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1.

Introduction
The Neco Group , The largest foundry group in India, established since 1976.At
present the group mainly deals with the Engineering casting, Automobile and
stationary castings, Valves ceramics and Infrastructure projects. Also manufactures
castings for different industries as Railways, Automobiles, Constructions, Petroleum
& chemical industries. The main purpose of the company is to provide the growing
demands of the clients and customers for the quality Gray Iron Castings for the
diverse needs of integrated steel plants, Mini steel plants, Engineering industries and
the sugar industry.

The group includes following companies.

 Jayaswals Neco Ltd. (JNL).

 Neco Castings Ltd. (NCL).

 Neco InfoTech.

 NSSL Limited.

 AMR Associates.

 Neco Ceramic Ltd.

Neco Group Of Companies, the largest Indian Group of Iron and steel Foundry with a
capacity of 100,000 tones and turn over of US $ 150 Million, both per annum,
covering a wide range of finished castings for Automobile, Engineering and
construction industries in addition to Cast/Ductile Iron pipes and pipe Fittings; has
also diversified into Industrial valves, Infrastructure projects (Roads & Bridges),
Valve castings, Food products, Ceramics, Ferro alloys, Pig iron and steel.

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Neco Castings Ltd.

A division of NECO group of industries, Nagpur (India) it is today a largest foundry


group in the country with the nine foundries having a combined capacity of 1,30,000
MT. castings per annum NCL has started manufacturing Gray Cast Iron for recovery
type as well as non recovery type coke ovens.

NCL as being a leading Indian supplier of the different types of castings and with the
distinguished track record, NCL has the experience and a resource to effectively
service clients operating in today’s demanding Indian and the international market.
The company spends more than 15 years in Large Castings in Gray and Ductile Iron.

NCL was incorporated as a Private Ltd Company in 1987 for manufacturing Grey
Iron Castings such as Ingot Moulds, Bottom Plates, Slag Pots required in Mini Steel
Plants as well as Graded Cast Iron Castings for Engineering Industries. The foundry
processed castings are used for machine building for static equipments in finished,
semi finished or in cast condition depending upon the final use. The Company was
later converted into a Public Limited Company.

The Company expanded its activities to manufacture heavy/medium castings like


counter weight castings for earth moving equipments, elevators, lifts etc., pump body
castings for pumps & butterfly manufacturing units, roller shell castings for sugar
cane crushing plant, paper dry cylinder castings for paper manufacturing plant, coke
oven doors, hard cooling plates, floor plates & pig moulds.

Jayaswals Neco Limited (Formerly Nagpur Engineering Company


Limited)

The flagship Company of NECO Group

The Company was incorporated on 28th November, 1972 as a Private Limited


Company and became public in 1985. The first manufacturing unit was commissioned
in 1976 in Nagpur for the manufacture of Railway Track materials viz. Sleepers,
Brake Blocks, Bearing Plates and other Castings for Indian Railways as well as C.I.
Pipes, Fittings, Manhole Covers for Construction Industry. The second & third
manufacturing facilities for the same product range were established in 1987 & 1991
at Bhilai & Anjora in Madhya Pradesh respectively.

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The principal customers of the Company are the Indian Railways, various
municipalities & the construction industry. The current manufacturing capacity of the
Company is around 1, 08, 000 tones per annum.

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1.1. NECO GROUP OF COMPANIES PRODUCTS

1.1.1 AUTOMOTIVE CAST COMPONENTS & CYLINDER


HEADS

Fig 1.1.1 Automotive cast components Fig 1.1.2 Brake drums


HCV

For Cars, Trucks, Agricultural (Tractors and Harvesters) and Off-Highway Vehicles
(Mining and Excavating machines)

• Braking, Suspension and Steering System Components


• Transmission and differential Housings
• Engine System Components
• Components manufactured in Grey Cast Iron and Ductile Iron, as the case may
be, in the latest state-of-the-art Foundry facilities on high pressure Moldings
lines and machined on CNC Machines only

1.1.1.1 Breaking, Suspension & Steering System Components

1.1.1.2 Transmission and Differential Housings


Brake Drums Cars, Light & Heavy Trucks Grey Iron
Brake Discs (Normal
Product Type of Engine/
Cars, Commercial Vehicle
Vehicles Grey Iron Power Material
& Ventilated )
Gear Boxes Petrol & Diesel Engines (Passenger / 150 HP Grey Iron
Brake Housings Tractors & Farm Equipments Grey Iron
Comm. vehicles)
Brackets, Shackles &
Clutch Housings Petrol
All On&&Diesel
Off Road
Engines
Vehicles
(Passenger
Grey
/ Iron/Ductile
150 HP IronGrey Iron
Retainers
Comm. Vehicles)
Steering Knuckles Cars, Jeeps and Trucks Ductile Iron
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Transmission Cases Diesel Engine Tractors 75 HP Grey Iron
Differential Housings Diesel Engine Tractors 75 HP Grey Iron
Rear Axle Housing Commercial Vehicles 200 HP Ductile Iron
Center Lift Housing Diesel Engine Tractors 75 HP Grey Iron
Hydraulic Lift Housings Farm Tractors 75 HP Grey Iron

-Table 1. 2.1.2.1

Fig 1.1.1.2.1 Axle Housings Fig 1.1.1.2.2 Gear Boxes for Commercial
Vehicles

1.1.1.3 Engine System Components

For Passenger cars, Commercial vehicles, Farm Tractors, off road vehicles and
stationary engines

Components Engine Fuel Power Material Remarks


Alloy as
Wet sleeved & non sleeved Petrol 150 HP
Cylinder Blocks Grey Iron Customers per
engines & Diesel max.
Specifications

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Diesel 150 HP Grey Iron Alloy as Customer
Pre-combustion
per Specifications

Direct Injection

Cylinder Heads
Direct injection with heater
plugs

Alloy as Customer
Petrol Cylinder Heads
Petrol per Specifications
Alloys as per
Water Circulation Inlet
Petrol & Diesel NA NA Grey Iron Customer
manifolds
Specifications
Grey Iron
Exhaust Manifold Petrol & Diesel NA NA -
Ductile

-Table 1.1.1.3.1

Fig 1.1.1.3.1 Cylinder block for diesel engine Fig 1.1.1.3.2 petrol cylinder heads

1.1.1.4 Cylinder Heads (Cast Iron)

Sr. No. Item


PERKINS
01 P-3 Cylinder Head
02 P/6-354 Cylinder Head
03 P-6 Cylinder Head
04 P-3 Cylinder Head
05 S-3 Cylinder Head
06 S-4 Cylinder Head
07 P-4 Cylinder Head
ISUZU
08 Cylinder Head ( Diesel ) 3 Cylinder

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09 Cylinder Head ( Petrol ) 3 Cylinder
10 Cylinder Head ( Isuzu )
SWARAJ ENGINES
11 Cylinder Head RB-32
12 Cylinder Head ( IMA )
HMT ( ZETOR )
14 Cylinder Head ( Normal )
M&M ( International Harvester )
13 AVL-3 Cyl. Head
15 AVL-4 Cyl. Head
16 AVL-3 Cyl. Head
17 Cyl. Head ( Diesel )
FORD
18 Cylinder Head 2.9 Ford
19 Cylinder Head 4.0 Ford
20 Cylinder Head 4.9 Ford
21 Cylinder Head 7.3 Diesel
22 Cylinder Head 1.8 Ford
MERCEDES BENZ
23 Cylinder Head OM-352
24 Cylinder Head OM-366
MANN
25 Cylinder Head
NAVISTAR
26 Navistar
CATERPILLAR
27 7C3906 ( 155-8006 )
28 110-5100 ( 110-509 )
29 105-3797 ( 143-0046 )

-Table 1.1.1.4.1

They also develop, reverse engineer and manufacture Cylinder Heads based on the
sample provided to us. Contact us and let us know your requirement and we shall
come up with a solution.
Cylinder Heads are manufactured in the latest Foundry facilities and machined on
CNC Machines and tested for vacuum and pressure. The high quality heads are fitted
with Valves Seats, Guides and Welch Plugs as applicable. Contact us for a proposal
with your specific requirements.

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1.1.2 CONSTRUCTION CASTINGS

-Fig 1.1.2.1 -Fig 1.1.2.2

 Cast Iron Valve Meter Boxes


 Pipe Fittings
 Manhole Covers & Frames - Ductile Iron
 Cast Iron Spun Pipes - Drainage
 Cast Iron Fittings , Ductile Iron Fittings -Fig 1.1.2.3

Construction Castings

Manhole Covers & Frames in ductile & grey iron

MANHOLE covers are manufactured as per BSEN IS: 497, IS: 1726 specifications
and also as per the drawings / specifications supplied by our customers ranging from
some of the types of manhole covers manufactured are As follows:

1. Square type single seal manhole covers

2. Square type double seal manhole covers

3. Rectangular type single seal manhole covers

4. Rectangular type double seal manhole covers

5. Recess type manhole covers

6. Circular type manhole covers with frames

7. Circular type manhole covers with square frames

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8. Single triangular type manhole covers

9. Double triangular type manhole covers

10. Gully gratings with frames

11. Gratings

12. Double triangular gully gratings

MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS:

The metal used for manufactured the above products are of different grades as per BS:
1452, ISO: 185, JIS: 5501, ASTM: A48, DIN: 1691, IS: 210 depending upon
customer requirements.

Ductile iron manhole covers and fittings are also manufactured in different grades as
per DIN: 1963, BS: 2789, ASTM: A 536, ISO: 1083, IS: 1865 etc. Depending upon
customer requirements

• Cast Iron Spun Drainage Pipes

• Jayaswals NECO Limited is leading in innovative designs of new drainage


systems and has redefined drainage systems under and above the ground.

• SMP is the product of an intensive and detailed research and development


programme. SMP combines all the advantages of performance and strength inherent
in iron with the benefits of simplicity, speed of installation and economy.

• In a single system SMP offers an unrivalled, a choice of security, light weight


and ease of installation through a comprehensive but much simplified range of
modular interconnecting components to meet every need. The cost benefits made
possible by designers, stockiest and installers throughout the world.

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• Specifications of pipes as per different standards.

BARREL SOCKET DEPTH OF I.D. OF


SIZE SPEC LEN. THICKNESS WT. PRESSURE TEST
O.D. I.D SOCKET BARREL
IS: 3989 2980 - 12 - 0.7KG/SQ.CM FOR
54 -60 3.0 -3.5 70 -78 50 -70 50
-1988 3020 13.4 15 SEC.
ISO:
2980 -
6594 - 57 -60 3.0 -3.5 11 - 13 - - - --
3020
83 (E)
2"
CISPI 3035 -
58 -62 3.3 -4.0 15 - 19 - - 49.3 - 52.3 30 PSI FOR 15 SEC.
301 - 90 3060
DIN
2980 - 11.45 -
19522 - 57 -60 3.0 -3.5 - - 50 MIN. --
3020 13
83
IS: 3989 2980 - 18.0 - 0.7KG/SQ.CM FOR
80 -86 3.0 -3.5 96 -102 55 -75 75
- 1988 3020 20.0 15 SEC.
ISO:
2980 - 16.0 -
6594 - 82 -85 3.0 -3.5 - - - --
3020 19.0
83(E)
3"
CISPI 3035 - 20.0 - 30 PSI 2.1 KG FOR
82.8 -87.4 3.3 -4.0 - - 74.7 - 77.7
301 - 90 3060 24.0 15 SEC.
DIN
2980 - 15.58 -
19522 - 77 -80 3.0 -3.5 - - 75 MIN --
3020 17.70
83
IS: 3989 105.15 2980 - 0.7KG/SQ.CM FOR
3.4 - 4.0 27 - 30 123 -129 80 -80 100
-1988 -112.5 3020 15 SEC.
ISO:
2980 - 21.4 -
6594 - 108 - 112 3.0 -3.5 - - - --
3020 25.2
83(E)
4"
CISPI 3035 - 27.0 - 30 PSI 2.1KG FOR
110 - 113.5 3.8 -4.8 - - 100 - 103
301 - 98 3060 32.0 15 SEC.
DIN
2980 - 22.16 -
19522 - 109 - 112 3.0 -3.5 - - 100 MIN. --
3020 25.2
83

IS: 3989
- - - - - - - --
- 1988

ISO:
2980 - 30.0 -
5" 6594 - 133 - 137 3.5 - 4.0 - - - --
3020 35.4
83(E)
CISPI 133 .4 - 3035 - 36.0 - 30 PSI 2.1 KG FOR
3.8 - 4.8 - - 123 - 128
301 - 90 136.9 3060 42.0 15 SEC.
DIN
2980 - 31.16 -
19522 - 133 - 137 3.5 - 4.0 - - 125 MIN. --
3020 35.4
83

IS: 3989 2980 0.7KG/SQ.CM FOR


157 -165 3.4 -4.0 51 -56 176 -182 65 -85 150
- 1988 -3020 15 SEC.

ISO:
2980 - 36.0 -
6" 6594 - 158 - 162 3.5 - 4.0 - - - --
3020 42.0
83(E)
CISPI 3035 - 44.0 - 148.59 - 30 PSI 2.1KG FOR
159 - 162 3.8 - 4.8 - -
301 - 90 3060 52.0 153.16 15 SEC.
DIN
2980 - 37.14 -
19522 - 158 - 162 3.5 - 4.0 - - 150 MIN. --
3020 42.2
83

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1.1.3 ENGINEERING CAST COMPONENTS

Name of Product Product for end use

Automotive Parts Cast as well as in machined condition for Automobile industry.

Graded C.I. & D.I. castings for bell mouths, diffusers, split time
Pump casings pumps, castings for single & double vanes, spiral casings, suction
delivery and delivery casings.
C.I. pulleys V-Belts pulleys.
C.I. drum End drum for belt-conveyers
C.I. rollers Rollers for asbestos rolling for plain sheets.
Gear box housing C.I. graded castings for textile machines & printing machines.
C.I. & D.I. graded frame castings for textile machines & printing
Side frames
machines.
Coal & Sand stowing
Use in under ground coal mines for sand filling.
pipes
Horizontal C.I. double flanged pipes & fittings to is 7181 & 1538
Double flanged
for water gas & sewage pipe lines.
Open coarse grains C.I. rollers for cane crushing in sugar mills two
Sugar roller
types, lotus & conventional grooved roller assembly.

Flanges & couplings Flanges of various sizes for pipe fittings & coupling for shafts.

Valve bodies Valve bodies of C.I. & DI.

Ingot moulds C.I. moulds for ingots for steel rolling mills & forgings quality.

Bottom plate/Trumpet C.I. stools for manufacturing steel ingots.


Slag pots C.I. pot for disposal of electric furnace melting slag.
Counter weights C.I. dead weights to be used in port.
C.I. bollard Dead weights to be used in ports.

Neco manufactures a wide spectrum of Cast Iron and Ductile Iron Engg components
in a completely machined condition. The components are cast in the latest State-of-
the-art foundries and machined on the latest CNC Machines.

1.1.4 EDIBLE OIL

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The Food Products Division produces refined Soya bean Oil, Mustard Oil and De-
oiled Cake.

Salient Features:

 A fully integrated edible oil complex in Central India with a crushing capacity
of 500 tones per day.
 A continuous refining capacity of 125 tones per day with state of the art
facilities.
 A registered export house with a turnover of Rs. 300 million for the year
1996-97.
 Export of high protein Soya bean to Japan, China and South East Asian
countries.
 Refined Soya bean Oil are made available in Bulk packs (15kg tins and jars)
and Consumer packs (5 ltr. and 2 ltr. jars and 1 ltr. pouch)

1.1.5 REFRACTORIES & CERAMICS

The Ceramics and Refractory’s Division of NECO GROUP specialize in Refractory


Materials.

Products include:

• Acid Resistant and Refractory Bricks for Arc Furnace and Blast Furnace.
• Ramming Masses for Induction and Arc Furnaces.
• Refractory for Cement and Thermal Power Plants.

1.1.6 FERRO ALLOYS

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All Ferro - Alloys produced shall normally confirm to the relevant BIS specifications.
Unless other wise specified. The general range of production is given below in

-Table 1.1.6.1

H.C. FERRO – MANGANESE


Mn% C% Si% S% P%
Max Max Max
74-78 6-8 1.5 0.05 0.04
72-74 6-8 1.5 0.05 0.04
70-74 6-8 1.5 0.05 0.04
65-70 6-8 1.5 0.05 0.04
65-70 6-8 1.5 0.05 0.05

MED-CARBON FERRO MANGNESE


78-82 1-3 1.5 0.03 0.35
74-78 1-3 1.5 0.05 0.35

LOW CARBON SILICO MANGANESE


Mn% C% Si% S% P%
50-55 1.0 24-28 0.03 0.03

HIGH CARBON FERRO-CHROME


Cr% Si% C% S% P%
60-70 2-4 6-8 0.05 0.05

1. 1.7 INDUSTRIAL & BRASS VALVES

We are one of the leading manufacturers of industrial valves with a state of the art
manufacturing plant and a dedicated R & D. The unit now manufacturer & supply
valves as largest 36" of GATE, GLOBE SWING CHECK, in carbon steel, stainless
steel & alloy steels. Designing & development of the valve is done in this ISO 9001
accredited Division.
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 GATE VALVE

Design API 600, ANSI B16.34, B16.5, B16.10


Full bore design with Flexible Wedge.
In Carbon steel, stainless steel and alloy steels.

 GLOBE VALVE

Design BS 1873, ANSI B16, 34B16.5, B16.10


full bore on off or regulating services.
In carbon steel, stainless steel and alloy steels

 SWING CHECK VALVE

Design BS 1868, ANSI B16.34, B16.5, B16.10


Full bore, low off, Pressure
In Carbon steel, stainless steel and allay steels.
With improved design & process of manufacturer this unit also manufacturer and
supply CRYO VALVES for sub-zero application up to -196OC

 CYRO VALVE

Design as per International standards


Type tested as per BS-6364

They now manufacture pneumatically operated control valves of the highest quality to
cater to the requirements of all process industries. The unit today manufactures two
types of control valves.
1) Single Seated Top Guided (Model: TSU)

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2) Double Seated Cage Guided (Model: CDB)

 CONTROL VALVE - Fig 1.1.7.3

Design ANSI B-16.34, B16.5, ISA-S75.03, S75.11

 BALL VALVE

High quality ball valves of floating ball type Size: 3" to 12"

Brass Valves & Components

[ISO 9002 ACCREDITED DIVISION]


Brass valves for water, gas & other fluids. - Fig 1.1.7.4

Brass machined components for Valves, fittings & plumbing.


Brass machined components for refrigeration & automobiles.
Brass forgings & machined forgings.
Backed up with state of the art imported machining facilities like multi
spindle automats, 8 station GROB, Forging press with synchronized
robots, polishing & cleaning machines and automatic bar cutting
machine. - Fig 1.1.7.5

1.1.8 PIG IRON

Competitive Edge / Advantage

1. Better Yield

2. Better Machines

3. Slag Free

Manufactures of:

• S.G./Ductile Iron Castings

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• Malleable Iron Castings
• Castings for Automobile Sector
• Pumps & Monoblock
• Pipes & Pipe Fittings
• Looms & Textile Machinery Parts
• Sugar Mills Machinery Parts
• Castings for Metallurgical Industry - Fig 1.1.8.1

Chemical Composition of Pig Iron

Grade Carbon % Silicon % Manganese % Phos % Sulphur %


NECO I 3.8 - 4.2 2.5 - 3.00 0.5 - 0.8 0.8 max. 0.05 max
NECO II 3.8 - 4.2 2.0 - 2.49 0.5 - 0.8 0.8 max. 0.05 max
NECO III 3.8 - 4.2 1.5 - 1.99 0.5 - 0.8 0.8 max. 0.05 max
NECO III SG 3.6 - 4.2 1.5 - 1.75 0.3 max 0.08 max. 0.05 max
NECO SPL 3.5 - 3.8 1.5 - 1.75 0.2 max 0.08 max. 0.03 max
NECO IV 3.6 - 4.2 0.8 - 1.20 0.5 - 0.8 0.8 max. 0.05 max

-Table1.1.8.1

1.1.9 STEEL CASTINGS

In WCB. Alloy Steel, Stainless Steel and Manganese Steel and various grades as per
BS BIS ASIM, DIN and JIS Stds. Customer specified compositions are also opted
using the latest state-of-the-art methods of Moldings including No Bake Alkyd
system. The foundries are equipped with the most modern Testing equipments like
Ultra Sound, Spectro Meter. Magnetic Crack Detector, Radiography.

The Plant can cast any type of casting of single piece weight from I kg. to 3000 kg.

Sector Products
Dipper Tooth Point, Tooth Adapter, Track Pad, Track Chain Link, Track
Mining
Links.

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Mill Liners, Wear Plates, Toothed Hammer, Plain Hammer, Diaphragm
Cement
Plates, Brick Retainers, Grate Plates, Ring Segments.
Line Plate, Coal nozzle, Nozzle Tips, Ancillary Nozzles, Armor Plate, Coal
Thermal Plant
grinding ring & balls.
Grate Bars, Heat Treatment Trays and Pads, Bull Ring Segment, Support
General
Rollers, Mould Bags and various castings for Sugar/ Rubber machinery.
Valve Casting viz. Body, Bonnet, Wedge etc for Gate/Globe/Check/Ball
Valve
and Butterfly valves including high Pressure Castings.
Idlers, Lifting Arms, Banjo, Boon Anchors, Diagonal Braces and under
Earth Moving
Carriage Castings.
Traction Motor Castings including Magnetic Frame, End Shield,
Railways
Suspension Tube, Inner Bearing Cap, Fan etc.

-Fig 1.1.9.1 - Fig 1.1.9.2 - Fig 1.1.9.3

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JAYASWALS NECO LIMITED

1. INTRODUCTION

The company mainly known as the corporate office of the Neco casting limited. The
company mainly deals with the Centrifugal Pipe Castings Plant and the product
manufactured is Soil Spun Pipe which is mainly used for the Building purposes,
Drainage purposes and water supplying purposes. This is the only Company in the
country to offer a variety of castings from sand cast pipe to spun pipes & engineering
castings.

In 1992-93 the Company diversified into Soya bean oil extraction by acquiring a
solvent extraction plant & refinery with capacity of 500 tpd & 125 tpd respectively.
Later, in 1994, the capacity of the Solvent extraction plant & refinery were increased
to 500 tpd & 100 tpd respectively, under an expansion scheme. The cost of the entire
expansion scheme of Rs. 178.0 Million was funded by public issue of equity of Rs.
18
140.0 Million & internal cash accruals of Rs.138.0 Million. The issue was
oversubscribed nearly 14 times.

The various Divisions of the Company and their product range are as follows:

Name of the Division Location of the Unit Product Range


F-8 & F-8/1 MIDC IndustrialCentrifugally Cast
1. Centri Cast Division Area, Hingna Road, NagpurIron Pipes & its
440 016, Maharashtra fittings
Anjora Unit Thanod Road,
a)
Anjora,
Rajnandagaon, Madhya
Soil Pipes, Fittings,
2. Construction Pradesh 491 441.
Manhole Covers,
Castings Division BhilaiUnit 106, Light
b) Railway Sleepers
Industrial Area,Bhilai,
Madhya Pradesh 490
026
T-41, MIDC Industrial Area,Axle Hubs, Inserts,
3.Engineering Castings
Hingna Road, NagpurValve Body Bonnets,
Division
440 016, Maharashtra Casnub Bogies etc
Cylinder Heads, Gear
Boxes, Rear Axle
4.Automotive CastingsVillage Ruikhairi, Butibori, DistHousing, Wheel
Division Nagpur, Maharashtra. Housing Crank Cases,
Brake Drums/Discs
etc
Village Wadoda, Bhandara
5.Food Products Soya bean Refined
Road, Nagpur, Maharashtra.
Division Oil, De-Oiled Cakes
441 104
Siltara, Raipur
Pig Iron in the I’st
6. Steel Plant Division
Phase
Chhattisgarh
Each of the divisions of the merged Company is well equipped with most modern
machineries and Laboratory. Each of these divisions would act as a profit centre and
is manned by a team of professionals who are experts in their respective fields. Each
division is headed by a Vice President.

The Company would further strengthen its position by taking up a vertical integration
in its steel plant division for the manufacture of Wire rods. The Company has already
19
got adequate land admeasuring 1200 acres at Siltara Growth Centre at Raipur in
Chhattisgarh.

In the field of Automobile Castings, the Company has firm tie ups with various
automobile manufacturers. The Companies prestigious customers include Tech Auto,
USA, Mahindra & Mahindra, HMT, Hindustan Motors, Swaraj and Maruti Udyog

Over the years the Company has already established its Brand in Construction
Castings & is the leading supplier of Pipes, Fittings & Manhole covers in
Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

The company mainly deals with the production of Soil Spun Pipe by means of the
Centrifugal Pipe Casting Plant. Here we are mainly looking for what is centrifugal
pipe casting and pipe fitting.

2. INDUCTION FURNACE

The induction furnace used at Jayaswals Neco ltd. is a coreless induction furnace. It is
primarily used to reheat the molten iron which is received from the cupola furnace. Its
capacity is 2.5 -3 tonnes .The required temperature of the molten iron is maintained
also there is a provision of adding other elements as per the requirements of the
product.

2.1 Parts of the induction furnace and their application:

1. Solid state medium frequency power supply unit

The solid state medium frequency power supply unit conditions the power suitably to
operate induction furnace. The incoming three phase supply at 50 Hz is converted into
a DC using a three phase fully controlled thyristorized rectifier. The dc supply is
converted to a single phase AC at required frequency using simple phase thyristorized
current source inverter. The generator consists of fast acting semiconductor grade
back up HRC fuses, thyristorized six pulse DC smoothing chokes, single phase
20
thyristorized bridge inverter, a set of fault indicating lamps, interconnecting busbars,
flow monitoring switch and conductivity meter for monitoring conductivity of
deionized water. All these components are fitted into dust proof MS cubicle.

2. DC choke

The large iron core DC choke reduces rate of rise of current to dangerous levels in
case of short circuit at inverter section and allows front-end thyristorized converter to
stop current flow within 6-8 milliseconds this is faster than any other circuit breaking
device with minimum risk of fuse blowing and thyristor failures.

3. Capacitor Bank, Bus Bar & Furnace Selector Switches

The capacitor bank id mounted on a robust steel structure and fitted with electrolytic
grade copper bus tubes and flow monitoring switches for failsafe positive interlock in
each capacitors water circuit path.

Capacitor connection/disconnection switches to adjust required KVAR in the circuit


for achieving full power during working.

Pre fabricated copper bus bars from capacitor assembly to water cooled cables are
used to minimize energy loss and installation time.

4. DM Water Circulation Unit

DM water is used for cooling of power devices and copper conductors. Conductivity
of DM water is continuously monitored and power supply unit is stopped in case
conductivity exceeds set limit. DM water tank, plate type heat exchanger assembly,

21
non-ferrous pump water circulation and associated water connecting pipes and
fittings, pr-assembled in a steel structure forms the DM water circulation unit.

5. Steel Frame Coreless Induction Melting Furnace

The frame is designed in two parts:

1. Tilting structure
2. Coil cradle assembly

Tilting structures are designed considering the moving of load of liquid metal upto 95
degree. Single acting cylinders with return speed control arrangements are also
provided.

6. Hydraulic Power Pack

The hydraulic power pack is designed using best quality hydraulic components
available. Flange type motors are mounted on a shock absorber and gear pumps are
easily accessible for maintenance. Heat exchanger is provided for oil cooling to
increase life of hydraulic components.

7. Induction Coil

The coil is made out of rectangular cross section electrolytic grade copper. The gap
between two turns of the coil is maintained using spacers. The coils are electrically
insulated by a special resin based coating. The coil is firmly secured to insulating bars
equally spaced around the coil periphery. These bars provide mechanical strength
against deformation during maintenance and normal operation.

22
8. Bottom Ring

The bottom refractory blocks are made out of refractory cement and high alumina
blocks which give longer life than the bottom out of castable material.

9. Top Ring

The top refractory blocks are made out of sintered castable refractory with stainless
steel fiber for reinforcement with the top ring for easy dismantling the top block
without breaking.

3. CUPOLA FURNACE

There are 4 cupolas at Jayaswals Neco ltd. that have the following specifications

There are two cupolas that have the same specifications as under: -

Diameter of the middle shell: - 2.5 meters

Total height of the cupola: - 30 feet

Production of cast iron in an hour: - 4 – 5 tonnes

The other two cupolas have the following specifications: -

Diameter of the middle shell: - 1800 mm

Total height of the cupola: - 25 feet

Production of cast iron in an hour: - 1.5 – 2.0 tonnes

23
Note: -The operation cycle of the cupola is mentioned under the Cupola at Neco
castings Ltd. the charges that are used in these cupolas are the same as that is used for
the cupolas at Neco castings ltd.

4. SINGLE MOULD MACHINE

4.1 Major assemblies and sub assemblies

1. Pouring unit:
a) Pouring trolley: - Powered by hydraulic cylinder
b) Trolley Track
c) Hot metal Basin
d) Basin Stand
e) Basin tilting mechanism: - Powered by hydraulic cylinder
f) Horn
g) Nozzle

The entire system is moveable on a trolley with four wheels and a pair of v- rails. The
trolley is powered by one hydraulic cylinder. The motion of the trolley is controlled
by limit switches. The basin tilting is also powered by another hydraulic cylinder.

24
Control: Trolley movement only by the pourer.

Basin tilting only by the operator at control desk.

INTLR: the basin can only be tilted up and down at both extreme ends.

2. Spinning unit

The entire unit is mounted on a base plate

There are four friction turnions; two friction wheels are driven by a motor through v-
belt pulley arrangement. The friction wheels are fixed into the shafts by a set of
conical lock elements. Each pair of friction wheels and shaft is supported by four seta
of bearing blocks.

There are two types of rollers fixed on the stand. Each top roller is housed in suitable
casing to provide cushioning effect to absorb the vibration in the high speed mould.

The mould cooling spray nozzles are arranged in one row on one side of the mould.
There are 3 sets for zonal cooling.

3. Extractor and lancing unit

The extractor is mounted on a steel fabricated trolley with four wheels. The trolley is
provided by one long hydraulic cylinder.

The forward/reverse motion of the trolley is guided by one pair of v-rails.

The same trolley is used to carry the lance tube for mould cooling operation.

The extractor jaws are powered by one pneumatic cylinder. Two jaw sets for 3 inches
pipe production.

Some 5-6 bolts are to be screwed / unscrewed for fixing these jaws to the main cam
levelers. One steel fabricated guide cam holder for the lance tube is mounted on the
extractor base plate. It has also one pneumatically operated clamping device to hold
the lance tube firmly

Control: - Trolley movement

Lance tube up/down operation

25
Lance tube clamping operation on control desk.

INTR: 1. Lance tube clamp and up/down of lance holding cylinders are interlocked

2. During up/down operation the extractor trolley cannot be moved forward.

Check points before switching on the machine:

1. Friction wheel blockage due to solid particles


2. Mould rotation is manual made by using lever at core plate holding drills
3. Friction wheel, high speed rotary parts, pulleys, top rollers are firmly fixed.
4. Cylinder holding bolts
5. Hydraulic line joints for leakages.
6. Oil at power pack and air lubricant are at safe level.
7. Any inflammable materials are scattered around the machine.
8. Sufficient thickness of sand layer on pouring.
9. Transfer car track is free.
10. Steel rope for transfer car cable is lubricated with grease
11. All trenches are perfectly dry except for water trench.
After switching on the machine:

1. Supply voltage to all three phases are balanced


2. DC blower motor is on.
3. Air line pressure gauge is 6kg/cm2
4. Air pressure at celite tank.
5. Hydraulic pressure gauge – set pressure
6. Any abnormal sound heard or seen.
7. Direction of rotation of all motors.

Items to be kept near the machine:

1. One hand lamp with sufficient length of cable.


2. Two bucket of dry sand
3. Two buckets of water.

26
5. DUKER MACHINE

It is a multi mould machine used to manufacture hollow cylindrical pipes. Having


a capacity of 1 pipe per 45 second it one of its own kind manufactured in
Germany and it is the fastest pipe making machine in India.

The process to manufacture a pipe:


1. Switch on the power
2. Check the zero level of the machine
3. There should be at least 12 mould on the machine
4. The mould temperature should be at least 220 degree centigrade
5. Check the pressure of the air , for the good result it should be 6 bar
6. Check the pressure of the air in the celite tank
7. It should be as follows
 3 inches pipe - 0.3 to 0.6
 4 inches pipe – 0.6 to 1.0
 6 inches pipe – 0.8 to 1.5
8. After coating the mold brush it twice before starting the production
9. Check the centre of the mould with the lens
10. Check the frequency of the coating for good surface and easy extraction of the
pipe
11. Heat the nozzle and the basin four hours before starting the production
12. Set the center of the pouring nozzle with the centre of the mould
13. The speed of rotation of the mould should be as under
 3 inches pipe – 1350 to 1430 rpm
 4 inches pipe – 1200 to 1400 rpm
 6 inches pipe – 900 to 1200 rpm
14. Check the centrifugal time as specified below
 3 inches pipe – 20 sec
 4 inches pipe – 20 sec
 6 inches pipe – 25 sec
15. Check the core according to the production
16. Check the screw and plate of the core according to the production
17. Collect the metal from induction furnace in a ladle for pouring

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18. Keep the temperature of the metal as below
 3 inches pipe – 1470 to 1500 0C
 4 inches pipe – 1380 to 1460 0C
 6 inches pipe – 1350 to 1400 0C
19. Check the core screw so that the metal doesn’t stick and cause a problem in
extraction
20. Now start the pouring of the metal in the mould.

6 Centrifugal Casting

6.1 Definition of Casting

Casting is defined as the act of forming a plastic or liquid substance (molten iron or
steel) into a particular shape, as by pouring the substance into a mold and allowing it
to solidify. The idea of employing centrifugal force to make castings had been known
for a long time, it was A. G. Eckhardt’s original patent of 1809 which revealed
understanding the basic principles involved.

The liquid substance contracts as it solidifies and cools, and the voids which would
otherwise be formed are eliminated by feeding additional liquid through gates and
risers. These are receptacles produced in the upper portion of the mold and filled with
extra liquid (molten metal) during the pouring process. The gates and risers are
subsequently removed and discarded in the cleaning of the casting. The inside of
cylindrical conventional castings (usually known as static castings) is formed by the
portion of the mold known as the core. The core disintegrates as the metal cools and is
discarded during the cleaning.

6.2 Centrifugal Casting Process Description

Centrifugal casting is the casting process specifically adapted to the production of


cylindrical parts. In this case the mold is a long, hollow tube partially closed at the
ends, and lined with a centrifugally applied refractory material in slurry form, which
is subsequently dried and baked. The lined mold is then spun rapidly about its central
axis, which is horizontal in the case of true centrifugal castings. The molten metal is
poured into the spinning mold and spinning continued until the metal solidifies. The
28
speed of the rotation and metal pouring rate vary with the alloy and size and shape
being cast. Gates, risers and cores are eliminated in this process. The centrifugal
action assists in the purification of the metal by forcing the less dense non-metallic to
the inside. The casting solidifies from the outside and the inner surface feeds the
necessary metal to the remainder of the casting as required. The cleaning processes of
blasting and grinding remove the loosely adhering non-metallic from the inside of the
cylindrical part.

The following operations include in centrifugal casting:-

 Rotation of mold at a known speed


 Pouring the molten metal
 Proper solidification rate
 Extraction of the casting from the mold.

Centrifugal casting has greater reliability than static castings. They are relatively free
from gas and shrinkage porosity. Many times, surface treatments such as case
carburizing, flame hardening and nitriding have to be used when a wear resistant
surface must be combined with a hard tough exterior surface.

One such application is bimetallic pipe consisting of two separate concentric layers of
different alloys/metals bonded together. Such pipes can be economically used in many
applications and can be produced by centrifugal casting process.

Typically, in centrifugal casting, the following structure or zones may occur:-

 Chill Zone: – This layer is of fine equiaxed structure which forms almost
instantaneously at the mould wall
 Columnar Zone: – This is next to chill zone. It consists of directionally
oriented crystals approx. perpendicular to the mould surface
 Equiaxed zone: – this region may occur next to columnar zone characterized
by large number of uniformly grown crystals.

Centrifugal casting is suitable for the production of hollow parts, such as pipes. The
process is suited for producing structures with large diameters – pipes for oil,
chemical industry installations and water supply, etc.

29
The various equations related to the forces acting and the speeds of rotation are:-

Centrifugal force acting on a rotating body is, C.F = mv2r


Where, m – mass (kg), V – peripheral speed (m/s), r – radius (m).

Gravitational force, G.F = mg


Where, g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s2).

G factor = CF/GF = mv2 / r. mg = v2 / r.g

Solving, further we get N = 42.3 G factor / D

Suggested speeds of rotation are between 50 – 100 G speed for die cast (metal mould)
and 25 – 50 G for sand cast pots and shaped castings. Too high speed results in
excessive stresses and hot tears in outside surfaces.

6.3 Defects in Centrifugal Casting

Conventional static casting defects like internal shrinkage, gas porosity and
nonmetallic inclusions are less likely to occur in centrifugal casting.

Hot Tears: - Hot tears are developed in centrifugal castings for which the highest
rotation speeds are used. Longitudinal tears occur when contraction of casting
combined with the expansion of the mould, generates hoop stresses exceeding the
cohesive strength of the metal at temperatures in the solidus region.

Segregation: - Centrifugal castings are under various forms of segregation thus


pushing less dense constituents at centre.

Banding: - These are zones of segregated low melting point constituents such as
eutectic phases and sulphide and oxide inclusions. Various theories explain this, one
states vibration is the main cause of banding.

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6.4 Characteristics of Centrifugal Casting

 The casting is relatively free from defects.


 Non metallic impurities which segregate toward the bore can be machined.
 Less loss of metal in turn dish compared to that in gating and risering in
conventional sand casting.
 Better mechanical properties.
 Production rate is high.
 Can be employed to manufacture bimetallic pipes.
 Centrifugal casting process can be used for fabricating functionally gradient
metal matrix composite material.
Bimetallic pipes can be produced by centrifugal casting by using a cheaper material in
place of a highly alloyed material. This will reduce cost of the bimetallic casting.

Initially outer metal is poured in the rotating mould (mould is coated with a refractory
coating) followed by pouring of second material with some time gap. When the
freezing is complete the tube has an annular weld or diffusion zone. The second metal
should be poured in the rotating mould after the first metal has lost fluidity. If second
metal is poured earlier then the composition and thickness of second metal will be
changed. Also if second metal is poured late than the first metal then there won’t be
good bonding.

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7. Compressor Machine

The compressor is been used at the plant for various functions. The machine produces
the air which is used for different applications in the plant. The machine has two sides
and the intercooler is attached to the low pressure side while the after cooler is
attached to the high pressure side the low pressure side has four suction valves and
four delivery valves and the high pressure side has two suction valves and the two
delivery valves. The intercooler is used to cools the air passing from it. And the after
cooler also cools the air. The coolant used for cooling purposes is water. The hot
water comes out from inter cooler and the after cooler then re-circulated and pass
from tower to be cooled. the air produces in the after cooler then pass through Non
Return Valve then to the receiver tank. The function of Non Return valve is to allow
the flow of air from after cooler to the receiver tank only in one direction. it prevents
the back passage of the air to after cooler, then the air collected in the receiver tank
supplies to the plant.

It is of two types:

 Reciprocating type

 Rotatory type

The functions of the compressor machines are:

 Pneumatic cylinder operating

 Mould coating

 Mould cleaning

Motor capacity: 125 Hp, 750 RPM.

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8. Machine Shop

Specifications of the machines at Jayaswals Neco ltd. Machine Shop:

Note: - For applications of these machines please refer the Neco Castings Machine
shop department at page no.

1. Name of the machine: - L-45


Company name: - HMT

Bed Length: - 18 feet

Motor Speed: - 25 to 40 HP

Boring Attachment: - Robotic

Date of installation: - 1995

2. Name of the machine: - Lathe L-1


Company name: - ABL Botala

Bed Length: - 20 feet

Motor Speed: - 75 HP

Date of installation: - 1999

Swing: - 36 inches

Chuck: - 4 Jaw independent

3. Name of the machine: - Lathe L-2


Company name: - ABL Botala

Bed Length: - 4 feet

Motor Speed: - 5 HP

Date of installation: - 1997

Swing: - 18 inches
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4. Tool and Grinding Machine
5 HP Motor

Company name: -Yantara Nirmana

Date of installation: - 1997

5. Name of the machine: - Internal Grinding Machine


Bed Length: - 10 feet

Motor Speed: - 2 HP

Boring Attachment: - Roller Stand

Company name: - Local made

6. Name of the machine: - Heavy duty central lathe


Model: - L-45

Swing: - 28 inches

Speed range: - 45 to 450 rpm

Motor: - induction motor, 3 phase AC, 30 kW

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35
NECO CASTING LIMITED (NCL)

1. INTRODUCTION

NCL was incorporated as a Private Ltd Company in 1987 for manufacturing Grey
Iron Castings such as Ingot Moulds, Bottom Plates, Slag Pots required in Mini Steel
Plants as well as Graded Cast Iron Castings for Engineering Industries. The foundry
processed castings are used for machine building for static equipments in finished,
semi finished or in cast condition depending upon the final use. The Company was
later converted into a Public Limited Company.

The Company expanded its activities to manufacture heavy/medium castings like


counter weight castings for earth moving equipments, elevators, lifts etc., pump body
castings for pumps & butterfly manufacturing units, roller shell castings for sugar
cane crushing plant, paper dry cylinder castings for paper manufacturing plant, coke
oven doors, hard cooling plates, floor plates & pig moulds.

The Company expanded its activities to manufacture heavy/medium castings like


counter weight castings for earth moving equipments, elevators, lifts etc., pump body
castings for pumps & butterfly manufacturing units, roller shell castings for sugar
cane crushing plant, paper dry cylinder castings for paper manufacturing plant, coke
oven doors, hard cooling plates, floor plates & pig moulds.

1.1 COMPANYS VISION AND OBJECTIVES

Companies customers expects high quality of Gray and Ductile Iron Casting products
which can handle increasing pressure of work in use with minimal degradation of
metal, to best leverage there significant investment. Only well engineered products,
manufactured to rigorous quality standards, will meet these expectations. An ISO
9001-2000 certified company NECO CASTING LTD. is well positioned to
consistently supply good quality products and services with its strategically located
network of manufacturing and sells facilities. NCL is committed to supply quality
products that meet customer’s expectations.

36
1.2 QUALITY POLICY

Company committed to achieve sustained growth through continual improvement of


process and products performance development of human resource and strong
customers focus. Neco casting ltd covers a product spectrum of variety of Large Gray
and Ductile Iron Castings for different industrial purposes. NCL is only amongst a
few manufactures of specialized large casting with machining facilities weighing up
to 25 MT.NCL exports its products to Australia USA, Japan, Canada, Germany,
Europe, Middle East and gulf countries.

2. SECURITY DEPARTMENT

The security officer: Mr. Shukla.

The security department at NECO Castings Ltd. deals with the security matters. The
procedure here for the heavy vehicles entering the plant is described below:

The vehicle when enters the plant ,it has to make an entry on the entry register at the
security office along with rigorous checking of the vehicle, followed by measuring its
weight at the weighing bridge. The same procedure is carried out while the vehicle is
leaving the plant.

The process for the employees is the one in which an employee while entering the
company has to collect his/her entry card from the office and make a signature and
the time-in. the procedure while going out is somewhat the same.

The procedure for the visitors/trainees is the simplest one i.e. the individual has to
enter his /her name on the register along with time-in & the name of the person whom
they want to meet followed by issuing of a gate pass. While leaving the company they
have to mention time-out and the signature of the concerned person is required on the
gate pass while leaving the company

37
3. CANTEEN DEPARTMENT

The owner of the canteen is Mr. Sanjay Shukla.

The Canteen present here at NECO Castings Ltd. Provides food to the workers,
officers and even the customers coming to the company for various purposes. The
canteen is providing Breakfast, lunch, evening snacks to all. It is divided into two
sections:

1) Worker section and


2) Staff section
First of all in breakfast the canteen provides:

1) Samosa’s
2) Aloo Bonda’s
3) Poha
4) Tea
In the lunch they have:

1) Chapati
2) Rice
3) Dal
4) Seasonal Sabji
5) Pickles
6) Salad
And in the evening snacks:

1) Kachori
2) Samosa
3) Balooshahi/ladoo
4) Tea
Above all some of the drawbacks of the canteen which should be immediately
corrected are:

1) Sitting arrangement for the staff section should be improved along with
increased no. of seats.
2) There should be proper dress provided to the waiters
3) Kitchen should be neat and clean

38
4) The standard of food provided by the canteen should be improved and up
to the mark
5) The menu of the meals should be circulated on week day basis
6) The canteen should have the facilities like: cold drinks, lassi, coffee etc.

4. PATTERN SHOP

 What is the use of patterns in casting?


The use of patterns is to provide the necessary shape as per the specifications of the
customer to the pit that is dug at the time of casting. Patterns are also used so as to
give a rough idea about the shape of the casting that has to be made.

 What is the procedure for making patterns?


Firstly the layout is made on a plywood sheet that is painted white. Then the markings
as per the drawing are done on the plywood sheet. Thereafter all these parts are cut
accordingly and are transformed into three-dimensional structures.

 What are the types of wood used for pattern making?


The types of wood are: -

1. Teak wood
2. Bija wood
3. Old Bija wood
4. Sal wood
5. Old teak wood
 Which is the best quality of wood that is used for pattern making?
The best quality wood that is used for pattern making is teak wood as there is
minimum shrinkage in the wood after the pattern is made.

 What are the allowances that are kept in mind while pattern making?
Shrinkage allowance is added to the dimensions of various parts of the pattern so as to
overcome the contraction of the wood.

39
5. CUPOLA FURNACE

Cupola furnace is the primary method of melting used in iron foundries. The cupola
furnace has several unique characteristics which are responsible for its widespread use
as a melting unit for cast iron.

1. The cupolas is one of the only methods of melting which is continuous in its
operation
2. High melt rates
3. Relatively low operating costs
4. Ease of operation

There are two cupolas at NECO Castings Ltd. which work alternatively to give a
melting rate of 8 to 10 tonnes per hour.

At jayaswals NECO ltd. there is one cupola and an induction furnace. The cupola
gives a melting rate of 6 to 8 tonnes per hour.

Dimensions of the cupola at NECO Castings Ltd.

Diameter: - 60 inches

Total height from base plate to charging platform: - 20 feet

Total volume of the cupola: - 392.5 cu feet or 11.1156 cu. meter

The table below shows the raw materials and the quantity used for charging:-

Serial Raw material Used for Quantity of material used


No. Charging
(in Kilograms per charge)

1. Pig Iron 400

2. Foundry Return 400

3. Limestone 300

4. Skull (Not in use at present) 400

5. Ferro Alloys

5.a Ferro Manganese 10

5.b Ferro Silicon 18

40
5.c Ferro Phosphorous as per the requirement of the end product

5.d Ferro Chrome as per the requirement of the end product

5.e Ferro Nickel as per the requirement of the end product

6 Coke 300

5.1 CUPOLA OPERATION CYCLE

1. CHIPPING: - In this step the cupola is not in operation. This is the


maintenance step where metal and other impurities are removed from the inner linings
of the cupola. These impurities are basically the solid iron sticking to the walls of the
cupola these impurities are chipped off and the cupola is then patched up.

2. PATCHING:- the two basic things that are done in this step are
a) Application of ramming mass to the sides of the cupola
b) The arrangement of refractory bricks with the ramming mass
The ramming mass is basically a mixture of sand (obtained from river
beds) with some quantity of cement mixed with it.

3. REPAIRING: - This step deals with the repairing work of the cupola.
Leakages are checked and are fixed, blockages if any are checked and the
maintenance of the cupola is done.

4. FIRING: - A fire is started in the hearth using


a. soft wood
b. coke
c. kerosene
d. cotton
e. jute
All the above materials are charged onto the top of the cupola and are ignited.

5. STARTING OF THE BLOWER (for the first time): - After 5 hours of


firing the cupola the first time blowers are switched on which the reason being
to remove the fly ash from the furnace and the other granular impurities. The

41
main reason for this being that there shouldn’t be any dust particles at the time
of melting which would give defects in the molten iron.

6. CHARGING: - The cupola is then charged from the top in a sequential order
to get the best quality of molten iron. These charges have been mentioned
earlier. As the metal is melted and fuel consumed, additional charges are
added to maintain a level at the charging door and provide a continuous supply
of molten iron.

7. BLOWER STARTS (second time): - After charging the blowers are


switched on. An air blast is introduced through the wind box and tuyeres
located near the bottom of the cupola. The air reacts chemically with the
carbonaceous fuel thus producing heat of combustion. After one and a half
hour of running, molten metal collected on the hearth bottom where it is
eventually tapped out into a waiting ladle or receiver.

8. END OF CHARGING: - The charging ends after sometime and further the
blowers are on for the already present charge to be converted into molten iron.
The molten iron is then collected into a waiting ladle or receiver. The slag
(impurities) is collected form the slag hole which is immediately solidified by
water poured from pipes onto the molten slag. In this way it is easier to
remove slag as it is in the solid form.

9. FURNACE DROP: - The left over materials are dropped off from the bottom
of the furnace and the furnace is emptied.

10. SEQUENCING: - the coke present in the furnace is poured over with
water to finally stop the furnace operation.

5.2 ZONES IN THE CUPOLA

42
a. Stack zone: - This is the topmost zone in the cupola where all the
charges are stacked into the cupola in a sequential order so as to get the
maximum quality of iron.

b. Pre- Heat Zone: - This is the zone where preheated coke (firing
process) is present which would provide the necessary temperature for
the melting process.

c. Combustion zone or producing zone: - in this zone the chemical


reactions take place and the carbon dioxide gas is changed into carbon
monoxide which reacts with the stack to give molten iron.

d. Melting zone: - This is the zone where the melting of the iron takes
place. After this the molten iron is collected into a receiving ladle.

 Why are ladles preheated before metal is poured into them?

The ladles are preheated so that at the time of pouring the metal the metal doesn’t
solidify or stick to the walls of the ladle. The preheated ladle would avoid
solidification of the metal at the time of pouring into it

 Why is hay (bhusa) used after the molten iron is received in the ladle?
After receiving the metal in the ladle the workers generally put some hay over it. The
reason for doing this is that it would maintain the temperature of the iron which is
about 1200 0C – 1300 0C as the molten iron would tend to solidify as soon as it
exposed to room temperature. The hay that is put over into the ladle forms a layer
over the molten iron thereby maintaining the inner temperature of the iron.

6. ANNEALING FURNACE

43
The furnace is used to normalize the manufactured product viz. straighten a bend
product and soften a hard product etc. all the above activities depends on the demands
and requirements of the customers. The inner walls of the annealing furnace lined
with Fire bricks produced in Bhilai, Chattisgarh these bricks can bear a temperature
up to 1200 Degree Centigrade. These bricks are arranged in a stack in side the furnace
walls and on the door so as to keep the furnace walls cool from outside

The furnace consists of a Blower and a Oil pump .the oil pump supplies the oil to the
burners which the provides heat to the furnace. Oil used for the furnace is the Light
Diesel Oil.

The thermocouples are attached outside the furnace which is in turn connected to a
temperature measuring device which regulates the temperature inside the furnace.

 Capacity : 40 tonnes

 Temperature range 250 to 1050 Degree Centigrade

 Motor capacity of the blower : 30 HP and 2880 RPM

 Volume: 6120 Cu. Mtr./ hr.

7. INDUCTION FURNACE

The induction furnace at Neco Castings Ltd. is under production and is expected to be
in operation by the end of July. The capacity of the induction furnace is 5 tonnes in an
hour. The operation and the parts of the induction furnace is explained in section-1
page no. 22

8. GENRAL CASTING DEPARTMENT

 What is casting?

44
Casting is a manufacturing process by which a molten material is introduced into a
mold, allowed to solidify within the mold, and then ejected after some time. Casting is
used for making parts of complex shape that would be difficult or uneconomical to
make by other methods.

 Process of the casting :

Making the pit of required size

Placing the wooden pattern

Cleaning the pit

Placing the pinions

Making the riser& gating system

Coating by graphite paste

Cleaning & flame heating

Placing the upper portion of pattren

Pouring of molten metal

Taking out casting from the pit

45

Send the casting to the fettling shop

Maching,chipping & painting

End product

First of all make a pit of the required size to pour the molten matal to get desired
shape place a pattern in the pit and leave it for some hours after loading it by heavy
weight after removing the wooden pattern clean the pit by using blower then place the
pinions for the lifting of the casting. These pinions are manufactured in another shop
by a material having three things: Sand,Cement and Molasis syrup.

When the sand cement and molasis syrup are mixed to prevent the material to not
solidify. Making the riser and gating system. A riser or feeder is a reservoir built into
a metal-casting mold to prevent cavities due to shrinkage. The gating system is used
for pouring the molten metal into the casting. Then after cleaning the pit measure the
dimension of the pit and then coat it by graphite paste followed by flame heating to
set the pit dimensions. Placing the upper portin of the casting on the pit and then start
the pouring of moten metal through gates. Stop the pouring of metal when it appears
in the riser. After one day take out the casting and send it in the fettling shop for the
chipping ang maching and after painting the casting, followed by testing, is ready for
the sell.

9. CORE SECTION

The core is used for making a hollow gap in the casting. In the company the core is
used for making the duplex mould. The process of the core is that first take the sand
and removes the miosture of the sand by heating it. Addind the oil in the sand. There
are three types of the oils which are used: oil ‘A’, oil ‘B’ & oil ‘C’.

46
The proportion of mixing of the oil in the sand is 4kg oil’A’, 100gm oil’B’ and
400gm oil’C’ per 100kg of the sand. After mixing it very well the sand is rammed
into the box of the desired shape and put two rods in between one for the support and
another for the making a hole to pass out ther gases. Then after some time the core is
taken out and send for the coating of the mixture of the graphite and benonite. And
then it goes to the ovens for the making it more harder. After one day core is taken out
and is reasdy for the mould.

10. MACHINE SHOP

10.1 LATHE MACHINE

47
Fig 10.1.1 Lathe machine and parts

10.1.1 INTRODUCTION
Lathes can be used to shape pottery, the most well known design being the potter's
wheel. Most suitably equipped metalworking lathes can also be used to produce most
solids of revolution, plane surfaces and screw threads or helices. Ornamental lathes
can produce three-dimensional solids of incredible complexity. The material is held in
place by either one or two centers, at least one of which can be moved horizontally to
accommodate varying material lengths. Examples of objects that can be produced on
a lathe include candlestick holders, cue sticks, table legs, bowls, baseball bats,
crankshafts and camshafts.

10.1.2 PARTS OF A LATHE


A lathe may or may not have a stand (or legs), which sits on the floor and elevates the
lathe bed to a working height. Some lathes are small and sit directly on a workbench
or table, and do not have a stand.

All lathes have a "bed", which is (almost always) a horizontal beam (although some
CNC lathes have a vertical beam for bed to ensure that swarf, or chips, falls free of
the bed.

At one end of the bed (almost always the left, as the operator faces the lathe) is a
"headstock". The headstock contains high-precision spinning bearings.
Rotating within the bearings is a horizontal axle, with an axis parallel to the bed,
called the "spindle". Spindles are often hollow, and have exterior threads and/or an
interior Morse taper on the "inboard" (i.e., facing to the right / towards the bed) by
which accessories which hold the work piece may be mounted to the spindle. Spindles
may also have exterior threads and/or an interior taper at their "outboard" (i.e., facing
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away from the bed) end, and/or may have a hand wheel or other accessory mechanism
on their outboard end. Spindles are powered, and impart motion to the work piece.

The spindle is driven, either by foot power from a treadle and flywheel or by a belt
drive to a power source. In some modern lathes this power source is an integral
electric motor, often either in the headstock, to the left of the headstock, or beneath
the headstock, concealed in the stand. At the other end of the bed (almost always the
right, as the operator faces the lathe) may be a tailstock. Not all lathes have tailstocks.
A tailstock provides auxiliary support to the work piece. Tailstocks are not powered.

Metalworking lathes have a "cross slide", which is a flat piece that sits crosswise on
the bed, and can be cranked at right angles to the bed. Sitting atop the cross slide is a
tool post, which holds a cutting tool which removes material from the work piece.
There may or may not be a lead screw, which moves the cross slide along the bed.

10.1.3 MODES OF USE


When a work piece is fixed between the headstock and the tailstock, it is said to be
"between centers". When a work piece is supported at both ends, it is more stable, and
more force may be applied to the work piece, via tools, at a right angle to the axis of
rotation, without fear that the work piece may break loose.
When a work piece is fixed only to the spindle at the headstock end, the work is said
to be "face work". When a work piece is supported in this manner, less force may be
applied to the work piece, via tools, at a right angle to the axis of rotation, lest the
work piece rip free. Thus, most work must be done axially, towards the headstock, or
at right angles, but gently.
When a work piece is mounted with a certain axis of rotation, worked, then
remounted with a new axis of rotation, this is referred to as "eccentric turning" or
"multi axis turning". The result is that various cross sections of the work piece are
rotationally symmetric, but the work piece as a whole is not rotationally symmetric.
This technique is used for camshafts, various types of chair legs, etc.

10.1.4 METALWORKING LATHE


In a metalworking lathe, metal is removed from the work piece using a hardened
cutting tool, which is usually fixed to a solid moveable mounting called the "tool

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post", which is then moved against the work piece using hand wheels and/or computer
controlled motors.

The tool post is operated by lead screws that can accurately position the tool in a
variety of planes. The tool post may be driven manually or automatically to produce
the roughing and finishing cuts required turning the work piece to the desired shape
and dimensions, or for cutting threads, worm gears, etc. Cutting fluid may also be
pumped to the cutting site to provide cooling, lubrication and clearing of swarf from
the work piece. Some lathes may be operated under control of a computer for mass
production of parts (see "Computer Numerical Control").

Metalworking lathes are commonly provided with a variable ratio gear train to drive
the main lead screw. This enables different pitches of threads to be cut. Some older
gear trains are changed manually by using interchangeable gears with various
numbers of teeth, while more modern or elaborate lathes have a quick change box to
provide commonly used ratios by the operation of a lever.
The threads that can be cut are, in some ways, determined by the pitch of the lead
screw: A lathe with a metric lead screw will readily cut metric threads (including
BA), while one with an imperial lead screw will readily cut imperial unit based
threads such as BSW or UTS (UNF,UNC).

The work piece may be supported between a pair of points called centers, or it may be
bolted to a faceplate or held in a chuck. A chuck has movable jaws that can grip the
work piece securely.

10.2 SHAPER MACHINE

10.2.1 INTRODUCTION
Shapers have been largely superseded by milling machines or grinding machines in
modern industrial practice. They rapidly fell out of favor with modern industry as they
were time consuming in operation, the amount of material removal by a single point
cutting tool being no match for recent methods, however they are still popular with

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some amateurs, or where production time is not a factor. The basic function of the
machine is still sound and tooling for them is minimal and very cheap to reproduce.
They can be invaluable for jobbing or repair shops where only one or a few pieces are
required to be produced and the alternative methods are cost or tooling intensive. The
mechanically operated machines are simple and robust in construction, making their
repair and upkeep easily achievable.

10.2.2 TYPES
The shapers are mainly classified into standard, draw-cut, horizontal, universal,
vertical, geared, crank, hydraulic, contour and traveling head shaper. In this the
horizontal arrangement being the most common. Vertical shapers are generally fitted
with a rotary table to enable curved surfaces to be machined. The vertical shaper
differs to a slotter (slotting machine) as the slide can be moved from the vertical, a
slotter is fixed in the one plane.
Very small machines have been successfully made to operate by hand power. Once
size increases, up to a potential 36 inch stroke, the power needs increase and it
becomes necessary to use an electric motor. This motor drives a mechanical
arrangement (using a pinion gear, bull gear and crank) or a hydraulic motor which
supplies the necessary movement via hydraulic cylinders.

10.2.3 OPERATION
Shaper linkage. Note the drive arm revolves less for the return stroke than for the
cutting stroke, resulting in a quicker return stroke and more powerful cutting stroke.
A shaper operates by moving a hardened cutting tool backwards and forwards across
the work piece. On the return stroke of the ram the tool is lifted clear of the work
piece, reducing the cutting action to one direction only.
The work piece mounts on a rigid, box shaped table in front of the machine. The
height of the table can be adjusted to suit this work piece, and the table can traverse
sideways underneath the reciprocating tool which is mounted on the ram, the table
motion is usually under the control of an automatic feed mechanism which acts on the
feed screw. The ram slides back and forth above the work, at the front end of the ram
are a vertical tool-slide that may be adjusted to either side of the vertical plane. This
tool-slide holds the clapper box and tool post from where the tool can be positioned to
cut the straight, flat surface on the top of the work piece. The tool-slide permits

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feeding the tool downwards to put on a cut it or may be set away from the vertical
plane, as required.

The ram is adjustable for stroke and, due to the geometry of the linkage, it retracts
faster on the return (non-cutting) stroke than on the forward, cutting stroke. This
action is via a slotted link or whit worth link.
Cutting fluid may be employed to improve the finish and prolong the tools life.

10.2.4 USES

The most common use is to machine straight, flat surfaces but with ingenuity and
some accessories a wide range of work can be done. Other examples of its use are:

• Keyways in the boss of a pulley or gear can be machined without resorting to


a dedicated broaching setup.
• Dovetail slides
• Internal spines
• Keyway cutting in blind holes

10.3
MILLING
MACHINE

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Fig 10.3.1 Milling Machine

10.3.1 INTRODUCTION

A milling machine is a machine tool used for the complex shaping of metal and other
solid materials. Its basic form is that of a rotating cutter or end mill which rotates
about the spindle axis (similar to a drill), and a movable table to which the work piece
is affixed. That is to say the cutting tool generally remains stationary (except for its
rotation) while the work piece moves to accomplish the cutting action. Milling
machines may be operated manually or under computer numerical control (see CNC).
Milling machines can perform a vast number of complex operations, such as slot
cutting, planning, drilling, rebating, routing, etc.
Cutting fluid is often pumped to the cutting site to cool and lubricate the cut, and to
sluice away the resulting swarf.

10.3.2 TYPES OF MILLING MACHINES

There are two main types of mill:


1. Vertical mill
2. Horizontal mill.

In the vertical mill the spindle axis is vertically oriented. Milling cutters are held in
the spindle and rotate on its axis. The spindle can generally be extended (or the table
can be raised/lowered, giving the same effect), allowing plunge cuts and drilling.

There are two subcategories of vertical mills:

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1. Turret mill.
2. Bed mill.

Turret mills, like the ubiquitous Bridgeport, are generally smaller than bed mills, and
are considered by some to be more versatile. In a turret mill the spindle remains
stationary during cutting operations and the table is moved both perpendicular to and
parallel to the spindle axis to accomplish cutting.

In the bed mill, however, the table moves only perpendicular to the spindle's axis,
while the spindle itself moves parallel to its own axis. Also of note is a lighter
machine, called a mill-drill. It is quite popular with hobbyists, due to its small size and
lower price. These are frequently of lower quality than other types of machines,
however.

A horizontal mill has the same sort of x–y table, but the cutters are mounted on a
horizontal arbor across the table. A majority of horizontal mills also feature a +15/-15
degree rotary table that allows milling at shallow angles. While end mills and the
other types of tools available to a vertical mill may be used in a horizontal mill, their
real advantage lies in arbor-mounted cutters, called side and face mills, which have a
cross section rather like a circular saw, but are generally wider and smaller in
diameter. Because the cutters have good support from the arbor, quite heavy cuts can
be taken, enabling rapid material removal rates. These are used to mill grooves and
slots. Plain mills are used to shape flat surfaces. Several cutters may be ganged
together on the arbor to mill a complex shape of slots and planes. Special cutters can
also cut grooves, bevels, radii, or indeed any section desired. These specialty cutters
tend to be expensive. Simplex mills have one spindle, and duplex mills have two. It is
also easier to cut gears on a horizontal mill.

A more complex form of the milling machine is the Universal milling machine, in
which the rotating cutter can be oriented vertically or horizontally, increasing the
flexibility of the machine tool. The table of the universal machine can be swiveled
through a small angle (up to about 15 degrees), enabling the axis of the spindle to
coincide with the axis of a helix to be milled with the use of a gear driven indexing
attachment.

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10.4 Boring machine

Horizontal boring mills are large, accurate bed horizontal mills that incorporate many
features from various machine tools. They are predominantly used to create large
manufacturing jigs, or to modify large, high precision parts. They have a spindle
stroke of several (usually between four and six) feet, and many are equipped with a
tailstock to perform very long boring operations without losing accuracy as the bore
increases in depth. A typical bed would have X and Y travel, and be between three
and four feet square with a rotary table or a larger rectangle without said table. The
pendant usually has between four and eight feet in vertical movement. Some mills
have a large (30" or more) integral facing head. Right angle rotary tables and vertical
milling attachments are available to further increase productivity.

10.5 Specifications of the Machines at Machine shop (NCL).

1. Planar machines

Plano milling machine (PL – 1)

Dimensions: -
Table length: - 8400 mm
Height: - 1200 mm
I/S Gap: - 1950 mm

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Width: - 1300 mm

Tool Planar machine (PL – 2)

Dimensions: -
Table length: - 5570 mm
Height: - 600 mm
Width: - 600 mm

Plano milling machine (PL – 3)


Dimensions: -
Table length: - 8450 mm
Height: - 2250 mm
I/S Gap: - 3140 mm
Width: - 1390 mm

Plano milling machine (PL – 4)

Dimensions: -
Table length: - 8450 mm
Height: - 2250 mm
I/S Gap: - 3140 mm
Width: - 1390 mm

Plano milling machine (PL – 5)

Dimensions: -
Table length: - 6300 mm
Height: - 1500 mm
I/S Gap: - 2520 mm
Width: - 1825 mm

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Plano milling machine (PL – 6)

Dimensions: -
Table length: - 6300 mm
Height: - 1500 mm
I/S Gap: - 2520 mm
Width: - 1825 mm

Plano milling machine (PL – 7)

Dimensions: -
Table length: - 5200 mm
Height: - 1300 mm
I/S Gap: - 1850 mm
Width: - 980 mm

Plano milling machine (PL – 8)

Dimensions: -
Table length: - 5200 mm
Height: - 1300 mm
I/S Gap: - 1850 mm
Width: - 980 mm

2. Lathe machines

Vertical Lathe machine (Lathe – 1)

Dimensions: -
I/S Gap: -4200 mm
Chuck OD: -3600 mm
Height: -1800 mm

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Horizontal Lathe machine (Lathe – 2)

Dimensions: -
Chuck OD: - 915 mm
Center Height: - 660 mm
Bed Length: -3600 mm

Horizontal Lathe machine (Lathe – 3)

Dimensions: -
Chuck OD: - 1210 mm
Center Height: - 840 mm
Bed Length: -6760 mm

Horizontal Lathe machine (Lathe – 4)

Dimensions: -
Chuck OD: - 1210 mm
Center Height: - 820 mm
Bed Length: -6730 mm

Horizontal Lathe machine (Lathe – 5)

Dimensions: -
Chuck OD: - 510 mm
Center Height: - 360 mm
Bed Length: -9 ft

Horizontal Lathe machine (Lathe –6)

Dimensions: -
Chuck OD: - 457 mm

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Center Height: - 300 mm
Bed Length: -10 ft

Horizontal Lathe machine (Lathe –7)

Dimensions: -
Chuck OD: - 900 mm
Center Height: - 245 mm
Bed Length: -6 ft

Horizontal Lathe machine (Lathe –8)

Dimensions: -
Chuck OD: - 510 mm
Center Height: - 330 mm
Bed Length: -8 ft

Horizontal Lathe machine (Lathe –9)

Dimensions: -
Chuck OD: - 510 mm
Center Height: - 330 mm
Bed Length: -6 ft

2.10 Horizontal Lathe machine (Lathe –10)

Dimensions: -
Chuck OD: - 200 mm
Center Height: - 150 mm

2.11 Horizontal Lathe machine (Lathe –11)


Dimensions: -
Chuck OD: - 1210 mm
Center Height: - 740 mm
Bed Length: -6730 mm

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3. Milling Machine

Milling machine

Dimensions: -
Height: -650 mm
Table width: - 250 mm
Chuck OD: - 6 inches
Table length: - 1000 mm

4. Shaper Machines

Shaper Machine (shaper – 1)

Dimensions: -
Stroke: - 460 mm
Table width: - 300 mm

Shaper Machine (shaper – 2)

Dimensions: -
Stroke: - 460 mm
Table width: - 300 mm

Shaper Machine (shaper –3)

Dimensions: -
Stroke: - 460 mm
Table width: - 300 mm

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5. Side Facing Lathe Machine

Side Facing Lathe

Dimensions: -
Table L/W: - 1755 * 1750 mm
Height: - 1200 mm
Bed Length: -1800 mm

6. Horizontal Boring Machine

Horizontal Boring Machine

Dimensions: -
Table L/W: - 1250 * 1020 mm
Spindle OD: - 100 mm
Bed Length: - 2500 mm

7. Radial Drilling Machine

 There in total three radial drilling machines.

8. EOT Crane (Electrical overhead travel Crane)

The crane has three parts namely


 Host => for upward or down ward movement of job
 Cross Travel => for horizontal traveling of the job
 Long Travel => for end to end movement of the job in the machine
shop

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Capacity of the EOT cranes in the machine shop is 6 tonnes and 30 tonnes EOT
Cranes capacity depends on

 Gear box
 Crane frame
 Motor

Recently one EOT Crane has been brought from Kolkatta having a capacity of 90
tonnes

10.7 Sand Dryer

It is used to remove the unwanted granules and bigger particles from the fine sand the
fine sand is used for making of moulds etc. it is run by a motor the motor is of
capacity 5 HP.

10.8 Muller machine

It is used to mix up the cement sand jaggery for making of patterns the motor is of
capacity 5 HP and having 20 RPM

11. MARKETING DEPARTMENT

 What is the role of the marketing department?

In any organization the role of the marketing department is very important as it’s the
sole of the organizations transactions and dealings with other companies. To get an
organization into the marketing world, to grow the business of the company it is very
important to have a proficient marketing department. In Jayaswals NECO ltd. and
NECO Castings ltd. the role of the marketing department is to ensure business growth
by contacting various industries, expanding their marketing network by providing
quality in terms of their products and supply.

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 How does the marketing sphere spread?

The marketing department at NECO has their marketing representatives which have a
particular marketing strategy which is made as per the organizations goals and
visions. These representatives travel across the globe for expanding the marketing
sphere of the organization. The interested companies follow up with their
representatives to the host organization to get an overview of the company likewise
the contacts are made and further dealings into products are made. In this way the
company is able to expand their marketing sphere.

 How are the orders placed by customers?

After the analysis of the host company the customers specify their products as per the
manufacturing capabilities i.e. the products the company manufactures. After this
these companies place their order with their deadline to which the host company must
meet to. The specifications of the products are received and the charge is then handed
over to the production department.

 What happens after production is complete?

After the production is complete the marketing department informs the customer
about their product and an inspection team from the customer’s side visits the host
company for verification of their product. After finalizing the product the marketing
department contacts the local transporters for transporting the product to the customer.
The bills are then settled by the marketing department which includes the processing
charge, transportation etc.

12. PRODUCTICTION DEPARTMENT

Production department of the Neco Casting Limited covers the product spectrum of
variety of Large Gray and Ductile Iron Castings for different industrial purposes. The
NCL products are made available through a well established expanding network
trough India and overseas. In this way Neco Casting Limited is able to offer a local
service & customer support in major markets in India and the overseas. Company has
got all the facilities available to achieve high quality standards in their products.

The production department deals with the production of following products:

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Castings for integrated steel plants:

NECO Casting Limited has recently forayed into manufacture of Gray and SG.Iron
Castings for Blast Furnace.

The various Blast furnace Castings being manufactured are:

Cooling Plates (Gray and SG iron):

1. Hearth Cooling Plate


2. Bosh Cooling Plate
3. Stave Cooling Plate
4. Shaft/Gear Cooling plate

Castings for blast furnace from 350-2000cu.mtr.having unit weight in the weight
range of 500kgs-6000kgs each. The design of above castings based on the latest
RUSSIAN, CHINESE, MECON, CET and TISCO design.

Blast furnace stoves (Checker Support System):

The checkers support systems are manufactured based on RUSSION/CHINESE


DESIGN and MECON/CET design. The checkers support system covers all blast
furnace stoves from 262cu.mtr -2000 cu. meters.

Ingot moulds (Large moulds):-

1. Round Ingot Moulds


2. Square Ingot Moulds
3. Polygon Ingot Moulds
4. Hexagonal Ingot Moulds
5. Corrugated/Fluted Ingot Moulds

Neco Casting Limited manufactures large ingot moulds up to 20 MT. single piece and
its annual manufacturing capacity is 30000 MT.

Slag pots (Gray and SG. Iron):-

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The company is also supplying moulds and slag pots of various sizes and capacities to
alloy steel makers and Ferro alloys plants in India and the overseas. The company
manufactures slag pots up to 25 MT. in single piece encompassing volumetric
capacity up to 12 cu.mtr.

Types of slag pots:-

1. Elliptical Slag Pots


2. Round Slag pots
3. Rectangular/Square slag pots

Steel Melting shop:-

1. Bottom Plates – Up to 25 MT single piece


2. Centre Column – Up to 84”
3. Mould Assemblies – All sizes

Gray Iron Castings for Sugar Roller Mills:-

The company also manufactures specialized gray iron castings for sugar industry. The
different types of rollers manufactured by the company are

1. Mill Roller(Conventional)
2. Under Feed Rollers
3. GRPF/TRPF Rollers
4. Kamal Rollers/Lotus Rollers(With GM Bushing)
5. New Shaft Assembly
6. Crouch Rollers
7. Grooving Chevron, Messcharte

Counter Weights:-

Neco Casting limited is the market leader in India in manufacture and supply of
profiled counterweights to various OEM’S for kit trucks and mobile cranes. The
counter weights supplied are similar design of CLARK LINDSAY, LUNA, and

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KALMER etc. NCL manufactures Counter Weights up to 25 MT per piece. Large
size counter weights specially made for Marine Counter Handlers & Side Lift Trucks.

2. Bibliography

1. R.K. Mittal, 1998. Manufacturing Processes, 7th edition; Tata


MacGraw Hill Publication.
2. William D. Callister, 2002. Structure & Properties of Materials, 6th
edition; Williamson & sons Publication.

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3. Dr. Aruna Koneru, 2006. Business communication and report
writing, 1st edition; The ICFAI University Press
4. Website references: -
i) http://www.necoindia.com
ii) http://www.wikipedia.com
iii) http://www.acipco.com/centrifugal/
casting/

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