount of charge around the connecting a high resistance voltmeter
circuit. It is denoted by the symbol ξ and to across it without connecting the external
be pronounced as ‘xi’. An ideal battery has resistance R as shown in Figure 2.20(a).
zero internal resistance and the potential Since the voltmeter draws very little current
difference (terminal voltage) across the for deflection, the circuit may be considered
battery equals to its emf. But a real battery as open. Hence the voltmeter reading gives
is made of electrodes and electrolyte, there the emf of the cell. Then, external resistance
is resistance to the flow of charges within R is included in the circuit and current I
the battery. This resistance is called internal is established in the circuit. The potential
resistance r. For a real battery, the terminal difference across R is equal to the potential
voltage is not equal to the emf of the battery. difference across the cell (V) as shown in
A freshly prepared cell has low internal Figure 2.20(b).
resistance and it increases with ageing. The potential drop across the resistor R is
V = IR (2.35)
2.4.2 Determination of
internal resistance
Due to internal resistance r of the cell,
The circuit connections are made as shown the voltmeter reads a value V, which is less
in Figure 2.20. than the emf of cell ξ. It is because, certain
Unit 2 CURRENT ELECTRICIT Y 103
amount of voltage (Ir) has dropped across voltage and the internal resistance of the
the internal resistance r. battery (b) power delivered by the battery
Then V = ξ – Ir and power delivered to the resistor
Ir = ξ – V(2.36) Solution
The given values I = 3.93 A, ξ = 12 V,
Dividing equation (2.36) by equation
R=3Ω
(2.35), we get
Ir ξ − V he terminal voltage of the battery
(a) T
=
IR V is equal to voltage drop across the
ξ −V resistor
r= R (2.37)
V V = IR = 3.93 × 3 = 11.79 V
Since ξ, V and R are known, internal The internal resistance of the battery,
resistance r can be determined. We can
also find the total current that flows in the ξ −V 12 −11.79
r= R = ×3 = 0.05 Ω
circuit. V 11.79
Due to this internal resistance, the power (b) The power delivered by the battery P
delivered to the circuit is not equal to power = Iξ = 3.93 × 12 = 47.1 W
rating mentioned in the battery. For a battery
The power delivered to the resistor = I2 R
of emf ξ, with an internal resistance r, the
= 46.3 W
power delivered to the circuit of resistance
R is given by The remaining power = (47.1 – 46.3)
P = 0.772 W is delivered to the internal
P = Iξ = I (V + Ir) (from equation 2.36)
resistance and cannot be used to do useful
Here V is the voltage drop across the work. (it is equal to I2 r).
resistance R and it is equal to IR.
Therefore, P = I (IR +Ir)
2.4.3 Cells in series
P = I2 R + I2 r(2.38) Several cells can be connected to form a
battery. In series connection, the negative
Here I2 r is the power delivered to the terminal of one cell is connected to the
internal resistance and I2 R is the power positive terminal of the second cell, the
delivered to the electrical device (here it negative terminal of second cell is connected
is the resistance R). For a good battery, to the positive terminal of the third cell
the internal resistance r is very small, then and so on. The free positive terminal of the
I2 r << I2 R and almost entire power is first cell and the free negative terminal of
delivered to the resistance. the last cell become the terminals of the
battery.
E X A M P L E 2.17
Suppose n cells, each of emf ξ volts and
A battery has an emf of 12 V and connected internal resistance r ohms are connected in
to a resistor of 3 Ω. The current in the series with an external resistance R as shown
circuit is 3.93 A. Calculate (a) terminal in Figure 2.21
Activity
Construct lemon cells in series and
Cella in series (Schematic diagram) observe the potential of this combination
ξ ξ ξ ξ
+ –
I
nξ
I= ≈ nI1(2.40)
R R = 10Ω
where, I1 is the current due to a single cell
I1 = ξ Find
R i) Equivalent emf of the combination
Thus, if r is negligible when compared
ii) Equivalent internal resistance
to R the current supplied by the battery is n
otal current
iii) T
times that supplied by a single cell.
iv) otential difference across external
P
nξ ξ resistance
Case (b) If r>>R, I = ≈ (2.41)
nr r
v) Potential difference across each cell
It is the current due to a single cell. That is, Solution
current due to the whole battery is the same as
that due to a single cell and hence there is no i) Equivalent emf of the combination
advantage in connecting several cells. ξeq = nξ = 4 9 = 36 V
nξ ξ
iii) Total current I = + + – –
R + nr
4 ×9 ξ
= I + –
10 + (4 ×0.1)
4 ×9 36
= = V
10 + 0.4 10.4
I = 3.46 A R
cells in parallel (Circuit diagram)
iv) otential difference across external
P
resistance V = IR = 3.46 × 10 = 34.6
V. The remaining 1.4 V is dropped
across the internal resistance of cells.
v) Potential difference across each cell
V 34.6
= = 8.65V
n 4
Going from b to a
R
I
Solution (b)
a
V = IR
b
the circuit, ξ
1.5A – 0.9A – I = 0
 +
a b
0.6A – I = 0 (d) V = –ξ
I = 0.6 A
Figure 2.24 Kirchhoff voltage rule
and for the closed loop ABCA It implies that the current in the 1 ohm
I4R4 + I5R5I2R2= 0 resistor flows from F to E.
I1P =I2R(2.51)
Substituting the equation (2.49) and E X A M P L E 2.23
(2.50) in equation (2.48)
In a Wheatstone’s bridge P = 100 Ω, Q =
I1P + I1Q – I2S – I2R = 0 1000 Ω and R = 40 Ω. If the galvanometer
I1 (P + Q) = I2 (R +S) (2.52) shows zero deflection, determine the value
of S.
110 Unit 2 CURRENT ELECTRICIT Y
x
R P Q
S
1000Ω C E D
400Ω G1 G2
G HR
ξ
J
A B
l1 l2
Metre Scale
Solution
( )
P R
= ξ K
Q S
500 x + 400 Figure 2.26 Meter bridge
=
800 1000
x + 400 500
= The position of the jockey on the wire is
1000 800
adjusted so that the galvanometer shows zero
500
x + 400 = ×1000 deflection. Let the point be J. The lengths
800
5 AJ and JB of the bridge wire now replace
x + 400 = ×1000
8 the resistance R and S of the Wheatstone’s
x + 400 = 0.625 × 1000 bridge. Then
x + 400 = 625 P R R ′. AJ
x = 625 – 400 = = (2.54)
Q S R ′. JB
x = 225 Ω
Bt. The battery, key and the potentiometer series. This is the primary circuit. The end
wire are connected in series forms the C of the wire is connected to the terminal
primary circuit. The positive terminal of M of a DPDT (Double Pole Double Throw)
a primary cell of emf ξ is connected to the switch and the other terminal N is connected
point C and negative terminal is connected to a jockey through a galvanometer G and
to the jockey through a galvanometer G a high resistance HR. The cells whose emf
and a high resistance HR. This forms the ξ1 and ξ2 to be compared are connected to
secondary circuit. the terminals M1,N1 and M2,N2 of the DPDT
switch. The positive terminals of Bt, ξ1 and
Bt K
( )
ξ2 should be connected to the same end C.
Rh
l
D Bt
C
J K
( )
G HR
ξ
J
Figure 2.27 Potentiometer C D
M1 ξ1 N1
Let contact be made at any point J
M N HR
on the wire by jockey. If the potential G
M2 N2
difference across CJ is equal to the emf of ξ2
the cell ξ then no current will flow through
the galvanometer and it will show zero
deflection. CJ is the balancing length l. The Figure 2.28 Comparison of emf of two
potential difference across CJ is equal to Irl cells
where I is the current flowing through the
wire and r is the resistance per unit length The DPDT switch is pressed towards M1,
of the wire. N1 so that cell ξ1 is included in the secondary
circuit and the balancing length l1 is found
Hence ξ = Irl(2.58)
by adjusting the jockey for zero deflection.
Then the second cell ξ2 is included in
Since I and r are constants, ξ ∝ l. The
the circuit and the balancing length l2 is
emf of the cell is directly proportional to the
determined. Let r be the resistance per unit
balancing length.
length of the potentiometer wire and I be
the current flowing through the wire.
2.5.6 Comparison of
emf of two cells with a we have ξ1 = Irl1(2.59)
potentiometer
ξ2 = Irl2 (2.60)
To compare the emf of two cells, the
circuit connections are made as shown By dividing equation (2.59) by (2.60)
in Figure 2.28. Potentiometer wire CD is ξ1 l1
= (2.61)
connected to a battery Bt and a key K in ξ2 l2
K2
2
2. Electric fuses
Fuses as shown in Figure 2.31, are
connected in series in a circuit to protect the
electric devices from the heat developed by Figure 2.32 circuit breakers
the passage of excessive current. It is a short
length of a wire made of a low melting point
material. It melts and breaks the circuit if 3. Electric furnace
current exceeds a certain value. Lead and Furnaces as shown in Figure 2.33 are
copper wire melts and burns out when used to manufacture a large number of
the current increases above 5 A and 35 A technologically important materials such
respectively. as steel, silicon carbide, quartz, gallium
The only disadvantage with the above arsenide, etc). To produce temperatures up
fuses is that once fuse wire is burnt due to to 1500°C, molybdenumnichrome wire
excessive current, they need to be replaced. wound on a silica tube is used. Carbon
Nowadays in houses, circuit breakers arc furnaces produce temperatures up to
(trippers) are also used instead of fuses. 3000 °C.
116 Unit 2 CURRENT ELECTRICIT Y
(a) (b)
2. This effect is utilized in automobiles as gets heated and junction B gets cooled as
automotive thermoelectric generators shown in the Figure 2.36(b). Hence Peltier
for increasing fuel efficiency. effect is reversible.
3. Seebeck effect is used in
thermocouples and thermopiles to 2.7.3 Thomson effect
measure the temperature difference Thomson showed that if two points in a
between the two objects. conductor are at different temperatures,
the density of electrons at these points
2.7.2 Peltier effect will differ and as a result the potential
difference is created between these points.
In 1834, Peltier discovered that when
Thomson effect is also reversible.
an electric current is passed through a
circuit of a thermocouple, heat is evolved
at one junction and absorbed at the other
Potential
Potential
junction. This is known as Peltier effect. Heat Heat Heat Heat
absorbed evolved evolved absorbed
I A C B A C B
I
Cu
+  Cu  A
+
M N B A M N B
Copper bar Iron bar
A B A B
Cooled Heated Cooled Heated
(a) Positive thomson effect (b) Negative thomson effect
Fe Figure
Fe 2.37 (a) Positive Thomson effect
(a) (b)
(b) Negative Thomson effect
Cu
+  Cu  +
If current is passed through a copper bar
B AB which is heated at the middle point C,
B A
Heated Cooled Heated the point C will be at higher potential. This
indicates that the heat is absorbed along
Fe Fe
(a)
AC and evolved along CB of the conductor
(b)
as shown in Figure 2.37(a). Thus heat is
Figure 2.36 Peltier effect: Cu – Fe transferred due to the current flow in the
thermocouple direction of the current. It is called positive
Thomson effect. Similar effect is observed
In the CuFe thermocouple the junctions in metals like silver, zinc, and cadmium.
A and B are maintained at the same When the copper bar is replaced by
temperature. Let a current from a battery an iron bar, heat is evolved along CA and
flow through the thermocouple (Figure 2.36 absorbed along BC. Thus heat is transferred
(a)). At the junction A, where the current due to the current flow in the direction
flows from Cu to Fe, heat is absorbed and the opposite to the direction of current. It is
junction A becomes cold. At the junction B, called negative Thomson effect as shown in
where the current flows from Fe to Cu heat the Figure 2.37(b). Similar effect is observed
is liberated and it becomes hot. When the in metals like platinum, nickel, cobalt, and
direction of current is reversed, junction A mercury.
SUMMARY
dQ
The current, I flowing in a conductor I = , where dQ is the charge that flows
dt
through a crosssection in a time interval dt. SI unit of current is ampere (A).
1A = 1 C s1.
The current density J in a conductor is the current flowing per unit area. J = I
Current is a scalar but current density is a vector.
A
The general form of Ohm’s law J = σE
Practical form of Ohm’s law states that V ∝ I, or V = IR where I is the current.
V
The resistance R of a conductor is R = . SI unit of resistance is ohm (Ω) and
I
1V
1Ω=
1A
l
The resistance of a material R = ρ where l is length of the material and A is the area
A
of cross section.
The resistivity of a material determines how much resistance it offers to the flow of
current.
The equivalent resistance (RS) of several resistances (R1, R2, R3……..) connected in
series combination is RS = (R1+R2 +R3……..)
The equivalent resistance (RP) of several resistances (R1, R2, R3……..) connected in
1 1 1 1
parallel combination is = + + + ......
RP R1 R2 R3
Kirchoff ’s first rule (Current rule or junction rule): The algebraic sum of the currents
at any junction is zero.
Kirchoff ’s second rule (Voltage rule or loop rule): In a closed circuit the algebraic
sum of the products of the current and resistance of each part of the circuit is equal
to the total emf included in the circuit.
Electric power is the rate at which energy is transformed.
If a current I flows across a potential difference V, the power delivered to the circuit
is P = IV.
V2
In a resistor R, the electrical power converted to heat is P = I R =
2
R
The energy equivalent of one kilowatthour (kWh) is 1kWh = 3.6 X 106 J.
Metre bridge is one form of Wheatstone’s bridge.
Potentiometer is used to compare potential differences.
Joule’s law of heating is H = VIt (or) H = I2Rt.
Thermoelectric effect: Conversion of temperature differences into electrical voltage
and vice versa.
CONCEPT MAP
CURRENT
ELECTRICITY
Flow of Charges
Resistance
Ohm’s Law VI Graph Resistivity
Series
Carbon resistor Combination
Parallel
Current rule
Kirchoff rule Wheatstone’s bridge Applications
Voltage rule
Applications
EVALUATION
3
5. What is the value of resistance of the
2
following resistor?
1
0 1 2 3 4 5
I
Answers
a) 1.5 Ω b) 2.5 Ω
1) a 2) b 3) c 4) b 5) a
c) 3.5 Ω d) 4.5 Ω
6) c 7) d 8) c 9) d 10) c
11. What is the current out of the battery?
11) a 12) d 13) b 14) d 15) a
4. State macroscopic form of Ohm’s law. 5. State and explain Kirchhoff ’s rules.
5. What are ohmic and non ohmic 6. Obtain the condition for bridge balance
devices? in Wheatstone’s bridge.
6. Define electrical resistivity. 7. Explain the determination of unknown
7. Define temperature coefficient of resistance using meter bridge.
resistance. 8. How the emf of two cells are compared
8. What is superconductivity? using potentiometer?
9. What is electric power and electric
energy? IV Numerical problems
10. Define current density. 1. The following graphs represent the
11. Derive the expression for power P=VI current versus voltage and voltage
in electrical circuit. versus current for the six conductors
12. Write down the various forms of A,B,C,D,E and F. Which conductor
expression for power in electrical has least resistance and which has
circuit. maximum resistance?
13. State Kirchhoff ’s current rule. V I
resistance of a cell? 1 1
+
S
bolt (c) the power delivered in 0.2 s. 
Ans: charge = 20 C, I = 100 A, P = 5 GW
3. A copper wire of 106 m2 area of cross Suddenly the switch S is closed. (a)
section, carries a current of 2 A. If the Calculate the current in the circuit when
number of electrons per cubic meter is S is open and closed (b) What happens
8 × 1028, calculate the current density to the intensities of the bulbs A,B and
and average drift velocity. C. (c) Calculate the voltage across the
Ans: J = 2 × 106 Am−2 ; vd= 15.6 × 10−5 ms−1 three bulbs when S is open and closed
(d) Calculate the power delivered to the
4. The resistance of a nichrome wire at 0 circuit when S is opened and closed (e)
0
C is 10 Ω. If its temperature coefficient Does the power delivered to the circuit
of resistance is 0.004/0C, find its decreases, increases or remain same?
resistance at boiling point of water.
Ans:
Comment on the result.
Electrical Switch S is
Switch S is open
Ans: RT= 14 Ω. quantities closed
As the temperature increases the resistance Current ξ ξ
of the wire also increases. 3R 2R
Voltage ξ ξ
5. The rod given in the figure is made up VA = , VA = ,
of two different materials. 3R 2R
ξ ξ
VB = , VB = ,
3R 2R
ξ VC = 0
25 cm 70 cm VC =
3R
Power ξ2 ξ2
Both have square cross sections of 3 PA = , PA = ,
9R 4R
mm side. The resistivity of the first ξ2 ξ2
PB = , PB = ,
material is 4 x 103 Ω.m and it is 25 9R 4R
cm long while second material has ξ2 PC = 0
PC =
resistivity of 5 x 103 Ω.m and is of 70 9R Total power
cm long. What is the resistivity of rod increases
Intensity All the bulbs The
between its ends?
glow with equal intensities of the
Ans: 500 Ω intensity bulbs A and B
equally increase.
6. Three identical lamps each having Bulb C will
not glow since
a resistance R are connected to the no current pass
battery of emf as shown in the figure. through it.
I1 Q I I
Ans: At t= 0s,dq = 0 C, At t=2 s, 1 g
dq = 10 C; At t=5 s, dq = 0 C 5 10
Ig
8. An electronics hobbyist is building 2A P R 2A
a radio which requires 150 Ω in her G 10
circuit, but she has only 220 Ω, 79 Ω I2 + Ig
and 92 Ω resistors available. How can 15 20
I2
she connect the available resistors to S
get desired value of resistance?
Ans: Parallel combination of 220 Ω and 1
Ans: Ig = A
79 Ω in series with 92 Ω 11
13. Two cells each of 5V are connected in
9. A cell supplies a current of 0.9 A
series across a 8 Ω resistor and three
through a 2 Ω resistor and a current of
parallel resistors of 4 Ω, 6 Ω and 12 Ω.
0.3 A through a 7 Ω resistor. Calculate
Draw a circuit diagram for the above
the internal resistance of the cell.
arrangement. Calculate i) the current
Ans: 0.5 Ω
drawn from the cell (ii) current through
10. Calculate the currents in the following each resistor
circuit. 2
Ans: The current at 4 Ω , I = = 0.5 A,
4
I2 2
I1 the current at 6 Ω, I = = 0.33 A ,
6
+ –
9V
2
the current at 12 Ω, I = = 0.17 A
+ I3
12
15V
100Ω R3 100Ω
–
14. Four light bulbs P, Q, R, S are connected
100Ω in a circuit of unknown arrangement.
When each bulb is removed one at
I1 I2
a time and replaced, the following
behavior is observed.
Ans : I1 = 0.070 A, I2 = 0.010 A and
I3 = 0.080 A
Q
+
–
P
S
1. Douglas C.Giancoli, , “Physics for Scientist &Engineers with Modern Physics”, Pearson
Prentice Hall, Fourth edition
2. James Walker, Physics, Pearson Addison Wesley publishers, Fourth edition
3. Tipler, Mosca, “Physics for scientist and Engineers with Modern Physics”, Freeman and
Company, sixth edition
4. Purcell, Morin, Electricity and magnetism, Cambridge university press, third edition
5. Serway and Jewett, “Physics for Scientist and Engineers with Modern Physics”, Brook/Coole
publishers, eighth edition
6. Tarasov and Tarasova, “Questions and problems in School Physics”, Mir Publishers
7. H.C.Verma, “Concepts of Physics Vol 2, Bharthi Bhawan publishers
8. Eric Roger, Physics for the Inquiring Mind, Princeton University press
ICT CORNER
Electric current
STEPS:
• Open the browser and type “olabs.edu.in” in the address bar. Click physics tab and then click
“PotentiometerInternal Resistance of a Cell” in class 12 section. Go to “simulator” tab to do
the experiment.
• Construct the electric circuit as per the connection diagram by clicking “show circuit diagram”
tab. You can connect wires between electric component by dragging the mouse between the
component.
• To check whether the connections are correct or not, drag the jockey and place it at the two end
points of the wire. If the galvanometer shows opposite deflections, the connections are correct.
(keep both keys on)
Step1 Step2
Step3 Step4
Find the balancing length. Calculate the internal resistance for the observed balancing lengths. Repeat the
experiment for ﬁve times and take the average.
Note:
1. One time sign up is needed to do simulation. Then login using that username and password.
2. Read theory, procedure and animation to get the theory by clicking the corresponding tab.
URL:
http://amrita.olabs.edu.in/?sub=1&brch=6&sim=147&cnt=4
* Pictures are indicative only.
* If browser requires, allow Flash Player or Java Script to load the page.
3
EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
128
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
Magnetic sensing in eyes  for
Figure 3.2 Uses of magnets in modern
Zebrafinches bird, due to protein
world – (a) speakers (b) head phones
cryptochromes Cry4 present in retina, it (c) MRI scan (d) Hard disc of laptop
uses Earth magnetic field for navigation
3.1.1 Earth’s magnetic field geographic north pole (Figure 3.3). Similarly,
and magnetic elements the south pole of magnetic compass needle is
attracted towards the geographic north pole
Geographic
Magnetic
North
of the Earth which is near magnetic north
pole. The branch of physics which deals
North Pole
Pole
Day and night occur because Earth spins whereas near the equator, the declination is
about an axis called geographic axis. A vertical smaller. In India, declination angle is very
plane passing through the geographic axis is small and for Chennai, magnetic declination
called geographic meridian and a great circle angle is 1o 8’ (which is negative (west)).
perpendicular to Earth’s geographic axis is The angle subtended by the Earth’s
called geographic equator. total magnetic field B with the horizontal
The straight line which connects magnetic direction in the magnetic meridian is
poles of Earth is known as magnetic axis. called dip or magnetic inclination (I)
A vertical plane passing through magnetic at that point (Figure 3.5). For Chennai,
axis is called magnetic meridian and a great inclination angle is 14o 16’. The component
circle perpendicular to Earth’s magnetic axis of Earth’s magnetic field along the
is called magnetic equator. horizontal direction in the magnetic
When a magnetic needle is freely meridian is called horizontal component
suspended, the alignment of the magnet of Earth’s magnetic field, denoted by BH.
does not exactly lie along the geographic Let BE be the net Earth’s magnetic field
meridian as shown in Figure 3.4. The angle at a point P on the surface of the Earth.
between magnetic meridian at a point BE can be resolved into two perpendicular
and geographical meridian is called the components.
declination or magnetic declination (D). At
higher latitudes, the declination is greater Horizontal component BH = BE cos I (3.1)
0.26
tan I = ⇒ I = tan−1 (1.732) = 60
0.15
The resultant magnetic field of the Earth is
S O N
qm qm
l l
Figure 3.7: Needle of magnetic compass
2l
rests vertically at an angle of dip – at
magnetic poles
Figure 3.8 A bar magnet
of magnetic compass rests vertically at an
angle of dip, I = 90o as shown in Figure 3.7. Consider a bar magnet as shown in Figure
Hence, 3.8. Let qm be the pole strength (it is also
BH = 0 called as magnetic charge) of the magnetic
BV = BE pole and let l be the distance between the
This implies that the vertical component geometrical center of bar magnet O and
is maximum at poles and horizontal one end of the pole. The magnetic dipole
component is zero at poles. moment is defined as the product of its
pole strength and magnetic length. It is a
E X A M P L E 3.1
vector quantity, denoted by pm .
The horizontal component and vertical
components of Earth’s magnetic field at a
pm = qmd (3.4)
place are 0.15 G and 0.26 G respectively.
Calculate the angle of dip and resultant
magnetic field. where d is the vector drawn from south
pole to north pole and its magnitude d = 2l .
Solution:
The magnitude of magnetic dipole
BH = 0.15 G and BV = 0.26 G moment is pm = 2 qm l
aurora australis (southern lights). These lights are often called as polar lights. The lights
are seen above the magnetic poles of the northern and southern hemispheres. They are
called as “Aurora borealis” in the north and “Aurora australis” in the south. This occurs as
a result of interaction between the gaseous particles in the Earth’s atmosphere with highly
charged particles released from the Sun’s atmosphere through solar wind. These particles
emit light due to collision and variations in colour are due to the type of the gas particles
that take part in the collisions. A pale yellowish – green colour is produced when the
ionized oxygen takes part in the collision and a blue or purplish – red aurora is produced
due to ionized nitrogen molecules.
The SI unit of magnetic moment is A m2. magnet in that region. The magnetic field B
Note that the direction of magnetic moment at a point is defined as a force experienced
is from South pole to North pole. by the bar magnet of unit pole strength.
(b) Magnetic field
1
Magnetic field is the region or space B= F (3.5)
qm
around every magnet within which its
influence can be felt by keeping another Its unit is N A1 m1.
Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.
Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.
Отменить можно в любой момент.