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GOVERNMENT OF TAMIL NADU

HIGHER SECONDARY SECOND YEAR

PHYSICS
VOLUME - I

A publication under Free Textbook Programme of Government of Tamil Nadu

Department of School Education


Untouchability is Inhuman and a Crime

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Government of Tamil Nadu

First Edition - 2019

(Published Under New Syllabus)

NOT FOR SALE

Content Creation

The wise
possess all

State Council of Educational


Research and Training
© SCERT 2019

Printing & Publishing

Tamil NaduTextbook and Educational


Services Corporation
www.textbooksonline.tn.nic.in

II

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CONTENTS

PHYSICS

UNIT I Electrostatics 01

UNIT II Current Electricity 82

UNIT III Magnetism and magnetic effects of electric current 128

UNIT IV Electromagnetic Induction And Alternating Current 206

UNIT V Electromagnetic waves 283

Practical 303

Glossary 336

E-book Assessment DIGI links

Let’s use the QR code in the text books ! How ?


• Download the QR code scanner from the Google PlayStore/ Apple App Store into your smartphone
• Open the QR code scanner application
• Once the scanner button in the application is clicked, camera opens and then bring it closer to the QR code in the text book.
• Once the camera detects the QR code, a url appears in the screen.Click the url and goto the content page.

III

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HOW TO USE THE BOOK


• Awareness on higher learning - courses, institutions and required
Scope of Physics competitive exams
• Financial assistance possible to help students to climb academic ladder

Learning Objectives:
• Overview of the unit
• Gives clarity on the goals and objective of the topics

• Additional facts related to the topics covered to facilitate


curiosity driven learning

• To ensure understanding, problems/illustrations are given at every stage


Example problems before advancing to next level

• Visual representation of concepts with illustrations


• Videos, animations, and tutorials

ICT • To harness the digital skills to class room learning and experimenting

Summary • Recap of salient points of the lesson

Concept Map • Schematic outline of salient learning of the unit

• Evaluate students’ understanding and get them acquainted with the


Evaluation application of physical concepts to numerical and conceptual questions

Books for Reference • List of relevant books for further reading

• Solutions to exercise problems are accessible here. In addition, a few solved


Solved examples examples are given to facilitate students to apply the concepts learnt.
Competitive • Model Questions - To motivate students aspiring to take up competitive
Exam corner examinations such as NEET, JEE, Physics Olympiad, JIPMER etc

Practical • List of practical and the description of each is appended for easy access.

Glossary • Scientific terms frequently used with their Tamil equivalents

• Sequential understanding of the stationary charges, moving charges, electric


Content Focus current, magnetism and the interlink between electric and magnetic phenomena.

Back Wrapper: NIKOLA TESLA a Serbian-American Engineer


(10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943)
Nikola Tesla made breakthroughs in the production, transmission and application of electric power. He
invented the first alternating current (AC) motor and developed AC generation and transmission technology.
In 1884, he was hired by Edison (discoverer of DC dynamos) later on Tesla became his competitor in this field.
Tesla conducted a range of experiments with mechanical oscillators/generators, electrical discharge
tubes, and early X – ray imaging. Tesla in 1890 itself conducted research for wireless lighting and worldwide
wireless electric power distribution in his high – voltage, high-frequency power experiments in New York.
Unfortunately Tesla could not put his ideas in practical use due to lack of funds.

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Scope of Physics - Higher Education

XII_Physics_First 8 pages Higher.indd 5


Entrance Examinations
After +2

Physics Olympiad Exam Education Career


NEET-National Eligibility cum Entrance Test
IIT JEE-Joint Entrance Examination(Mains & Advanced)
NEST- National Entrance Screening Test
KVPY-Kishore Vaigyanik Protsahan Yojana
After Completing +2 After B.Sc Physics
JEE Mains Paper II for B.Arch
AIIMS - All Indian Institute of Medical Science’s Examination

V
Chennai Mathematical Institute Entrance Examination Integrated Msc. Physics
BITSAT- Birla Institute of Science And Technology Admission Test Central Uiversities through CUCET
AIEEE – All India Engineering Entrance Exam Central Research Institutes like IISER using KVPY, JEE
CUCET – Central Universities Common Entrance Test Advanced , IISER M.Sc Physics in IIT’s and NIT’s through JAM
JIPMER - Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Aptitude Test Integrated Phd in IISER’s and IISc through JAM and JEST
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Research
Top 1% students in State board are eligible for IISER Aptitude M.Sc Physics in Central Universities throught CUCET
CLAT – Common Law Admission Test Test
HSEE- Humanities and Social Sciences Entrance Examination Admission in NISER through NEST M.Sc in Energy Physics, Applied Physics in IIT’s through JAM
AIPVT -All India Pre-Veterinary Test B.Sc Photonics Integrated Phd in IMSc, TIFR, JNCASR through JEST score
NDA – National Defence Academy Examination B.Sc Hons in Mathematics and Physics in CMI Integrated Phd in TIFR through JEST and TIFR exam
B.Sc Hons in Mathematics and Computer Science in CMI M.Sc Photonics, Reactor physics, Nuclear Engineering ,
After Graduation Five-Year Dual degree In IIST ( B.Tech + Master of Science) M.Sc Medical Physics
Master of Science (Astronomy and Astrophysics, Solid State M.Sc Biophyiscs
JAM- Joint Admission Test Physics) Research Institutes in abroad like CERN, NASA, LIGO offer
JEST – Joint Entrance Screening Test Summer internship programmes for motivated Indian students
GATE- Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering Note
pursuing Undergraduate course in physics
CAT – Common Admission Test(for MBA) Students admitted to IISc, IIT’s, NIT’s Indian Academy of Science & various other research institutes
Exams conducted by Respective Universities IISER’s, IIST, will get a Scholorship equivalent to INSPIRE offer paid Summer Internship for science students to get an
Assured placement in ISRO and other divisions for hands on experience in research.
the students of IIST
After Post Graduation
Institutes and their ranking can be found in www.nirfindia.org

CSIR - National Eligibility Test for JRF and Lectureship

04-03-2019 11:04:43
Opportunities after B.Sc. Physics

XII_Physics_First 8 pages Higher.indd 6


Scholarships
Jobs in Government Sector
• INSPIRE Scholarship - Scholarship for Higher Education(SHE) - 80000 per
annum, for B.Sc/B.S/Int M.Sc/Int M.S
• Scientific Officer and Scientific Assistant Jobs Eligibility Criteria:- Top 1% students in their plus 2 board exam
Top 10000 rank holders in JEE or NEET
• CSIR Labs • Students studying at NIISER, IISER, Department of Atomic Energy Centre for Basic Science Gen
NTSE, KVPY, JBNSTS Scholars Astr

VI
• DRDO – Defence Research and Development Organisation • International Olympiad Medalists Qua
• Indira Gandhi Scholarship for single girl child for full time regular Master's Degree Plas
• DAE -Department of Atomic Energy • Post Graduate Merit Scholarship for University rank holders in UG level Mete
• Women Scientist Scheme (WOS -A) Strin
• DoS - Department of Science Eligibility Criteria:- Women who are pursuing M.Sc or Ph.D
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Opti
• Mathematics Training and Talent Search(MTTS) Programme Con
• IMD- Indian Meteorological Department Eligibility Criteria:- Students who studied Maths at UG or PG level Cryp
• Dr. K S Krishnan Research Associateship (KSKRA) Math
• ONGC -Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Eligibility Criteria:- Students who posses Master's Degree or Ph.D in science or engineering Crys
• IGCAR JRF Ato
• ATC – Air Traffic Controller Eligibility Criteria:- Passing JEST, GATE, NET Exams Biop
• Promotion of Science Education (POSE) Scholarship Scheme Nucl
• Teaching faculty in schools and colleges through SET, NET,TET • Dhirubhai Ambani Scholarship Programme Ener
• Foundation for Academic Excellence and Access Scholarship(FAEA) Geo
• Scientist post in various research institutes in India • Central Sector Scheme of National Fellowship and Scholarship for Higher Education of ST Qua
students
• Pre - Matric and Post - Matric Scholarship for students belonging to
minority communities to pursue their School and Collegiate education by
the Ministry of Minority affairs, Government of India.
• Pre Matric and Post Matric Scholarship for students with Disabilities to
pursue their School and Collegiate Education by the Department of
Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities, Government of India.

04-03-2019 11:04:44
Institutes in india to pursue research in physics

XII_Physics_First 8 pages Higher.indd 7


Famous Research Institutes for Physics in India
Name of the Institution Website
Institute of Mathematical Sciences,Chennai(IMSc) www.imsc.res.in
Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata www.saha.ac.in
International Centre for Theoretical Sciences, Bangalore www.icts.res.in
Harish chandra Research Institute,Allahabad www.hri.res.in
Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Nainital www.aries.res.in
Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR) www.jncasr.ac.in
Institute of Physics (IOP), Bhubaneshwar www.iopb.res.in
Indian Association for the Cultivation of Sciences (IACS), Kolkata www.iacs.res.in
Research Areas Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram www.vssc.gov.in
National Physical Laboratory (NPL),Delhi www.nplindia.in
National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER), Bhubaneshwar www.niser.ac.in
General Relativity and Cosmology
Indian Institute of Science(IISc),Bangalore www.iisc.ac.in
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Quantum Optics and Information theory Raman Research Institute(RRI),Bangalore www.rri.res.in

VII
Plasma physics Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) www.tifr.res.in
Meteorology and Atmospheric science Bhaba Atomic Research Centre(BARC) www.barc.gov.in
String Theory, Quantum Gravity www.igcar.gov.in
Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research(IGCAR)
Optics and Photonics
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Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics(IUCAA),Pune www.iucaa.in


Condensed Matter Theory, Material Science and Spintronics
Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology(IIST), Trivandrum www.iist.ac.in
Cryptography
Mathematical Physics,Statistical Physics Institute of Plasma Research(IPR),Gujarat www.ipr.res.in
Crystal Growth and Crystallography Physical Research Laboratory(PRL),Ahmedabad www.prl.res.in
Atomic and Molecular Physics Inter-University Accelerator Center (IUAC) www.iuac.res.in
Biophysics, Medical Physics
Indian Institute of Astrophysics(IIA),Bangalore www.iiap.res.in
Nuclear and High energy Particle Physics
Chennai Mathematical Institute(CMI),Chennai www.cmi.ac.in
Energy and Environmental Studies
Geophysics Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre www.lpsc.gov.in
Quantum Biology and Quantum Thermodynamics and Cymatics S.N.Bose Centre for Basic Sciences www.bose.res.in
CSIR National laboratories
Indian Institute of Technology(IIT) in various places
IISER’s in various places
National Institute of Technology(NIT) in various places
Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIITs) at various places
Central and State Universities

04-03-2019 11:04:45
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UNIT

1 ELECTROSTATICS

Electricity is really just organized lightning


– George Carlin

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

In this unit, student is exposed to


• Historical background of electricity and magnetism
• The role of electrostatic force in day – to-day life
• Coulomb’s law and superposition principle
• The concept of electric field
• Calculation of electric field for various charge configurations
• Electrostatic potential and electrostatic potential energy
• Electric dipole and dipole moment
• Electric field and electrostatic potential for a dipole
• Electric flux
• Gauss law and its various applications
• Electrostatic properties of conductors and dielectrics
• Polarisation
• Capacitors in series and parallel combinations
• Effect of a dielectric in a capacitor
• Distribution of charges in conductors, corona discharge
• Working of a Van de Graaff generator

1.1 In standard XI, we studied about the


gravitational force, tension, friction, normal
INTRODUCTION force etc. Newton treated them to be
independent of each other with each force
Electromagnetism is one of the most being a separate natural force. But what is the
important branches of physics. The origin of all these forces? It is now understood
technological developments of the modern that except gravity, all forces which we
21st century are primarily due to our experience in every day life (tension in the
understanding of electromagnetism. The string, normal force from the surface, friction
forces we experience in everyday life are etc.) arise from electromagnetic forces within
electromagnetic in nature except gravity. the atoms. Some examples are
1

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(i) When an object is pushed, the atoms in after rubbing with animal fur attracted
our hand interact with the atoms in the small pieces of leaves and dust. The amber
object and this interaction is basically possessing this property is said to be
electromagnetic in nature. ‘charged’. It was initially thought that amber
(ii) When we stand on Earth's surface, the has this special property. Later people found
gravitational force on us acts downwards that not only amber but even a glass rod
and the normal force acts upward to rubbed with silk cloth, attracts pieces of
counter balance the gravitational force. papers. So glass rod also becomes ‘charged’
What is the origin of this normal force? when rubbed with a suitable material.
Consider a charged rubber rod hanging from
It arises due to the electromagnetic a thread as shown in Figure 1.1. Suppose
interaction of atoms on the surface of another charged rubber rod is brought near
the Earth with the atoms present in the first rubber rod; the rods repel each
the feet of the person. Though, we are other. Now if we bring a charged glass rod
attracted by the gravitational force of the close to the charged rubber rod, they attract
Earth, we stand on Earth only because each other. At the same time, if a charged
of electromagnetic force of atoms. glass rod is brought near another charged
(iii) When an object is moved on a surface, glass rod, both the rods repel each other.
static friction resists the motion of the From these observations, the following
object. This static friction arises due to inferences are made
electromagnetic interaction between (i) The charging of rubber rod and that of
the atoms present in the object and glass rod are different from one another.
atoms on the surface. Kinetic friction (ii) The charged rubber rod repels another
also has similar origin. charged rubber rod, which implies
From these examples, it is clear that that ‘like charges repel each other’. We
understanding electromagnetism can also arrive at the same inference
is very essential to understand the by observing that a charged glass rod
universe in a holistic manner. The repels another charged glass rod.
basic principles of electromagnetism (iii) The charged amber rod attracts the
are dealt in XII physics volume 1. charged glass rod, implying that the
This unit deals with the behaviour and other charge in the glass rod is not the same
related phenomena of charges at rest. This kind of charge present in the rubber.
branch of electricity which deals with Thus unlike charges attract each other.
stationary charges is called Electrostatics. Therefore, two kinds of charges exist
in the universe. In the 18th century, Benjamin
Franklin called one type of charge as
positive (+) and another type of charge as
1.1.1  Historical background
negative (-). Based on Franklin’s convention,
of electric charges
rubber and amber rods are negatively
Two millenniums ago, Greeks noticed charged while the glass rod is positively
that amber (a solid, translucent material charged. If the net charge is zero in the
formed from the resin of a fossilized tree) object, it is said to be electrically neutral.
2 Unit 1  E lectrostatics

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A negatively charged rubber A negatively charged rubber


rod is attracted to a positively rod is repelled by another
charged glass rod negatively charged
rubber rod

Rubber Rubber

F
__ ___ __ ___
 
F F
(a)
+ ++ +
(b) __ ___ Rubber
Glass 
F

Figure 1.1  (a) Unlike charges attract each other (b) Like charges repel each other

Following the pioneering work of is another intrinsic and fundamental


J. J. Thomson and E. Rutherford, in the late property of particles. The nature of charges
19th century and in the beginning of 20th is understood through various experiments
century, we now understand that the atom performed in the 19th and 20th century. The
is electrically neutral and is made up of SI unit of charge is coulomb.
the negatively charged electrons, positively (ii) Conservation of charges
charged protons, and neutrons which have
Benjamin Franklin argued that when one
zero charge. The material objects made
object is rubbed with another object, charges
up of atoms are neutral in general. When
get transferred from one to the other. Before
an object is rubbed with another object
rubbing, both objects are electrically neutral
(for example rubber with silk cloth), some
and rubbing simply transfers the charges
amount of charge is transferred from
from one object to the other. (For example,
one object to another due to the friction
when a glass rod is rubbed against silk
between them and the object is then
cloth, some negative charge are transferred
said to be electrically charged. Charging
from glass to silk. As a result, the glass
the objects through rubbing is called
rod is positively charged and silk cloth
triboelectric charging.
becomes negatively charged). From these
observations, he concluded that charges are
1.1.2  Basic properties of neither created or nor destroyed but can
charges only be transferred from one object to other.
This is called conservation of total charges
(i) Electric charge and is one of the fundamental conservation
Most objects in the universe are made up laws in physics. It is stated more generally in
of atoms, which in turn are made up of the following way.
protons, neutrons and electrons. These ‘The total electric charge in the universe
particles have mass, an inherent property is constant and charge can neither be
of particles. Similarly, the electric charge created nor be destroyed. In any physical
Unit 1   E lectrostatics 3

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process, the net change in charge will 1.2


always be zero.
COULOMB’S LAW
(iii) Quantisation of charges
What is the smallest amount of charge that
can be found in nature? Experiments show In the year 1786, Coulomb deduced the
that the charge on an electron is −e and the expression for the force between two
charge on the proton is +e. Here, e denotes stationary point charges in vacuum or free
the fundamental unit of charge. The charge q space. Consider two point charges q1 and q2
on any object is equal to an integral multiple at rest in vacuum, and separated by a distance
of this fundamental unit of charge e. of r, as shown in Figure 1.2. According to
q = ne(1.1) Coulomb, the force on the point charge q2
exerted by another point charge q1 is
Here n is any integer (0, ±1, ±2, ±3,
±4………..). This is called quantisation of  qq
r12 (1.2)
F21 = k 1 2 2 
electric charge. r
Robert Millikan in his famous experiment
found that the value of e = 1.6 × 10-19C. The where  r12 is the unit vector directed
charge of an electron is −1.6 × 10-19 C and from charge q1 to charge q2 and k is the
the charge of the proton is +1.6 × 10-19C. proportionality constant.
When a glass rod is rubbed with silk cloth,
the number of charges transferred is usually
very large, typically of the order of 1010. So
r 
the charge quantisation is not appreciable
+
F21
at the macroscopic level. Hence the charges
are treated to be continuous (not discrete). q2
But at the microscopic level, quantisation of
charge plays a vital role. + r12
q1
E X A M P L E 1.1
Calculate the number of electrons in one Figure 1.2  Coulomb force between two
coulomb of negative charge. point charges

Solution Important aspects of Coulomb’s law


According to the quantisation of charge (i) Coulomb's law states that the electrostatic
force is directly proportional to the
q = ne product of the magnitude of the two point
charges and is inversely proportional to
Here q = 1C. So the number of electrons in
the square of the distance between the
1 coulomb of charge is
two point charges.
(ii) The force on the charge q2 exerted by
q 1C
  n= = = 6.25 × 1018 electrons the charge q1 always lies along the line
e 1.6 × 10 −19
joining the two charges.  r12 is the unit

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vector pointing from charge q1 to q2 .It of the magnitude of two point charges
is shown in the Figure 1.2. Likewise, the and gravitational force is directly
force on the charge q1 exerted by q2 is proportional to the product of two
along -r12 (i.e., in the direction opposite masses. But there are some important
to r12 ). differences between these two laws.
1 • The gravitational force between two
(iii) In SI units, k = and its value is
4πε o masses is always attractive but Coulomb
9 × 109 N m2 C-2. Here εo is the permittivity force between two charges can be
of free space or vacuum and the value attractive or repulsive, depending on
1
of ε o = = 8.85×10−12 C 2 N −1m−2 . the nature of charges.
4 πk
(iv) The magnitude of the electrostatic • The value of the gravitational constant
force between two charges each of one G = 6.626 × 10-11 N m2 kg-2. The value
coulomb and separated by a distance of of the constant k in Coulomb law is
1 m is calculated as follows: k = 9 × 109 N m2 C-2. Since k is much
more greater than G, the electrostatic
9×109 ×1×1 force is always greater in magnitude
F = = 9×109 N . This is a huge
12 than gravitational force for smaller size
quantity, almost equivalent to the weight objects.
of one million ton. We never come across • The gravitational force between two
1 coulomb of charge in practice. Most of masses is independent of the medium.
the electrical phenomena in day-to-day life
For example, if 1 kg of two masses
involve electrical charges of the order of µC
are kept in air or inside water, the
(micro coulomb) or nC (nano coulomb).
gravitational force between two masses
(v) In SI units, Coulomb’s law in vacuum remains the same. But the electrostatic
 1 q1q2 force between the two charges depends
takes the form F21 = r12 . In

4 πε  r 2 on nature of the medium in which the
a medium of permittivity ε, the force two charges are kept at rest.
between two point charges is given by • The gravitational force between two
 1 q1q2
F21 = r12 . Since ε>εo, the force
 point masses is the same whether two
4 πε r 2
between two point charges in a medium masses are at rest or in motion. If the
other than vacuum is always less than charges are in motion, yet another
that in vacuum. We define the relative force (Lorentz force) comes into play in
permittivity for a given medium as addition to coulomb force.
ε (vii) The force on a charge q1 exerted by a
εr = . For vacuum or air, εr = 1 and
ε point charge q2 is given by
for all other media εr> 1.
(vi) Coulomb’s law has same structure  1 q1q2
F12 = 
r21
as Newton’s law of gravitation. Both 4 πε  r 2
are inversely proportional to the Here  r21 is the unit vector from charge
square of the distance between the q2 to q1.
particles. The electrostatic force is
directly proportional to the product But 
r21 = −
r12 ,

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 1 q1q2 1 q1q2 Solution


F12 = 2 (
r 12 ) = −
− ( r12 )
4 πε  r 4 πε  r 2
 
(or) F 12 = −F 21 y
Therefore, the electrostatic force obeys Case (a)
Newton’s third law.
(viii) The expression for Coulomb force  
F12 F21
is true only for point charges. But x
the point charge is an ideal concept. q1 q2
However we can apply Coulomb’s law y
for two charged objects whose sizes are Case (b)
very much smaller than the distance
between them. In fact, Coulomb
 
discovered his law by considering the F12 F21
charged spheres in the torsion balance + _ x
q1 q2
as point charges. The distance between
the two charged spheres is much greater y
than the radii of the spheres. Case (c)

E X A M P L E 1.2  
F12 F21
Consider two point charges q1 and q2 at + _ x
rest as shown in the figure. q1 q2

y
(a) q1 = +2 μC, q2 = +3 μC, and r = 1m.
Both are positive charges. so the force will
be repulsive
Force experienced by the charge q2 due to
x q1 is given by
q1 q2
 1 q1q2
1m F21 = 
r 12
4 πε  r 2

They are separated by a distance of 1m. Here r12 is the unit vector from q1 to q2.
Calculate the force experienced by the two Since q2 is located on the right of q1, we
charges for the following cases: have

(a) q1 = +2μC and q2 = +3μC r12 = 


 i , so that

(b) q1 = +2μC and q2 = -3μC  1 


 9×109 ×2×10−6 ×3×10−6 
F21 = i  = 9×109 
12  4 πε 
(c) 
q1= +2μC and q2 = -3μC kept in water     
(εr = 80) = 54 ×10−3 N 
i

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According to Newton’s third law, the force Therefore,


experienced by the charge q1 due to q2 is
   54 ×10−3 N 
F12 = −F21 F21W = − i = −0.675×10−3 N 
i
80

So that F12 = −54 ×10−3 N i .
  Note that the strength of the
The directions of F21 and F12 are shown in Note force between the two charges
the above figure in case (a) in water is reduced by 80 times
compared to the force between the same
(b) q1 = +2 μC, q2 = -3 μC, and r = 1m.
two charges in vacuum.
They are unlike charges. So the force will
be attractive. When common salt (NaCl) is taken in
water, the electrostatic force between Na
Force experienced by the charge q2 due to and Cl ions is reduced due to the high
q1 is given by relative permittivity of water (εr = 80).
This is the reason water acts as a good
 9×109 ×(2×10−6 )×(−3×10−6 ) solvent.
F21 = 
r12
12
= −54 ×10−3 N  r12 = 
i (Using  i)
E X A M P L E 1.3
The charge q2 will experience an attractive
force towards q1 which is in the negative x Two small-sized identical equally charged
direction. spheres, each having mass 1 mg are hanging
in equilibrium as shown in the figure. The
According to Newton’s third law, the force length of each string is 10 cm and the
experienced by the charge q1 due to q2 is angle θ is 7° with the vertical. Calculate the
magnitude of the charge in each sphere.
 
F12 = −F21 (Take g = 10 ms−2)

so that F12 = 54 ×10−3 N i
 
The directions of F21 and F12 are shown in
the figure (case (b)).  
L L
(c) If these two charges are kept inside
the water, then the force experienced by q2
due to q1
q + + q
 1 q1q2
a
F21W = 
r12
4 πε r 2
since ε = εr εo, Solution

W 1 q1q2 F21 If the two spheres are neutral, the angle
we have F21 = 
r12 =
4 πε r ε  r 2 εr between them will be 0o when hanged

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vertically. Since they are positively Fe


tanθ= (3)
charged spheres, there will be a repulsive mg
force between them and they will be at
equilibrium with each other at an angle Since they are equally charged, the
of 7° with the vertical. At equilibrium, magnitude of the electrostatic force is
each charge experiences zero net force in
each direction. We can draw a free body q2 1
Fe = k 2 where k =
diagram for one of the charged spheres and r 4 πε 0
apply Newton’s second law for both vertical Here r = 2a = 2Lsinθ. By substituting these
and horizontal directions. values in equation (3),
The free body diagram is shown below. q2
tan θ = k 2 (4)
mg (2 L sin θ)
y
 Rearranging the equation (4) to get q
 θ
T cosθ
x mg tan θ
q = 2 L sin θ
θ k

Fe
+ T sinθ 10−3 ×10× tan 7
= 2×0.1×sin 7 × 

9×109
q = 8.9 x 10-9 C = 8.9 nC

mg
E X A M P L E 1.4
In the x-direction, the acceleration of the
charged sphere is zero. Calculate the electrostatic force and
gravitational force between the proton and
 
Using Newton’s second law (Ftot = ma ), we the electron in a hydrogen atom. They are
have separated by a distance of 5.3 × 10-11 m.
The magnitude of charges on the electron
T sinθ
i −Fe
i =0
and proton are 1.6 × 10-19 C. Mass of the
T sinθ= Fe (1) electron is me = 9.1 × 10-31 kg and mass of
proton is mp = 1.6 × 10-27 kg.
Here T is the tension acting on the charge
due to the string and Fe is the electrostatic Solution
force between the two charges. The proton and the electron attract each
other. The magnitude of the electrostatic
In the y-direction also, the net acceleration
force between these two particles is given by
experienced by the charge is zero.
2
T cosθ 
j −mg 
j =0 2
ke 9×109 ×(1.6×10−19 )
Fe = = 2
Therefore, T cosθ= mg .(2) r2 (5.3×10 )−11

9×2.56
By dividing equation (1) by equation (2), = ×10−7 = 8.2 × 10-8 N
28.09

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The gravitational force between the


1.2.1  Superposition principle
proton and the electron is attractive.
The magnitude of the gravitational force Coulomb’s law explains the interaction
between these particles is between two point charges. If there are
more than two charges, the force on one
Gme mp charge due to all the other charges needs
FG =
r2 to be calculated. Coulomb’s law alone does
6.67 ×10−11 ×9.1×10−31 ×1.6×10−27 not give the answer. The superposition
=
(5.3×10 )−11
2
principle explains the interaction between
97.11
multiple charges.
= ×10−47 = 3.4 x 10-47 N
28.09 According to this superposition principle,
Fe
the total force acting on a given charge is
8.2×10−8
The ratio of the two forces = equal to the vector sum of forces exerted
FG 3.4 ×10−47
on it by all the other charges.
= 2.41 × 1039
Consider a system of n charges, namely q1,
Note that Fe » 1039 FG
q2, q3 ….qn. The force on q1 exerted by the
charge q2
The electrostatic force between a proton
and an electron is enormously greater than  qq
the gravitational force between them. Thus F12 = k 1 2 2 
r21
r21
the gravitational force is negligible when
compared with the electrostatic force in Here  r21 is the unit vector from q2 to q1 along
many situations such as for small size the line joining the two charges and r21 is the
objects and in the atomic domain. This is distance between the charges q1 and q2. The
the reason why a charged comb attracts an electrostatic force between two charges is
uncharged piece of paper with greater force not affected by the presence of other charges
even though the piece of in the neighbourhood.
paper is attracted downward
The force on q1 exerted by the charge q3 is
by the Earth. This is shown
in Figure 1.3  qq
F13 = k 1 2 3 
r31
r31
By continuing this, the total force acting
on the charge q1 due to all other charges is
given by
    

Fe F1tot = F12 + F13 + F14 +..........F1n

FG
  q q qq qq
F1tot = k  1 2 2  r21 + 1 2 3  r31 + 1 2 4 
r41 +...
 r21 r31 r41
Figure 1.3  Electrostatic attraction qq 
rn1 
..... + 1 2 2 
between a comb and pieces of papers rn1 
(1.3)

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Without the superposition y


Note principle, Coulomb’s law will q2
+ 
be incomplete when applied F14
to more than two charges. Both the r21
superposition principle and Coulomb’s q3 
 F13
law form fundamental principles + x
r31 q1 + 
of electrostatics and explain all the r41
phenomena in electrostatics. But they 
are not derivable from each other. F12
+
q4

E X A M P L E  1.5 
F14 sin F14
Consider four equal charges q1,q2, q3 and q4
= q = +1μC located at four different points
on a circle of radius 1m, as shown in the   F14 cos 
figure. Calculate the total force acting on q1 + F13
the charge q1 due to all the other charges.  F12cos 

y 
q2 F12 sin F12
+
The charges q2 and q4 are equi-distant from
q3 q1 q1. As a result the strengths (magnitude)
 
+ + of the forces F12 and F14 are the same
x
even though their directions are different.
Therefore the vectors representing these
two forces are drawn with equal lengths.
+ But the charge q3 is located farther
q4
compared to q2 and q4. Since the strength
of the electrostatic force decreases as
Solution distance increases, the strength of the force
  
F13 is lesser than that of forces F12 and F14 .
According to the superposition principle, 
Hence the vector representing the force F13
the total electrostatic force on charge q1 is drawn with smaller length compared to
is the vector sum of the forces due to the  
that for forces F12 and F14 .
other charges,
   
From the figure, r21 = 2 m = r41 and r31 = 2 m
F1tot = F12 + F13 + F14
The magnitudes of the forces are given by
The following diagram shows the direction kq 2 9×109 ×10−12
F13 = 2 =
of each force on the charge q1. r31 4

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F13 = 2.25 × 10-3 N 1.3


ELECTRIC FIELD AND
kq 2 9×109 ×10−12
F12 = 2 = F14 = ELECTRIC FIELD LINES
r21 2

= 4.5 × 10-3 N
1.3.1  Electric Field
From the figure, the angle θ = 45o. In terms
of the components, we have The interaction between two charges is

determined by Coulomb’s law. How does the
F12 = F12 cos θ
i −F12 sin θ 
j interaction itself occur? Consider a point
charge kept at a point in space. If another
1  1  point charge is placed at some distance from
= 4.5×10−3 × i −4.5×10−3 × j
2 2 the first point charge, it experiences either
 an attractive force or repulsive force. This
F13 = F13 
i = 2.25×10−3 N 
i
 is called ‘action at a distance’. But how does
F14 = F14 cos θ
i +F14 sin θ 
j the second charge know about existence of
the first charge which is located at some
1  1 
= 4.5×10−3 × i +4.5×10−3 × j distance away from it? To answer this
2 2
question, Michael Faraday introduced the
Then the total force on q1 is, concept of field.
 According to Faraday, every charge in the
F1tot = (F12 cos θ j ) + F13
i −F12 sin θ  i universe creates an electric field in the
+(F14 cos θ j )
i +F14 sin θ  surrounding space, and if another charge
 is brought into its field, it will interact
F1tot = (F12 cos θ + F13 + F14 cos θ )
i with the electric field at that point and will
+(−F12 sin θ + F14 sin θ) 
j experience a force. It may be recalled that
the interaction of two masses is similarly
Since F12 = F14, the jth component is zero. explained using the concept of gravitational
Hence we have field (Refer unit 6, volume 2, XI physics).
 Both the electric and gravitational forces are
F1tot = (F12 cos θ + F13 + F14 cos θ)
i
non-contact forces, hence the field concept
is required to explain action at a distance.
substituting the values in the above
equation, Consider a source point charge q located at
a point in space. Another point charge qo
 4.5 4.5  (test charge) is placed at some point P which
  = 
 2
+ 2.25 + 
2
(
i = 4.5 2 + 2.25 
i ) is at a distance r from the charge q. The
electrostatic force experienced by the charge

F1tot = 8.61×10−3 N 
i qo due to q is given by Coulomb’s law.
 kqq0  1 qq0  1
The resultant force is along the positive x   F= 2
r = 2
r where  k =
r 4 πε 0 r 4 πε 0
axis.

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The charge q creates an electric field in the  


surrounding space. The electric field at the F = q0 E (1.5)
point P at a distance r from the point charge
This is Coulomb’s law in terms of electric
q is the force experienced by a unit charge
field. This is shown in Figure 1.5
and is given by

 F kq 1 q If q is positive,
E= = 2 
r= r (1.4) the force on →
q0 r 4 πε 0 r 2 E
the test charge q0  
Here r is the unit vector pointing from q to
q0 is directed + F = q0 E
away from q. P
the point of interest P. The electric field is a
vector quantity and its SI unit is Newton per q
Coulomb (NC-1). r
+
Important aspects of Electric field
If q is negative ,
(i) If the charge q is positive then the electric the force on
field points away from the source charge the test charge q0
q0 is directed
and if q is negative, the electric field toward q.

E
+
P
points towards the source charge q. This  
is shown in the Figure 1.4. –q
F = q0 E
_ r
For a positive
source charge,
the electric Figure 1.5  Coulomb’s law in terms of
field at P points → electric field
radially outward E
P
from q.

q
(iii) The equation (1.4) implies that the
r electric field is independent of the test
+ charge qo and it depends only on the
source charge q.
For a negative
source charge, (iv) Since the electric field is a vector
the electric quantity, at every point in space,
field at P points
radially inward → this field has unique direction and
E P
toward q. magnitude as shown in Figures 1.6(a)
and (b). From equation (1.4), we can
q
infer that as distance increases, the
_ r
electric field decreases in magnitude.
Note that in Figures 1.6 (a) and (b)
Figure 1.4  Electric field of positive and the length of the electric field vector is
negative charges shown for three different points. The
 strength or magnitude of the electric
(ii) If the electric field at a point P is E, then field at point P is stronger than at the
the force experienced by the test charge points Q and R because the point P is
qo placed at the point P is closer to the source charge.
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  (vii) There are two kinds of the electric field:


ER EQ uniform (constant) electric field and
R non-uniform electric field. Uniform
Q electric field will have the same direction
and constant magnitude at all points in
 space. Non-uniform electric field will
+ EP
P have different directions or different
(a) q magnitudes or both at different points
 in space. The electric field created by a
EQ point charge is basically a non uniform
R Q electric field. This non-uniformity

ER arises, both in direction and magnitude,

EP with the direction being radially
– outward (or inward) and the magnitude
P changes as distance increases. These are
(b) q
shown in Figure 1.7.
Figure 1.6  (a) Electric field due to
positive charge (b) Electric field due to
negative charge

(v) In the definition of electric field, it is


assumed that the test charge q0 is taken
sufficiently small, so that bringing this
test charge will not move the source Uniform Electric field Non uniform electric
field
charge. In other words, the test charge
is made sufficiently small such that it
will not modify the electric field of the
source charge.
(vi) The expression (1.4) is valid only for
point charges. For continuous and finite
size charge distributions, integration
techniques must be used These will Non uniform Non uniform electric
electric field field
be explained later in the same section.
However, this expression can be used Figure 1.7  Uniform and non-uniform
as an approximation for a finite-sized electric field
charge if the test point is very far away
from the finite sized source charge.
Note that we similarly treat the Earth E X A M P L E 1.6
as a point mass when we calculate
the gravitational field of the Sun on Calculate the electric field at points P, Q
the Earth (refer unit 6, volume 2, XI for the following two cases, as shown in the
physics). figure.

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(a) 
A positive point charge +1 µC is Case (b)
placed at the origin The magnitude of the electric field at point
(b) 
A negative point charge -2 µC is P
 kq 1 q 9×109 ×2×10−6
placed at the origin EP = 2 = =
r 4 πε 0 r 2 4
y
= 4.5 × 103 N C-1
Q Since the source charge is negative, the
electric field points towards the charge. So
4m
the electric field at the point P is given by
2m 
+1C
+ P  x
EP = −4.5×103 
i NC −1
Ep
 9×109 ×2×10−6
For the point Q,  EQ =
36
= 0.5 × 103 N C-1
y 
ER = 0.56×103
i NC −1

At the point Q the electric field is directed


along the positive x-axis.

6m 2m
Q –2C
– P x y 
EQ
Q

4m
Solution
2m
Case (a) +1C
+ P  x
Ep
The magnitude of the electric field at point
P is
1 q 9×109 ×1×10−6
EP = =
4 πε 0 r 2 4
y
= 2.25×103 NC −1
Since the source charge is positive, the
electric field points away from the charge. So
the electric field at the point P is given by

 EQ
EP = 2.25×103N C −1 
i 6m 2m
Q –2C
– P  x
For the point Q Ep
 9×109 ×1×10−6
  EQ = = 0.56×103 NC −1
16

Hence EQ = 0.56×103 
j

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1.3.2  Electric field due to the 



E2P 
system of point charges E1P E3P
Suppose a number of point charges are
+
q3 r3P
P 
distributed in space. To find the electric  Etot
+ r2P E2P
field at some point P due to this collection q2 r1P 
+
of point charges, superposition principle is q1 E3P
used. The electric field at an arbitrary point
   
due to a collection of point charges is simply Etot= E1P+ E2P+ E3P
equal to the vector sum of the electric fields
created by the individual point charges. This Figure 1.8  Superposition of Electric field
is called superposition of electric fields.
Consider a collection of point charges
E X A M P L E 1.7
q1 , q2 , q3 ..........qn located at various points in
space. The total electric field at some point Consider the charge configuration as shown
P due to all these n charges is given by in the figure. Calculate the electric field at
point A. If an electron is placed at points
    
Etot = E1 + E2 + E3 + ....... + En (1.6) A, what is the acceleration experienced by
this electron? (mass of the electron = 9.1
 1  q
 1  q q × 10-31 kg and charge of electron = −1.6 ×
Etot = r + 22  r2 P + 23 r3 P +...
4 πε 0 2 1P
 r1P r2 P r3 P 10-19 C)
q 
  rnP
.... + 2n  y
rnP 
q2 = +1µC A
(1.7) +

Here r1P , r2 P , r3 P ..........rnP are the distance of the 2mm


the charges q1 , q2 , q3 ..........qn from the point 2mm +
x
P respectively. Also  r1P ,
r2 P , rnP are the
r3 P .......... q1 = +1µC
corresponding unit vectors directed from
q1 , q2 , q3 ..........qn to P.
Equation (1.7) can be re-written as, Solution
 1 n  qi  By using superposition principle, the net
Etot = ∑  2 riP  (1.8) electric field at point A is
4 πε  i=1  riP 
 1 q1 1 q2
For example in Figure 1.8, the resultant EA = 
r +
2 1A

r2 A ,
4 πε  r1A 4 πε  r22A
electric field due to three point charges
q1 , q2 , q3 at point P is shown. where r1A and r2A are the distances of point
A from the two charges respectively.
Note that the relative lengths of the electric
field vectors for the charges depend  9×109 ×1×10−6  9×109 ×1×10−6 
on relative distances of the charges to the EA = 2 ( j )+ 2 (i )
point P.
(2×10−3 ) (2×10−3 )
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= 2.25×109 
j +2.25×109
i = 2.25×109 ( 
i +
j) etc., it is very difficult to look at individual
charges in these charged bodies. Therefore,
The magnitude of electric field it is assumed that charge is distributed
 2 2
EA = (2.25×10 ) + (2.25×10 )
9 9
continuously on the charged bodies and the
discrete nature of charges is not considered
= 2.25× 2 ×109 N C −1
here. The electric field due to such

The direction of E A is given by continuous charge distributions is found by
 invoking the method of calculus.
EA 2.25×109 ( 
i +
j ) (
i +j)
 = = , which
EA 2.25× 2 ×109 2 Consider the following charged object
of irregular shape as shown in Figure
is the unit vector along OA as shown in the
1.9. The entire charged object is divided
figure.
into a large number of charge elements
  ∆q1 , ∆q2 , ∆q3 ......∆qn and each charge element
y Eq 1 EA
∆q is taken as a point charge.
q1 = +1µC
+ A


Eq2
2mm aA
q1
2mm
+ x
q2 r1
O q1 = +1µC q3
r2
r3
r2 r1
The acceleration experienced by an
electron placed at point A is r3
 
 F qE A
aA = = p
m m

(−1.6×10−19 )×(2.25×109 )(i + j )  E3 
=  E2
9.1×10−31 E1
= −3.95×1020 ( 
i +
j )N
Figure 1.9  Continuous charge
The electron is accelerated in a direction distributions

exactly opposite to E A .
The electric field at a point P due to a
charged object is approximately given by the
1.3.3  Electric field due
sum of the fields at P due to all such charge
to continuous charge
elements.
distribution
The electric charge is quantized  1  ∆q1 ∆q ∆q 
E≈  2  r1P + 2 2  r2 P +.......... + 2 n 
r nP 
4 πε 0  r1P r2 P rnP 
microscopically. The expressions (1.2),
(1.3), (1.4) are applicable to only point   1 n ∆qi
≈ ∑ riP
4 πε 0 i=1 riP2
charges. While dealing with the electric field
due to a charged sphere or a charged wire (1.9)

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Here ∆qi is the ith charge element, riP is  1 λdl  λ dl 


the distance of the point P from the ith charge
E=
4 πε 0 ∫ r 2
r=
4 πε 0 ∫r2
r

element and  riP is the unit vector from ith


(b) If the charge Q is uniformly distributed
charge element to the point P.
on a surface of area A, then surface
However the equation (1.9) is only
charge density (charge per unit area)
an approximation. To incorporate the Q
continuous distribution of charge, we take is σ = . Its unit is coulomb per square
A
the limit ∆q → 0(= dq). In this limit, the meter (C m-2).
summation in the equation (1.9) becomes
The charge present in the infinitesimal
an integration and takes the following form
area dA is dq = σ dA. This is shown in
 1 dq the figure 1.10 (b).
E=
4 πε 0 ∫ r2
r (1.10)

The electric field due to a of total charge
Here r is the distance of the point P from Q is given by
the infinitesimal charge dq and r is the
 1 σda 1 da
unit vector from dq to point P. Even though σ∫ 2 
E=
4 πε  ∫ r 2
r =
4 πε  r
r
the electric field for a continuous charge
distribution is difficult to evaluate, the force This is shown in Figure 1.10(b).
experienced by some test charge q in this
  (c) If the charge Q is uniformly distributed
electric field is still given by F = qE .
(a) If the charge Q is uniformly distributed in a volume V, then volume charge
along the wire of length L, then linear density (charge per unit volume) is
Q
charge density (charge per unit length) given by ρ = . Its unit is coulomb per
Q V
is λ = . Its unit is coulomb per meter cubic meter (C m-3).
L
(Cm-1). The charge present in the infinitesimal
The charge present in the infinitesimal volume element dV is dq = ρdV. This is
length dl is dq = λdl. This is shown in shown in Figure 1.10(c).
Figure 1.10 (a). The electric field due to a volume of
total charge Q is given by
P dq=qdV  1 ρdV  1 dV
dq=λdl
r r E= ∫ 2
r= ρ∫ 2 r .
r r r 4 πε  r 4 πε  r
dq=dA
dq=σda P r

E X A M P L E 1.8
P

(a) (b) (c) A block of mass m and positive charge


q is placed on an insulated frictionless
Figure 1.10  Line, surface and volume inclined plane as shown in the figure. A
charge distribution
uniform electric field E is applied parallel
to the inclined surface such that the block
The electric field due to the line of total is at rest. Calculate the magnitude of the
charge Q is given by electric field E.

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A convenient inertial coordinate system


q
is located in the inclined surface as shown
m

E in the figure. The mass m has zero net
h L acceleration both in x and y-direction.

 Along x-direction, applying Newton’s


second law, we have
Solution
mg sinθ
i − qEi = 0
Note: A similar problem is solved in XIth
Physics volume I, unit 3 section 3.3.2. mg sinθ− qE = 0
There are three forces that acts on the mass m:
mg sinθ
(i)  The downward gravitational force or, E=
q
exerted by the Earth (mg)
(ii) The normal force exerted by the Note that the magnitude of the electric
inclined surface (N) field is directly proportional to the mass m
(iii) 
The Coulomb force given by uniform and inversely proportional to the charge q.
electric field (qE) It implies that, if the mass is increased by
keeping the charge constant, then a strong
The free body diagram for the mass m is
electric field is required to stop the object
drawn below.
from sliding. If the charge is increased by
keeping the mass constant, then a weak
y
electric field is sufficient to stop the mass
from sliding down the plane.
x
qE N
The electric field also can be expressed
m in terms of height and the length of the
inclined surface of the plane.
θ
mg cosθ mg sin θ mg h
E=
mg qL
mg
θ
Forces acting on the mass m 1.3.4  Electric field lines
qE Electric field vectors are visualized by the
N
concept of electric field lines. They form a
set of continuous lines which are the visual
m,q representation of the electric field in some
region of space. The following rules are
followed while drawing electric field lines
for charges.
mg • The electric field lines start from a
positive charge and end at negative
Free body diagram
charges or at infinity. For a positive

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point charge the electric field lines point line at that point. This is shown in
radially outward and for a negative Figure 1.12
point charge, the electric field lines 
point radially inward. These are shown E
in Figure 1.11 (a) and (b). P

For a positive point charge, + _


the field lines are directed
radially outward.

Figure 1.12  Electric field at a point P


q
+
• The electric field lines are denser (more
closer) in a region where the electric
field has larger magnitude and less
dense in a region where the electric field
(a)
is of smaller magnitude. In other words,
For a negative point charge, the number of lines passing through a
the field lines are directed given surface area perpendicular to the
radially inward.
lines is proportional to the magnitude
of the electric field in that region. This
is shown in Figure1.13

-
_ -q

(b)

Figure 1.11  Electric field lines for A B


isolated positive and negative charges

Note that for an isolated positive point


charge the electric field line starts from
the charge and ends only at infinity. For an Figure 1.13  Electric field has larger
isolated negative point charge the electric magnitude at surface A than B
field lines start at infinity and end at the
negative charge. Figure 1.13 shows electric field lines from
• The electric field vector at a point in a positive point charge. The magnitude of
space is tangential to the electric field the electric field for a point charge decreases

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 1
as the distance increases  E ∝ 2 . So the Electric field lines
 r 
electric field has greater magnitude at the
surface A than at B. Therefore, the number
of lines crossing the surface A is greater than
the number of lines crossing the surface B.
+
Note that at surface B the electric field lines
are farther apart compared to the electric +q
field lines at the surface A.
• No two electric field lines intersect each
other. If two lines cross at a point, then (a)
there will be two different electric field Electric field lines
vectors at the same point, as shown in
Figure 1.14.

_
P
-2q
= Electric field
= Electric field lines
(b)
Figure 1.14  Two electric field lines never
intersect each other Figure 1.15  Electric field lines and
magnitude of the charge
As a consequence, if some charge is placed
in the intersection point, then it has of the first charge, the number of field lines
to move in two different directions drawn for -2q is twice in number than that
at the same time, which is physically for charge +q.
impossible. Hence, electric field lines
do not intersect. E X A M P L E 1.9
• The number of electric field lines that
The following pictures depict electric field
emanate from the positive charge or
lines for various charge configurations.
end at a negative charge is directly
proportional to the magnitude of the
charges.
For example in the Figure 1.15, the electric
field lines are drawn for charges +q and q2
-2q. Note that the number of field lines q1
emanating from +q is 8 and the number
of field lines ending at -2q is 16. Since the
(a)
magnitude of the second charge is twice that
B
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q1

(a)
B charges are equal (N=18). So the
charges are equal. At point A,
C the electric field lines are denser
A + +
compared to the lines at point B. So
the electric field at point A is greater
in magnitude compared to the field
(b) at point B. Further, no electric field
line passes through C, which implies
that the resultant electric field at C
due to these two charges is zero.
q1 _ q2 q3 (iii) 
In the figure (c), the electric field
lines start at q1 and q3 and end at q2.
This implies that q1 and q3 are positive
charges. The ratio of the number
(c) q1 8 q 1
of field lines is = = 3 = ,
q2 16 q2 2
(i) 
In figure (a) identify the signs of two
implying that q1and q3are half of the
q1 magnitude of q2. So q1 = q3 = +10 nC.
charges and find the ratio
q2
(ii) 
In figure (b), calculate the ratio of 1.4
two positive charges and identify the
strength of the electric field at three ELECTRIC DIPOLE AND
points A, B, and C ITS PROPERTIES

(iii) 
Figure (c) represents the electric field
lines for three charges. If q2 = -20 nC, 1.4.1  Electric dipole
then calculate the values of q1 and q3 Two equal and opposite charges separated
Solution by a small distance constitute an electric
dipole. In many molecules, the centers of
(i) 
The electric field lines start at q2 and positive and negative charge do not coincide.
end at q1. In figure (a), q2 is positive Such molecules behave as permanent
and q1 is negative. The number dipoles. Examples: CO, water, ammonia,
of lines starting from q2 is 18 and HCl etc.
number of the lines ending at q1 is Consider two equal and opposite point
6. So q2 has greater magnitude. The charges (+q, -q) that are separated by a
q1 N 6 1 distance 2a as shown in Figure 1.16(a).
ratio of = 1 = = . It implies
q2 N 2 18 3 The electric dipole moment is defined as
  
that q2 = 3 q1 p = qr+ − qr− .

Here r+ is the position vector of +q from
(ii) 
In figure (b), the number of field 
the origin and r- is the position vector of -q
lines emanating from both positive from the origin. Then, from Figure 1.16 (a),
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y  n

p = ∑ qi ri (1.12)
i =1

p 
_
where ri is the position vector of charge qi
+
-q
a a x from the origin.
+q
(a) E X A M P L E 1.10

Calculate the electric dipole moment for


the following charge configurations.
_ +
y y

a a x a x
(b)
+ + + +

+q +q +q +q

Figure 1.16  (a) Electric dipole (b)


Electric field lines for the electric dipole (a) (b)
y y
_
-2q +
+q

p = qai −qa ( −
i ) = 2qai (1.11) a -2q a
x _
a x
The electric dipole moment vector lies along a
2a
the line joining two charges and is directed +
+q
from –q to +q. The SI unit of dipole moment is (c) +q (d)
+

coulomb meter (Cm). The electric field lines for


an electric dipole are shown in Figure 1.16 (b). Solution
• For simplicity, the two charges are Case (a) The position vector for the +q on
placed on the x-axis. Even if the two the positive x-axis is ai and position vector
charges are placed on y or z-axies, for the +q charge the negative x axis is -ai .
dipole moment will point from –q to So the dipole moment is,
+q. The magnitude of the electric dipole 
p = (+q)( ai ) + (+q)( −ai ) = 0
moment is equal to the product of the
magnitude of one of the charges and the Case (b) In this case one charge is placed

distance between them, p = 2qa at the origin, so its position vector is zero.
• Though the electric dipole moment Hence only the second charge +q with
for two equal and opposite charges is position vector ai contributes to the dipole

defined, it is very general. It is possible moment, which is p = qai .
to define and calculate the electric From both cases (a) and (b), we can infer
dipole moment for a single charge, two that in general the electric dipole moment
positive charges, two negative charges depends on the choice of the origin
and also for more than two charges. and charge configuration. But for one
For a collection of n point charges, the special case, the electric dipole moment
electric dipole moment is defined as is independent of the origin. If the total
follows:
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charge is zero, then the electric dipole 1.4.2  Electric field due to a
moment will be the same irrespective of dipole
the choice of the origin. It is because of this Case (i) Electric field due to an electric
reason that the electric dipole moment of dipole at points on the axial line
an electric dipole (total charge is zero) is Consider an electric dipole placed on the
always directed from –q to +q, independent x-axis as shown in Figure 1.17. A point C is
of the choice of the origin. located at a distance of r from the midpoint

Case (c) p =( −2q)aj+q(2a)( −j ) = −4qaj. O of the dipole along the axial line.

Note that in this case p is directed from Axial line

p → →
-2q to +q. A B E– E+

_ +
a O a
Case (d) p = −2qa(−
i ) + qaj +qa( −
j) -q +q C
= 2qa 
i r
The water molecule (H2O) has this charge
configuration. The water molecule has Figure 1.17  Electric field of the dipole
three atoms (two H atom and one O along the axial line
atom). The centers of positive (H) and
negative (O) charges of a water molecule The electric field at a point C due to +q is
 1 q
lie at different points, hence it possess E+ = along BC
4 πε 0 (r − a)2
permanent dipole moment. The O-H bond

length is 0.958 × 10-10 m due to which the Since the electric dipole moment vector p
electric dipole moment of water molecule is from –q to +q and is directed along BC,
has the magnitude p = 6.1 x 10-30 Cm. The the above equation is rewritten as

electric dipole moment p is directed from  1 q
E+ = 
p (1.13)
center of negative charge to the center of 4 πε 0 (r − a)2
positive charge, as shown in the figure.
where  p is the electric dipole moment unit
H vector from –q to +q.
+ The electric field at a point C due to –q is

Center of
p1 positive charge  1 q
O

p E− = − 
p (1.14)
–p
+ 4 πε 0 (r + a)2
2 Since +q is located closer to the point C than
Center of  
negative + –q, E+ is stronger than E- . Therefore, the

H
charge length of the E+ vector is drawn larger than

0.958Å H that of E- vector.
+ +q The total electric field at point C is calculated
using the superposition principle of the
O
-2q – 104 electric field.
  
Etot = E+ + E−
+q
1 q 1 q
+

H = 2
p − 
p
4 πε 0 (r − a) 4 πε 0 (r + a)2

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  If the point C is chosen on the left side of


 q  1 1  
Etot =  − p the dipole, the total electric field is still in
4 πε 0 (r − a)2 (r + a)2  
(1.15) the direction of p . We infer this result by
  examining the electric field lines of the
 1  4ra  
Etot = q  p (1.16) dipole shown in Figure 1.16(b).
4 πε 0 (r 2 − a 2 )2 
 
 Case (ii) Electric field due to an electric
Note that the total electric field is along E+ ,
dipole at a point on the equatorial plane
since +q is closer to C than –q.
 Consider a point C at a distance r from the
The direction of Etot is shown in Figure 1.18.
midpoint O of the dipole on the equatorial
 plane as shown in Figure 1.19.
A a a B Etot
_ + Since the point C is equi-distant from +q
-q O +q C
and –q, the magnitude of the electric fields
r of +q and –q are the same. The direction of
 
E+ is along BC and the direction of E- is
Figure 1.18  Total electric field of the  
along CA. E+ and E- are resolved into two
dipole on the axial line
components; one component parallel to the
dipole axis and the other perpendicular to
If the point C is very far away from the 
it. The perpendicular components E+ sinθ
dipole then (r >> a). Under this limit the 
and E- sinθ are oppositely directed and
term (r 2 − a 2 ) ≈ r 4 . Substituting this into
2
cancel each other. The magnitude of the
equation (1.16), we get total electric field at point C is the sum of
 
the parallel components of E+ and E- and
 1  4aq  
Etot =   p (r >> a) its direction is along -p as shown in the
4 πε 0  r 3  Figure 1.19.

since 2aq p = p   
    Etot = − E+ cos θ 
p − E− cos θ 
p (1.18)
1 2p
Etot = (r >> a)  (1.17)
4 πε 0 r 3

→ Equatorial plane
E+

→ E+sinθ
C E+

Etot

→ →
E– r E+cosθ θ
→ →
A θ –p θ B E–cosθ θ
– +
-q a O a +q
→ →
E– E–sinθ

Figure 1.19  Electric field due to a dipole at a point on the equatorial plane

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 
The magnitudes E+ and E- are the same and electric field due to a point charge. The
are given by reason for this behavior is that at very
  large distance, the two charges appear
1 q
E+ = E− = (1.19) to be close to each other and neutralize
4 πε 0 (r + a 2 )
2

each other.
By substituting equation (1.19) into equation (iii) The equations (1.17) and (1.21) are
(1.18), we get valid only at very large distances
 1 2q cos θ  (r>>a). Suppose the distance
Etot = − p
4 πε 0 (r 2 + a 2 ) 2a approaches zero and q approaches
infinity such that the product of
1 2qa 
=− 3
p 2aq = p is finite, then the dipole is
4 πε 0
(r 2
+a 2 2
) called a point dipole. For such point
a dipoles, equations (1.17) and (1.21)
since cosθ =
r + a2
2 are exact and hold true for any r.
 
1 p
Etot = − 3
4 πε 0 1.4.3  Torque experienced
(r 2 + a2 )2

since p = 2qap (1.20) by an electric dipole in the
At very large distances (r>>a), the equation uniform electric field
(1.20) becomes Consider an electric dipole of dipole

 moment p placed in a uniform electric field
 1 p 
  Etot = − (r >> a) (1.21) E whose field lines are equally spaced and
4 πε  r 3
point in the same direction. The charge +q

Important inferences will experience a force q E in the direction
(i) From equations (1.17) and (1.21), it is of the field and charge –q will experience

inferred that for very large distances, a force -q E in a direction opposite to the

the magnitude of the electric field at field. Since the external field E is uniform,
points on the dipole axis is twice the the total force acting on the dipole is zero.
magnitude of the electric field at points These two forces acting at different points
on the equatorial plane. The direction of will constitute a couple and the dipole
the electric field at points on the dipole experience a torque as shown in Figure 1.20.
axis is directed along the direction of This torque tends to rotate the dipole. (Note
 that electric field lines of a uniform field
dipole moment vector p but at points
on the equatorial plane it is directed are equally spaced and point in the same
opposite to the dipole moment vector, direction).
 The total torque on the dipole about the
that is along - p .
(ii) At very large distances, the electric point O
1
field due to a dipole varies as 3 . Note     
r
that for a point charge, the electric τ = OA×(−qE ) + OB ×qE (1.22)
1
field varies as 2 . This implies that the
r Using right-hand corkscrew rule (Refer
electric field due to a dipole at very large
distances goes to zero faster than the XI, volume 1, unit 2), it is found that total

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E that experienced by –q. In addition to the
+q + B qE

torque, there will be net force acting on the
a
dipole. This is shown in Figure 1.21.
2a sinθ
θ
O → →
Non uniform E qE1
a
+
+q
-qE

– θ
A -q
Torque is into the paper
O
Figure 1.20  Torque on dipole

qE2
– -q
torque is perpendicular to the plane of the
paper and is directed into it. Net torque, Net force
The magnitude of the total torque
    
Figure 1.21  The dipole in a non-uniform
τ = OA (−qE ) sin θ + OB qE sin θ
electric field

τ = qE ⋅ 2a sin θ (1.23)

 E X A M P L E 1.11

where θ is the angle made by p with E .
A sample of HCl gas is placed in a uniform
Since p = 2aq, the torque is written in terms
electric field of magnitude 3 × 104 N C-1.
of the vector product as
The dipole moment of each HCl molecule
   is 3.4 × 10-30 Cm. Calculate the maximum
τ = p× E (1.24)
torque experienced by each HCl molecule.
The magnitude of this torque is τ = pE sin θ
Solution
and is maximum when θ = 90 .
The maximum torque experienced by the
This torque tends to rotate the dipole and
  dipole is when it is aligned perpendicular
align it with the electric field E . Once p
 to the applied field.
is aligned with E , the total torque on the
dipole becomes zero.   τ max = pE sin 90 = 3.4 ×10−30 ×3×104 N m
If the electric field is not uniform, then the τ max = 10.2×10−26 N m
force experienced by +q is different from

Microwave oven works on the principle of torque


acting on an electric dipole. The food we consume
has water molecules which are permanent electric
dipoles. Oven produces microwaves that are
oscillating electromagnetic fields and produce torque on the
water molecules. Due to this torque on each water molecule,
the molecules rotate very fast and produce thermal energy.
Thus, heat generated is used to heat the food.

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 
1.5 to the coulomb force (Fext = −Fcoloumb ). The
ELECTROSTATIC work done is
POTENTIAL AND  P

POTENTIAL ENERGY W = ∫ Fext ⋅ dr (1.25)
R

Since coulomb force is conservative,


Introduction work done is independent of the path and
In mechanics, potential energy is defined it depends only on the initial and final
for conservative forces. Since gravitational positions of the test charge. If potential
force is a conservative force, its gravitational energy associated with q′ at P is UP and that
potential energy is defined in XI standard at R is UR, then difference in potential energy
physics (Unit 6). Since Coulomb force is defined as the work done to bring a test
is an inverse-square-law force, its also a charge q′ from point R to P and is given as
conservative force like gravitational force. UP – UR = W = ΔU
Therefore, we can define potential energy
P
for charge configurations.  
∆U = ∫ Fext ⋅ dr (1.26)
R
  
1.5.1  Electrostatic Potential  Since Fext = −Fcoloumb = −q ′E (1.27)
energy and Electrostatic
P P
potential    
∆U = ∫ −(q ′E )⋅ dr = q ′ ∫ (−E )⋅ dr
Consider a positive charge q kept fixed (1.28)
R R

at the origin which produces an electric


 The potential energy difference per unit
field E around it. A positive test charge q′
charge is given by
is brought from point R to point P against
the repulsive force between q and q′ as P
 
shown in Figure 1.22. Work must be done to q ′ ∫ (−E )⋅ dr P
 
overcome this repulsion. This work done is   ∆U = R
= −∫ E ⋅ dr (1.29)
q′ q′
stored as potential energy. R

q´ The above equation (1.29) is independent


+
P

of q′. The quantity ∆U = − E ⋅ dr is called
R

P ∫ q′ R
+
q electric potential difference between P and
R and is denoted as VP – VR = ∆V.
Figure 1.22  Work done is equal to
In otherwords, the electric potential
potential energy
difference is defined as the work done by an
external force to bring unit positive charge
The test charge q′ is brought from R to P from point R to point P.
with constant velocity which means that
P
external force used to bring the test charge  
VP − VR = ∆V = ∫ −E ⋅ dr (1.30)
q′ from R to P must be equal and opposite R

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The electric potential energy difference


can be written as ∆U = q′ ∆V. Physically
potential difference between two points P
r
is a meaningful quantity. The value of +
q
the potential itself at one point is not
meaningful. Therefore the point R is taken Figure 1.23  Electrostatic potential at a
at infinity and its potential is considered point P
as zero (V∞ = 0) .
Then the electric potential at a point P is The electric potential at the point P is
equal to the work done by an external force r r
   
to bring a unit positive charge with constant V = ∫ (−E )⋅ dr = −∫ E ⋅ dr (1.32)
velocity from infinity to the point P in ∞ ∞

the region of the external electric field E . Electric field due to positive point charge q
Mathematically this is written as is
 1 q
P
  E= 
r
VP = −∫ E ⋅ dr (1.31) 4 πε 0 r 2

∞ r
−1 q 
Important points
V=
4 πε 0 ∫r 2

r .dr

1. Electric potential at point P depends The infinitesimal displacement vector,



only on the electric field which is due dr = drr and using  r = 1, we have
r.
to the source charge q and not on the r r
test charge q′. Unit positive charge is 1 q 1 q
  V =− ∫
4 πε  ∞ r 2

r ⋅ drr = − ∫
4 πε  ∞ r 2
dr
brought from infinity to the point P
with constant velocity because external After the integration,
agency should not impart any kinetic 1  1  1 q
r

energy to the test charge. V =− q −  =


4 πε   r ∞ 4 πε  r
2. From equation (1.29), the unit of Hence the electric potential due to a point
electric potential is Joule per coulomb. charge q at a distance r is
The practical unit is volt (V) named
after Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) 1 q
V= (1.33)
who invented the electrical battery. The 4 πε 0 r
potential difference between two points Important points
is expressed in terms of voltage.
(i) If the source charge q is positive, V > 0.
If q is negative, then V is negative and
1.5.2  Electric potential due 1 q
equal to V = −
to a point charge 4 πε 0 r
(ii) The description of motion of objects
Consider a positive charge q kept fixed at using the concept of potential or
the origin. Let P be a point at distance r from potential energy is simpler than that
the charge q. This is shown in Figure 1.23. using the concept of field.
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(iii) From expression (1.33), it is clear that


kq1 kq2 kq3
the potential due to positive charge Vtot = + + + ...
r1 r2 r3
decreases as the distance increases,
kq 1 n qi
but for a negative charge the potential .... + n = ∑ (1.34)
rn 4 πε 0 i =1
ri
increases as the distance is increased. At
infinity (r = ∞) electrostatic potential where r1,r2,r3…….rn are the distances
is zero (V = 0). of q1, q2, q3 ….. qn respectively from P
In the case of gravitational force, (Figure 1.25).
mass moves from a point of higher
gravitational potential to a point of P
r1
lower gravitational potential. Similarly
q1
a positive charge moves from a point
of higher electrostatic potential to r2
lower electrostatic potential. However rn
a negative charge moves from lower r3
electrostatic potential to higher q2
electrostatic potential. This comparison qn
is shown in Figure 1.24.
(iv) The electric potential at a point P due
q3
to a collection of charges q1,q2,q3…..qn
is equal to sum of the electric potentials Figure 1.25  Electrostatic potential due to
due to individual charges. collection of charges

Higher gravitational
potential
E X A M P L E 1.12
Lower gravitational
potential
(a) 
Calculate the electric potential at
Earth
points P and Q as shown in the figure
O below.
(b) 
Suppose the charge +9µC is replaced
Mass moves from higher
gravitational potentail to lower by -9µC find the electrostatic
gravitational potentail
potentials at points P and Q
VP > VQ > VR VP < VQ < VR
+ + – +
+q P +q´ Q R
(a) Positive charge +q´ moves from
-q P Q +q´ R
(c) Positive charge +q´ moves from
+ 10m P
6m Q
higher electric potential to
lower electric potential
higher electric potential to +9µC
lower electric potential

+
VP > VQ

> VR

VP <

VQ < VR
(c) 
Calculate the work done to bring a
+q P Q –q´ R –q P –q´ Q R test charge +2µC from infinity to the
point P. Assume the charge +9µC
(b) negative charge –q´moves from lower (d) negative charge –q´ moves from lower
electric potential to higher electric potential electric potential to higher electric potential

is held fixed at origin and +2µC is


Figure 1.24  Motion of charges in terms brought from infinity to P.
of electric potential

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Solution E X A M P L E 1.13

(a) 
Electric potential at point P is given by Consider a point charge +q placed at
9 −6 the origin and another point charge -2q
  VP = 1 q = 9×10 ×9×10 = 8.1×103 V placed at a distance of 9 m from the charge
4 πε  rP 10
+q. Determine the point between the two
Electric potential at point Q is given by
charges at which electric potential is zero.
9 −6
  VQ = 1 q = 9×10 ×9×10 = 5.06×103 V Solution
4 πε  rQ 16
According to the superposition principle,
Note that the electric potential at point Q
the total electric potential at a point is
is less than the electric potential at point
equal to the sum of the potentials due to
P. If we put a positive charge at P, it moves
each charge at that point.
from P to Q. However if we place a negative
charge at P it will move towards the charge Consider the point at which the total
+9µC. potential zero is located at a distance x
from the charge +q as shown in the figure.
The potential difference between the points
P and Q is given by 9m

∆V = VP − VQ = +3.04 ×103 V + _
x P 9-x
+q -2q
(b) 
Suppose we replace the charge +9 µC
by -9 µC, then the corresponding The total electric potential at P is zero.
potentials at the points P and Q are,
1  q 2q 
3
VP = −8.1×10 V , VQ = −5.06×10 V 3 Vtot =  − = 0
4 πε   x (9 − x )
Note that in this case electric potential at
q 2q
the point Q is higher than at point P. which gives =
x (9 − x )
The potential difference or voltage between 1 2
or =
the points P and Q is given by x (9 − x )

∆V = VP − VQ = −3.04 ×103 V Hence, x=3m

(c) 
The electric potential V at a point
P due to some charge is defined as 1.5.3  Electrostatic potential
the work done by an external force at a point due to an electric
to bring a unit positive charge from dipole
infinity to P. So to bring the q amount
of charge from infinity to the point P, Consider two equal and opposite charges
work done is given as follows. separated by a small distance 2a as shown
in Figure 1.26. The point P is located at a
W = qV distance r from the midpoint of the dipole.
Let θ be the angle between the line OP and
  WQ = 2×10−6 ×5.06×103 J = 10.12×10−3 J .
dipole axis AB.

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1
P 1 1  2a 

2
= 1 − cosθ

r1 r  r 

r2 Since
a
<<1 , we can use binomial theorem
r
r r1 and retain the terms up to first order

→ 1 1  a 
A 180-θ
θ
p B = 1 + cosθ (1.36)
_ + 
r1 r  r 
-q O +q
a a Similarly applying the cosine law for triangle
Figure 1.26  Potential due to electric dipole AOP,

r22 = r 2 + a 2 − 2ra cos (180 − θ)


Let r1 be the distance of point P from +q and
r2 be the distance of point P from –q. since cos (180− θ) = − cos θ we get
1 q
Potential at P due to charge +q = r22 = r 2 + a 2 + 2ra cosθ
4 πε  r1
1 q a2
Potential at P due to charge –q = − Neglecting the term (because r>>a)
4 πε  r2 r2
Total potential at the point P,
 2a cosθ 
r22 = r 2 1 + 
1  1 1   r 
V= q  −  (1.35)
4 πε   r1 r2  1
 2a cosθ 2
r2 = r 1 + 
Suppose if the point P is far away from the  r 
dipole, such that r>>a, then equation (1.35)
Using Binomial theorem, we get
can be expressed in terms of r.
By the cosine law for triangle BOP,
1 1  cosθ 
= 1 − a  (1.37)
r12 = r 2 + a 2 − 2ra cosθ r2 r  r 

 a 2 2a  Substituting equation (1.37) and (1.36) in


r12 = r 2 1 + 2 − cosθ
 r r  equation (1.35),
Since the point P is very far from dipole,
1  1  cos θ  1  cos θ 
a2 V= q  1 + a  − 1 − a 
then r>>a. As a result the term 2 is very 4 πε   r  r  r  r 
r
small and can be neglected. Therefore
q  1  cos θ cos θ 
V=  1 + a −1 + a 

r12 = r 2 1 − 2a
cosθ 
 4 πε   r  r r 
 r 
1
 2a 2 1 2aq
r1 = r 1 − cosθ
(or) V= cos θ
 r  4 πε  r 2

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But the electric dipole moment p = 2qa and (ii) The potential due to a point charge is
we get, spherically symmetric since it depends
1  p cos θ  only on the distance r. But the potential
V=   due to a dipole is not spherically
4 πε 0  r 2 
 symmetric because the potential
Now we can write p cosθ = p ×r , where 
r is 
depends on the angle between p and
the unit vector from the point O to point P. 
position vector r of the point.
Hence the electric potential at a point P due However the dipole potential is axially
to an electric dipole is given by 
symmetric. If the position vector r
 
1 p ⋅ r is rotated about p by keeping θ fixed,
V= (r>>a)(1.38)
4 πε  r 2
then all points on the cone at the same
Equation (1.38) is valid for distances very distance r will have the same potential
large compared to the size of the dipole. as shown in Figure 1.27. In this figure,
But for a point dipole, the equation (1.38) is all the points located on the blue curve
valid for any distance. will have the same potential.

Special cases
Case (i) If the point P lies on the axial line axial
r
of the dipole on the side of +q, then θ = 0. line
Then the electric potential becomes -q  +q
_ +

A O  
p
1 p
V= (1.39)
4 πε  r 2
Case (ii) If the point P lies on the axial line
of the dipole on the side of –q, then θ = 180o,
then Figure 1.27  Dipole potential is axially
symmetric
1 p
V =− (1.40)
4 πε  r 2
1.5.4  Equi-potential Surface
Case (iii) If the point P lies on the equatorial
line of the dipole, then θ = 90o. Hence Consider a point charge q located at some
point in space and an imaginary sphere of
V = 0 (1.41) radius r is chosen by keeping the charge q
at its center (Figure 1.28(a)). The electric
Important points
potential at all points on the surface of the
(i) The potential due to an electric dipole given sphere is the same. Such a surface is
1
falls as 2 and the potential due to a called an equipotential surface.
r 1
single point charge falls as . Thus the An equipotential surface is a surface on
r
potential due to the dipole falls faster which all the points are at the same potential.
than that due to a monopole (point For a point charge the equipotential surfaces
charge). As the distance increases from are concentric spherical surfaces as shown
electric dipole, the effects of positive in Figure 1.28(b). Each spherical surface is
and negative charges nullify each other. an equipotential surface but the value of the
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potential is different for different spherical


All points in the surface of sphere
are at same potential
surfaces.
A For a uniform electric field, the equipotential
J B surfaces form a set of planes normal to

the electric field E . This is shown in the
r
I Figure 1.29.
C
Properties of equipotential surfaces
q
H (i) The work done to move a charge q
D
between any two points A and B,
G W = q (VB – VA). If the points A and
E
F B lie on the same equipotential surface,
(a) work done is zero because VA = VB.
3 (ii) The electric field is normal to an
 2  equipotential surface. If it is not normal,
E E
1 then there is a component of the field
parallel to the surface. Then work must
be done to move a charge between
two points on the same surface. This
q is a contradiction. Therefore the
electric field must always be normal to
equipotential surface.

 
E E 1.5.5  Relation between
(b) electric field and potential
Consider a positive charge q kept fixed
Figure 1.28  Equipotential surface of at the origin. To move a unit positive charge
point Charge
by a small distance dx in the electric field E,

Equipotential surfaces

 
E E

Figure 1.29  Equipotential surface for uniform electric field

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the work done is given by dW = −E dx. The From 0 to 1 cm, the slope is constant and
minus sign implies that work is done against dV 
= 25V cm−1 . So E = −25V cm 
−1
so i
the electric field. This work done is equal to dx
electric potential difference. Therefore, From 1 to 4 cm, the potential is constant,
dW = dV. dV 
V = 25 V. It implies that = 0. So E = 0
(or) dV = −E dx(1.42) dx

Hence
E =−
dV
(1.43) From 4 to 5 cm, the slope dV = −25V cm−1 .
dx  dx
So E = +25V cm i .
−1

The electric field is the negative gradient of


the electric potential. In general, The plot of electric field for the various
points along the x axis is given below.
  ∂V 
 (1.44)
∂V  ∂V 
E = −  i + j + k
 ∂x ∂y ∂k 
E(Vcm-1)

E X A M P L E 1.14 37.5

25
The following figure represents the electric 12.5
potential as a function of x – coordinate. 0 1 2 3 4 5 x(cm)
Plot the corresponding electric field as a -12.5
function of x. -25

-37.5
V(volts)

30

25
20 1.5.6  Electrostatic potential
15 energy for collection of point
charges
10
The electric potential at a point at a distance r
5
from point charge q1 is given by
0 1 2 3 4 5 1 q1
x(cm) V=
4 πε  r
This potential V is the work done to bring
a unit positive charge from infinity to the
Solution
point. Now if the charge q2 is brought from
In the given problem, since the potential infinity to that point at a distance r from q1,
 dV  the work done is the product of q2 and the
depends only on x, we can use E = − i electric potential at that point. Thus we have
dx
¶V ¶V
(the other two terms and are zero) W = q2V
¶y ¶z

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This work done is stored as the electrostatic electric field created by the charge q1.
potential energy U of a system of charges So the work done on the charge q2 is
q1 and q2 separated by a distance r. Thus we W = q2 V1B. Here V1B is the electrostatic
have potential due to the charge q1 at point B.
1 q1q2
U = q2V = (1.45) 1 q1q2
4πε  r U= (1.46)
4 πε  r12
The electrostatic potential energy depends
only on the distance between the two point Note that the expression is same
charges. In fact, the expression (1.45) is when q2 is brought first and then q1 later.
derived by assuming that q1 is fixed and (iii) Similarly to bring the charge q3 to the
q2 is brought from infinity. The equation point C, work has to be done against the
(1.45) holds true when q2 is fixed and q1 is total electric field due to both charges
brought from infinity or both q1 and q2 are q1 and q2. So the work done to bring
simultaneously brought from infinity to a the charge q3 is = q3 (V1C + V2C). Here
distance r between them. V1C is the electrostatic potential due
Three charges are arranged in the following to charge q1 at point C and V2C is the
configuration as shown in Figure 1.30. electrostatic potential due to charge q2
at point C.
q3
The electrostatic potential is
C
r13 1  q1q3 q2q3 
r23 U=  +  (1.47)
4 πε   r13 r23 

q1 q2
(iv) Adding equations (1.46) and (1.47), the
A r12 B total electrostatic potential energy for
the system of three charges q1, q2 and
Figure 1.30  Electrostatic potential q3 is
energy for Collection of point charges
1  q1q2 q1q3 q2q3 
U=  + +  (1.48)
To calculate the total electrostatic potential 4 πε   r12 r13 r23 
energy, we use the following procedure. We
bring all the charges one by one and arrange Note that this stored potential energy U
them according to the configuration as is equal to the total external work done to
shown in Figure 1.30. assemble the three charges at the given
locations. The expression (1.48) is same if
(i) Bringing a charge q1 from infinity to the the charges are brought to their positions
point A requires no work, because there in any other order. Since the Coulomb force
are no other charges already present in is a conservative force, the electrostatic
the vicinity of charge q1. potential energy is independent of the
(ii) To bring the second charge q2 to the manner in which the configuration of
point B, work must be done against the charges is arrived at.

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E X A M P L E 1.15 1  q q 
WR = q × − + 
Four charges are arranged at the corners 4 πε   a 2a 
of the square PQRS of side a as shown 1 q 2  1 
= −1 + 
in the figure.(a) Find the work required 4 πε  a  2
to assemble these charges in the given
(iv) 
Work required to bring the
configuration. (b) Suppose a charge q′
fourth charge –q at the position
is brought to the center of the square,
S = q × potential at the point S
by keeping the four charges fixed at the
due the all the three charges at
corners, how much extra work is required
the point P, Q and R
for this?
+q -q 1  q q q 
a WS = −q ×  + − 
2a 
+ –
4 πε   a a
P Q
1 q  1 
WS = − 2 − 
O a 4 πε  a 2
a
q´ (b) 
Work required to bring the charge
q′ to the center of the square = q′ ×
S R potential at the center point O due
– +
-q a to all the four charges in the four
+q
corners
Solution The potential created by the two +q charges
are canceled by the potential created by the
(a) 
The work done to arrange the -q charges which are located in the opposite
charges in the corners of the square corners. Therefore the net electric potential
is independent of the way they are at the center O due to all the charges in the
arranged. We can follow any order. corners is zero.
(i) 
First, the charge +q is brought Hence no work is required to bring any
to the corner P. This requires no charge to the point O. Physically this
work since no charge is already implies that if any charge q′ when brought
present, WP = 0 close to O, then it moves to the point O
(ii) 
Work required to bring the without any external force.
charge –q to the corner Q = (-q)
× potential at a point Q due to
+q located at a point P. 1.5.7  Electrostatic potential
energy of a dipole in a
1 q 1 q2 uniform electric field
WQ = −q × =−
4 πε  a 4 πε  a
Consider a dipole placed in the uniform

(iii) 
Work required to bring the electric field E as shown in the Figure 1.31.
charge +q to the corner R= q × A dipole experiences a torque when kept

potential at the point R due to in an uniform electric field E . This torque
charges at the point P and Q. rotates the dipole to align it with the
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E The potential energy stored in the system of
+q + B dipole kept in the uniform electric field is
given by
a
 
θ U = − pE cosθ = − p ⋅ E (1.51)
O 2a sinθ
a
In addition to p and E, the potential energy
A – θ
also depends on the orientation θ of the
-q 2a cosθ
electric dipole with respect to the external
electric field.
Figure 1.31  The dipole in a uniform The potential energy is maximum when the
electric field dipole is aligned anti-parallel (θ = π) to the
external electric field and minimum when
direction of the electric field. To rotate the the dipole is aligned parallel (θ = 0) to the
dipole (at constant angular velocity) from external electric field.
its initial angle θ¢ to another angle θ against
the torque exerted by the electric field, an E X A M P L E 1.16
equal and opposite external torque must be A water molecule has an electric dipole
applied on the dipole. moment of 6.3 × 10-30 Cm. A sample
The work done by the external torque contains 1022 water molecules, with all the
to rotate the dipole from angle θ¢ to θ at dipole moments aligned parallel to the
constant angular velocity is external electric field of magnitude 3 × 105
θ N C-1. How much work is required to rotate
W = ∫ τ ext dθ (1.49) all the water molecules from θ = 0o to 90o?
θ′
    Solution
Since τ ext is equal and opposite to τ E = p× E ,
we have When the water molecules are aligned in
    the direction of the electric field, it has
τ ext = τ E = p× E (1.50) minimum potential energy. The work
Substituting equation (1.50) in equation done to rotate the dipole from θ = 0o to 90o
(1.49), we get is equal to the potential energy difference
θ between these two configurations.
W = ∫ pE sinθ dθ
θ′ W = ∆U = U (90 ) −U (0 )
W = pE (cos θ′ − cos θ)
From the equation (1.51), we write
This work done is equal to the potential U = − pE cosθ, Next we calculate the work
energy difference between the angular done to rotate one water molecule from
positions θ and θ′. θ = 0o to 90o.
U (θ) −U (θ′) = ∆U = − pE cos θ + pE cos θ′ For one water molecule
If the initial angle is θ′ = 90 and is taken as W = − pE cos 90 + pE cos 0 = pE
reference point, then U (θ′) = pE cos90 = 0 .
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W = 6.3×10−30 ×3×105 = 18.9×10−25 J these elements have the same area, the
number of electric field lines crossing
For 1022 water molecules, the total work the element in region A is more than that
done is crossing the element in region B. Therfore
the electric flux in region A is more than
Wtot = 18.9×10−25 ×1022 = 18.9×10−3 J
that in region B. The electric field strength
for a point charge decreases as the distance
1.6 increases, then for a point charge electric
GAUSS LAW AND ITS flux also decreases as the distance increases.
APPLICATIONS The above discussion gives a qualitative idea
of electric flux. However a precise definition
of electric flux is needed.
1.6.1  Electric Flux
Electric flux for uniform Electric field
The number of electric field lines crossing
a given area kept normal to the electric Consider a uniform electric field in a region
field lines is called electric flux. It is usually of space. Let us choose an area A normal to
denoted by the Greek letter Φ E and its unit the electric field lines as shown in Figure
is N m2 C-1. Electric flux is a scalar quantity 1.33 (a). The electric flux for this case is
and it can be positive or negative. For a
simpler understanding of electric flux, the Φ E = EA (1.52)
following Figure 1.32 is useful.
Suppose the same area A is kept parallel to
the uniform electric field, then no electric
field lines pierce through the area A , as
shown in Figure 1.33(b). The electric flux
for this case is zero.
B
Φ E = 0 (1.53)
A
+ If the area is inclined at an angle θ with the
+q field, then the component of the electric
field perpendicular to the area alone
contributes to the electric flux. The electric
field component parallel to the surface area
will not contribute to the electric flux. This
is shown in Figure 1.33 (c). For this case, the
electric flux
Figure 1.32  Electric flux
Φ E = (E cosθ) A (1.54)
The electric field of a point charge is Further, θ is also the angle between the
drawn in this figure. Consider two small electric field and the direction normal to the
rectangular area elements placed normal to area. Hence in general, for uniform electric
the field at regions A and B. Even though field, the electric flux is defined as
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Here A = A n̂
→ → →
E E E

n̂ s
n̂ E co
 →
E sin E

A A A
(a)Electric flux = EA (b)Electric flux = 0 (c)Electric flux = (E cos

Figure 1.33  The electric flux for Uniform electric field

 
Φ E = E ⋅ A = EA cosθ (1.55) Solution
 
Here, note that A is the area vector A = An . The electric flux
Its magnitude is simply the area A and  
the direction is along the unit vector n Φ E = E ⋅ A = EA cos θ = 100×5×10×10−4 × cos 60
perpendicular to the area as shown in Figure  ⇒ Φ E = 0.25 N .m2C −1
1.33. Using this definition for flux, Φ E = E ⋅ A ,
equations (1.53) and (1.54) can be obtained For θ = 0o,
as special cases.    
In Figure 1.33 (a), θ = 0o so Φ E = E ⋅ A = EA Φ E = E ⋅ A = EA = 100×5×10×10−4 = 0.5 N .m2C −1

 
In Figure 1.33 (b), θ = 90o so Φ E = E ⋅ A = 0
Electric flux in a non uniform electric field
and an arbitrarily shaped area
E X A M P L E 1.17 Suppose the electric field is not uniform
Calculate the electric flux through the and the area A is not flat (Figure 1.34),
rectangle of sides 5 cm and 10 cm kept in then the entire area is divided into n small
   
the region of a uniform electric field 100 area segments ∆A1 , ∆A2 , ∆A3 ......... ∆An such
NC-1. The angle θ is 60o. Suppose θ becomes that each area element is almost flat and
zero, what is the electric flux? the electric field over each area element is
considered to be uniform.
Area A The electric flux for the entire area A is
approximately written as
n̂ →
 E        
Φ E = E1 ⋅ ∆A1 + E2 ⋅ ∆A2 + E3 ⋅ ∆A3 .......En ⋅ ∆An
n  
= ∑ Ei ⋅ ∆Ai
(1.56)
i =1

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E Ei

 
 i

(a)


dA 
   

  


dA 

Figure 1.34  Electric flux for non- 
uniform electric Field


By taking the limit ∆Ai → 0 (for all i) the (b)
summation in equation (1.56) becomes
Figure 1.35  Electric flux over a closed
integration. The total electric flux for the
surface
entire area is given by
 
Φ E = ∫ E ⋅ dA (1.57) (1.58) is a closed surface integration and for
each areal element, the outward normal is
From Equation (1.57), it is clear that the 
the direction of dA as shown in the Figure
electric flux for a given surface depends on
1.35(b).
both the electric field pattern on the surface
The total electric flux over a closed surface
area and orientation of the surface with
can be negative, positive or zero. In the
respect to the electric field.
Figure 1.35(b), it is shown that in one area
 
element, the angle between dA and E is less
1.6.2  Electric flux for closed
than 90o, then the electric flux is positive
surfaces
and in another areal element, the angle
 
In the previous section, the electric flux for between dA and E is greater than 90o, then
any arbitrary curved surface is discussed. the electric flux is negative.
Suppose a closed surface is present in the In general, the electric flux is negative if the
region of the non-uniform electric field as electric field lines enter the closed surface
shown in Figure 1.35 (a). and positive if the electric field lines leave
The total electric flux over this closed the closed surface.
surface is written as
  1.6.3  Gauss law
 ⋅ dA (1.58)
ΦE = ∫ E
A positive point charge Q is surrounded by
Note the difference between equations (1.57) an imaginary sphere of radius r as shown
and (1.58). The integration in equation in Figure 1.36. We can calculate the total
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electric flux through the closed surface of The equation (1.61) is called as Gauss’s law.
the sphere using the equation (1.58). The remarkable point about this result is
  that the equation (1.61) is equally true for
 E ⋅ dA =∫ E dA cosθ
ΦE = ∫ any arbitrary shaped surface which encloses
the charge Q and as shown in the Figure
The electric field of the point charge is
1.37. It is seen that the total electric flux is
directed radially outward at all points on
the same for closed surfaces A1, A2 and A3 as
the surface of the sphere. Therefore, the
 shown in the Figure 1.37.
direction of the area element dA is along

the electric field E and θ = 0° .

The net electric flux is the


When the charge is at the center same through all surfaces.
of the sphere, the electric field is
everywhere normal to the surface
and constant in magnitude.
A3

 A2
Spherical
gaussian
A1

surface d
r +

+
Q

Figure 1.36  Total electric flux of point


charge Figure 1.37  Gauss law for arbitrarily
shaped surface

  Φ E = ∫ E dA    since cos00 = 1  (1.59) Gauss’s law states that if a charge Q is


enclosed by an arbitrary closed surface,
E is uniform on the surface of the sphere, then the total electric flux ΦE through the
closed surface is
 dA (1.60)
ΦE = E∫
  Qencl
Substituting for ∫ dA = 4πr 2 and E =
1 Q  ⋅ dA = ε (1.62)
ΦE = ∫ E
4 πε 0 r 2
in equation 1.60, we get
Here Qencl denotes the charges inside the
closed surface.
1 Q 1
ΦE = 2
× 4 πr 2 = 4 π Q
4 πε  r 4 πε  Discussion of Gauss law
Q (i) The total electric flux through the
Φ E = (1.61)
ε closed surface depends only on the

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charges enclosed by the surface and E X A M P L E 1.18


the charges present outside the surface
will not contribute to the flux and the
A2
shape of the closed surface which can A1 -q

be chosen arbitrarily.
+
(ii) The total electric flux is independent +Q
of the location of the charges inside the
closed surface. +q
+

(iii) To arrive at equation (1.62), we have


(a)
chosen a spherical surface. This
imaginary surface is called a Gaussian
surface. The shape of the Gaussian

surface to be chosen depends on the + +5q -10q
type of charge configuration and the
kind of symmetry existing in that –
-2q
charge configuration. The electric field
is spherically symmetric for a point
charge, therefore spherical Gaussian
surface is chosen. Cylindrical and (b)
planar Gaussian surfaces can be
chosen for other kinds of charge (i) 
In figure (a), calculate the electric flux
configurations. through the closed areas A1 and A2.
(iv) In the LHS of equation (1.62), the (ii) 
In figure (b), calculate the electric

electric field E is due to charges present flux through the cube
inside and outside the Gaussian surface
Solution
but the charge Qencl denotes the charges
which lie only inside the Gaussian (i) 
In figure (a), the area A1 encloses the
surface. charge Q. So electric flux through
Q
this closed surface A1 is . But the
(v) The Gaussian surface cannot pass ε
through any discrete charge but it closed surface A2 contains no charges
can pass through continuous charge inside, so electric flux through A2 is
distributions. It is because, very close to zero.
the discrete charges, the electric field is (ii) 
In figure (b), the net charge inside
not well defined. the cube is 3q and the total electric
3q
(vi) Gauss law is another form of Coulomb’s flux in the cube is therefore Φ E = .
ε
law and it is also applicable to the Note that the charge -10 q lies outside
charges in motion. Because of this the cube and it will not contribute
reason, Gauss law is treated as much the total flux through the surface of
more general law than Coulomb’s law. the cube.

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that the charged wire possesses a cylindrical


1.6.4  Applications of Gauss law
symmetry.
Electric field due to any arbitrary charge Let us choose a cylindrical Gaussian surface
configuration can be calculated using of radius r and length L as shown in the
Coulomb’s law or Gauss law. If the charge Figure 1.39.
configuration possesses some kind of The total electric flux in this closed surface
symmetry, then Gauss law is a very efficient is calculated as follows.
way to calculate the electric field. It is
 
illustrated in the following cases.
 E ⋅ dA
ΦE = ∫
(i) Electric field due to an infinitely long      
  = ∫ E ⋅ dA + ∫ E ⋅ dA + ∫ E ⋅ dA (1.63)
charged wire Curved top bottom
surface surface surface
Consider an infinitely long straight wire
having uniform linear charge density λ. It is seen from Figure (1.39) that for the
 
Let P be a point located at a perpendicular curved surface, E is parallel to A and
 
distance r from the wire (Figure 1.38(a)). E ⋅ dA = E dA. For the top and bottom
 
The electric field at the point P can be surfaces, E is perpendicular to A and
 
found using Gauss law. We choose two E ⋅ dA = 0
small charge elements A1 and A2 on the wire Substituting these values in the equation
which are at equal distances from the point (1.63) and applying Gauss law to the
P. The resultant electric field due to these cylindrical surface, we have
two charge elements points radially away
from the charged wire and the magnitude Qencl
of electric field is same at all points on the
ΦE = ∫ E dA =
ε
(1.64)
Curved
surface
circle of radius r. This is shown in the Figure
1.38(b). From this property, we can infer

+ +
+ +
+ + A2
+  +
+ +
+ +
R
+ +
 Q 
+ r E + r P E
+ +
P
+ +
+ + S
+ +
+ +
+ + A1
+ +
+ +
+ + 
+ (a) + (b)
Figure 1.38  Electric field due to infinite long charged wire

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Equation (1.67) indicates that the electric


n̂ + field is always along the perpendicular
 +
E r ) to wire. In fact, if λ > 0 then
direction ( 
+ 
E points perpendicular outward (  r)
+ 
+ from the wire and if λ < 0, then E points
+ perpendicular inward ( - r ) .
+ The equation (1.67) is true only for an
+ r infinitely long charged wire. For a charged
+ L wire of finite length, the electric field need
 +
E not be radial at all points. However, equation
+
n̂ (1.67) for such a wire is taken approximately
+
true around the mid-point of the wire and
+ 
+ E far away from the both ends of the wire
+ (ii) Electric field due to charged infinite
+ plane sheet
+ n̂ Consider an infinite plane sheet of charges
with uniform surface charge density σ. Let P
Figure 1.39  Cylindrical Gaussian surface
be a point at a distance of r from the sheet as
shown in the Figure 1.40.
Since the magnitude of the electric field for
the entire curved surface is constant, E is + Gaussian
+ +
taken out of the integration and Qencl is given + + surface
+ +
by Qencl = λL . + + 
+ + dA
  +  
E dA dA E
λL + 
E P
E ∫ dA =
ε
(1.65)

+
+ +
Curved + + r
surface + +
+ +
+ +
+
Here Φ E = ∫ dA = total area of the curved
+
+
Curved
surface

surface = 2πrL. Substituting this in equation Figure 1.40  Electric field due to charged
(1.65), we get infinite planar sheet

λL Since the plane is infinitely large, the electric


E ⋅ 2πrL =
ε field should be same at all points equidistant
1 λ from the plane and radially directed at
E= (1.66)
2πε  r all points. A cylindrical shaped Gaussian
 1 λ surface of length 2r and area A of the flat
In vector form E = r (1.67)

2πε  r surfaces is chosen such that the infinite
plane sheet passes perpendicularly through
The electric field due to the infinite charged
the middle part of the Gaussian surface.
1 1
wire depends on rather than 2 for a Applying Gauss law for this cylindrical
r r
point charge. surface,
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   σ
 E ⋅ dA
ΦE = ∫ In vector form, E =
2ε 
n (1.71)

      Qencl
= ∫ E ⋅ dA + ∫ E ⋅ dA + ∫ ⋅ dA = ε0
E
Curved
surface
P P′ Here n is the outward unit vector normal
(1.68) to the plane. Note that the electric field
The electric field is perpendicular to the area due to an infinite plane sheet of charge
element at all points on the curved surface depends on the surface charge density and
and is parallel to the surface areas at P and is independent of the distance r.
P ′ (Figure 1.40). Then, The electric field will be the same at any
point farther away from the charged plane.
Qencl
Φ E = ∫ E dA + ∫ E dA = (1.69) Equation (1.71) implies that if σ > 0 the
ε0
P P′ electric field at any point P is outward
Since the magnitude of the electric field perpendicular  n to the plane and if σ < 0 the
at these two equal surfaces is uniform, E electric field points inward perpendicularly
is taken out of the integration and Qencl is  ) to the plane.
( -n
given by Qencl = σA , we get For a finite charged plane sheet, equation
σA (1.71) is approximately true only in the
2 E ∫ dA =
P
ε0 middle region of the plane and at points far
The total area of surface either at P or P′ away from both ends.
(iii)
Electric field due to two parallel
∫ dA = A
charged infinite sheets
P

σA σ Consider two infinitely large charged plane


Hence  2 EA = or E= sheets with equal and opposite charge
ε0 2ε 0
densities +σ and -σ which are placed parallel
(1.70)
to each other as shown in the Figure 1.41.

+σ –σ
+ –
+ –
+ + – –
+ –
+ + – –
+ –
  +
+
+  – –  
E+ E– + + E+ –
E– E+
– –
+
+
+ P1 –
P3 +  –


P2
+
+
+ E– – –
+ + –
+ – –
+ + –
+ – –
+ + –
+ –
+

Figure 1.41  Electric field due to two parallel charged sheets

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The electric field between the plates and (iv) Electric field due to a uniformly
outside the plates is found using Gauss law. charged spherical shell
The magnitude of the electric field due to Consider a uniformly charged spherical
σ shell of radius R and total charge Q as shown
an infinite charged plane sheet is and it
2ε  in Figure 1.42. The electric field at points
points perpendicularly outward if σ > 0 and
points inward if σ < 0. outside and inside the sphere is found using
Gauss law.
At the points P2 and P3, the electric field Case (a) At a point outside the shell (r > R)
due to both plates are equal in magnitude Let us choose a point P outside the shell
and opposite in direction (Figure 1.41). As at a distance r from the center as shown
a result, electric field at a point outside the in Figure 1.42 (a). The charge is uniformly
plates is zero. But inside the plate, electric distributed on the surface of the sphere
fields are in same direction i.e., towards the (spherical symmetry). Hence the electric
right, the total electric field at a point P1 field must point radially outward if Q > 0 and
point radially inward if Q < 0. So we choose
σ σ σ a spherical Gaussian surface of radius r is
Einside = + = (1.72)
2ε  2ε  ε  chosen and the total charge enclosed by this
Gaussian surface is Q. Applying Gauss law
The direction of the electric field inside the
plates is directed from positively charged   Q
plate to negatively charged plate and is ∫ E ⋅ dA = (1.73)
ε
Gaussian
uniform everywhere inside the plate. surface

For points outside the sphere, For points inside the sphere,
a large, spherical gaussian a spherical gaussian surface
surface is drawn concentric smaller than the sphere is
with the sphere. drawn.

P
r
R P Gaussian
r sphere

R
Q

Gaussian
(a) sphere (b)

Figure 1.42  The electric field due to a charged spherical shell

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 
The electric field E and d A point in the   Q
same direction (outward normal) at all
∫ E ⋅ dA =
ε
Gaussian
surface
the points on the Gaussian surface. The Q
 E ⋅ 4 πr 2 = (1.77)
magnitude of E is also the same at all points ε
due to the spherical symmetry of the charge
Since Gaussian surface encloses no charge,
distribution.
So Q = 0. The equation (1.77) becomes
Q
Hence E ∫ dA =
ε
(1.74)
E=0 (r < R) (1.78)
Gaussian
surface

The electric field due to the uniformly


But ∫ dA = total area of Gaussian surface
charged spherical shell is zero at all points
Gaussian
surface inside the shell.
= 4πr2. Substituting this value in equation (1.74) A graph is plotted between the electric
Q field and radial distance. This is shown in
E ⋅ 4 πr 2 = Figure 1.43.
ε
Q 1 Q Er
E ⋅ 4 πr 2 = (or) E =
ε 4 πε  r 2
 1 Q
In vector form E= 
r (1.75)
4 πε  r 2
Er = 1 2
Q
4 r
The electric field is radially outward if Q > 0 Er = 0
and radially inward if Q < 0. From equation O
R r
(1.75), we infer that the electric field at a +
point outside the shell will be same as if the +
entire charge Q is concentrated at the center RR
+
of the spherical shell. (A similar result is
observed in gravitation, for gravitational
Figure 1.43 Electric field versus distance
force due to a spherical shell with mass M)
for a spherical shell of radius R
Case (b): At a point on the surface of the
spherical shell (r = R) Gauss law is a powerful
The electrical field at points on the spherical Note technique whenever a given
shell (r = R) is given by charge configuration possesses
spherical, cylindrical or planer symmetry,
 Q
E= 
r (1.76) then the electric field due to such a charge
4 πε  R 2 configuration can be easily found. If there
Case (c) At a point inside the spherical is no such symmetry, the direct method
shell (r < R) (Coulomb’s law and calculus) can be used.
For example, it is difficult to use Gauss law
Consider a point P inside the shell at a
to find the electric field for a dipole since
distance r from the center. A Gaussian
it has no spherical, cylindrical or planar
sphere of radius r is constructed as shown in symmetry.
the Figure 1.42 (b). Applying Gauss law

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1.7  
E E
ELECTROSTATICS OF - +
- +
CONDUCTORS AND - +
DIELECTRICS - 
Eint +
- +
-  +
- E
+
1.7.1  Conductors at - +
electrostatic equilibrium - +
An electrical conductor has a large number
Figure 1.44  Electric field of conductors
of mobile charges which are free to move in
the material. In a metallic conductor, these
mobile charges are free electrons which are Before applying the external electric
not bound to any atom and therefore are field, the free electrons in the conductor
free to move on the surface of the conductor. are uniformly distributed in the
When there is no external electric field, the conductor. When an electric field is
free electrons are in continuous random applied, the free electrons accelerate
motion in all directions. As a result, there to the left causing the left plate to be
is no net motion of electrons along any negatively charged and the right plate
particular direction which implies that the to be positively charged as shown in
conductor is in electrostatic equilibrium. Figure 1.44.
Thus at electrostatic equilibrium, there is no Due to this realignment of free electrons,
net current in the conductor. A conductor at there will be an internal electric field
electrostatic equilibrium has the following created inside the conductor which
properties. increases until it nullifies the external
electric field. Once the external electric
(i) The electric field is zero everywhere field is nullified the conductor is said
inside the conductor. This is true to be in electrostatic equilibrium. The
regardless of whether the conductor is time taken by a conductor to reach
solid or hollow. electrostatic equilibrium is in the order
This is an experimental fact. Suppose of 10-16s, which can be taken as almost
the electric field is not zero inside the instantaneous.
metal, then there will be a force on (ii) There is no net charge inside the
the mobile charge carriers due to this conductors. The charges must reside
electric field. As a result, there will be only on the surface of the conductors.
a net motion of the mobile charges, We can prove this property using Gauss
which contradicts the conductors being law. Consider an arbitrarily shaped
in electrostatic equilibrium. Thus the conductor as shown in Figure 1.45.
electric field is zero everywhere inside A Gaussian surface is drawn inside the
the conductor. We can also understand conductor such that it is very close to
this fact by applying an external uniform the surface of the conductor. Since the
electric field on the conductor. This is electric field is zero everywhere inside
shown in Figure 1.44.
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Gaussian 
E

E
surface


E 

Conductor

Qnet=0
- 
- E=0
-
-
- Conductor

Figure 1.46  (a) Electric field is along the


surface (b)Electric field is perpendicular
Figure 1.45  No net charge inside the to the surface of the conductor
conductor
We now prove that the electric field has
σ
magnitude just outside the conductor’s
the conductor, the net electric flux is ε
also zero over this Gaussian surface. surface. Consider a small cylindrical
From Gauss’s law, this implies that there Gaussian surface, as shown in the Figure
is no net charge inside the conductor. 1.47. One half of this cylinder is embedded
Even if some charge is introduced inside inside the conductor.
the conductor, it immediately reaches
the surface of the conductor. The flux through the
(iii) The electric field outside the conductor gaussian surface is EA.
is perpendicular to the surface of the
σ 
conductor and has a magnitude of E
ε 

where σ is the surface charge density  
at that point. 
If the electric field has components A 
parallel to the surface of the conductor,  
then free electrons on the surface  
of the conductor would experience  
 
acceleration (Figure 1.46(a)). This means 

that the conductor is not in equilibrium.  
Therefore at electrostatic equilibrium, 
the electric field must be perpendicular Figure 1.47  The electric field on the
to the surface of the conductor. This is surface of the conductor
shown in Figure 1.46 (b).
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Since electric field is normal to the surface inside both hollow and solid conductors is
of the conductor, the curved part of the zero. It is a very interesting property which
cylinder has zero electric flux. Also inside has an important consequence.
the conductor, the electric field is zero. Consider a cavity inside the conductor as
Hence the bottom flat part of the Gaussian shown in Figure 1.48 (a). Whatever the
surface has no electric flux. charges at the surfaces and whatever the
Therefore the top flat surface alone electrical disturbances outside, the electric
contributes to the electric flux. The electric field inside the cavity is zero. A sensitive
field is parallel to the area vector and the electrical instrument which is to be protected
total charge inside the surface is σA. By from external electrical disturbance is kept
applying Gaus’s law, inside this cavity. This is called electrostatic
σA
shielding.
EA = Faraday cage is an instrument used to
ε
 σ demonstrate this effect. It is made up of metal
In vector form, E=  n (1.79)
ε bars configured as shown in Figure1.48 (b).
Here n represents the unit vector outward If an artificial lightning jolt is created
normal to the surface of the conductor. outside, the person inside is not affected.
Suppose σ < 0, then electric field points
inward perpendicular to the surface.
(iv) The electrostatic potential has the
same value on the surface and inside
of the conductor. Electric field line

We know that the conductor has no


parallel electric component on the
surface which means that charges can
be moved on the surface without doing E=0
any work. This is possible only if the
electrostatic potential is constant at all
points on the surface and there is no
potential difference between any two
points on the surface.
Since the electric field is zero inside the
conductor, the potential is the same as
the surface of the conductor. Thus at
electrostatic equilibrium, the conductor
is always at equipotential.

1.7.2  Electrostatic shielding


Using Gauss law, we proved that the electric
field inside the charged spherical shell is zero, Figure 1.48  (a) Electric field inside the
cavity (b) Faraday cage
Further, we showed that the electric field
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During lightning accompanied by a The negative charge of the rod repels the
thunderstorm, it is always safer to sit inside a electrons in the conductor to the opposite
bus than in open ground or under a tree. The side. As a result, positive charges are induced
metal body of the bus provides electrostatic near the region of the charged rod while
shielding, since the electric field inside is negative charges on the farther side.
zero. During lightning, the charges flow Before introducing the charged rod, the free
through the body of the conductor to the electrons were distributed uniformly on the
ground with no effect on the person inside surface of the conductor and the net charge
that bus. is zero. Once the charged rod is brought near
the conductor, the distribution is no longer
uniform with more electrons located on the
1.7.3  Electrostatic induction
farther side of the rod and positive charges
In section 1.1, we have learnt that an are located closer to the rod. But the total
object can be charged by rubbing using an charge is zero.
appropriate material. Whenever a charged (ii) Now the conducting sphere is connected
rod is touched by another conductor, to the ground through a conducting
charges start to flow from charged rod to wire. This is called grounding. Since the
the conductor. Is it possible to charge a ground can always receive any amount
conductor without any contact? The answer of electrons, grounding removes the
is yes. This type of charging without actual electron from the conducting sphere.
contact is called electrostatic induction. Note that positive charges will not flow
(i) Consider an uncharged (neutral) to the ground because they are attracted
conducting sphere at rest on an insulating by the negative charges of the rod
stand. Suppose a negatively charged rod (Figure 1.49(b)).
(iii) When the grounding wire is removed
is brought near the conductor without
from the conductor, the positive charges
touching it, as shown in Figure 1.49(a).
remain near the charged rod (Figure
- - - - 1.49(c))
- - - -
- ++
+
- ++
+ (iv) Now the charged rod is taken away from
+ +
the conductor. As soon as the charged


– –
– –


rod is removed, the positive charge gets
distributed uniformly on the surface of
(a) - - (b) the conductor (Figure 1.49 (d)). By this
- -
-
process, the neutral conducting sphere
- -
- -
- ++
+
+ becomes positively charged.
+
+
+ For an arbitrary shaped conductor, the
+
intermediate steps and conclusion are the
same except the final step. The distribution
(c) (d) of positive charges is not uniform for
arbitrarily-shaped conductors. Why is it not
Figure 1.49  Various steps in electrostatic uniform? The reason for it is discussed in
induction
the section 1.9
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E X A M P L E 1.19 It is important here to note that the


acceleration depends on the mass of the
A small ball of conducting material having object. Galileo’s conclusion that all objects
a charge +q and mass m is thrown upward fall at the same rate towards the Earth is
at an angle θ to horizontal surface with true only in a uniform gravitational field.
an initial speed vo as shown in the figure. When a uniform electric field is included,
There exists an uniform electric field E the acceleration of a charged object depends
downward along with the gravitational on both mass and charge.
field g. Calculate the range, maximum  qE 
height and time of flight in the motion of But still the acceleration a =  g +  is
 m 
this charged ball. Neglect the effect of air constant throughout the motion. Hence
and treat the ball as a point mass. we use kinematic equations to calculate the
 range, maximum height and time of flight.
E
y qE
In fact we can simply replace g by g +
m
in the usual expressions of range, maximum
height and time of flight of a projectile.
+
+ +
Without With the

v 0 charge charge +q
+ hmax +

 2v sinθ 2v sinθ


x Time of flight T
 
R g  g + qE 
 m 
Solution Maximum height v 2 sin2 θ v 2 sin2 θ
If the conductor has no net charge, then hmax

2g  qE 
its motion is the same as usual projectile 2 g + 
 m
motion of a mass m which we studied in
Kinematics (unit 2, vol-1 XI physics). Range R v 2 sin 2θ v 2 sin 2θ
 
Here, in this problem, in addition to g  g + qE 
downward gravitational force, the charge  m 
also will experience a downward uniform
electrostatic force. Note that the time of flight, maximum
height, range are all inversely proportional
The acceleration of the charged ball due to to the acceleration of the object. Since
gravity = -g j  
 g + qE  > g for charge +q, the quantities T,
The acceleration of the charged ball due to  m 
qE  hmax, and R will decrease when compared to
uniform electric field = - j
m the motion of an object of mass m and zero
The total acceleration of charged ball in net charge. Suppose the charge is –q, then
  qE    
downward direction a = − g + j  g − qE  < g , and the quantities T, h and
 m   m  max

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R will increase. Interestingly the trajectory Center of negative charge


is still parabolic as shown in the figure. coincides with center of
positive charge

E
E
y

+– – +

p
-q
_ (a) (b)

+
Figure 1.50  (a) Non polar molecules

v without external field (b) With the
0
_
+
_
external field
x
+
θ +
_
+q q=0 -q Polar molecules
In polar molecules, the centers of the positive
and negative charges are separated even
in the absence of an external electric field.
1.7.4  Dielectrics or They have a permanent dipole moment.
insulators Due to thermal motion, the direction of
A dielectric is a non-conducting material each dipole moment is oriented randomly
and has no free electrons. The electrons in (Figure 1.51(a)). Hence the net dipole
a dielectric are bound within the atoms. moment is zero in the absence of an external
Ebonite, glass and mica are some examples electric field. Examples of polar molecules
of dielectrics. When an external electric field are H2O, N2O, HCl, NH3.
is applied, the electrons are not free to move When an external electric field is applied,
anywhere but they are realigned in a specific the dipoles inside the polar molecule tend
way. A dielectric is made up of either polar to align in the direction of the electric field.
molecules or non-polar molecules. Hence a net dipole moment is induced in it.
Then the dielectric is said to be polarized by
Non-polar molecules an external electric field (Figure 1.51(b)).
A non-polar molecule is one in which
centers of positive and negative charges Polar molecules are
randomly oriented in
When an external
electric field is applied,
coincide. As a result, it has no permanent the absence of an
external electric field.
the molecules partially
align with the field.

dipole moment. Examples of non-polar +
Eext
_
+ _
molecules are hydrogen (H2), oxygen (O2),
–σb +σb
_
+
+
+
_
– – – + – +
+ –
+ _

and carbon dioxide (CO2) etc. + _


+

+ +
_
+ – + – – – +
– +
_
+ 
When an external electric field is applied,
+

+
 Eext
+ _
+

Eint

+
_
+ –
+

+
– –
+ _

the centers of positive and negative charges –


+
+
– – +
+
+
– + – + – + _
_
_
are separated by a small distance which +
+ 
Eext
_

(a) (b)
induces dipole moment in the direction of
the external electric field. Then the dielectric Figure 1.51  (a) Randomly oriented polar
molecules (b) Align with the external
is said to be polarized by an external electric
electric field
field. This is shown in Figure 1.50.
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Polarisation electric field is produced. The magnitude of


In the presence of an external electric the internal electric field is smaller than that
field, the dipole moment is induced in of external electric field. Therefore the net

the dielectric material. Polarisation P is electric field inside the dielectric is not zero
defined as the total dipole moment per but is parallel to an external electric field
unit volume of the dielectric. For most with magnitude less than that of the external
dielectrics (linear isotropic), the Polarisation electric field. For example, let us consider a
is directly proportional to the strength of rectangular dielectric slab placed between
the external electric field. This is written as two oppositely charged plates (capacitor) as
  shown in the Figure 1.52(b).
P = χe Eext (1.80)
The uniform electric field between the plates

where χe is a constant called the electric acts as an external electric field Eext which
susceptibility which is a characteristic of polarizes the dielectric placed between
each dielectric. plates. The positive charges are induced on
one side surface and negative charges are
1.7.5  Induced Electric field induced on the other side of surface.
inside the dielectric But inside the dielectric, the net charge is
When an external electric field is applied on zero even in a small volume. So the dielectric
a conductor, the charges are aligned in such in the external field is equivalent to two
a way that an internal electric field is created oppositely charged sheets with the surface
which cancels the external electric field. charge densities +σb and –σb. These charges
But in the case of a dielectric, which has are called bound charges. They are not free
no free electrons, the external electric field to move like free electrons in conductors.
only realigns the charges so that an internal This is shown in the Figure 1.52(b).

Polar molecules are When an external


randomly oriented in electric field is applied,
the absence of an the molecules partially
external electric field. align with the field.

Eext
+ _
+ –σb +σb
_
_
+
+
+
_
– – – + – +
+ –
+ _

+ _
+

+ +
_
+ – + – – – +
– +
_
+

+   _
Eext
+ +
+

Eint

+
_
+ –
+

+
– –
+ _

+ + – + – _
– _
+ – +
+
+
– – +
_
+ _
+ 
Eext
(a) (b)

Figure 1.52  Induced electric field lines inside the dielectric

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For example, the charged balloon after 1.8


rubbing sticks onto a wall. The reason is that
CAPACITORS AND
the negatively charged balloon is brought near
CAPACITANCE
the wall, it polarizes opposite charges on the
surface of the wall, which attracts the balloon.
This is shown in Figure 1.53. 1.8.1  Capacitors
Wall
_
Capacitor is a device used to store electric
+
_
+ _
_
charge and electrical energy. It consists of two
+
_
_
+
+
_
_
conducting objects (usually plates or sheets)
_
_
+
+
_
_ separated by some distance. Capacitors are
_
+
+ _ widely used in many electronic circuits and
_
+
+ _ have applications in many areas of science
(a) (b) and technology.
A simple capacitor consists of two parallel
Figure 1.53  (a) Balloon sticks to the wall
metal plates separated by a small distance as
(b) Polarisation of wall due to the electric
field created by the balloon shown in Figure 1.54 (a).

1.7.6  Dielectric strength


Area = A
+Q -Q
C
+Q –Q
When the external electric field applied to
a dielectric is very large, it tears the atoms d

+ - + -
apart so that the bound charges become
V
free charges. Then the dielectric starts to
conduct electricity. This is called dielectric (a) (b) (c)

breakdown. The maximum electric field


Figure 1.54  (a) Parallel plate capacitor
the dielectric can withstand before it
(b) Capacitor connected with a battery
breakdowns is called dielectric strength. (c) Symbolic representation of capacitor.
For example, the dielectric strength of air
is 3 × 106 V m-1. If the applied electric field
increases beyond this, a spark is produced When a capacitor is connected to a battery
in the air. The dielectric strengths of some of potential difference V, the electrons are
dielectrics are given in the Table 1.1. transferred from one plate to the other
plate by battery so that one plate becomes
Table 1.1  Dielectric strength negatively charged with a charge of –Q and
the other plate positively charged with
Substance Dielectric strength (Vm-1)
+Q. The potential difference between the
Mica 100 × 106 plates is equivalent to the battery’s terminal
Teflon  60 × 106 voltage. This is shown in Figure 1.54(b). If
Paper  16 × 106 the battery voltage is increased, the amount
Air   3 × 106 of charges stored in the plates also increase.
Pyrex glass  14 × 106 In general, the charge stored in the capacitor

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is proportional to the potential difference Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor


between the plates. Consider a capacitor with two parallel
plates each of cross-sectional area A and
Q µV separated by a distance d as shown in
Figure 1.56.
so that  Q = CV
where the C is the proportionality constant
called capacitance. The capacitance C d
of a capacitor is defined as the ratio of +Q -Q
the magnitude of charge on either of the +
+
--
conductor plates to the potential difference +
+
--
existing between the conductors. +
+
--
Q
+
+
--
C=
V
(1.81)
Area +
+ -- Area
The SI unit of capacitance is coulomb per volt
A +
+
-- A

or farad (F) in honor of Michael Faraday.


+
+
--
Farad is a very large unit of capacitance. In +
+
--
practice, capacitors are available in the range +
+
--
of microfarad (1µF = 10-6 F) to picofarad +
+
--
(1pf = 10-12 F). A capacitor is represented by 
the symbol . Note that the E
total charge stored in the capacitor is zero
Figure 1.56  Capacitance of a parallel
(Q - Q = 0). When we say the capacitor stores plate capacitor
charges, it means the amount of charge that
can be stored in any one of the plates.
The electric field between two infinite
Nowadays there are capacitors available
parallel plates is uniform and is given by
in various shapes (cylindrical, disk) and
σ
types (tantalum, ceramic and electrolytic), E= where σ is the surface charge density
ε 
as shown in Figure 1.55. These capacitors Q
on the plates σ =  . If the separation
are extensively used in various kinds of  A
distance d is very much smaller than the
electronic circuits. size of the plate (d2 << A), then the above
result is used even for finite–sized parallel
plate capacitor.
The electric field between the plates is

Q
E= (1.82)
Aε 

Since the electric field is uniform, the


electric potential between the plates having
separation d is given by
Figure 1.55  Various types of capacitors

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Qd (i) If the area of cross-section of the


V = Ed = (1.83) capacitor plates is increased, more
Aε 0
Therefore the capacitance of the capacitor is charges can be distributed for the same
given by potential difference. As a result, the
capacitance is increased.
Q Q εA
C= = = 0 (1.84) (ii) If the distance d between the two plates

V  Qd   d
  is reduced, the potential difference
 Aε 0 
between the plates (V = Ed) decreases
with E constant. As a result, voltage
While deriving an expression difference between the terminals of the
Note for capacitance of the parallel battery increases which in turn leads
plate capacitor, the expression to an additional flow of charge to the
of the electric field for infinite plates plates from the battery, till the voltage
is used. But for finite sized plates, the on the capacitor equals to the battery’s
electric field is not strictly uniform terminal voltage. Suppose the distance
between the plates. At both edges, the is increased, the capacitor voltage
electric field is bent outwards as shown
increases and becomes greater than the
in the Figure.
battery voltage. Then, the charges flow
from capacitor plates to battery till both
+Q -Q voltages becomes equal.
+
+
--
+
+
--
+
+
-- E X A M P L E 1.20
+
+
--
+
+
-- A parallel plate capacitor has square plates
+
+
-- of side 5 cm and separated by a distance of
+
+
-- 1 mm. (a) Calculate the capacitance of this
+
+
-- capacitor. (b) If a 10 V battery is connected
+
+
-- to the capacitor, what is the charge stored
+
+
--
in any one of the plates? (The value of
εo = 8.85 x 10-12 Nm2 C-2)
Fringing field
Solution
This is called “fringing field”. However
under the condition (d2 << A), this effect (a) The capacitance of the capacitor is
can be ignored. ε 0 A 8.85×10−12 ×25×10−4
C= =
d 1×10−3
= 221.2×10−13 F
From equation (1.84), it is evident that
C = 22.12×10−12 F = 22.12 pF
capacitance is directly proportional to
the area of cross section and is inversely (b) The charge stored in any one of the
proportional to the distance between the plates is Q = CV, Then
plates. This can be understood from the Q = 22.12×10−12 ×10 = 221.2×10−12 C = 221.2 pC
following.

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This work done is stored as electrostatic


potential energy (UE) in the capacitor.

Q2 1
  UE = = CV 2   (∴ Q = CV ) (1.87)
2C 2

where Q = CV is used. This stored energy is


thus directly proportional to the capacitance
of the capacitor and the square of the voltage
Sometimes we notice that the ceiling fan between the plates of the capacitor. But
does not start rotating as soon as it is where is this energy stored in the capacitor?
switched on. But when we rotate the blades, To understand this question, the equation
it starts to rotate as usual. Why it is so? We (1.87) is rewritten as follows using the
know that to rotate any object, there must ε0 A
results C = and V = Ed
be a torque applied on the object. For the d
ceiling fan, the initial torque is given by the
1 ε A 1
U E =  0 ( Ed ) = ε 0 ( Ad ) E 2 (1.88)
2
capacitor widely known as a condenser.
If the condenser is faulty, it will not give 2  d  2
sufficient initial torque to rotate the blades
when the fan is switched on. where Ad = volume of the space between
the capacitor plates. The energy stored per
unit volume of space is defined as energy
1.8.2  Energy stored in the density uE =
U
From equation (1.88),
capacitor we get
Volume

Capacitor not only stores the charge but 1


also it stores energy. When a battery is uE = ε  E 2 (1.89)
2
connected to the capacitor, electrons of total
charge -Q are transferred from one plate to From equation (1.89), we infer that the
the other plate. To transfer the charge, work energy is stored in the electric field existing
is done by the battery. This work done is between the plates of the capacitor. Once the
stored as electrostatic potential energy in capacitor is allowed to discharge, the energy
the capacitor. is retrieved.
It is important to note that the energy density
To transfer an infinitesimal charge dQ for
depends only on the electric field and not on
a potential difference V, the work done is
the size of the plates of the capacitor. In fact,
given by
expression (1.89) is true for the electric field
dW = V dQ (1.85) due to any type of charge configuration.
Q
where V =
C
1.8.3  Applications of
The total work done to charge a capacitor is
capacitors
Q
Q Q2 Capacitors are used in various electronics
W=∫ dQ = (1.86)
0
C 2C circuits. A few of the applications.
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Figure 1.57  (a) Flash capacitor in camera (b) Heart defibrillator

(a) Most people are now familiar with 1.8.4  Effect of dielectrics in
the digital camera. The flash which capacitors
comes from the camera when we
take photographs is due to the energy In earlier discussions, we assumed that
released from the capacitor, called a the space between the parallel plates of a
flash capacitor (Figure 1.57 (a)) capacitor is either empty or filled with air.
Suppose dielectrics like mica, glass or paper
(b) During cardiac arrest, a device called are introduced between the plates, then the
heart defibrillator is used to give a capacitance of the capacitor is altered. The
sudden surge of a large amount of dielectric can be inserted into the plates in
electrical energy to the patient’s chest to two different ways. (i) when the capacitor is
retrieve the normal heart function. This disconnected from the battery. (ii) when the
defibrillator uses a capacitor of 175 μF capacitor is connected to the battery.
charged to a high voltage of around
2000 V. This is shown in Figure 1.57(b). (i) 
when the capacitor is disconnected
(c) Capacitors are used in the ignition from the battery
system of automobile engines to Consider a capacitor with two parallel
eliminate sparking plates each of cross-sectional area A and are
(d) Capacitors are used to reduce power separated by a distance d. The capacitor is
fluctuations in power supplies and charged by a battery of voltage V0 and the
to increase the efficiency of power charge stored is Q0. The capacitance of the
transmission. capacitor without the dielectric is
However, capacitors have disadvantage
Q0
as well. Even after the battery or power C0 = (1.90)
V0
supply is removed, the capacitor stores
charges and energy for some time. For The battery is then disconnected from
example if the TV is switched off, it is the capacitor and the dielectric is inserted
always advisable to not touch the back between the plates. This is shown in
side of the TV panel. Figure 1.58.
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Q0 Q
C= = ε r 0 = ε r C0 (1.93)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ - V V0
d

E0

– – – – – – – – – – Since εr > 1, we have C > Co. Thus insertion


(a) of the dielectric constant εr increases the
capacitance.
Using equation (1.84),
+

+
d
→ εr
E
ε r ε 0 A εA
– – – – – C= = (1.94)
d d
(b)
where ε = εr εo is the permittivity of the
Figure 1.58  (a) Capacitor is charged with dielectric medium.
a battery (b) Dielectric is inserted after The energy stored in the capacitor before
the battery is disconnected the insertion of a dielectric is given by

The introduction of dielectric between 1 Q02


U0 = (1.95)
the plates will decrease the electric field. 2 C0
Experimentally it is found that the modified After the dielectric is inserted, the charge
electric field is given by Q0 remains constant but the capacitance is
increased. As a result, the stored energy is
E0 decreased.
E= (1.91)
εr
1 Q02 1 Q02 U
Here Eo is the electric field inside the U= = = 0 (1.96)
2 C 2 ε r C0 εr
capacitors when there is no dielectric and εr
is the relative permeability of the dielectric Since εr > 1 we get U < Uo. There is a decrease
or simply known as the dielectric constant. in energy because,when the dielectric is
Since εr > 1, the electric field E < Eo. inserted, the capacitor spends some energy
As a result, the electrostatic potential in pulling the dielectric inside.
difference between the plates (V = Ed) is also (ii) When the battery remains connected
reduced. But at the same time, the charge to the capacitor
Qo will remain constant once the battery is
disconnected. Let us now consider what happens when
Hence the new potential difference is the battery of voltage V0 remains connected
to the capacitor when the dielectric is
E0 V inserted into the capacitor. This is shown in
V = Ed = d = 0 (1.92)
εr εr Figure1.59.
The potential difference V0 across the
We know that capacitance is inversely plates remains constant. But it is found
proportional to the potential difference. experimentally (first shown by Faraday) that
Therefore as V decreases, C increases. when dielectric is inserted, the charge stored
Thus new capacitance in the presence of a in the capacitor is increased by a factor εr.
dielectric is

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After the dielectric is inserted, the


+
capacitance is increased; hence the stored
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ -

d E0 energy is also increased.
– – – – – – – – – –
1 1
(a)   U = CV02 = ε r C0V02 = ε rU 0  (1.101)
2 2
Since εr > 1 we have U > Uo.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ -
d

E0 εr It may be noted here that since voltage
between the capacitor V0 is constant, the
––––––––––––––– ––––
electric field between the plates also remains
(b) constant.
The energy density is given by
Figure 1.59  (a) Capacitor is charged
through a battery (b) Dielectric is 1
inserted when the battery is connected. u = εE02 (1.102)
2
where ε is the permittivity of the given
Q = εr Qo(1.97) dielectric material.
The results of the above discussions are
Due to this increased charge, the capacitance summarised in the following Table 1.2
is also increased. The new capacitance is

Q Q Computer keyboard keys are


C= = ε r 0 = ε r C0 (1.98) constructed using capacitors
V0 V0
with a dielectric as shown in
However the reason for the increase in the figure.
capacitance in this case when the battery
remains connected is different from the case
when the battery is disconnected before
introducing the dielectric. A Key

ε0 A
Now,
C0 =
d
Movable plate
εA
and
C= (1.99) Insulator
d (dielectric)
The energy stored in the capacitor before Fixed plate
the insertion of a dielectric is given by

1
U 0 = C0V02 (1.100)
2 When the key is pressed, the separation
Note that here we have not used the between the plates decreases leading to
1 Q02 an increase in the capacitance. This in
expression U 0 = because here, both turn triggers the electronic circuits in
2 C0
charge and capacitance are changed, whereas the computer to identify which key is
in equation (1.100), Vo remains constant. pressed.

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Table 1.2
Dielectric Charge Voltage Electric field Capacitance Energy
S. No
is inserted Q V E C U
When the battery
1 Constant decreases Decreases Increases Decreases
is disconnected
When the battery
2 Increases Constant Constant Increases Increases
is connected

E X A M P L E 1.21 increases. As a result, the capacitance is


decreased.
A parallel plate capacitor filled with mica
having εr = 5 is connected to a 10 V battery. New capacitance is
The area of the parallel plate is 6 m2 and C 44.25×10−9
C0 = =
separation distance is 6 mm. (a) Find the εr 5

capacitance and stored charge. = 8.85×10−9 F = 8.85 nF
The stored charge remains same and
(b) After the capacitor is fully charged, the 442.5 nC. Hence newly stored energy is
battery is disconnected and the dielectric is
Q2 Q 2 εr
removed carefully. U0 = = = ε rU
2C0 2C

Calculate the new values of capacitance, = 5×2.21 µJ = 11.05 µJ
stored energy and charge. The increased energy is
Solution ∆U = 11.05µJ − 2.21µJ = 8.84µJ
(a) 
The capacitance of the capacitor in
When the dielectric is removed, it
the presence of dielectric is
experiences an inward pulling force due
ε r ε 0 A 5×8.85×10−12 ×6 to the plates. To remove the dielectric,
C= =
d 6×10−3 an external agency has to do work on the
= 44.25×10−9 F = 44.25 nF dielectric which is stored as additional
energy. This is the source for the extra
The stored charge is
energy 8.84 µJ.
Q = CV = 44.25×10−9 ×10
= 442.5×10−9 C = 442.5nC
1.8.5  Capacitor in series and
The stored energy is parallel
1 1 (i) Capacitor in series
U = CV 2 = × 44.25C ×10−9 ×100
2 2 Consider three capacitors of capacitance
−6
= 2.21×10 J = 2.21 µJ
C1, C2 and C3 connected in series with a
(b) After the removal of the dielectric, since battery of voltage V as shown in the Figure
the battery is already disconnected the 1.60 (a).
total charge will not change. But the As soon as the battery is connected to the
potential difference between the plates capacitors in series, the electrons of charge

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C1 C2 C3
+ – + – + –
+ – + – + –
+ – + – + –
+ – + – + – CS
V1 V2 V3

+ – + –
V V
(a) (b)
Figure 1.60  (a) Capacitors connected in series (b) Equivalence capacitors CS

–Q are transferred from negative terminal If three capacitors in series are considered
to the right plate of C3 which pushes the to form an equivalent single capacitor Cs
electrons of same amount -Q from left shown in Figure 1.60(b), then we have
plate of C3 to the right plate of C2 due to Q
V= . Substituting this expression into
electrostatic induction. Similarly, the left CS
plate of C2 pushes the charges of –Q to the equation (1.104), we get
right plate of C1 which induces the positive
charge +Q on the left plate of C1. At the same Q 1 1 1
= Q  + + 
time, electrons of charge –Q are transferred CS  C1 C2 C3 
from left plate of C1 to positive terminal of
the battery. 1 1 1 1
= + + (1.105)
By these processes, each capacitor stores the CS C1 C2 C3
same amount of charge Q. The capacitances
of the capacitors are in general different, so Thus, the inverse of the equivalent
that the voltage across each capacitor is also capacitance CS of three capacitors connected
different and are denoted as V1, V2 and V3 in series is equal to the sum of the inverses
respectively. of each capacitance. This equivalent
The total voltage across each capacitor must capacitance CS is always less than the
be equal to the voltage of the battery. smallest individual capacitance in the series.

(ii) Capacitance in parallel


V = V1 + V2 + V3(1.103)
Q Q Q Consider three capacitors of capacitance
Since, Q = CV, we have V = + +
C1 C2 C3 C1, C2 and C3 connected in parallel with
1 1 1 a battery of voltage V as shown in
= Q  + +  (1.104) Figure 1.61 (a).
 C1 C2 C3 

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+ Q1 Q2 Q3
+ Q

- -
V C1 C2 C3 V CP

(a) (b)

Figure 1.61  (a) capacitors in parallel (b) equivalent capacitance with the same total charge

Since corresponding sides of the capacitors The equivalent capacitance CP in a parallel


are connected to the same positive and connection is always greater than the
negative terminals of the battery, the largest individual capacitance. In a parallel
voltage across each capacitor is equal to the connection, it is equivalent as area of each
battery’s voltage. Since capacitance of the capacitance adds to give more effective area
capacitors is different, the charge stored such that total capacitance increases.
in each capacitor is not the same. Let the
charge stored in the three capacitors be Q1, E X A M P L E 1.22
Q2, and Q3 respectively. According to the law
Find the equivalent capacitance between P
of conservation of total charge, the sum of
and Q for the configuration shown below
these three charges is equal to the charge Q
in the figure (a).
transferred by the battery,

Q = Q1 +Q2 +Q3(1.106)
1µF 4µF
4 µF 4µF 2µF

Now, since Q=CV, we have 3µF

6µF
P Q P Q P Q P Q
Q = C1V + C2V + C3V(1.107) 6µF

8µF 8µF 4µF


2µF 8µF
If these three capacitors are considered
(a) (b) (c) (d)
to form a single capacitance CP which
stores the total charge Q as shown in the
Figure 1.61(b), then we can write Q = CPV. Solution
Substituting this in equation (1.107), we get
The capacitors 1 µF and 3µF are
CPV = C1V + C2V + C3V connected in parallel and 6µF and 2 µF
are also separately connected in parallel.
CP = C1 + C2 + C3(1.108) So these parallel combinations reduced
Thus, the equivalent capacitance of to equivalent single capacitances in their
capacitors connected in parallel is equal respective positions, as shown in the
to the sum of the individual capacitances. figure (b).

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Ceq = 1µF + 3µF = 4µF q1


A q2
Ceq = 6µF + 2µF = 8µF r1 B
r2
From the figure (b), we infer that the two Thin conducting wire
4 µF capacitors are connected in series and
the two 8 µF capacitors are connected in
series. By using formula for the series, we Figure 1.62  Two conductors are
connected through conducting wire
can reduce to their equivalent capacitances
as shown in figure (c).
If a charge Q is introduced into any one of the
1 1 1 1 spheres, this charge Q is redistributed into
= + = ⇒ Ceq = 2 µF
Ceq 4 4 2 both the spheres such that the electrostatic
and potential is same in both the spheres. They
are now uniformly charged and attain
1 1 1 1
= + = ⇒ Ceq = 4 µF electrostatic equilibrium. Let q1 be the charge
Ceq 8 8 4
residing on the surface of sphere A and q2 is
From the figure (c), we infer that 2µF the charge residing on the surface of sphere
and 4µF are connected in parallel. So the B such that Q = q1 + q2. The charges are
equivalent capacitance is given in the distributed only on the surface and there is
figure (d). no net charge inside the conductor.
The electrostatic potential at the surface of
Ceq = 2µF + 4µF = 6µF the sphere A is given by
Thus the combination of capacitances 1 q1
VA = (1.110)
in figure (a) can be replaced by a single 4 πε  r1
capacitance 6 µF. The electrostatic potential at the surface of
the sphere B is given by
1.9 1 q2
VB = (1.111)
DISTRIBUTION 4 πε  r2
OF CHARGES IN A The surface of the conductor is an
CONDUCTOR AND ACTION equipotential. Since the spheres are
AT POINTS connected by the conducting wire, the
surfaces of both the spheres together form
an equipotential surface. This implies that
1.9.1  Distribution of charges
in a conductor VA = VB
Consider two conducting spheres A and B of q q2
or 1 = (1.112)
radii r1 and r2 respectively connected to each r1 r2
other by a thin conducting wire as shown in Let us take the charge density on the surface
the Figure 1.62. The distance between the of sphere A is σ1 and charge density on the
spheres is much greater than the radii of surface of sphere B is σ2. This implies that q1
either spheres. = 4πr12σ1 and
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q2 = 4πr22σ2. Substituting these values into Since VA = VB. We have


equation (1.112), we get r 
q1 q2
= ⇒ q1 =  1 q2
σ1r1 = σ2r2(1.113) r1 r2  r2 

from which we conclude that But from the conservation of total charge, Q
= q1 + q2, we get q1 = Q – q2. By substituting
σr = constant (1.114) this in the above equation,

Thus the surface charge density σ is inversely r 


proportional to the radius of the sphere. For Q − q2 =  1 q2
 r2 
a smaller radius, the charge density will be
 r 
larger and vice versa. so that q2 = Q  2 
 r1 + r2 
Therefore,
E X A M P L E 1.23
2
q2 = 100×10−9 ×  = 20 nC
Two conducting spheres of radius r1 10 
= 8 cm and r2 = 2 cm are separated by a and q1 = Q – q2 = 80nC
distance much larger than 8 cm and are
The electric charge density for sphere A is
connected by a thin conducting wire as
q1
shown in the figure. A total charge of Q = σ1 =
4 πr12
+100 nC is placed on one of the spheres.
The electric charge density for sphere B is
After a fraction of a second, the charge Q
q2
is redistributed and both the spheres attain σ2 =
4 πr22
electrostatic equilibrium. Therefore,
80×10−9
σ1 = −4
= 0.99×10−6 C m−2
4 ×64 ×10
A
r1 B
r2 and
Thin conducting wire
20×10−9
σ2 = −4
= 3.9×10−6 C m−2
4 π × 4 ×10

Note that the surface charge density is


(a) 
Calculate the charge and surface
greater on the smaller sphere compared to
charge density on each sphere.
the larger sphere (σ2 ≈ 4σ1) which confirms
(b) 
Calculate the potential at the surface
σ1 r2
of each sphere. the result = .
σ2 r1
Solution The potential on both spheres is the same.
(a) 
The electrostatic potential on the So we can calculate the potential on any
1 q1 one of the spheres.
surface of the sphere A is VA =
4 πε  r1
The electrostatic potential on the surface 1 q1 9×109 ×80×10−9
1 q2 VA = = = 9 kV
of the sphere A is VB = 4 πε  r1 8×10−2
4 πε  r2

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1.9.2  Action at points or 1.9.3  Lightning arrester or


Corona discharge lightning conductor
Consider a charged conductor of irregular This is a device used to protect tall buildings
shape as shown in Figure 1.63 (a). from lightning strikes. It works on the
principle of action at points or corona
discharge.
This device consists of a long thick copper
rod passing from top of the building to the
ground. The upper end of the rod has a
sharp spike or a sharp needle as shown in
Figure 1.64 (a) and (b).

Figure 1.63  Action at a points or corona


discharge

We know that smaller the radius of


curvature, the larger is the charge density.
The end of the conductor which has larger
curvature (smaller radius) has a large charge
accumulation as shown in Figure 1.63 (b).
As a result, the electric field near this edge Figure 1.64  (a) Schematic diagram of
is very high and it ionizes the surrounding a lightning arrestor. (b) A house with a
air. The positive ions are repelled at the lightning arrestor
sharp edge and negative ions are attracted
towards the sharper edge. This reduces The lower end of the rod is connected to the
the total charge of the conductor near the copper plate which is buried deep into the
sharp edge. This is called action at points or ground. When a negatively charged cloud
corona discharge. is passing above the building, it induces
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a positive charge on the spike. Since the


+ + +
induced charge density on thin sharp spike + +
+
+ +

is large, it results in a corona discharge. This E


+ + + Corona
+ + +
+ ++ discharge
positive charge ionizes the surrounding air Aluminum B ++ + + + + +
+
roller ++ + +
+
++
which in turn neutralizes the negative charge + + +
++ +
+ +
+
++
in the cloud. The negative charge pushed to +
+ + ++
+ Rubber belt
+ + ++
the spikes passes through the copper rod and +
++
+
++
+
is safely diverted to the Earth. The lightning + ++
+ + ++
+ +
++
arrester does not stop the lightning; rather Plastic ––– + + + –
– + ++ Corona

it diverts the lightning to the ground safely. roller D discharge
C

+
1.9.4  Van de Graaff
+ + + +
Generator +
+ +
+
+ +
In the year 1929, Robert Van de Graaff + E B +
+
designed a machine which produces a large +
+ +
+

amount of electrostatic potential difference, +


+ Rubber belt
up to several million volts (107 V). This Van +

de Graff generator works on the principle of +


+
electrostatic induction and action at points. +
+
+ D +
A large hollow spherical conductor is fixed C Insulating
– stand
on the insulating stand as shown in Figure
1.65. A pulley B is mounted at the center
of the hollow sphere and another pulley C
is fixed at the bottom. A belt made up of Figure 1.65  Van de Graaff generator
insulating materials like silk or rubber runs
over both pulleys. The pulley C is driven comb E, a large amount of negative and
continuously by the electric motor. Two positive charges are induced on either side
comb shaped metallic conductors E and D of comb E due to electrostatic induction.
are fixed near the pulleys. As a result, the positive charges are pushed
The comb D is maintained at a positive away from the comb E and they reach the
potential of 104 V by a power supply. The outer surface of the sphere. Since the sphere
upper comb E is connected to the inner side is a conductor, the positive charges are
of the hollow metal sphere. distributed uniformly on the outer surface
of the hollow sphere. At the same time, the
Due to the high electric field near comb
negative charges nullify the positive charges
D, air between the belt and comb D gets
in the belt due to corona discharge before it
ionized. The positive charges are pushed
passes over the pulley.
towards the belt and negative charges
When the belt descends, it has almost no
are attracted towards the comb D. The
net charge. At the bottom, it again gains
positive charges stick to the belt and move
a large positive charge. The belt goes up
up. When the positive charges reach the
and delivers the positive charges to the
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outer surface of the sphere. This process The electric field on the surface of the
continues until the outer surface produces sphere(by Gauss law) is given by
the potential difference of the order of 107
which is the limiting value. We cannot store 1 Q
E=
charges beyond this limit since the extra 4 πε  R 2
charge starts leaking to the surroundings The potential on the surface of the hollow
due to ionization of air. The leakage of metallic sphere is given by
charges can be reduced by enclosing the
machine in a gas filled steel chamber at very 1 Q
high pressure. V= = ER
4πε  R
The high voltage produced in this Van de
Graaff generator is used to accelerate positive with Vmax = EmaxR
ions (protons and deuterons) for nuclear
disintegrations and other applications. V
Here Emax = 3×106 . So the maximum
m
potential difference created is given by
E X A M P L E 1.24
Dielectric strength of air is 3 × 106 V m-1. Vmax = 3 × 106 × 0.5
Suppose the radius of a hollow sphere in
the Van de Graff generator is R = 0.5 m, = 1.5 × 106 V (or) 1.5 million volt
calculate the maximum potential difference
created by this Van de Graaff generator.

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SUMMARY

„„ Like charges repel and unlike charges attract


„„ The total charge in the universe is conserved
„„ Charge is quantized. Total charge in an object q = ne where n = 0,1,2,3… and e is
electron charge.
 1 q1q2
„„ Coulomb’s law in vector form: F = r (
 r is unit vector along joining q1, q2)
4 πε  r 2
„„ For continuous charge distributions, integration methods can be used.
„„ Electrostatic force obeys the superposition principle.
 1 q
„„ Electric field at a distance r from a point charge: E = 
r
4 πε  r 2
„„ Electric field lines starts at a positive charge and end at a negative charge or at infinity
 
1  2 p 
„„ Electric field due to electric dipole at points on the axial line : Etot =  
4 πε   r 3 
 
1  p 
„„ Electric field due to electric dipole at points on the equatorial line: Etot = −  
4 πε   r 3 
  
„„ Torque experienced by a dipole in a uniform electric field: τ = p× E
1 q
„„ Electrostatic potential at a distance r from the point charge: V =
4πε  r

1 p ⋅ r
„„ Electrostatic potential due to an electric dipole: V = 2
4 πε  r
„„ The electrostatic potential is the same at all points on an equipotential surface.
„„ The relation between electric field and electrostatic potential:
  ∂V ∂V  ∂V  
E = −  i + j + k 
 ∂x ∂y ∂z 
„„ Electrostatic potential energy for system of charges is equal to the work done to
arrange the charges in the given configuration.
„„ Electrostatic potential energy stored in a dipole system in a uniform electric field:
 
U = −p ⋅ E
Q
„„ The total electric flux through a closed surface : Φ E = where Q is the net charge
ε
enclosed by the surface

1 λ
„„ Electric field due to a charged infinite wire : E = 
r
2πε  r
 σ
„„ Electric field due to a charged infinite plane : E =  n (n is normal to the plane)
ε
 Q
„„ Electric field inside a charged spherical shell is zero. For points outside: E = 
r
4 πε r 2

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„„ Electric field inside a conductor is zero. The electric field at the surface of the
σ
conductor is normal to the surface and has magnitude E = .
ε
„„ The surface of the conductor has the same potential, at all points on the surface.
„„ Conductor can be charged using the process of induction.
„„ A dielectric or insulator has no free electrons. When an electric field is applied, the
dielectric is polarised.
Q
„„ Capacitance is given by C = .
V
ε A
„„ Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor: C =
d
1
„„ Electrostatic energy stored in a capacitor: U = CV 2
2
„„ The equivalent capacitance for parallel combination is equal to the sum of individual
capacitance of capacitors.
„„ For a series combination: The inverse of equivalent capacitance is equal to sum of
inverse of individual capacitances of capacitors.
„„ The distribution of charges in the conductors depends on the shape of conductor.
For sharper edge, the surface charge density is greater. This principle is used in the
lightning arrestor
„„ To create a large potential difference, a Van de Graaff generator is used.

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CONCEPT MAP

ELECTROSTATICS

Point charge Coloumb’s law Dipole

Electric field Electric potential

Electric flux Electric Potential


energy

Gauss law Conductors

Van de Graff
Generator

Series Capacitors Parallel

With dielectric Without dielectric

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EVALUATION

I Multiple choice questions 1 25
(a) (b)
1. Two identical point charges of 5 11
magnitude –q are fixed as shown in the 11
(c) 5 (d)
figure below. A third charge +q is placed 25
midway between the two charges at 4. An electric dipole is placed at an
the point P. Suppose this charge +q is alignment angle of 30o with an electric
displaced a small distance from the field of 2 × 105 N C-1. It experiences a
point P in the directions indicated torque equal to 8 N m. The charge on
by the arrows, in which direction(s) the dipole if the dipole length is 1 cm is
will +q be stable with respect to the (a) 4 mC (b) 8 mC
displacement?
(c) 5 mC (d) 7 mC
B1
5. Four Gaussian surfaces are given below
+q
with charges inside each Gaussian
– +
surface. Rank the electric flux through
+
A1 P A2 +q
-q
B2 each Gaussian surface in increasing
order.

(a) A1 and A2 (b) B1 and B2


(c) both directions (d) No stable
2. Which charge configuration produces A
+2q
a uniform electric field? +
B
(a) point Charge –q

(b) infinite uniform line charge
+q
(c) uniformly charged infinite plane +

(d) uniformly charged spherical shell D


C
q1
3. What is the ratio of the charges for
q2
the following electric field line pattern?
(a) D < C < B < A
(b) A < B = C < D
(c) C < A = B < D
(d) D > C > B > A

q1 6. The total electric flux for the following


q2
closed surface which is kept inside
water

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potential difference V = Vo – VA, where


Vo is the potential at the origin and VA
is the potential at x = 2 m is:
(a) 10 J (b) – 20 J
Water
–q +2q
q (c) +20 J (d) -10J
– +

+
+q
q 10. A thin conducting spherical shell
of radius R has a charge Q which is
uniformly distributed on its surface.
The correct plot for electrostatic
potential due to this spherical shell is
80q q
(a) (b)
ε 40ε 
V V V
q q
(c) (d)
80ε  160ε 
O r O r O
R R R
7. Two identical conducting balls having (a) (b) (c)
positive charges q1 and q2 are separated
by a center to center distance r. If they
V V V V
are made to touch each other and then
separated to the same distance, the
Oforce between them
r willO be r O r O r
R R R R
(NSEP(a)04-05) (b) (c) (d)
(a) less than before
11. Two points A and B are maintained at
(b) same as before
a potential of 7 V and -4 V respectively.
(c) more than before
The work done in moving 50 electrons
(d) zero from A to B is
8. Rank the electrostatic potential (a) 8.80 × 10-17 J
energies for the given system of charges
(b) -8.80 × 10-17 J
in increasing order.
(c) 4.40 × 10-17 J
(d) 5.80 × 10-17 J
Q
+
r
-Q

-Q
– r
-Q

-Q

r
-2Q
– +
Q
2r
-2Q

12. If voltage applied on a capacitor is

increased from V to 2V, choose the
(a) (b) (c) (d)
correct conclusion.
(a) Q remains the same, C is doubled
(a) 1 = 4 < 2 < 3 (b) 2 = 4 < 3 < 1
(b) Q is doubled, C doubled
(c) 2 = 3 < 1 < 4 (d) 3 < 1 < 2 < 4
 (c) C remains same, Q doubled
9. An electric field E = 10 xi exists in (d) Both Q and C remain same
a certain region of space. Then the

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13. A parallel plate capacitor stores a Answers


charge Q at a voltage V. Suppose the 1) b 2) c 3) d 4) b 5) a
area of the parallel plate capacitor and
6) b 7) c 8) a 9) b 10) b
the distance between the plates are each
doubled then which is the quantity that 11) a 12) c 13) d 14) b 15) a
will change?
(a) Capacitance II Short Answer Questions
(b) Charge 1. What is meant by quantisation of
(c) Voltage charges?
(d) Energy density 2. Write down Coulomb’s law in vector
form and mention what each term
14. Three capacitors are connected in
represents.
triangle as shown in the figure. The
equivalent capacitance between the 3. What are the differences between
points A and C is Coulomb force and gravitational
force?
2µF 4. Write a short note on superposition
A B principle.
5. Define ‘Electric field’.
2µF
6. What is mean by ‘Electric field lines’?
1µF 7. The electric field lines never intersect.
Justify.
8. Define ‘Electric dipole’
C
9. What is the general definition of
electric dipole moment?
(a) 1µF (b) 2 µF
10. Define ‘electrostatic potential”.
1
(c) 3 µF (d) µF 11. What is an equipotential surface?
4
15. Two metallic spheres of radii 1 cm and 12. What are the properties of an
3 cm are given charges of -1 x 10-2 C equipotential surface?
and 5 x 10-2 C respectively. If these are 13. Give the relation between electric field
connected by a conducting wire, the and electric potential.
final charge on the bigger sphere is 14. Define ‘electrostatic potential energy’.
(AIIPMT -2012) 15. Define ‘electric flux’
(a) 3 × 10 C -2
16. What is meant by electrostatic energy
(b) 4 × 10 C -2
density?
(c) 1 × 10-2 C 17. Write a short note on ‘electrostatic
(d) 2 × 10-2 C shielding’.
18. What is Polarisation?

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19. What is dielectric strength? 14. Obtain the expression for electric field
20. Define ‘capacitance’. Give its unit. due to an uniformly charged spherical
shell.
21. What is corona discharge?
15. Discuss the various properties of
conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.
III Long Answer questions 16. Explain the process of electrostatic
1. Discuss the basic properties of electric induction.
charges. 17. Explain dielectrics in detail and how
2. Explain in detail Coulomb’s law and its an electric field is induced inside a
various aspects. dielectric.
3. Define ‘Electric field’ and discuss its 18. Obtain the expression for capacitance
various aspects. for a parallel plate capacitor.
4. How do we determine the electric 19. Obtain the expression for energy stored
field due to a continuous charge in the parallel plate capacitor.
distribution? Explain. 20. Explain in detail the effect of a dielectric
5. Calculate the electric field due to a placed in a parallel plate capacitor.
dipole on its axial line and equatorial 21. Derive the expression for resultant
plane. capacitance, when capacitors are
connected in series and in parallel.
6. Derive an expression for the torque
experienced by a dipole due to a 22. Explain in detail how charges are
uniform electric field. distributed in a conductor, and
the principle behind the lightning
7. Derive an expression for electrostatic
conductor.
potential due to a point charge.
23. Explain in detail the construction and
8. Derive an expression for electrostatic
working of a Van de Graaff generator.
potential due to an electric dipole.
9. Obtain an expression for potential
Exercises
energy due to a collection of three
point charges which are separated by 1. When two objects are rubbed with
finite distances. each other, approximately a charge of
50 nC can be produced in each object.
10. Derive an expression for electrostatic
Calculate the number of electrons that
potential energy of the dipole in a
must be transferred to produce this
uniform electric field.
charge.
11. Obtain Gauss law from Coulomb’s law.
 Ans: 31.25 × 1010 electrons
12. Obtain the expression for electric field 2. The total number of electrons in the
due to an infinitely long charged wire. human body is typically in the order of
13. Obtain the expression for electric field 1028. Suppose, due to some reason, you
due to an charged infinite plane sheet. and your friend lost 1% of this number

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of electrons. Calculate the electrostatic + -

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ -
force between you and your friend +
+
-
-
+ -
separated at a distance of 1m. Compare k
m,Q

+

E
+
+
-
-
+ - - v→0
this with your weight. Assume mass -

+
+ +q -q
+
+
-
of each person is 60 kg and use point
x=0

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
(a) (b) (c)
charge approximation.
Ans:
 Ans: Fe = 9 × 1061 N, W = 588 N
3. Five identical charges Q are placed N T
qE
equidistant on a semicircle as shown
-kx qE
in the figure. Another point charge q is QE

kept at the center of the circle of radius


mg
R. Calculate the electrostatic force mg mg

experienced by the charge q. (a) (b) (c)

N T
qE
y
-kx qE
QE

mg
Q mg mg
Q
(a) (b) (c)
R
6. Consider an electron travelling with a
Q q x speed vo and entering into a uniform

electric field E which is perpendicular
Q 
Q to v as shown in the Figure.
Ignoring gravity, obtain the electron’s
acceleration, velocity and position as
 1 qQ functions of time.
Ans: F =
4 πε  R 2
(
1+ 2 N 
i )
4. Suppose a charge +q on Earth’s surface y

and another +q charge is placed on x


the surface of the Moon. (a) Calculate _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
the value of q required to balance the →
v0 →
E

gravitational attraction between Earth e P
and Moon (b) Suppose the distance
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

between the Moon and Earth is halved,


would the charge q change?
 Ans :
(Take mE = 5.9 × 1024 kg, mM = 7.9 × 1022 kg)  eE  eE  1 eE 2
Ans: (a) q ≈ +5.64 × 1013 C, a = − j , v = v
i − tj, r = vt 
i − t j
m m 2m
 (b) no change
7. A closed triangular box is kept in an
5. Draw the free body diagram for the
electric field of magnitude E = 2 × 103
following charges as shown in the
N C-1 as shown in the figure.
figure (a), (b) and (c).

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separated by a gap of around 0.6 mm


15cm
gap as shown in the figure.

E

5cm 60°

Calculate the electric flux through


the (a) vertical rectangular surface
(b) slanted surface and (c) entire surface.
Ans: (a) 15 Nm2 C-1 (b) 15 Nm2 C-1 (c) zero
8. The electrostatic potential is given as
To create the spark, an electric field of
a function of x in figure (a) and (b).
magnitude 3 × 106 Vm-1 is required.
Calculate the corresponding electric
(a) What potential difference must be
fields in regions A, B, C and D. Plot the
applied to produce the spark? (b) If
electric field as a function of x for the
the gap is increased, does the potential
figure (b).
difference increase, decrease or
V
V remains the same? (c) find the potential
30
A C
20 difference if the gap is 1 mm.
6
B
10
3
 Ans: (a) 1800 V, (b) increases (c) 3000 V
4 5
D 0 x(cm)
1 2 4
-10
2
-20 10. A point charge of +10 µC is placed
0
at a distance of 20 cm from another
-30
0.2 0.4 0.6 x(m)
(a) (b)
identical point charge of +10 µC. A
point charge of -2 µC is moved from
Ans: (a) EX = 15 Vm-1 (region A), EX = -10
point a to b as shown in the figure.
Vm-1 (region C)
Calculate the change in potential
EX = 0 (region B), EX = 30 Vm-1
energy of the system? Interpret your
(region D)
result.
V
30
20
b – –2µC
10
0
1 2 3 4 5
x(cm) 5 cm
-10
-20 5 cm 15 cm
-30
10µC + – + 10µC
a
(b)

9. A spark plug in a bike or a car is used Ans: ∆U = -3.246 J, negative sign implies
to ignite the air-fuel mixture in the that to move the charge -2µC no external
engine. It consists of two electrodes work is required. System spends its stored

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energy to move the charge from point a to (a) Calculate the time of flight for both
point b. electron and proton (b) Suppose if a
11. Calculate the resultant capacitances for neutron is allowed to fall, what is the
each of the following combinations of time of flight? (c) Among the three,
capacitors. which one will reach the bottom first?
(Take mp = 1.6 x 10-27 kg, me = 9.1 x 10-31
P kg and g = 10 m s-2)

C0 C0 C0 C1 Ans: C C C
2 0 0
C0 C0
C0 C0 C0 R 2Shme P Q
C0 C0
C
(a) t e =C4 ≈ 1.5 ns (ignoring the gravity),
3 eE C0
C 0
Q
(a) (b) (c) (d) 2hme (e)
tp = ≈ 63 ns (ignoring the gravity)
P eE
C0 C1 C2 C0 C0
2h
C0 C0 P (b) tn = ≈ 14.1ms
C0 C0 R S Q g
C3 C4 C0
C0
(c) electron will reach first
Q
) (c) (d) (e)
13. During a thunder storm, the movement
of water molecules within the clouds
2 creates friction, partially causing the
 Ans: (a) C   (b) C   (c) 3 C
3 bottom part of the clouds to become
(d) across PQ:
negatively charged. This implies
C1C2C3 + C2C3C4 + C1C2C4 + C1C3C4 that the bottom of the cloud and the
(C1 + C2 )(C3 + C4 ) ground act as a parallel plate capacitor.
across RS: If the electric field between the cloud
and ground exceeds the dielectric
C1C2C3 + C2C3C4 + C1C2C4 + C1C3C4
breakdown of the air (3 × 106 Vm-1 ),
(C1 + C2 )(C3 + C4 ) lightning will occur.
(e) across PQ: 2 Co
12. An electron and a proton are allowed + + + + + + + + + + +
to fall through the separation between + + + + + + + + + + +

the plates of a parallel plate capacitor of + Positive charge

voltage 5 V and separation distance h =


1 mm as shown in the figure.

– – – – – – – – – –
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Electron Neutron y Proton


-
+

x
– Negative charge
– – – – – – – – –
– – – – – – – – –
– – – – – – – – – –
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

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(a) If the bottom part of the cloud is 1000  Ans:


m above the ground, determine the Qa = 24 µC, Qb = 18 µC,
electric potential difference that exists Qc = 6 µC, Qd = 24 µC
between the cloud and ground. Va = 3V, Vb = 3V,
(b) In a typical lightning phenomenon, Vc = 3V, Vd = 3V,
around 25C of electrons are transferred Ua = 36 µJ, Ub = 27 µJ,
from cloud to ground. How much Uc = 9 µJ, Ud = 36 µJ
electrostatic potential energy is 15. Capacitors P and Q have identical cross
transferred to the ground? sectional areas A and separation d. The
 Ans: (a) V = 3 × 109 V, (b) U = 75 × 109 J space between the capacitors is filled
14. For the given capacitor configuration with a dielectric of dielectric constant
(a) Find the charges on each capacitor εr as shown in the figure. Calculate the
(b) potential difference across them capacitance of capacitors P and Q.
(c) energy stored in each capacitor
6µF

c d P Q
8µF 2µF 8µF
a
ε A 2ε A  ε 
+ -   Ans : CP = (1 + εr ), CQ =   r 
9V 2d d 1 + ε r 

BOOKS FOR REFERENCE

1. Douglas C.Giancoli, , “Physics for Scientist & Engineers with Modern Physics”, Pearson
Prentice Hall, Fourth edition
2. James Walker, “Physics”, Pearson- Addison Wesley Publishers, Fourth Edition
3. Purcell, Morin, “Electricity and Magnetism”, “Cambridge University Press, Third Edition.
4. Serway and Jewett, “Physics for Scientist and Engineers with Modern Physics”, Brook/Coole
Publishers, Eighth Edition
5. Tipler, Mosca, “Physics for scientist and Engineers with Modern Physics”, Freeman and
Company, Sixth Edition
6. Tarasov and Tarasova, “Questions and problems in School Physics”, Mir Publishers
7. H.C.Verma, “Concepts of Physics: Vol 2, Bharthi Bhawan Publishers
8. Eric Roger, Physics for the Inquiring Mind, Princeton University Press

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ICT CORNER
Electrostatics

In this activity you will be able to learn Topic: Capacitor lab


about capacitor and the factors affecting
capacitance.

STEPS:
• Open the browser and type “phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/legacy/capacitor-lab” in the
address bar. Go to the tab ‘Dielectric’.
• Change the plate area, distance between the plate and dielectric. Identify what you would
maximize or minimize to make a capacitor with the greatest capacitance.
• Explore the relationships between charge, voltage, and stored energy for a capacitor. Design
a capacitor system to store the greatest energy.
• Charge the capacitor with 1.0 v using the battery. Disconnect the battery. Now insert a
dielectric between the plates. Discus how electric field changes in between the plates when
dielectric is introduced.
• What is the effect of introducing a dielectric between plates? (Change dielectric materials)

Step1 Step2

Step3 Step4

Connect capacitors parallel and series combination and find the effective capacitance.

Note:
Install Java application if it is not in your system. You can download all the phet
simulation and works in off line from https://phet.colorado.edu/en/offline-access .
URL:
https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/legacy/capacitor-lab
* Pictures are indicative only.
* If browser requires, allow Flash Player or Java Script to load the page.

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UNIT

2 CURRENT ELECTRICITY

We will make electricity so cheap that only the rich will burn candles
– Thomas A. Edison

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

In this unit, the student is exposed to


• Flow of charges in a metallic conductor
• Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics
• Carbon resistors and combination of resistors
• Kirchhoff ’s laws - Wheatstone’s bridge and its applications
• Electric power and Electric energy
• Heating effect - Joule’s law – Experimental verification and applications
• Thermoelectric effects – Seebeck effect – Peltier effect – Thomson effect

In unit 1, we studied the properties of charges


INTRODUCTION when it is at rest. In reality, the charges are
always moving within the materials. For
example, the electrons in a copper wire are
never at rest and are continuously in random
motion. Therefore it is important to analyse
the behaviour of charges when it is at motion.
The motion of charges is called ‘electric current’.
Current electricity is the study of flow of electric
charges. It owes its origin to Alessandro Volta
(1745-1827), who invented the electric battery
which produced the first steady flow of electric
current. Modern world depends heavily on the
use of electricity. It is used to operate machines,
communication systems, electronic devices,
home appliances etc., In this unit, we will study
about the electric current, resistance and related
phenomenon in materials.
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2.1 charges from one end of the conductor to


other end and hence no current. When a
ELECTRIC CURRENT potential difference is applied by the battery
across the ends of the conductor, the free
electrons drift towards the positive terminal
Matter is made up of atoms. Each atom of the battery, producing a net electric
consists of a positively charged nucleus with current. This is easily understandable from
negatively charged electrons moving around the analogy given in the Figure 2.1.
the nucleus. Atoms in metals have one or In the XI Volume 2, unit 6, we studied,
more electrons which are loosely bound to that the mass move from higher gravitational
the nucleus. These electrons are called free potential to lower gravitational potential.
electrons and can be easily detached from Likewise, positive charge flows from higher
the atoms. The substances which have an electric potential to lower electric potential
abundance of these free electrons are called and negative charge flows from lower
conductors. These free electrons move at electric potential to higher electric potential.
random throughout the conductor at a So battery or electric cell simply creates
given temperature. In general due to this potential difference across the conductor.
random motion, there is no net transfer of

High potential
Equal potential

Flow of water

No water flow Low potential

(a) Equal gravitational (b) Water flows from high gravitational potential
potential-No water flow to low gravitational potential
(c) (d) I

B A

Copper wire
+
A B

End A and B are at same A is at higher electric potential


electric potential. Hence no th
than BB. SSo currentt flows
fl f
from
current A to B

Figure 2.1  Water current and Electric current

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The electric current in a conductor is E X A M P L E 2.1


defined as the rate of flow of charges through
a given cross-sectional area A. It is shown in Compute the current in the wire if a charge
the Figure 2.2. of 120 C is flowing through a copper wire
in 1 minute.
Solution
+
+ The current (rate of flow of charge) in the
+ wire is
+ Q 120
+ I= = = 2A
A t 60

I
2.1.1  Conventional Current
Figure 2.2  Charges flow across the area A
Direction of current
I
If a net charge Q passes through any
cross section of a conductor in time t, then
+
Q V
the current is defined as I = . But charge –
t
flow is not always constant. Hence current
can more generally be defined as
Flow of electrons
∆Q
I avg = (2.1) Figure 2.3  Direction of conventional
∆t
current and electron flow
Where ∆Q is the amount of charge that
passes through the conductor at any cross In an electric circuit, arrow heads are used
section during the time interval ∆t. If the to indicate the direction of flow of current.
rate at which charge flows changes in time, By convention, this flow in the circuit should
the current also changes. The instantaneous be from the positive terminal of the battery
current I is defined as the limit of the average to the negative terminal. This current is
current, as ∆t ® 0 called the conventional current or simply
∆Q dQ current and is in the direction in which a
I = lim = (2.2)
∆t →0 ∆t dt positive test charge would move. In typical
circuits the charges that flow are actually
The SI unit of current is the ampere (A) electrons, from the negative terminal of
1C the battery to the positive. As a result, the
1A =
1s flow of electrons and the
direction of conventional
That is, 1A of current is equivalent to
current points in opposite
1 Coulomb of charge passing through a
direction as shown in
perpendicular cross section in 1second. The
Figure 2.3. Mathematically,
electric current is a scalar quantity.
a transfer of positive charge
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is the same as a transfer of negative charge electric field accelerates the electrons, while
in the opposite direction. ions scatter the electrons and change the
direction of motion. Thus, we have zigzag
paths of electrons. In addition to the zigzag
motion due to the collisions, the electrons
move slowly along the conductor  in a
direction opposite to that of E as shown in
the Figure 2.4.

Ions
Any material is made up of neutral
atoms with equal number of electrons
Electric current is not only produced and protons. If the outermost electrons
by batteries. In nature, lightning bolt leave the atoms, they become free
produces enormous electric current electrons and are responsible for
in a short time. During lightning, very electric current. The atoms after losing
high potential difference is created their outer most electrons will have
between the clouds and ground so more positive charges and hence are
charges flow between the clouds and called positive ions. These ions will not
ground. move freely within the material like the
free electrons. Hence the positive ions
will not give rise to current.
2.1.2  Drift velocity
In a conductor the charge carriers
are free electrons. These electrons move →
vd
freely through the conductor and collide
repeatedly with the positive ions. If there
is no electric field, the electrons move in –
random directions, so the directions of
their velocities are also completely random
direction. On an average, the number of -
electrons travelling in any direction will be
equal to the number of electrons travelling
in the opposite direction. As a result, there is →
E
no net flow of electrons in any direction and
hence there will not be any current.
Figure 2.4  Electric current
Suppose a potential difference is set
across the conductor by connecting a 
battery, an electric field E is created in the This velocity is called drift velocity vd . The
conductor. This electric field exerts a force drift velocity is the average velocity acquired
on the electrons, producing a current. The by the electrons inside the conductor when

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it is subjected to an electric field. The E X A M P L E 2.2


average time between successive collisions is
called the mean free time denoted by τ. The If an electric field of magnitude 570
 N C-1, is applied in the copper wire, find the
acceleration a experienced
 by the electron
in an electric field E is given by acceleration experienced by the electron.

 −eE  
a=
m
(since F = −eE ) (2.3) Solution:
 E = 570 N C-1, e = 1.6 × 10-19 C,
The drift velocity vd is given by
  m = 9.11 × 10-31 kg and a = ?
vd = a τ
F = ma = eE
 eτ 
vd = − E (2.4) eE
m 570×1.6×10−19
 a= =
 m 9.11×10−31
vd = −µE (2.5)
912×10−19 ×1031
eτ =
Here µ = is the mobility of the 9.11
m
electron and it is defined as the magnitude = 1.001 × 1014 m s-2
of the drift velocity per unit electric field.
Misconception

vd  here is a common misconception that
(i) T
µ=  (2.6)
E the battery is the source of electrons. It
m2 is not true. When a battery is connected
The SI unit of mobility is . across the given wire, the electrons in the
Vs
closed circuit resulting the current. Battery
The typical drift velocity of sets the potential difference (electrical
Note electrons in the wire is 10-4 m s-1. energy) due to which these electrons in
If an electron drifts with this the conducting wire flow in a particular
speed, then the electrons leaving direction. The resulting electrical energy
the battery will take hours to reach the is used by electric bulb, electric fan etc.
light bulb. Then how electric bulbs glow
Similarly the electricity board is supplying
as soon as we switch on the battery?
When battery is switched on, the electrons
the electrical energy to our home.
begin to move away from the negative (ii) We often use the phrases like ‘charging
terminal of the battery and this electron the battery in my mobile’ and ‘my
exerts force on the nearby electrons. This mobile phone battery has no charge’
process creates a propagating influence etc. These sentences are not correct.
(electric field) that travels through the
wire at the speed of light. In other words,
the energy is transported from the battery
to light bulb at the speed of light through
propagating influence (electric field). Due
to this reason, the light bulb glows as soon
as the battery is switched on.

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When we say ‘battery has no charge’, Substituting for dx from equation (2.7)
it means, that the battery has lost ability in (2.8)
to provide energy or provide potential = (A vd dt ) n
difference to the electrons in the circuit. Total charge in volume element dQ =
When we say ‘mobile is charging’, it implies (charge) × (number of electrons in the
that the battery is receiving energy from AC volume element)
power supply and not electrons.
dQ = (e)(Avddt)n
dQ neAv d dt
2.1.3  Microscopic model of Hence the current I = =
dt dt
current
I = ne Avd .(2.9)
Consider a conductor with area of cross
section A and an electric field E applied from Current density (J)
right to left. Suppose there are n electrons per The current density ( J ) is defined as the
unit volume in the conductor and assume current per unit area of cross section of the
that all the electrons move with the same conductor.
 I
drift velocity vd as shown in Figure 2.5. J=
A
The S.I unit of current density is A2 (or) A m-2
dx m
neAvd
J= (from equation 2.9)
A

v
- d J = ne vd (2.10)
A
The above expression is valid only when
e -
the direction of the current is perpendicular
to the area A. In general, the current density
vd dt is a vector quantity and it is given by
 
J = nevd
Figure 2.5  Microscopic model of current 

Substituting vd from equation (2.4)
The drift velocity of the electrons = vd  n ⋅ e2 τ 
J =− E (2.11)
The electrons move through a distance m
dx within a small interval of dt  
J = −σE
vd = dx ;   dx = vd dt(2.7) But conventionally, we take the direction
dt of (conventional) current density as the
Since A is the area of cross section of direction of electric field. So the above
the conductor, the electrons available in the equation becomes
 
volume of length dx is J = σE (2.12)
= volume × number per unit volume ne 2 τ
where σ = is called conductivity.
m
= Adx ´n(2.8) The equation 2.12 is called microscopic
form of ohm’s law.
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The inverse of conductivity is called E X A M P L E 2.4


resistivity (ρ ) [Refer section 2.2.1].
Determine the number of electrons flowing
1 m per second through a conductor, when a
ρ= = 2 (2.13)
σ ne τ current of 32 A flows through it.
Solution
E X A M P L E 2.3
A copper wire of cross-sectional area I = 32 A , t = 1 s
0.5 mm2 carries a current of 0.2 A. If the free Charge of an electron, e = 1.6 × 10-19 C
electron density of copper is 8.4 × 1028 m-3
then compute the drift velocity of free The number of electrons flowing per
electrons. second, n =?

Solution I=
q ne
=
t t
The relation between drift velocity of
electrons and current in a wire of cross- It
n=
sectional area A is e

I 0. 2 32×1
vd = = n=
ne A 8.4 ×10 ×1.6×10−19 ×0.5×10−6
28
1.6×10−19 C

vd = 0.03 x 10-3 m s-1 n = 20 × 1019 = 2 × 1020 electrons

2.2

Why current density is a vector OHM’S LAW


Note but current is a scalar?
In general, the current I is
defined as the scalar product of the The ohm’s law can be derived from the
current density and area vector in which equation J = σE. Consider a segment of wire
the charges cross. of length l and cross sectional area A as
shown in Figure 2.7.

The current I can be positive or negative


depending on the choice of the unit l
vector normal to the surface area A.
A I
S

A →
A


E
A 
JJ

I = JA cos 
V
Figure 2.6 Current is a scalar
Figure 2.7 Current through the conductor

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When a potential difference V is applied of resistance R of the conductor. It is shown


across the wire, a net electric field is created in the Figure 2.8 (a).
in the wire which constitutes the current.
For simplicity, we assume that the electric I I
field is uniform in the entire length of the
wire, the potential difference (voltage V)
can be written as
V = El
As we know, the magnitude of current
density Slope =
1
R
V
J = σE = σ (2.14) V
l
But J = I , so we write the equation (a) (b)
(2.14) as A
I I
I V
=σ .
A l
By rearranging the above equation, we
get
 l 
V = I  (2.15) 1
 σA  Slope =
R
l V
The quantity is called resistance of V
σA
the conductor and it is denoted as (a)R. Note (b)
that the resistance is directly proportional Figure 2.8  Current against voltage for
to the length of the conductor and inversely (a) a conductor which obey Ohm’s law
proportional to area of cross section. and (b) for a non-ohmic device (Diode
Therefore, the macroscopic form of given in XII physics, unit 9 is an example
ohm’s law can be stated as of a non-ohmic device)

V = IR (2.16)
Materials for which the current against
voltage graph is a straight line through the
From the above equation, the resistance
origin, are said to obey Ohm’s law and their
is the ratio of potential difference across
behaviour is said to be ohmic as shown in
the given conductor to the current passing
Figure 2.8(a). Materials or devices that do
through the conductor.
not follow Ohm’s law are said to be non-
V
R=  (2.17) ohmic. These materials have more complex
I
relationships between voltage and current.
The SI unit of resistance is ohm (Ω). A plot of I against V for a non-ohmic
From the equation (2.16), we infer that the material is non-linear and they do not have
graph between current versus voltage is a constant resistance (Figure 2.8(b)).
straight line with a slope equal to the inverse
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E X A M P L E 2.5 proportionality constant ρ is called the


resistivity of the material.
A potential difference across 24 Ω resistor
is 12 V. What is the current through the If l = 1 m and A = 1 m2, then the resistance R
resistor? = ρ. In other words, the electrical resistivity
of a material is defined as the resistance
Solution
offered to current flow by a conductor
of unit length having unit area of cross
24 Ω section. The SI unit of ρ is ohm-metre
(Ω m). Based on the resistivity, materials are
classified as conductors, insulators and semi-
I
12 V
conductors. The conductors have lowest
+ – resistivity, insulators have highest resistivity
and semiconductors have resistivity greater
than conductors but less than insulators. The
typical resistivity values of some conductors,
V = 12 V and R = 24 Ω
insulators and semiconductors are given in
Current, I = ?
V 12 the Table 2.1
From Ohm’s law, I = = = 0.5 A
R 24
Table 2.1  Resistivity for various
2.2.1  Resistivity materials
In the previous section, we have seen that Resistivity, ρ (Ω m)
Material
the resistance R of any conductor is given by at 200C
l Insulators
R= (2.18)
σA Pure Water 2.5 × 105
where σ is called the conductivity of the Glass 1010 - 1014
material and it depends only on the type of Hard Rubber 1013 - 1016
the material used and not on its dimension.
NaCl - 1014
The resistivity of a material is equal to
the reciprocal of its conductivity. Fused Quartz - 1016
Semiconductors
1
ρ = (2.19) Germanium 0.46
σ
Silicon 640
Now we can rewrite equation (2.18)
using equation (2.19) Conductors

l Silver 1.6 × 10-8


R = ρ (2.20)
A Copper 17 × 10-8
The resistance of a material is directly Aluminium 2.7 × 10-8
proportional to the length of the conductor Tungsten 5.6 × 10-8
and inversely proportional to the area Iron 10 × 10-8
of cross section of the conductor. The
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E X A M P L E 2.6 B
C
B
C

The resistance of a wire is 20 Ω. What A A

will be new resistance, if it is stretched + – +



uniformly 8 times its original length? I = IAB
I= ?

(a) V (b) V

Solution
If a potential difference of V is applied
R1 = 20 Ω, R2= ?
between the two faces A and B of the block
Let the original length (l1) be l. (figure (a)), the current IAB is observed.
The new length, l2 = 8l1 (i.,e) l2 =8l Find the current that flows if the same
potential difference V is applied between
l1
The original resistance, R1 = ρ the two faces B and C of the block (figure
A1
(b)). Give your answers in terms of IAB.
l2 ρ(8l )
The new resistance R2 = ρ =
A2 A2 Solution
Though the wire is stretched, its volume is In the first case, the resistance of the block
unchanged.
length C
Initial volume = Final volume RAB = ρ =ρ
Area AB
A1l1= A2l2 ,  A1l = A28l V V AB
The current I AB = = ⋅ (1)
A1 8l RAB ρ C
= =8
A2 l In the second case, the resistance of the
 y dividing equation R2 by equation R1,
B block RBC = ρ A
BC
we get V V BC
The current I BC = = ⋅ (2)
R2 ρ(8l ) A1 RBC ρ A
= ×
R1 A2 ρl
To express IBC interms of IAB, we multiply
R2 A1 and divide equation (2) by AC, we get
= ×8
R1 A2
A1 V BC AC V AB  C 2 C 2
Substituting the value of , we get I BC = ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ I AB
A2 ρ A AC  ρ C  A2 A2
R2
= 8×8 = 64 Since C > A, the current IBC > IAB
R1
R2 = 64 × 20=1280 Ω
Hence, stretching the length of the wire has The human body contains a large
increased its resistance. amount of water which has low
resistance of around 200 Ω and
the dry skin has high resistance of
E X A M P L E 2.7
around 500 k Ω. But when the skin is wet, the
Consider a rectangular block of metal of resistance is reduced to around1000 Ω. This is
the reason, repairing the electrical connection
height A, width B and length C as shown
with the wet skin is always dangerous.
in the figure.

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and R3 since the charges cannot accumulate


2.2.2  Resistors in series and
anywhere in the circuit. Due to this reason, the
parallel
current I passing through all the three resistors
An electric circuit may contain a number is the same. According to Ohm’s law, if same
of resistors which can be connected in current pass through different resistors of
different ways. For each type of circuit, different values, then the potential difference
we can calculate the equivalent resistance across each resistor must be different. Let V1,
produced by a group of individual resistors. V2 and V3 be the potential difference (voltage)
Resistors in series across each of the resistors R1, R2 and R3
When two or more resistors are connected respectively, then we can write V1 = IR1, V2 = IR2
end to end, they are said to be in series. The and V3 = IR3. But the total voltage V is equal to
resistors could be simple resistors or bulbs the sum of voltages across each resistor.
or heating elements or other devices. Figure
V = V1 + V2 + V3 = IR1 + IR2 + IR3(2.21)
2.9 (a) shows three resistors R1, R2 and R3
connected in series. V = I (R1 + R2 + R3)
The amount of charge passing through
resistor R1 must also pass through resistors R2 V = I.RS (2.22)
R1
I I where RS is the equivalent resistance,
V1
RS= R1 + R2 + R3(2.23)
+
V V2 R2

When several resistances are connected
V3
I
in series, the total or equivalent resistance
I
R3 is the sum of the individual resistances as
(a) Three resistors in series shown in the Figure 2.9 (b).
I Note: The value of equivalent resistance
in series connection will be greater than
each individual resistance.
+
V RS

E X A M P L E 2.8
Calculate the equivalent resistance for the
(b) Equivalent resistance (RS) has the same current circuit which is connected to 24 V battery
and also find the potential difference across
Resistor
4 Ω and 6 Ω resistors in the circuit.
1kΩ
+
Battery

Resistor

R1 R2
2kΩ


4Ω 6Ω
Resistor

3kΩ
I
I

(c) Resistors in series (Actual photo )

Figure 2.9  Resistors in series + -


24 V

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Solution I

Since the resistors are connected in series, I1 I2 I3

the effective resistance in the circuit +


V R1 R2 R3 V

= 4 Ω + 6 Ω = 10 Ω
V 24
The Current I in the circuit = = = 2. 4 A
Req 10 I
(a) Three resistors in parallel
Voltage across 4Ω resistor I

V1 = IR1 = 2.4 A× 4Ω = 9.6V

Voltage across 6 Ω resistor +


RP

V2 = IR1 = 2.4 A×6 Ω = 14.4 V

Resistors in parallel I
(b) Equivalent resistance (RP) has the same current
Resistors are in parallel when they are
connected across the same potential
1kΩ
difference as shown in Figure 2.10 (a).
In this case, the total current I that leaves
2kΩ
the battery is split into three separate paths.
Let I1, I2 and I3 be the current through the 3kΩ
resistors R1, R2 and R3 respectively. Due to
Battery
the conservation of charge, total current in
– +
the circuit I is equal to sum of the currents
through each of the three resistors.
(c) Resistors in parallel(Actual photo)

I = I1 + I2 + I3(2.24)
Figure 2.10  Resistors in parallel
Since the voltage across each resistor
Here RP is the equivalent resistance of the
is the same, applying Ohm’s law to each
parallel combination of the resistors. Thus,
resistor, we have
when a number of resistors are connected
V V V in parallel, the sum of the reciprocal of the
I1 = , I 2 = , I 3 = (2.25)
R1 R2 R3 values of resistance of the individual resistor
Substituting these values in equation is equal to the reciprocal of the effective
(2.24),we get resistance of the combination as shown in
the Figure 2.10 (b)
V V V 1 1 1
I= + + =V  + +  Note: The value of equivalent resistance
R1 R2 R3 R 
 1 R2 R3  in parallel connection will be lesser than
V each individual resistance.
I= House hold appliances are always
RP
connected in parallel so that even if one
1 1 1 1
= + + (2.26) is switched off, the other devices could
RP R1 R2 R3
function properly.
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E X A M P L E 2.9 Solution

Calculate the equivalent resistance in the Rs = R1 + R2 = 15 Ω  (1)


following circuit and also find the current R1R2 56
RP = = Ω (2)
I, I1 and I2 in the given circuit. R1 + R2 15
 rom equation (1) substituting for R1 + R2
F
R1
in equation (2)
4Ω
R1R2 56
I1
R2 = Ω
15 15
6Ω

I
I2
∴ R1R2 = 56

+ –
R2 = 56 Ω  (3)
24 V 15
Substituting for R2 in equation (1) from
Solution equation (3)
Since the resistances are connected in 56
R1 + = 15
parallel, therefore, the equivalent resistance R1
in the circuit is R12 + 56
Then, = 15
R1
1 1 1 1 1
= + = + R12+ 56 = 15 R1
RP R1 R2 4 6
1 5 12
= Ω or RP = Ω R12-15 R1+ 56 = 0
RP 12 5
 he above equation can be solved using
T
The resistors are connected in parallel, the factorisation.
potential (voltage) across each resistor is
R12-8 R1-7 R1+ 56 = 0
the same.
R1 (R1– 8) – 7 (R1– 8) = 0
V 24V
I1 = = = 6A (R1– 8) (R1– 7) = 0
R1 6Ω
V 24 If (R1= 8 Ω)
I2 = = = 4A
R2 6
using in equation (1)
The current I is the total of the currents in
the two branches. Then, 8 + R2 = 15

I = I1 + I2= 6 A + 4 A = 10 A R2 = 15 – 8 = 7 Ω ,

R2 = 7 Ω i.e , (when R1 = 8 Ω ; R2 = 7 Ω)
E X A M P L E 2.10
If (R1= 7 Ω)
When two resistances connected in series
Substituting in equation (1)
and parallel their equivalent resistances
56 7 + R2 = 15
are 15 Ω and Ω respectively. Find the
15 R2 = 8 Ω , i.e , (when R1 = 8 Ω ; R2 = 7 Ω )
individual resistances.
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E X A M P L E 2.11
1Ω 2Ω 3Ω

Calculate the equivalent resistance between A B


A and B in the given circuit.
Equivalent resistance between A and B is
2Ω 4Ω 6Ω

A B 6Ω
2Ω 4Ω 6Ω
A B

Solution
Parallel connection
E X A M P L E 2.12
Part 1
Five resistors are connected in the
1 1 1
= + configuration as shown in the figure.
R p1 R1 R2
Calculate the equivalent resistance between
1 1 1 2 the points a and b.
= + = R p1 = 1Ω
R p1 2 2 2
c

4Ω 6Ω
1Ω 1Ω 1Ω
A RP1 B

4Ω 6Ω
5Ω
a b

Part II
1Ω 1Ω
1 1 1 2 1 1
= + = ,  = ,  R p2 = 2 Ω
R p2 4 4 4 R p 2 d
2

6Ω
Solution
1Ω 6Ω
A
R
B Case (a)
P2
6Ω
To find the equivalent resistance between
the points a and b, we assume that current
Part III
is entering the junction a. Since all the
1 1 1 2 resistances in the outside loop are the same
= + =
R p3 6 6 6 (1Ω), the current in the branches ac and
1 1 ad must be equal. So the electric potential
= , R p3 = 3 Ω
R p3 3 at the point c and d is the same hence no
current flows into 5 Ω resistance. It implies
R = R p1 + R p2 + R p3 that the 5 Ω has no role in determining
the equivalent resistance and it can be
R=1+2+3R=6Ω
removed. So the circuit is simplified as
The circuit became: shown in the figure.

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1Ω 1Ω Table 2.2 Color Coding for Resistors


1/2Ω 1/2Ω 1Ω
Color Number Multiplier Tolerance
a c, d b a b
a c, d b
1Ω 1Ω Black 0 1
Brown 1 101
1Ω
1/2Ω 1/2Ω
Red 1Ω 2 102
Orange 3 103
a c, d b a b
c, d b Yellow 4 104
1Ω
Green 5 105
Blue 6 106
Violet 7 107
1/2Ω 1/2Ω 1Ω
Gray 8 108
a c, d b a b
White 9 109
Gold 10−1 5%
Sliver 10−2 10%
The equivalent resistance of the circuit
between a and b is Req = 1Ω Colorless 20%

shows the tolerance of the resistor at 10% or


2.2.3 Color code for Carbon 5% as shown in the Figure 2.12 .If there is no
resistors fourth ring, the tolerance is 20%.
For the resistor shown in Figure 2.12,
the first digit = 5 (green), the second digit
= 6 (blue), decimal multiplier = 103 (orange)
and tolerance = 5% (gold). The value of
resistance = 56 × 103 Ω or 56 kΩ with the
Figure 2.11 Resistance used in our tolerance value 5%.
laboratory
While reading the colour code,
Note hold the resistor with colour
Carbon resistors consists of a ceramic
bands to your left. Resistors
core, on which a thin layer of crystalline
never start with a metallic band on the left.
carbon is deposited as shown in Figure 2.11.
These resistors are inexpensive, stable and Decimal
multiplier Tolerance
compact in size. Color rings are used to (metallic band)
indicate the value of the resistance according
to the rules given in the Table 2.2.
Three coloured rings are used to indicate
the values of a resistor: the first two rings First digit
Second digit
are significant figures of resistances, the
third ring indicates the decimal multiplier
Figure 2.12 Resistor color coding
after them. The fourth color, silver or gold,
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increase in temperature according to the


expression,

ρT = ρ 1 + α (T − T ) (2.27)

where ρT is the resistivity of a conductor


Measuring current
at T oC, ρo is the resistivity of the conductor
at some reference temperature To (usually at
o
C) and α is theMeasuring
Measuring20resistance temperature
voltagecoefficient
of resistivity. It is defined as the ratio of
increase in resistivity per degree rise in
temperature to its resistivity at To.
From the equation (2.27), we can write
Measuring current
ρT − ρ = α ρ (T − T )

Measuring resistance Measuring voltage ρT − ρ ∆ρ


∴α= =
ρ (T − T ) ρ ∆T

where ∆ρ = ρT – ρo is change in resistivity


for a change in temperature ∆T = T – To. Its
unit is per oC.
α of conductors
For conductors α is positive. If the
temperature of a conductor increases, the
average kinetic energy of electrons in the
Measuring resistance Measuring voltage conductor increases. This results in more
A multimeter is a very useful frequent collisions and hence the resistivity
electronic instrument used to increases. The graph of the equation (2.27)
measure voltage, current, resistance is shown in Figure 2.13
and capacitance. In fact, it can also Even though, the resistivity of conductors
measure AC voltage and AC current. like metals varies linearly for wide range
The circular slider has to be kept in of temperatures, there also exists a non-
appropriate position to measure each linear region at very low temperatures. The
electrical quantity. resistivity approaches some finite value as
the temperature approaches absolute zero as
shown in Figure 2.13(b).
As the resistance is directly proportional
2.2.4  Temperature to resistivity of the material, we can also write
dependence of resistivity the resistance of a conductor at temperature
The resistivity of a material is dependent T oC as
on temperature. It is experimentally found
that for a wide range of temperatures, the
RT = R 1 + α (T − T ) (2.28)
resistivity of a conductor increases with
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(Ωm)
ρ
ρ (Ωm)

0 T
(K)

T(K)
ρ0

0
T
Figure 2.14  Temperature dependence of
resistivity for a semiconductor

Figure 2.13  (a) Temperature


dependence of resistivity for a conductor
Table 2.3
(b) Non linear region at low temperature
Temperature
Color
Coefficient α [(°C)−1]
The temperature coefficient can be also Silver 3.8 × 10−3
be obtained from the equation (2.28),
Copper 3.9 × 10−3
RT − R = α R (T − T )
Gold 3.4 × 10−3
RT − R 1 ∆R
∴α= = Aluminum 3.9 × 10−3
R (T − T ) R ∆T
1 ∆R Tungsten 4.5 × 10−3
α= (2.29)
R ∆T  Iron 5.0 × 10−3
where ∆R = RT − R is change in resistance Platinum 3.92 × 10−3
during the change in temperature ∆T = T − T Lead 3.9 × 10−3
α of semiconductors Nichrome 0.4 × 10−3
For semiconductors, the resistivity Carbon −0.5 × 10−3
decreases with increase in temperature. As Germanium −48 × 10−3
the temperature increases, more electrons Silicon −75 × 10−3
will be liberated from their atoms (Refer
unit 9 for conduction in semi conductors). We can understand the temperature
Hence the current increases and therefore dependence of resistivity in the following
the resistivity decreases as shown in Figure way. In section 2.1.3, we have shown that
2.14. A semiconductor with a negative ne 2 τ
the electrical conductivity, σ = . As the
temperature coefficient of resistance is m
called a thermistor. resistivity is inverse of σ, it can be written as,
The typical values of temperature
m
coefficients of various materials are given in ρ= (2.30)
ne 2 τ
table 2.3.
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The resistivity of materials is E X A M P L E 2.14


i) inversely proportional to the number
density (n) of the electrons Resistance of a material at 100C and 400C
ii) inversely proportional to the average are 45 Ω and 85 Ω respectively. Find its
time between the collisions (τ). temperature co-efficient of resistance.
In metals, if the temperature increases, Solution
the average time between the collision (τ)
decreases and n is independent of temperature. T0 = 10 0C, T = 40 0C, R0= 45 Ω , R = 85 Ω
In semiconductors when temperature 1 ∆R
α=
increases, n increases and τ decreases, but R ∆T
increase in n is dominant than decreasing τ, 1  85 − 45  1  40 
so that overall resistivity decreases. α=   =  
45  40 −10  45  30 
α = 0.0296 per C
The resistance of certain
materials become zero below
certain temperature Tc. 2.3
This temperature is known as critical
ENERGY AND POWER IN
temperature or transition temperature.
ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS
The materials which exhibit this property
are known as superconductors. This
phenomenon was first observed by When a battery is connected between the
Kammerlingh Onnes in 1911. He found
ends of a conductor, a current is established.
that mercury exhibits superconductor
The battery is transporting energy to the
behaviour at 4.2 K. Since R = 0, current
device which is connected in the circuit.
once induced in a superconductor persists
Consider a circuit in which a battery of
without any potential difference.
voltage V is connected to the resistor as
shown in Figure 2.15.

E X A M P L E 2.13 I

If the resistance of coil is 3 Ω at 20 0C and b c


α = 0.004/0C then determine its resistance
+
at 100 0C.
- V R

Solution
a d
R0= 3 Ω,  T = 100 C, T0 = 20 C
0 0

α = 0.004/0C, RT= ?
RT= R0(1 + α(T-T0)) Figure 2.15  Energy given by the battery
R100 = 3(1 + 0.004 × 80)
R100 = 3(1 + 0.32) Assume that a positive charge of dQ
R100 = 3(1.32) moves from point a to b through the battery
R100 = 3.96 Ω and moves from point c to d through the
resistor and back to point a. When the charge
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moves from point a to b, it gains potential Usually these voltage rating refers AC
energy dU = V.dQ and the chemical potential RMS voltages. For a given bulb, if the voltage
energy of the battery decreases by the drop across the bulb is greater than voltage
same amount. When this charge dQ passes rating, the bulb will fuse.
through resistor it loses the potential energy
Using Ohm’s law, power delivered to the
dU = V.dQ due to collision with atoms in the
resistance R is expressed in other forms
resistor and again reaches the point a. This
process occurs continuously till the battery
is connected in the circuit. The rate at which P = IV = I (IR) = I2R(2.33)
the charge loses its electrical potential
energy in the resistor can be calculated. V V2
P = IV = V= (2.34)
The electrical power P is the rate at which R R
the electrical potential energy is delivered,

dV d dQ The electrical power


P= = (V .dQ ) = V (2.31)
dt dt dt
produced (dissipated) by
dQ a resistor is I2R. It depends
Since the electric current I = .
dt on the square of the current. Hence,
So the equation (2.31) can be rewritten as if current is doubled, the power
will increase by four times. Similar
P = VI(2.32) explanation holds true for voltage also.

This expression gives the power delivered


by the battery to any electrical system, where The total energy used by any device
I is the current passing through it and V is is obtained by multiplying the power and
the potential difference across it. The SI unit duration of the time when it is ON. If the
of electrical power is watt (1W = 1 J s-1). power is in watts and the time is in seconds,
Commercially, the electrical bulbs used in the energy will be in joules. In practice,
houses come with the power and voltage electrical energy is measured in kilowatt
rating of 5W-220V, 30W-220V, 60W-220V hour (kWh). 1 kWh is known as 1 unit of
etc. (Figure 2.16). electrical energy.
(1 kWh = 1000 Wh = (1000 W) (3600 s)
= 3.6 x 106 J)

The Tamilnadu
Electricity Board is charging
for the amount of energy you
use and not for the power. A current
of 1A flowing through a potential
difference of 1V produces a power of
Figure 2.16  Electrical bulbs with power
rating 1W.

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E X A M P L E 2.15 that, the 30W has twice as much as


A battery of voltage V is connected to resistance as 60 W bulb.
30 W bulb and 60 W bulb as shown in (c) When these two bulbs are connected
the figure. (a) Identify brightest bulb in series, the current passing through
(b) which bulb has greater resistance? each bulb is the same. It is equivalent
(c) Suppose the two bulbs are connected in to two resistors connected in series.
series, which bulb will glow brighter? The bulb which has higher resistance
30W has higher voltage drop. So 30W
bulb will glow brighter than 60W
bulb. So the higher power rating does
not always imply more brightness
e f and it depends whether bulbs are
60W connected in series or parallel.

E X A M P L E 2.16
c d Two electric bulbs marked 20 W – 220 V
and 100 W – 220 V are connected in series
– to 440 V supply. Which bulb will be fused?
a
+

b
V Solution
To check which bulb will be fused, the
Solution voltage drop across each bulb has to be
 he power delivered by the battery
(a) T calculated.
P = VI. Since the bulbs are connected The resistance of a bulb,
in parallel, the voltage drop across
2
each bulb is the same. If the voltage is V 2 (Rated voltage)
R= =
kept fixed, then the power is directly P Rated power
proportional to current (P ∝ I). For 20W-220V bulb,
So 60 W bulb draws twice as much
2
as current as 30 W and it will glow (220)
R1 = Ω = 2420 Ω
brighter then others. 20
 o calculate the resistance of the
(b) T For 100W-220V bulb,
V2
bulbs, we use the relation P = . 2
R (220)
R2 = Ω = 484 Ω
In both the bulbs, the voltage drop 100
is the same, so the power is inversely
proportional to the resistance or Both the bulbs are connected in series. So
resistance is inversely proportional the current which passes through both the
  bulbs are same. The current that passes
to the power R ∝ 1 . It implies V
 P  through the circuit, I =
Rtot
.

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Rtot = (R1 + R2 ) is connected to a circuit, electrons flow


from the negative terminal to the positive
Rtot = (484 + 2420) Ω = 2904Ω
terminal through the circuit. By using
440V chemical reactions, a battery produces
I= ≈ 0.151 A
2904Ω potential difference across its terminals.
The voltage drop across the 20W bulb is This potential difference provides the
440 energy to move the electrons through the
V1 = IR1 = ×2420 ≈ 366.6 V
2904 circuit. Commercially available electric cells
The voltage drop across the 100W bulb is and batteries are shown in Figure 2.18

440
V2 = IR2 = × 484 ≈ 73.3 V
2904

The 20 W bulb will be fused because its


voltage rating is only 220 V and 366.6 V is
dropped across it. Figure 2.18  Electric cells and Batteries

2.4 If we connect copper and


zinc rod in a lemon, it acts
ELECTRIC CELLS AND
as an electric cell. The citric
BATTERIES
acid in the lemon acts as an electrolyte.
The potential can be measured using a
An electric cell converts chemical energy multimeter.
into electrical energy to produce electricity.
It contains two electrodes immersed in an
electrolyte as shown in Figure 2.17.

+ –
Terminal Terminal

Carbon + – Zinc
electrode electrode
(+) (-)

Sulfuric acid

Figure 2.17  Simple electric cell

Several electric cells connected together


form a battery. When a cell or battery
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2.4.1  Electromotive force


ξ r
and internal resistance + –
A battery or cell is called a source of
electromotive force (emf). The term
‘electromotive force’ is a misnomer since it
does not really refer to a force but describes
a potential difference in volts. The emf of
+ V

a battery or cell is the voltage provided by
(a) Voltmeter
the battery when no current flows in the
external circuit. It is shown in Figure 2.19.
ξ r
+ –

I + V

R

(b)
V
Figure 2.19  Measuring the emf of a cell
Figure 2.20  Internal resistance of the cell
Electromotive force determines the
amount of work a battery or cell does to The emf of cell ξ is measured by
move a certain amount of charge around the connecting a high resistance voltmeter
circuit. It is denoted by the symbol ξ and to across it without connecting the external
be pronounced as ‘xi’. An ideal battery has resistance R as shown in Figure 2.20(a).
zero internal resistance and the potential Since the voltmeter draws very little current
difference (terminal voltage) across the for deflection, the circuit may be considered
battery equals to its emf. But a real battery as open. Hence the voltmeter reading gives
is made of electrodes and electrolyte, there the emf of the cell. Then, external resistance
is resistance to the flow of charges within R is included in the circuit and current I
the battery. This resistance is called internal is established in the circuit. The potential
resistance r. For a real battery, the terminal difference across R is equal to the potential
voltage is not equal to the emf of the battery. difference across the cell (V) as shown in
A freshly prepared cell has low internal Figure 2.20(b).
resistance and it increases with ageing. The potential drop across the resistor R is

V = IR (2.35)
2.4.2  Determination of
internal resistance
Due to internal resistance r of the cell,
The circuit connections are made as shown the voltmeter reads a value V, which is less
in Figure 2.20. than the emf of cell ξ. It is because, certain
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amount of voltage (Ir) has dropped across voltage and the internal resistance of the
the internal resistance r. battery (b) power delivered by the battery
Then V = ξ – Ir and power delivered to the resistor

Ir = ξ – V(2.36) Solution
The given values I = 3.93 A, ξ = 12 V,
Dividing equation (2.36) by equation
R=3Ω
(2.35), we get
Ir ξ − V  he terminal voltage of the battery
(a) T
=
IR V is equal to voltage drop across the
 ξ −V  resistor
r=  R (2.37)
 V  V = IR = 3.93 × 3 = 11.79 V
Since ξ, V and R are known, internal The internal resistance of the battery,
resistance r can be determined. We can
also find the total current that flows in the  ξ −V  12 −11.79 
r= R =   ×3 = 0.05 Ω
circuit.  V   11.79 
Due to this internal resistance, the power (b) The power delivered by the battery P
delivered to the circuit is not equal to power = Iξ = 3.93 × 12 = 47.1 W
rating mentioned in the battery. For a battery
The power delivered to the resistor = I2 R
of emf ξ, with an internal resistance r, the
= 46.3 W
power delivered to the circuit of resistance
R is given by The remaining power = (47.1  – 46.3)
P = 0.772 W is delivered to the internal
P = Iξ = I (V + Ir) (from equation 2.36)
resistance and cannot be used to do useful
Here V is the voltage drop across the work. (it is equal to I2 r).
resistance R and it is equal to IR.
Therefore, P = I (IR +Ir)
2.4.3  Cells in series
P = I2 R + I2 r(2.38) Several cells can be connected to form a
battery. In series connection, the negative
Here I2 r is the power delivered to the terminal of one cell is connected to the
internal resistance and I2 R is the power positive terminal of the second cell, the
delivered to the electrical device (here it negative terminal of second cell is connected
is the resistance R). For a good battery, to the positive terminal of the third cell
the internal resistance r is very small, then and so on. The free positive terminal of the
I2 r << I2 R and almost entire power is first cell and the free negative terminal of
delivered to the resistance. the last cell become the terminals of the
battery.
E X A M P L E 2.17
Suppose n cells, each of emf ξ volts and
A battery has an emf of 12 V and connected internal resistance r ohms are connected in
to a resistor of 3 Ω. The current in the series with an external resistance R as shown
circuit is 3.93 A. Calculate (a) terminal in Figure 2.21

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Thus series connection of cells is


advantageous only when the effective
internal resistance of the cells is negligibly
small compared with R.

Activity
Construct lemon cells in series and
Cella in series (Schematic diagram) observe the potential of this combination
ξ ξ ξ ξ
+ –

Cells in series (circuit diagram)

Figure 2.21  cells in series

The total emf of the battery = nξ


The total resistance in the circuit = nr + R E X A M P L E 2.18
By Ohm’s law, the current in the circuit is
From the given circuit,
total emf nξ
I= = (2.39) 9V 9V 9V 9V
total resistance nr + R + -

Case (a) If r << R, then, 0.1Ω 0.1Ω 0.1Ω 0.1Ω

I

I= ≈ nI1(2.40)
R R = 10Ω
where, I1 is the current due to a single cell
 
 I1 = ξ  Find
 R  i) Equivalent emf of the combination
Thus, if r is negligible when compared
ii) Equivalent internal resistance
to R the current supplied by the battery is n
 otal current
iii) T
times that supplied by a single cell.
iv)  otential difference across external
P
nξ ξ resistance
Case (b) If r>>R, I = ≈ (2.41)
nr r
v) Potential difference across each cell
It is the current due to a single cell. That is, Solution
current due to the whole battery is the same as
that due to a single cell and hence there is no i) Equivalent emf of the combination
advantage in connecting several cells. ξeq = nξ = 4 9 = 36 V

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ii) Equivalent internal resistance req = nr ξ


= 4 × 0.1 = 0.4 Ω + –

nξ ξ
iii) Total current I = + + – –
R + nr
4 ×9 ξ
= I + –-
10 + (4 ×0.1)
4 ×9 36
= = V
10 + 0.4 10.4
I = 3.46 A R
cells in parallel (Circuit diagram)
iv)  otential difference across external
P
resistance V = IR = 3.46 × 10 = 34.6
V. The remaining 1.4 V is dropped
across the internal resistance of cells.
v) Potential difference across each cell
V 34.6
= = 8.65V
n 4

2.4.4  Cells in parallel Cells in parallel (Schematic diagram)

In parallel connection all the positive Figure 2.22  Cells in parallel


terminals of the cells are connected to one
point and all the negative terminals to a second nξ
point. These two points form the positive and I= (2.42)
r + nR
negative terminals of the battery.
Let n cells be connected in parallel nξ
Case (a) If r >> R, I = = nI1(2.43)
between the points A and B and a resistance r
R is connected between the points A and B where I1 is the current due to a single cell
as shown in Figure 2.22. Let ξ be the emf ξ
and is equal to when R is negligible. Thus,
and r the internal resistance of each cell. r
The equivalent internal resistance of the the current through the external resistance
1 1 1 1 n due to the whole battery is n times the
battery is = + + .... (nterms) = . So current due to a single cell.
req r r r r
r ξ
req = and the total resistance in the circuit Case (b) If r<<R, I = (2.44)
n R
r
= R + . The total emf is the potential
n
difference between the points A and B, When the car engine is
which is equal to ξ. The current in the started with headlights
circuit is given by turned on, they sometimes
ξ become dim. This is due to the internal
I=
r resistance of the car battery.
+R
n
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The above equation implies that current I


v) Current from each cell, I ′ =
due to the whole battery is the same as that n
due to a single cell. Hence it is advantageous 0. 5
I′ = = 0.125 A
to connect cells in parallel when the external 4
resistance is very small compared to the
internal resistance of the cells. 2.5
E X A M P L E 2.19 KIRCHHOFF’S RULES
From the given circuit

5V Ohm’s law is useful only for simple circuits.


For more complex circuits, Kirchhoff ’s rules
0.5 Ω
5V can be used to find current and voltage. There
are two generalized rules: i) Kirchhoff ’s
0.5 Ω
5V current rule ii) Kirchhoff ’s voltage rule.
0.5 Ω
I 5V 2.5.1  Kirchhoff’s first rule
0.5 Ω (Current rule or Junction rule)
It states that the algebraic sum of the
currents at any junction of a circuit is zero.
It is a statement of conservation of electric
R = 10 Ω charge. All charges that enter a given
junction in a circuit must leave that junction
Find since charge cannot build up or disappear at
i) Equivalent emf a junction. Current entering the junction
ii) Equivalent internal resistance is taken as positive and current leaving the
iii) Total current (I) junction is taken as negative.
iv) Potential difference across each cell
v) Current from each cell
Solution I1 I2
i) Equivalent emf ξeq = 5 V
ii) Equivalent internal resistance, A I3
r 0. 5
Req = = = 0.125 Ω
n 4 I4
ξ I5
iii) total current, I =
R+ r
5 5 n
I= = Figure 2.23  Kirchhoff ’s current rule
10 + 0.125 10.125
I ≈ 0.5 A
Applying this law to the junction A in
iv) Potential difference across each cell
Figure 2.23
V = IR = 0.5 × 10 = 5 V
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I1 + I2 – I3 – I4 – I5 = 0 The product of current and resistance is


(or) taken as positive when the direction of the
I1 + I2 = I3 + I4 + I5 current is followed. Suppose if the direction
of current is opposite to the direction of the
E X A M P L E 2.20 loop, then product of current and voltage
From the given circuit find the value of I. across the resistor is negative. It is shown
in Figure 2.24 (a) and (b). The emf is
considered positive when proceeding from
the negative to the positive terminal of the
cell. It is shown in Figure 2.24 (c) and (d).
0.4A
0.6A Going from a to b
0.2A
0.5A R
I
I 0.7A
a b
(a) V = +IR

Going from b to a
R
I

Solution (b)
a
V = -IR
b

Applying Kirchoff ’s rule to the point P in Going from a to b

the circuit, ξ

The arrows pointing towards P are positive


- +
a b
and away from P are negative. (c) V = +ξ

Therefore, 0.2A – 0.4A + 0.6A – 0.5A + Going from b to a


0.7A – I = 0 ξ

1.5A – 0.9A – I = 0
- +
a b
0.6A – I = 0 (d) V = –ξ
I = 0.6 A
Figure 2.24  Kirchhoff voltage rule

2.5.2  Kirchhoff’s Second rule Kirchhoff voltage rule has to be applied


(Voltage rule or Loop rule) only when all currents in the circuit reach
a steady state condition (the current in
It states that in a closed circuit the algebraic
various branches are constant).
sum of the products of the current and
resistance of each part of the circuit is equal
E X A M P L E 2.21
to the total emf included in the circuit. This
rule follows from the law of conservation of The following figure shows a complex
energy for an isolated system (The energy network of conductors which can be
supplied by the emf sources is equal to the divided into two closed loops like ACE and
sum of the energy delivered to all resistors). ABC. Apply Kirchoff ’s voltage rule.

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ξ We can denote the current that flows from


+ - 9V battery as I1 and it splits into I2 and I1
– I2 in the junction according Kirchoff ’s
I1 E I3
current rule (KCR). It is shown below.
R1 R3
I2
Now consider the loop EFCBE and apply
A C KVR, we get
R2
R4 R5
1I2 + 3I1 + 2I1 = 9
I4 I5
5I1 + I2 = 9 (1)

B Applying KVR to the loop EADFE, we get


3 (I1 – I2 ) – 1I2 = 6
Solution
3I1 – 4I2 = 6 (2)
Thus applying Kirchoff ’s second law to the
closed loop EACE Solving equation (1) and (2), we get

I1R1 + I2R2 + I3R3 = ξ I1 = 1.83 A and I2 = -0.13 A

and for the closed loop ABCA It implies that the current in the 1 ohm
I4R4 + I5R5-I2R2= 0 resistor flows from F to E.

E X A M P L E 2.22 2.5.3  Wheatstone’s bridge


Calculate the current that flows in the 1 Ω An important application of Kirchhoff ’s
resistor in the following circuit. rules is the Wheatstone’s bridge. It is used
to compare resistances and also helps in
A E B
2Ω
determining the unknown resistance in
6V electrical network. The bridge consists of
four resistances P, Q, R and S connected
1Ω
9V as shown in Figure 2.25. A galvanometer
3Ω
G is connected between the points B and
3Ω
D. The battery is connected between the
D F C
points A and C. The current through the
Solution galvanometer is IG and its resistance is G.
Applying Kirchhoff ’s current rule to
A E B junction B
I1 - I2 2Ω
I2 I1 I1 – IG – I3 = 0 (2.45)
6V
1Ω
9V Applying Kirchhoff ’s current rule to
junction D,
3Ω 3Ω
D F I1 C I2 + IG – I4 = 0 (2.46)

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B Dividing equation (2.52) by equation


I3 (2.51), we get
P +Q R + S
P IG Q =
P R
I1
Q S
A
1+ = 1+
I2 G
C P R
Q S
=
P R
R I4 S
P R
= (2.53)
I I Q S
D
This is the bridge balance condition.
ξ Only under this condition, galvanometer
shows null deflection. Suppose we know
the values of two adjacent resistances, the
Figure 2.25  Wheatstone’s bridge
other two resistances can be compared. If
three of the resistances are known, the value
Applying Kirchhoff ’s voltage rule to loop of unknown resistance (fourth one) can be
ABDA, determined.
I1P + IGG – I2R = 0 (2.47)

Applying Kirchhoff ’s voltage rule to loop


ABCDA,

I1P + I3Q – I4S – I2R = 0 (2.48)

When the points B and D are at the


same potential, the bridge is said to be
balanced. As there is no potential difference
between B and D, no current flows through A galvanometer is an instrument used
galvanometer (IG = 0). Substituting IG = 0 in for detecting and measuring even very
equation (2.45), (2.46) and (2.47), we get small electric currents. It is extensively
useful to compare the potential
I1= I3(2.49)
difference between various parts of
the circuit.
I2 =I4(2.50)

I1P =I2R(2.51)
Substituting the equation (2.49) and E X A M P L E 2.23
(2.50) in equation (2.48)
In a Wheatstone’s bridge P = 100 Ω, Q =
I1P + I1Q – I2S – I2R = 0 1000 Ω and R = 40 Ω. If the galvanometer
I1 (P + Q) = I2 (R +S) (2.52) shows zero deflection, determine the value
of S.
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Solution 2.5.4  Meter bridge


P R The meter bridge is another form of
=
Q S Wheatstone’s bridge. It consists of a uniform
Q manganin wire AB of one meter length.
S= ×R
P This wire is stretched along a meter scale
1000 on a wooden board between two copper
S= × 40 S = 400 Ω
100 strips C and D. Between these two copper
strips another copper strip E is mounted
E X A M P L E 2.24 to enclose two gaps G1 and G2 as shown in
Figure 2.26. An unknown resistance P is
What is the value of x when the Wheatstone’s
connected in G1 and a standard resistance
network is balanced?
Q is connected in G2. A jockey (conducting
P = 500 Ω, Q = 800 Ω, R = x + 400, wire) is connected to the terminal E on the
S = 1000 Ω central copper strip through a galvanometer
(G) and a high resistance (HR). The exact
position of jockey on the wire can be read
500Ω on the scale. A Lechlanche cell and a key (K)
800Ω
P Q are connected across the ends of the bridge
wire.
G

x
R P Q
S
1000Ω C E D
400Ω G1 G2

G HR

ξ
J
A B
l1 l2

Metre Scale
Solution
( )
P R
= ξ K
Q S

500 x + 400 Figure 2.26  Meter bridge
=
800 1000
x + 400 500
= The position of the jockey on the wire is
1000 800
adjusted so that the galvanometer shows zero
500
x + 400 = ×1000 deflection. Let the point be J. The lengths
800
5 AJ and JB of the bridge wire now replace
x + 400 = ×1000
8 the resistance R and S of the Wheatstone’s
x + 400 = 0.625 × 1000 bridge. Then
x + 400 = 625 P R R ′. AJ
x = 625 – 400 = = (2.54)
Q S R ′. JB
x = 225 Ω

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where R′ is the resistance per unit length P l1


=
of wire Q l2
P AJ l1
= = (2.55) P = Q l1
Q JB l2 l2
l
P = Q 1 (2.56) P = 15 3 = 22.5 Ω
l2 2
The bridge wire is soldered at the ends of
the copper strips. Due to imperfect contact,
E X A M P L E 2.26
some resistance might be introduced at the
contact. These are called end resistances. In a meter bridge, the value of resistance in
This error can be eliminated, if another the resistance box is 10 Ω. The balancing
set of readings are taken with P and Q length is l1 = 55 cm. Find the value of
interchanged and the average value of P is unknown resistance.
found.
Solution
To find the specific resistance of the
material of the wire in the coil P, the radius Q = 10 Ω
r and length l of the wire is measured. The P l1 l
= = 1
specific resistance or resistivity ρ can be Q 100 − l1 l2
calculated using the relation l1
P = Q×
l 100 − l1
Resistance = ρ
A 10×55
P=
By rearranging the above equation, we get 100 − 55
550
A P= = 12.2 Ω
ρ = Resistance × (2.57) 45
l

If P is the unknown resistance equation


(2.57) becomes, 2.5.5  Potentiometer
πr 2 Potentiometer is used for the accurate
ρ= P
l measurement of potential differences,
current and resistances. It consists of ten
E X A M P L E 2.25 meter long uniform wire of manganin or
constantan stretched in parallel rows each of
In a meter bridge with a standard resistance
1 meter length, on a wooden board. The two
of 15 Ω in the right gap, the ratio of
free ends A and B are brought to the same
balancing length is 3:2. Find the value of
side and fixed to copper strips with binding
the other resistance.
screws. A meter scale is fixed parallel to
Solution the wire. A jockey is provided for making
Q = 15 Ω, l1:l2 = 3:2 contact.
The principle of the potentiometer is
l1 3 illustrated in Figure 2.27. A steady current is
=
l2 2 maintained across the wire CD by a battery
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Bt. The battery, key and the potentiometer series. This is the primary circuit. The end
wire are connected in series forms the C of the wire is connected to the terminal
primary circuit. The positive terminal of M of a DPDT (Double Pole Double Throw)
a primary cell of emf ξ is connected to the switch and the other terminal N is connected
point C and negative terminal is connected to a jockey through a galvanometer G and
to the jockey through a galvanometer G a high resistance HR. The cells whose emf
and a high resistance HR. This forms the ξ1 and ξ2 to be compared are connected to
secondary circuit. the terminals M1,N1 and M2,N2 of the DPDT
switch. The positive terminals of Bt, ξ1 and
Bt K
( )
ξ2 should be connected to the same end C.

Rh
l
D Bt
C
J K
( )
G HR
ξ
J
Figure 2.27  Potentiometer C D

M1 ξ1 N1
Let contact be made at any point J
M N HR
on the wire by jockey. If the potential G
M2 N2
difference across CJ is equal to the emf of ξ2
the cell ξ then no current will flow through
the galvanometer and it will show zero
deflection. CJ is the balancing length l. The Figure 2.28  Comparison of emf of two
potential difference across CJ is equal to Irl cells
where I is the current flowing through the
wire and r is the resistance per unit length The DPDT switch is pressed towards M1,
of the wire. N1 so that cell ξ1 is included in the secondary
circuit and the balancing length l1 is found
Hence ξ = Irl(2.58)
by adjusting the jockey for zero deflection.
Then the second cell ξ2 is included in
Since I and r are constants, ξ ∝ l. The
the circuit and the balancing length l2 is
emf of the cell is directly proportional to the
determined. Let r be the resistance per unit
balancing length.
length of the potentiometer wire and I be
the current flowing through the wire.
2.5.6  Comparison of
emf of two cells with a we have ξ1 = Irl1(2.59)
potentiometer
ξ2 = Irl2 (2.60)
To compare the emf of two cells, the
circuit connections are made as shown By dividing equation (2.59) by (2.60)
in Figure 2.28. Potentiometer wire CD is ξ1 l1
= (2.61)
connected to a battery Bt and a key K in ξ2 l2

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By including a rheostat (Rh) in the A suitable resistance (say, 10 Ω) is


primary circuit, the experiment can be included in the resistance box and key K2 is
repeated several times by changing the closed. Let r be the internal resistance of the
current flowing through it. cell. The current passing through the cell
and the resistance R is given by
ξ
2.5.7  Measurement of I=
R +r
internal resistance of a cell by
potentiometer The potential difference across R is
ξR
To measure the internal resistance of V=
R +r
a cell, the circuit connections are made as When this potential difference is
shown in Figure 2.29. The end C of the balanced on the potentiometer wire, let l2 be
potentiometer wire is connected to the the balancing length.
positive terminal of the battery Bt and the
ξR
negative terminal of the battery is connected Then ∝ l2 (2.63)
R +r
to the end D through a key K1. This forms
the primary circuit. From equations (2.62) and (2.63)
R + r l1
Bt K1 = (2.64)
R l2
( )
r l1
1+ = ;
J D R l2
C
l 
r = R  1 −1
ξ l 
2 
 
∴ r = R  l1 − l2 (2.65)
G HR

 l 
( )

K2
2

R Substituting the values of the R, l1


and l2 , the internal resistance of the cell is
Figure 2.29  measurement of internal
resistance determined. The experiment can be repeated
for different values of R. It is found that the
The positive terminal of the cell ξ whose internal resistance of the cell is not constant
internal resistance is to be determined is but increases with increase of external
also connected to the end C of the wire. The resistance connected across its terminals.
negative terminal of the cell ξ is connected
2.6
to a jockey through a galvanometer and a
high resistance. A resistance box R and key HEATING EFFECT OF
K2 are connected across the cell ξ. With K2 ELECTRIC CURRENT
open, the balancing point J is obtained and
the balancing length CJ = l1 is measured. When current flows through a resistor,
Since the cell is in open circuit, its emf is some of the electrical energy delivered to
ξ ∝ l1(2.62) the resistor is converted into heat energy
and it is dissipated. This heating effect of
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current is known as Joule’s heating effect.


2.6.2  Application of Joule’s
Just as current produces thermal energy,
heating effect
thermal energy may also be suitably used
to produce an electromotive force. This is 1. Electric heaters
known as thermoelectric effect. Electric iron, electric heater, electric
toaster shown in Figure 2.30 are some of
2.6.1  Joule’s law the home appliances that utilize the heating
If a current I flows through a conductor effect of current. In these appliances, the
kept across a potential difference V for a heating elements are made of nichrome, an
time t, the work done or the electric potential alloy of nickel and chromium. Nichrome
energy spent is has a high specific resistance and can be
heated to very high temperatures without
W = VIt(2.66)
oxidation.
In the absence of any other external effect,
this energy is spent in heating the conductor.
The amount of heat(H) produced is
H = VIt(2.67)
For a resistance R,
H = I2Rt(2.68)
This relation was experimentally verified (a) (b) (c)

by Joule and is known as Joule’s law of


heating. It states that the heat developed
in an electrical circuit due to the flow of
current varies directly as
(i) the square of the current
(ii) the resistance of the circuit and
(iii) the time of flow. (a) (b) (c)

E X A M P L E 2.27 Figure 2.30  (a) Electric Iron box,


(b) electric heater (c) electric Toaster
Find the heat energy produced in a
resistance of 10 Ω when 5 A current flows
through it for 5 minutes.
E X A M P L E 2.28
Solution
An electric heater of resistance 10 Ω
R = 10 Ω, I = 5 A, t = 5 minutes = 5 × 60 s
connected to 220 V power supply is
H = I2 R t
immersed in the water of 1 kg. How long
= 52 × 10 × 5 × 60
the electrical heater has to be switched on
= 25 × 10 × 300
to increase its temperature from 30°C to
= 25 × 3000
60°C. (The specific heat of water is s = 4200
= 75000 J (or) 75 kJ
J kg-1)

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Solution Contacts Fuse wire

According to Joule’s heating law H = I2 Rt


The current passed through the electrical
220V
heater = = 22 A
10 Ω Fuse
carrier
The heat produced in one second by the Base
(b)
electrical heater H = I2 R
Contacts Fuse wire
(a)

The heat produced in one second H = (22)2


× 10 = 4840 J = 4.84 k J. In fact the power
rating of this electrical heater is 4.84 k W.
The amount of energy to increase the
temperature of 1kg water from 30°C to Fuse
60°C is Base carrier
Figure 2.31  Electric Fuse
(b)
(a)
Q = ms ∆T (Refer XI physics vol 2, unit 8)
Here m = 1 kg,
Whenever there is an excessive current
s = 4200 J kg-1,
produced due to faulty wire connection, the
∆T = 30,
circuit breaker switch opens. After repairing
so Q = 1 × 4200 x 30 = 126 kJ the faulty connection, we can close the
circuit breaker switch. It is shown in the
The time required to produce this heat
Q 126×103 Figure 2.32.
energy t = = ≈ 26.03 s
I 2R 4840

2. Electric fuses
Fuses as shown in Figure 2.31, are
connected in series in a circuit to protect the
electric devices from the heat developed by Figure 2.32  circuit breakers
the passage of excessive current. It is a short
length of a wire made of a low melting point
material. It melts and breaks the circuit if 3. Electric furnace
current exceeds a certain value. Lead and Furnaces as shown in Figure 2.33 are
copper wire melts and burns out when used to manufacture a large number of
the current increases above 5 A and 35 A technologically important materials such
respectively. as steel, silicon carbide, quartz, gallium
The only disadvantage with the above arsenide, etc). To produce temperatures up
fuses is that once fuse wire is burnt due to to 1500°C, molybdenum-nichrome wire
excessive current, they need to be replaced. wound on a silica tube is used. Carbon
Nowadays in houses, circuit breakers arc furnaces produce temperatures up to
(trippers) are also used instead of fuses. 3000 °C.
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2.7.1  Seebeck effect


Seebeck discovered that in a closed circuit
consisting of two dissimilar metals, when
the junctions are maintained at different
temperatures an emf (potential difference)
is developed. The current that flows due to
Figure 2.33  Electric furnace the emf developed is called thermoelectric
current. The two dissimilar metals
4. Electrical lamp connected to form two junctions is known
It consists of a tungsten filament (melting point as thermocouple (Figure 2.35).
3380 0C) kept inside a glass bulb and heated
G
to incandescence by current. In incandescent Cu

electric lamps only about 5% of electrical energy Fe


Metal A

is converted into light and the rest is wasted as


Ice - cubes Water HOT CO

Junction 1 Metal B Junc

heat. Electric discharge lamps, electric welding


and electric arc also utilize the heating effect of V

current as shown in Figure 2.34. G


(a) (b)
Tungsten filament Cu
Metal A
Fe
Ice - cubes Water HOT COLD

Junction 1 Metal B Junction 2

(a) (b)

Figure 2.35  Seebeck effect (Thermocouple)

If the hot and cold junctions are


interchanged, the direction of current also
Figure 2.34  Electric bulb, electric arc
and electric welding reverses. Hence the effect is reversible.
The magnitude of the emf developed in
a thermocouple depends on (i) the nature
2.7
of the metals forming the couple and (ii)
THERMOELECTRIC EFFECT the temperature difference between the
junctions.
Conversion of temperature differences
into electrical voltage and vice versa Applications of Seebeck effect
is known as thermoelectric effect. 1. Seebeck effect is used in
A thermoelectric device generates voltage thermoelectric generators (Seebeck
when there is a temperature difference on generators).These thermoelectric
each side. If a voltage is applied, it generates generators are used in power plants
a temperature difference. to convert waste heat into electricity.

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2. This effect is utilized in automobiles as gets heated and junction B gets cooled as
automotive thermoelectric generators shown in the Figure 2.36(b). Hence Peltier
for increasing fuel efficiency. effect is reversible.
3. Seebeck effect is used in
thermocouples and thermopiles to 2.7.3  Thomson effect
measure the temperature difference Thomson showed that if two points in a
between the two objects. conductor are at different temperatures,
the density of electrons at these points
2.7.2  Peltier effect will differ and as a result the potential
difference is created between these points.
In 1834, Peltier discovered that when
Thomson effect is also reversible.
an electric current is passed through a
circuit of a thermocouple, heat is evolved
at one junction and absorbed at the other

Potential

Potential
junction. This is known as Peltier effect. Heat Heat Heat Heat
absorbed evolved evolved absorbed

I A C B A C B
I
Cu
+ - Cu - A
+
M N B A M N B
Copper bar Iron bar

A B A B
Cooled Heated Cooled Heated
(a) Positive thomson effect (b) Negative thomson effect

Fe Figure
Fe 2.37  (a) Positive Thomson effect
(a) (b)
(b) Negative Thomson effect

Cu
+ - Cu - +
If current is passed through a copper bar
B AB which is heated at the middle point C,
B A
Heated Cooled Heated the point C will be at higher potential. This
indicates that the heat is absorbed along
Fe Fe
(a)
AC and evolved along CB of the conductor
(b)
as shown in Figure 2.37(a). Thus heat is
Figure 2.36  Peltier effect: Cu – Fe transferred due to the current flow in the
thermocouple direction of the current. It is called positive
Thomson effect. Similar effect is observed
In the Cu-Fe thermocouple the junctions in metals like silver, zinc, and cadmium.
A and B are maintained at the same When the copper bar is replaced by
temperature. Let a current from a battery an iron bar, heat is evolved along CA and
flow through the thermocouple (Figure 2.36 absorbed along BC. Thus heat is transferred
(a)). At the junction A, where the current due to the current flow in the direction
flows from Cu to Fe, heat is absorbed and the opposite to the direction of current. It is
junction A becomes cold. At the junction B, called negative Thomson effect as shown in
where the current flows from Fe to Cu heat the Figure 2.37(b). Similar effect is observed
is liberated and it becomes hot. When the in metals like platinum, nickel, cobalt, and
direction of current is reversed, junction A mercury.

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SUMMARY

dQ
„„ The current, I flowing in a conductor I = , where dQ is the charge that flows
dt
through a cross-section in a time interval dt. SI unit of current is ampere (A).
1A = 1 C s-1.
 
„„ The current density J in a conductor is the current flowing per unit area.  J = I 
„„ Current is a scalar but current density is a vector.
 A 
 
„„ The general form of Ohm’s law J = σE
„„ Practical form of Ohm’s law states that V ∝ I, or V = IR where I is the current.
V
„„ The resistance R of a conductor is R = . SI unit of resistance is ohm (Ω) and
I
1V
1Ω=
1A
l
„„ The resistance of a material R = ρ where l is length of the material and A is the area
A
of cross section.
„„ The resistivity of a material determines how much resistance it offers to the flow of
current.
„„ The equivalent resistance (RS) of several resistances (R1, R2, R3……..) connected in
series combination is RS = (R1+R2 +R3……..)
„„ The equivalent resistance (RP) of several resistances (R1, R2, R3……..) connected in
1 1 1 1
parallel combination is = + + + ......
RP R1 R2 R3
„„ Kirchoff ’s first rule (Current rule or junction rule): The algebraic sum of the currents
at any junction is zero.
„„ Kirchoff ’s second rule (Voltage rule or loop rule): In a closed circuit the algebraic
sum of the products of the current and resistance of each part of the circuit is equal
to the total emf included in the circuit.
„„ Electric power is the rate at which energy is transformed.
„„ If a current I flows across a potential difference V, the power delivered to the circuit
is P = IV.
V2
„„ In a resistor R, the electrical power converted to heat is P = I R =
2
R
„„ The energy equivalent of one kilowatt-hour (kWh) is 1kWh = 3.6 X 106 J.
„„ Metre bridge is one form of Wheatstone’s bridge.
„„ Potentiometer is used to compare potential differences.
„„ Joule’s law of heating is H = VIt (or) H = I2Rt.
„„ Thermoelectric effect: Conversion of temperature differences into electrical voltage
and vice versa.

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CONCEPT MAP

CURRENT
ELECTRICITY

Flow of Charges

Drift velocity Mobility Current density

Resistance
Ohm’s Law V-I Graph Resistivity

Series
Carbon resistor Combination
Parallel

Temperature coefficient of resistance

Current rule
Kirchoff rule Wheatstone’s bridge Applications

Voltage rule

Heating effects of electric eurrent

Joule’s law of heating Thermoelectric effects

Applications

Seebeck effect Peltier effect Thomson effect

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EVALUATION

I Multiple Choice Questions 4. A carbon resistor of (47 ± 4.7 ) k Ω to be


1. The following graph shows current marked with rings of different colours
versus voltage values of some unknown for its identification. The colour code
conductor. What is the resistance of sequence will be
this conductor? a) Yellow – Green – Violet – Gold
b) Yellow – Violet – Orange – Silver
V
c) Violet – Yellow – Orange – Silver
5
d) Green – Orange – Violet - Gold
4

3
5. What is the value of resistance of the
2
following resistor?
1

0 1 2 3 4 5
I

(a)2 ohm (b) 4 ohm


(c) 8 ohm (d)1 ohm (a)100 k Ω (b)10 k Ω
2. A wire of resistance 2 ohms per meter (c) 1k Ω (d)1000 k Ω
is bent to form a circle of radius 1m. 6. Two wires of A and B with circular cross
The equivalent resistance between its section made up of the same material
two diametrically opposite points, A with equal lengths. Suppose RA = 3 RB,
and B as shown in the figure is then what is the ratio of radius of wire
A to that of B?
(a) 3 (b) 3
1 1
A B
(c) (d)
3 3
7. A wire connected to a power supply
of 230 V has power dissipation P1.
Suppose the wire is cut into two equal
π
(a) π Ω (b) Ω pieces and connected parallel to the
2
same power supply. In this case power
π P
(c) 2πΩ (d) Ω dissipation is P2. The ratio 2 is
4 P1

3. A toaster operating at 240 V has a (a)1 (b) 2


resistance of 120 Ω. The power is (c) 3 (d) 4
a) 400 W b) 2 W
c) 480 W d) 240 W

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8. In India electricity is supplied for a) 1A b) 2A


domestic use at 220 V. It is supplied at c) 3A d) 4A
110 V in USA. If the resistance of a 60W 12. The temperature coefficient of
bulb for use in India is R, the resistance resistance of a wire is 0.00125 per °C.
of a 60W bulb for use in USA will be At 300 K, its resistance is 1 Ω. The
(a) R (b) 2R resistance of the wire will be 2 Ω at
a) 1154 K b) 1100 K
(c) R (d) R c) 1400 K d) 1127 K
4 2
9. In a large building, there are 15 bulbs 13. The internal resistance of a 2.1 V cell
of 40W, 5 bulbs of 100W, 5 fans of 80W which gives a current of 0.2 A through
and 1 heater of 1kW are connected. The a resistance of 10 Ω is
voltage of electric mains is 220V. The a) 0.2 Ω b) 0.5 Ω
minimum capacity of the main fuse of c) 0.8 Ω d) 1.0 Ω
the building will be (IIT-JEE 14. A piece of copper and another of
2014) germanium are cooled from room
(a) 14 A (b) 8 A temperature to 80 K. The resistance of
(c) 10 A (d) 12 A a) each of them increases
10. There is a current of 1.0 A in the circuit b) each of them decreases
shown below. What is the resistance of c) 
copper increases and germanium
P? decreases
d) 
copper decreases and germanium
3 increases
15. In Joule’s heating law, when I and t are
constant, if the H is taken along the y
9V 2.5 
axis and I2 along the x axis, the graph is
a) straight line b) parabola
P c) circle d) ellipse

Answers
a) 1.5 Ω b) 2.5 Ω
1) a 2) b 3) c 4) b 5) a
c) 3.5 Ω d) 4.5 Ω
6) c 7) d 8) c 9) d 10) c
11. What is the current out of the battery?
11) a 12) d 13) b 14) d 15) a

II Short Answer Questions


5V 15  15  15 
1. Why current is a scalar?
2. Distinguish between drift velocity and
mobility.
3. State microscopic form of Ohm’s law.

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4. State macroscopic form of Ohm’s law. 5. State and explain Kirchhoff ’s rules.
5. What are ohmic and non ohmic 6. Obtain the condition for bridge balance
devices? in Wheatstone’s bridge.
6. Define electrical resistivity. 7. Explain the determination of unknown
7. Define temperature coefficient of resistance using meter bridge.
resistance. 8. How the emf of two cells are compared
8. What is superconductivity? using potentiometer?
9. What is electric power and electric
energy? IV Numerical problems
10. Define current density. 1. The following graphs represent the
11. Derive the expression for power P=VI current versus voltage and voltage
in electrical circuit. versus current for the six conductors
12. Write down the various forms of A,B,C,D,E and F. Which conductor
expression for power in electrical has least resistance and which has
circuit. maximum resistance?
13. State Kirchhoff ’s current rule. V I

14. State Kirchhoff ’s voltage rule. 5


C
5
F
4 4
15. State the principle of potentiometer. 3
B
3
E

16. What do you mean by internal 2


A
2
D

resistance of a cell? 1 1

17. State Joule’s law of heating. 0 1 2


I
3 4 5 0 1 2
V
3 4 5

18. What is Seebeck effect?


19. What is Thomson effect? Ans: Least: RF = 0.4 Ω, maximum RC = 2.5 Ω
20. What is Peltier effect? 2. Lightning is very good example of
21. State the applications of Seebeck effect. natural current. In typical lightning,
there is 109 J energy transfer across the
III Long Answer Questions potential difference of 5 × 107 V during
a time interval of 0.2 s.
1. Describe the microscopic model of
current and obtain general form of
Ohm’s law
2. Obtain the macroscopic form of Ohm’s
law from its microscopic form and
discuss its limitation.
3. Explain the equivalent resistance of a
series and parallel resistor network
4. Explain the determination of the
internal resistance of a cell using
voltmeter.

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Using this information, estimate the A B C

following quantities (a) total amount of


charge transferred between cloud and
ground (b) the current in the lightning

+
 S
bolt (c) the power delivered in 0.2 s. -
 Ans: charge = 20 C, I = 100 A, P = 5 GW
3. A copper wire of 10-6 m2 area of cross Suddenly the switch S is closed. (a)
section, carries a current of 2 A. If the Calculate the current in the circuit when
number of electrons per cubic meter is S is open and closed (b) What happens
8 × 1028, calculate the current density to the intensities of the bulbs A,B and
and average drift velocity. C. (c) Calculate the voltage across the
 Ans: J = 2 × 106 Am−2 ; vd= 15.6 × 10−5 ms−1 three bulbs when S is open and closed
(d) Calculate the power delivered to the
4. The resistance of a nichrome wire at 0 circuit when S is opened and closed (e)
0
C is 10 Ω. If its temperature coefficient Does the power delivered to the circuit
of resistance is 0.004/0C, find its decreases, increases or remain same?
resistance at boiling point of water.
Ans:
Comment on the result.
Electrical Switch S is
Switch S is open
 Ans: RT= 14 Ω. quantities closed
As the temperature increases the resistance Current ξ ξ
of the wire also increases. 3R 2R
Voltage ξ ξ
5. The rod given in the figure is made up VA = , VA = ,
of two different materials. 3R 2R
ξ ξ
VB = , VB = ,
3R 2R
ξ VC = 0
25 cm 70 cm VC =
3R
Power ξ2 ξ2
Both have square cross sections of 3 PA = , PA = ,
9R 4R
mm side. The resistivity of the first ξ2 ξ2
PB = , PB = ,
material is 4 x 10-3 Ω.m and it is 25 9R 4R
cm long while second material has ξ2 PC = 0
PC =
resistivity of 5 x 10-3 Ω.m and is of 70 9R Total power
cm long. What is the resistivity of rod increases
Intensity All the bulbs The
between its ends?
glow with equal intensities of the
 Ans: 500 Ω intensity bulbs A and B
equally increase.
6. Three identical lamps each having Bulb C will
not glow since
a resistance R are connected to the no current pass
battery of emf as shown in the figure. through it.

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7. The current through an element is 11. A potentiometer wire has a length of 4


shown in the figure. Determine the m and resistance of 20 Ω. It is connected
total charge that pass through the in series with resistance of 2980 Ω and
element at a) t = 0 s, b) t = 2 s, c) t = 5s a cell of emf 4 V. Calculate the potential
along the wire.
I(A)
10  Ans: Potential = 0.65 × 10-2 V m-1.
12. Determine the current flowing through
5
the galvanometer (G) as shown in the
0 1 2 3 4 5 figure.
t (s)

I1 Q I -I
Ans: At t= 0s,dq = 0 C, At t=2 s, 1 g

dq = 10 C; At t=5 s, dq = 0 C 5 10 
Ig
8. An electronics hobbyist is building 2A P R 2A
a radio which requires 150 Ω in her G 10 
circuit, but she has only 220 Ω, 79 Ω I2 + Ig
and 92 Ω resistors available. How can 15  20 
I2
she connect the available resistors to S
get desired value of resistance?
Ans: Parallel combination of 220 Ω and 1
 Ans: Ig = A
79 Ω in series with 92 Ω 11
13. Two cells each of 5V are connected in
9. A cell supplies a current of 0.9 A
series across a 8 Ω resistor and three
through a 2 Ω resistor and a current of
parallel resistors of 4 Ω, 6 Ω and 12 Ω.
0.3 A through a 7 Ω resistor. Calculate
Draw a circuit diagram for the above
the internal resistance of the cell.
arrangement. Calculate i) the current
 Ans: 0.5 Ω
drawn from the cell (ii) current through
10. Calculate the currents in the following each resistor
circuit. 2
Ans: The current at 4 Ω , I = = 0.5 A,
4
I2 2
I1 the current at 6 Ω, I = = 0.33 A ,
6
+ –
9V
2
the current at 12 Ω, I = = 0.17 A
+ I3
12
15V
100Ω R3 100Ω

14. Four light bulbs P, Q, R, S are connected
100Ω in a circuit of unknown arrangement.
When each bulb is removed one at
I1 I2
a time and replaced, the following
behavior is observed.
Ans : I1 = 0.070 A, I2 = -0.010 A and
I3 = 0.080 A

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15. In a potentiometer arrangement, a cell


P Q R S
of emf 1.25 V gives a balance point
P removed * on on on at 35 cm length of the wire. If the cell
Q removed on * on off is replaced by another cell and the
balance point shifts to 63 cm, what is
R removed off off * off the emf of the second cell?
 Ans: emf of the second cell is 2.25 V
S removed on off on *

Draw the circuit diagram for these bulbs.


Ans:
R

Q
+

 –
P
S

BOOKS FOR REFERENCE:

1. Douglas C.Giancoli, , “Physics for Scientist &Engineers with Modern Physics”, Pearson
Prentice Hall, Fourth edition
2. James Walker, Physics, Pearson- Addison Wesley publishers, Fourth edition
3. Tipler, Mosca, “Physics for scientist and Engineers with Modern Physics”, Freeman and
Company, sixth edition
4. Purcell, Morin, Electricity and magnetism, Cambridge university press, third edition
5. Serway and Jewett, “Physics for Scientist and Engineers with Modern Physics”, Brook/Coole
publishers, eighth edition
6. Tarasov and Tarasova, “Questions and problems in School Physics”, Mir Publishers
7. H.C.Verma, “Concepts of Physics Vol 2, Bharthi Bhawan publishers
8. Eric Roger, Physics for the Inquiring Mind, Princeton University press

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ICT CORNER
Electric current

In this activity you will be able to


(a) measure the potential difference of cells Topic: Potentiometer
(b) measure the internal resistance of a
given primary cell

STEPS:
• Open the browser and type “olabs.edu.in” in the address bar. Click physics tab and then click
“Potentiometer-Internal Resistance of a Cell” in class 12 section. Go to “simulator” tab to do
the experiment.
• Construct the electric circuit as per the connection diagram by clicking “show circuit diagram”
tab. You can connect wires between electric component by dragging the mouse between the
component.
• To check whether the connections are correct or not, drag the jockey and place it at the two end
points of the wire. If the galvanometer shows opposite deflections, the connections are correct.
(keep both keys on)

Step1 Step2

Step3 Step4

Find the balancing length. Calculate the internal resistance for the observed balancing lengths. Repeat the
experiment for five times and take the average.

Note:
1. One time sign up is needed to do simulation. Then login using that username and password.
2. Read theory, procedure and animation to get the theory by clicking the corresponding tab.
URL:
http://amrita.olabs.edu.in/?sub=1&brch=6&sim=147&cnt=4
* Pictures are indicative only.
* If browser requires, allow Flash Player or Java Script to load the page.

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UNIT MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC

3
EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT

“The magnetic force is animate, or imitates a soul; in many respects it surpasses


the human soul while it is united to an organic body” – William Gilbert

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

In this unit, the student is exposed to

• Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements


• Basic property of magnets
• Statement of Coulomb inverse square law of magnetism
• Magnetic dipole
• Magnetic induction at a point due to axial line and equatorial line
• Torque acting on a bar magnet in a uniform magnetic field
• Potential energy of a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field
• Tangent law and tangent Galvanometer
• Magnetic properties – permeability, susceptibility etc
• Classification of magnetic materials – dia, para and ferro magnetic materials
• Concept of Hysteresis
• Magnetic effects of electric current – long straight conductor and circular coil
• Right hand thumb rule and Maxwell’s right hand cork screw rule
• Biot-Savart’s law – applications
• Current loop as a magnetic dipole
• Magnetic dipole moment of revolving electron
• Ampère’s circuital law – applications
• Solenoid and toroid
• Lorentz force – charged particle moving in an electromagnetic field
• Cyclotron
• Force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field
• Force between two long parallel current carrying conductor
• Torque on a current loop in a magnetic field
• Moving coil Galvanometer

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3.1 Magnetism is everywhere from tiny


particles like electrons to the entire universe.
INTRODUCTION TO
Historically the word ‘magnetism’ was
MAGNETISM
derived from iron ore magnetite (Fe3 O4). In
olden days, magnets were used as magnetic
compass for navigation, magnetic therapy
for treatment and also used in magic shows.
In modern days, most of the things we use
in our daily life contain magnets (Figure 3.2).
Motors, cycle dynamo, loudspeakers,
magnetic tapes used in audio and video
recording, mobile phones, head phones, CD,
pen-drive, hard disc of laptop, refrigerator
door, generator are a few examples.
Earlier, both electricity and magnetism
Figure 3.1:  Magnetic levitation were thought to be two independent
branches in physics. In 1820, H.C. Oersted
Magnets! no doubt, its behaviour will attract observed the deflection of magnetic compass
everyone (see Figure 3.1). The world enjoys needle kept near a current carrying wire.
its benefits, to lead a modern luxurious life. This unified the two different branches,
The study of magnets fascinated scientists electricity and magnetism as a single subject
around our globe for many centuries and ‘electromagnetism’ in physics.
even now, door for research on magnets is In this unit, basics of magnets and
still open. their properties are given. Later, how a
current carrying conductor (here only
Many birds and animals have magnetic steady current, not time-varying current
sense in their eyes using Earth’s magnetic is considered) behaves like a magnet is
field for navigation. presented.

(a)   (b) 

(c)   (d) 
Magnetic sensing in eyes - for
Figure 3.2  Uses of magnets in modern
Zebrafinches bird, due to protein
world – (a) speakers (b) head phones
cryptochromes Cry4 present in retina, it (c) MRI scan (d) Hard disc of laptop
uses Earth magnetic field for navigation

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3.1.1  Earth’s magnetic field geographic north pole (Figure 3.3). Similarly,
and magnetic elements the south pole of magnetic compass needle is
attracted towards the geographic north pole
Geographic
Magnetic
North
of the Earth which is near magnetic north-
pole. The branch of physics which deals
North Pole
Pole

with the Earth’s magnetic field is called


Geomagnetism or Terrestrial magnetism.
There are three quantities required to
specify the magnetic field of the Earth on its
surface, which are often called as the elements
Magnetic Geographic
of the Earth’s magnetic field. They are
(a) magnetic declination (D)
South South Pole
Pole

(b) magnetic dip or inclination (I)


Figure 3.3  Earth’s magnetic field
(c) 
the horizontal component of the
Earth’s magnetic field (BH)
From the activities performed in lower
classes, we have noticed that the needle in Magnetic
north pole
“True” North Pole - the
Earth rotates around
a magnetic compass or freely suspended this axis
Earth
magnet comes to rest in a position which Magnetic
field lines
is approximately along the geographical N

north-south direction of the Earth. William Axis around which


the Earth rotates
Gilbert in 1600 proposed that Earth itself S
once a day

behaves like a gigantic powerful bar magnet.


(a) Magnetic south pole
But this theory is not successful because the
“True” South Pole
temperature inside the Earth is very high
and so it will not be possible for a magnet to Geographic
maridian D = Angle of declination

retain its magnetism.


D
Gover suggested that the Earth’s
magnetic field is due to hot rays coming out
from the Sun. These rays will heat up the air
near equatorial region. Once air becomes
hotter, it rises above and will move towards
northern and southern hemispheres and (b) Magnetic
meridian
get electrified. This may be responsible
Geographical
to magnetize the ferromagnetic materials Magnetic meridian
Equator
near the Earth’s surface. Till date, so many Geographical
Equator
Angle of
theories have been proposed. But none of declination

the theory completely explains the cause for


the Earth’s magnetism. Geographical
meridian Magnetic
meridian Magnetic
The north pole of magnetic compass (c) meridian

needle is attracted towards the magnetic


south pole of the Earth which is near the Figure 3.4  Declination angle

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Day and night occur because Earth spins whereas near the equator, the declination is
about an axis called geographic axis. A vertical smaller. In India, declination angle is very
plane passing through the geographic axis is small and for Chennai, magnetic declination
called geographic meridian and a great circle angle is -1o 8’ (which is negative (west)).
perpendicular to Earth’s geographic axis is The angle subtended by the Earth’s

called geographic equator. total magnetic field B with the horizontal
The straight line which connects magnetic direction in the magnetic meridian is
poles of Earth is known as magnetic axis. called dip or magnetic inclination (I)
A vertical plane passing through magnetic at that point (Figure 3.5). For Chennai,
axis is called magnetic meridian and a great inclination angle is 14o 16’. The component
circle perpendicular to Earth’s magnetic axis of Earth’s magnetic field along the
is called magnetic equator. horizontal direction in the magnetic
When a magnetic needle is freely meridian is called horizontal component
suspended, the alignment of the magnet of Earth’s magnetic field, denoted by BH.
does not exactly lie along the geographic Let BE be the net Earth’s magnetic field
meridian as shown in Figure 3.4. The angle at a point P on the surface of the Earth.
between magnetic meridian at a point BE can be resolved into two perpendicular
and geographical meridian is called the components.
declination or magnetic declination (D). At
higher latitudes, the declination is greater Horizontal component  BH = BE cos I (3.1)

Vertical component  BV = BE sin I (3.2)


Dividing equation (3.2) and (3.1), we get
Lines of magnetic force
BV
Magnetic tan I = (3.3)
pole North BH
geographic
Dip needle pole
(i) At magnetic equator
The Earth’s magnetic field is parallel to
Equator Magnetic
inclination the surface of the Earth (i.e., horizontal)
Magnetic
equator Horizontal which implies that the needle of magnetic
compass rests horizontally at an angle of
dip, I = 0o as shown in figure 3.6.
True
Magnetic
BH = BE
BV = 0
North
D North

This implies that the horizontal


component is maximum at equator and
Horizontal
vertical component is zero at equator.
I
(ii) At magnetic poles
The Earth’s magnetic field is
Declination Inclination
perpendicular to the surface of the Earth
Figure 3.5  Inclination angle (i.e., vertical) which implies that the needle

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0.26
tan I = ⇒ I = tan−1 (1.732) = 60
0.15
The resultant magnetic field of the Earth is

B = BH2 + BV2 = 0.3 G

Figure 3.6:  Needle of magnetic compass


rests horizontally at an angle of dip – at 3.1.2  Basic properties of
magnetic equator magnets
Some basic terminologies and properties
used in describing bar magnet.

(a) Magnetic dipole moment

S O N

qm qm
l l
Figure 3.7:  Needle of magnetic compass
2l
rests vertically at an angle of dip – at
magnetic poles
Figure 3.8  A bar magnet
of magnetic compass rests vertically at an
angle of dip, I = 90o as shown in Figure 3.7. Consider a bar magnet as shown in Figure
Hence, 3.8. Let qm be the pole strength (it is also
BH = 0 called as magnetic charge) of the magnetic
BV = BE pole and let l be the distance between the
This implies that the vertical component geometrical center of bar magnet O and
is maximum at poles and horizontal one end of the pole. The magnetic dipole
component is zero at poles. moment is defined as the product of its
pole strength and magnetic length. It is a
E X A M P L E 3.1 
vector quantity, denoted by pm .
The horizontal component and vertical
components of Earth’s magnetic field at a  
pm = qmd (3.4)
place are 0.15 G and 0.26 G respectively.
Calculate the angle of dip and resultant 
magnetic field. where d is the vector drawn from south

pole to north pole and its magnitude d = 2l .
Solution:
The magnitude of magnetic dipole
BH = 0.15 G and BV = 0.26 G moment is pm = 2 qm l

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Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis


People living at high latitude regions (near Arctic or Antarctic) might
experience dazzling coloured natural lights across the night sky. This
ethereal display on the sky is known as aurora borealis (northern lights) or

aurora australis (southern lights). These lights are often called as polar lights. The lights
are seen above the magnetic poles of the northern and southern hemispheres. They are
called as “Aurora borealis” in the north and “Aurora australis” in the south. This occurs as
a result of interaction between the gaseous particles in the Earth’s atmosphere with highly
charged particles released from the Sun’s atmosphere through solar wind. These particles
emit light due to collision and variations in colour are due to the type of the gas particles
that take part in the collisions. A pale yellowish – green colour is produced when the
ionized oxygen takes part in the collision and a blue or purplish – red aurora is produced
due to ionized nitrogen molecules.


The SI unit of magnetic moment is A m2. magnet in that region. The magnetic field B
Note that the direction of magnetic moment at a point is defined as a force experienced
is from South pole to North pole. by the bar magnet of unit pole strength.
(b) Magnetic field
 1 
Magnetic field is the region or space B= F (3.5)
qm
around every magnet within which its
influence can be felt by keeping another Its unit is N A-1 m-1.

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