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Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Absolute convergence

Deﬁnition A series P a n is called absolutely convergent if the series of absolute values P |a n | is convergent. If the terms of the series a n are positive, absolute convergence is the same as convergence.

Example

Are the following series absolutely convergent?

X

n=1

(1) n+1

n

3

,

X

n=1

(1) n

n

.

Rearrangi

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Absolute convergence

Deﬁnition A series P a n is called absolutely convergent if the series of absolute values P |a n | is convergent. If the terms of the series a n are positive, absolute convergence is the same as convergence.

Example

Are the following series absolutely convergent?

X

n=1

(1) n+1

n 3

,

X

n=1

(1) n

n

.

To check if the series P

(1)

n=1

n+1

n 3

is absolutely convergent, we need to

n=1

1 3 is convergent.

n

check if the series of absolute values P

Rearrangi

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Absolute convergence

Deﬁnition A series P a n is called absolutely convergent if the series of absolute values P |a n | is convergent. If the terms of the series a n are positive, absolute convergence is the same as convergence.

Example

Are the following series absolutely convergent?

X

n=1

(1) n+1

n 3

,

X

n=1

(1) n

n

.

To check if the series P

(1)

n=1

n+1

n 3

is absolutely convergent, we need to

n=1

1 3 is convergent.

n

check if the series of absolute values P

Since P

n=1

1 3 is a p-series with p = 3 > 1, it converges and therefore

n

P

n=1

(1) n+1

n

3

is absolutely convergent.

Rearrangi

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Absolute convergence

Deﬁnition A series P a n is called absolutely convergent if the series of absolute values P |a n | is convergent. If the terms of the series a n are positive, absolute convergence is the same as convergence.

Example

Are the following series absolutely convergent?

X

n=1

(1) n+1

n 3

,

X

n=1

(1) n

n

.

To check if the series P

(1)

n=1

n+1

n 3

is absolutely convergent, we need to

n=1

1 3 is convergent.

n

check if the series of absolute values P

Since P

n=1

1 3 is a p-series with p = 3 > 1, it converges and therefore

n

P

n=1

(1) n+1

n

3

is absolutely convergent.

To check if the series P

(1) n

n=1

n

is absolutely convergent, we need to

check if the series of absolute values P

n=1

n 1 is convergent.

Rearrangi

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Absolute convergence

Deﬁnition A series P a n is called absolutely convergent if the series of absolute values P |a n | is convergent. If the terms of the series a n are positive, absolute convergence is the same as convergence.

Example

Are the following series absolutely convergent?

X

n=1

(1) n+1

n 3

,

X

n=1

(1) n

n

.

Rearrangi

To check if the series P

(1)

n=1

n+1

n 3

is absolutely convergent, we need to

n=1

1 3 is convergent.

n

check if the series of absolute values P

Since P

n=1

1 3 is a p-series with p = 3 > 1, it converges and therefore

n

P

n=1

(1) n+1

n

3

is absolutely convergent.

To check if the series P

(1) n

n=1

n

is absolutely convergent, we need to

check if the series of absolute values P

n=1

n 1 is convergent.

Since P

n=1

P

(1) n

n=1

n

n 1 is a p-series with p = 1, it diverges and therefore

is not absolutely convergent.

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Conditional convergence

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Rearrangi

Deﬁnition A series P a n is called conditionally convergent if the series is convergent but not absolutely convergent. Which of the series in the above example is conditionally convergent?

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Conditional convergence

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Rearrangi

Deﬁnition A series P a n is called conditionally convergent if the series is convergent but not absolutely convergent. Which of the series in the above example is conditionally convergent?

Since the series P conditionally convergent.

n=1

n

3

(1)

n+1

is absolutely convergent, it is not

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Conditional convergence

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Rearrangi

Deﬁnition A series P a n is called conditionally convergent if the series is convergent but not absolutely convergent. Which of the series in the above example is conditionally convergent?

Since the series P conditionally convergent.

Since the series P

n=1

(1) n+1

n

3

is absolutely convergent, it is not

(1) n

n=1

n

is convergent (used the alternating series test

last day to show this), but the series of absolute values P

convergent, the series P

n=1

1 is not

n

n=1

(1) n

n

is conditionally convergent.

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Absolute conv. implies conv.

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Rearrangi

TheoremIf a series is absolutely convergent, then it is convergent, that is if P |a n | is convergent, then P a n is convergent. (A proof is given in your notes) Example Are the following series convergent (test for absolute convergence)

X

n=1

(1) n+1

n

3

,

Annette Pilkington

X

n=1

sin(n)

n

4

.

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Absolute conv. implies conv.

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Rearrangi

TheoremIf a series is absolutely convergent, then it is convergent, that is if P |a n | is convergent, then P a n is convergent. (A proof is given in your notes) Example Are the following series convergent (test for absolute convergence)

X

n=1

(1) n+1

n 3

,

X

n=1

sin(n)

n 4

.

Since P series is convergent.

n=1

n

3

(1) n+1

is absolutely convergent, we can conclude that this

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Absolute conv. implies conv.

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Rearrangi

TheoremIf a series is absolutely convergent, then it is convergent, that is if P |a n | is convergent, then P a n is convergent. (A proof is given in your notes) Example Are the following series convergent (test for absolute convergence)

X

n=1

(1) n+1

n 3

,

X

n=1

sin(n)

n 4

.

Since P

series is convergent. To check if the series P

(1)

n=1

n+1

n

3

is absolutely convergent, we can conclude that this

sin(n)

n=1

4

˛

˛

˛

is absolutely convergent, we consider the

sin(n)

n

4

˛

˛

˛.

n

n=1

series of absolute values P

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Absolute conv. implies conv.

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Rearrangi

TheoremIf a series is absolutely convergent, then it is convergent, that is if P |a n | is convergent, then P a n is convergent. (A proof is given in your notes) Example Are the following series convergent (test for absolute convergence)

Since P

(1)

n=1

n+1

n

3

X

n=1

(1) n+1

n 3

,

X

n=1

sin(n)

n 4

.

is absolutely convergent, we can conclude that this

series is convergent.
To check if the series P
∞ sin(n)
is absolutely convergent, we consider the
n=1
˛
n 4
˛
˛ ˛
sin(n)
series of absolute values P
˛
˛.
n=1
n 4
˛
˛ ˛
sin(n)
1
Since 0 ≤ | sin(n)| ≤ 1, we have 0 ≤ ˛ ˛
˛ ≤
n 4
n 4 .

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Absolute conv. implies conv.

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Rearrangi

TheoremIf a series is absolutely convergent, then it is convergent, that is if P |a n | is convergent, then P a n is convergent. (A proof is given in your notes) Example Are the following series convergent (test for absolute convergence)

X

n=1

(1) n+1

n 3

,

X

n=1

sin(n)

n 4

.

Since P

series is convergent. To check if the series P

(1)

n=1

n+1

n

3

is absolutely convergent, we can conclude that this

sin(n)

n=1

4

˛

˛

˛

is absolutely convergent, we consider the

sin(n)

n

4

˛

˛

sin(n)

n

4

˛

˛

˛

1

n 4 .

n

n=1

series of absolute values P

˛.

˛

Since 0 ≤ | sin(n)| ≤ 1, we have 0 ˛ ˛

Therefore the series P

n=1

converging p-series P

n=1

˛

˛

˛

1

sin(n)

n

4

n 4 .

˛

˛ converges by comparison with the

˛

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Absolute conv. implies conv.

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Rearrangi

TheoremIf a series is absolutely convergent, then it is convergent, that is if P |a n | is convergent, then P a n is convergent. (A proof is given in your notes) Example Are the following series convergent (test for absolute convergence)

X

n=1

(1) n+1

n 3

,

X

n=1

sin(n)

n 4

.

Since P

series is convergent. To check if the series P

(1)

n=1

n+1

n

3

is absolutely convergent, we can conclude that this

n=1

sin(n)

n

4

is absolutely convergent, we consider the

series of absolute values P

˛.

˛

Since 0 ≤ | sin(n)| ≤ 1, we have 0 ˛ ˛

n=1

˛

˛

˛

sin(n)

n

4

˛

˛

sin(n)

n

4

˛

˛

˛

1

n 4 .

Therefore the series P

n=1

converging p-series P

n=1

˛

˛

˛

1

sin(n)

n

4

n 4 .

˛

˛ converges by comparison with the

˛

Therefore the series P convergent.

n=1

sin(n)

n

4

is convergent since it is absolutely

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

The Ratio Test

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Rearrangi

This test is useful for determining absolute convergence.

Let P n=1 a n be a series (the terms may be positive or negative).

˛

Let L = lim n ˛

˛

a

n+1

a

n

˛

˛

˛.

If L < 1, then the series P n=1 a n converges absolutely (and hence is convergent).

If L > 1 or , then the series P n=1 a n is divergent.

If L = 1, then the Ratio test is inconclusive and we cannot determine if the series converges or diverges using this test.

This test is especially useful where factorials and powers of a constant appear in terms of a series. (Note that when the ratio test is inconclusive for an alternating series, the alternating series test may work. )

Example 1

Test the following series for convergence

X

n=1

(1) n1 2 n! n

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

The Ratio Test

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Rearrangi

This test is useful for determining absolute convergence.

Let P n=1 a n be a series (the terms may be positive or negative).

˛

Let L = lim n ˛

˛

a

n+1

a

n

˛

˛

˛.

If L < 1, then the series P n=1 a n converges absolutely (and hence is convergent).

If L > 1 or , then the series P n=1 a n is divergent.

If L = 1, then the Ratio test is inconclusive and we cannot determine if the series converges or diverges using this test.

This test is especially useful where factorials and powers of a constant appear in terms of a series. (Note that when the ratio test is inconclusive for an alternating series, the alternating series test may work. )

Example 1

Test the following series for convergence

X
(−1) n−1 2 n! n
n=1
˛ ˛
˛ ˛
˛ ˛
2 n+1 ‹ (n+1)!
˛ ˛
a n+1
2
lim n→∞ ˛
˛ = lim n→∞ ˛
˛ = lim n→∞ n+1 = 0 < 1.
a n
2 n ‹ n!

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

The Ratio Test

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Rearrangi

This test is useful for determining absolute convergence.

Let P n=1 a n be a series (the terms may be positive or negative).

˛

Let L = lim n ˛

˛

a

n+1

a

n

˛

˛

˛.

If L < 1, then the series P n=1 a n converges absolutely (and hence is convergent).

If L > 1 or , then the series P n=1 a n is divergent.

If L = 1, then the Ratio test is inconclusive and we cannot determine if the series converges or diverges using this test.

This test is especially useful where factorials and powers of a constant appear in terms of a series. (Note that when the ratio test is inconclusive for an alternating series, the alternating series test may work. )

Example 1

Test the following series for convergence

X
(−1) n−1 2 n! n
n=1
˛ ˛
˛ ˛
˛ ˛
2 n+1 ‹ (n+1)!
˛ ˛
a n+1
2
lim n→∞ ˛
˛ = lim n→∞ ˛
˛ = lim n→∞
n+1 = 0 < 1.
a n
2 n ‹ n!
Therefore, the series converges.
Annette Pilkington
Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

Example 2

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Ratio Test Let P n=1 a n be a series (the terms may be positive or negative).

Let L = lim n ˛

If L < 1, then the series P n=1 a n converges absolutely. If L > 1 or , then the series P n=1 a n is divergent. If L = 1, then the Ratio test is inconclusive.

Example 2

˛

˛

a

n+1

a

n

˛

˛

˛.

Test the following series for convergence

X

n=1

(1) n

n

n

5

Rearrangin

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

Example 2

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Ratio Test Let P n=1 a n be a series (the terms may be positive or negative).

Let L = lim n ˛

If L < 1, then the series P n=1 a n converges absolutely. If L > 1 or , then the series P n=1 a n is divergent. If L = 1, then the Ratio test is inconclusive.

Example 2

˛

˛

a

n+1

a

n

˛

˛

˛.

Test the following series for convergence

X

n=1

(1) n

n

n

5

˛

lim n→∞ ˛

˛

a

n+1

n

a

˛

˛ = lim n ˛

˛

˛

˛

(n+1) 5 n+1

n

5 n

1 5 lim n (1 + 1/n) =

1

5 < 1.

˛

˛

˛ = lim n

n+1

5n

=

Rearrangin

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

Example 2

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Rearrangin

Ratio Test Let P n=1 a n be a series (the terms may be positive or negative).

Let L = lim n ˛

If L < 1, then the series P n=1 a n converges absolutely. If L > 1 or , then the series P n=1 a n is divergent. If L = 1, then the Ratio test is inconclusive.

Example 2

˛

˛

a

n+1

a

n

˛

˛

˛.

Test the following series for convergence

X

n=1

(1) n

n

n

5

˛

lim n→∞ ˛

˛

a

n+1

n

a

˛

˛ = lim n ˛

˛

˛

˛

(n+1) 5 n+1

n

5 n

1 5 lim n (1 + 1/n) =

1

5 < 1.

˛

˛

˛ = lim n

n+1

5n

=

Therefore, the series converges.

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

Example 3

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 3

Test the following series for convergence P

n=1

n

n

n!

Example 6

Example 7

Rearrangi

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

Example 3

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 3

Test the following series for convergence P

n=1

n

n

n!

˛

lim n→∞ ˛

˛

a

n+1

n

a

lim n→∞ n+1

n

˛

˛ = lim n ˛

˛

˛

˛

(n+1) n+1 (n+1)!

n n n!

˛

˛

˛ = lim n→∞ (n+1)(n+1) n

(n+1)n!

n = lim n 1 +

n n = lim x 1 +

1

x x .

1

Example 6

·

n!

n n =

Example 7

Rearrangi

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

Example 3

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Example 3

Test the following series for convergence P

n=1

n

n

n!

˛

˛

lim n→∞ ˛

a

n+1

n

a

lim n→∞ n+1

n

˛

˛

˛ = lim n ˛

˛

˛

(n+1) n+1 (n+1)!

n n n!

˛

˛

˛ = lim n→∞ (n+1)(n+1) n

(n+1)n!

n = lim n 1 +

n n = lim x 1 +

1

x x .

1

·

n!

n n =

lim x 1 +

x 1 x = lim x e x ln(1 + 1/x) = e lim x x ln(1+1/x) .

lim x x ln(1 + 1/x) = lim x ln(1+1/x)

lim x→∞

1/x = (L Hop) lim x

1

(1+1/x) = 1.

1/x 2

(1+1/x)

1/x 2

=

Rearrangi

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

Example 3

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Example 3

Test the following series for convergence P

n=1

n

n

n!

˛

lim n→∞ ˛

˛

a

n+1

n

a

lim n→∞ n+1

n

˛

˛

˛ = lim n ˛

˛

˛

(n+1) n+1 (n+1)!

n n n!

˛

˛

˛ = lim n→∞ (n+1)(n+1) n

(n+1)n!

n = lim n 1 +

n n = lim x 1 +

1

x x .

1

·

n!

n n =

lim x 1 +

x 1 x = lim x e x ln(1 + 1/x) = e lim x x ln(1+1/x) .

lim x x ln(1 + 1/x) = lim x ln(1+1/x)

lim x→∞

1/x = (L Hop) lim x

1

(1+1/x) = 1.

1/x 2

(1+1/x)

1/x 2

=

˛

Therefore lim n ˛

˛

P

n=1

n

n

n!

diverges.

a

n+1

n

a

˛

˛ = lim x 1 + x x = e 1 = e > 1 and the series

˛

1

Rearrangi

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

Example 4

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 4

Test the following series for convergence P

(1) n

n=1

n

2

Example 6

Example 7

Rearrangi

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

Example 4

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 4

Test the following series for convergence P

(1) n

n=1

n

2

Example 6

Example 7

Rearrangi

We know already that this series converges absolutely and therefore it converges. (we could also use the alternating series test to deduce this).

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

Example 4

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 4

Test the following series for convergence P

(1) n

n=1

n

2

Example 6

Example 7

Rearrangi

We know already that this series converges absolutely and therefore it converges. (we could also use the alternating series test to deduce this).

Lets see what happens when we apply the ratio test here.

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

Example 4

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Example 4

Test the following series for convergence P

(1) n

n=1

n

2

We know already that this series converges absolutely and therefore it converges. (we could also use the alternating series test to deduce this).

Lets see what happens when we apply the ratio test here.

˛

˛

lim n→∞ ˛

˛

˛

˛

˛

˛ = lim n ˛

˛

˛

1

(n+1) 2

1

n 2

a

n+1

a

n

˛ = lim n

n

n+1 2 =

lim n→∞

1+1/n 2 = 1.

1

Rearrangi

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

Example 4

The Ratio Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Example 4

Test the following series for convergence P

(1) n

n=1

n

2

We know already that this series converges absolutely and therefore it converges. (we could also use the alternating series test to deduce this).

Lets see what happens when we apply the ratio test here.

˛

˛

˛

˛

lim n→∞ ˛

˛

˛ = lim n ˛

˛

˛

˛

1

(n+1) 2

1

n 2

a

n+1

a

n

˛ = lim n

n

n+1 2 =

lim n→∞

1+1/n 2 = 1.

1

Therefore the ratio test is inconclusive here.

Rearrangi

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

The Ratio Test

The Root Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Root Test

Let P n=1 a n be a series (the terms may be positive or negative).

If lim n p |a n | = L < 1, then the series P n=1 a n converges absolutely (and hence is convergent).

n

If lim n p |a n | = L > 1 or lim n p |a n | = , then the series P is divergent.

If lim n p |a n | = 1, then the Root test is inconclusive and we cannot determine if the series converges or diverges using this test.

n

n

n=1 a n

n

Example 5

Test the following series for convergence P

n=1 (1) n1

n+1 n

2n

Rearrangi

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

The Ratio Test

The Root Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test

Example 6

Example 7

Root Test

Let P n=1 a n be a series (the terms may be positive or negative).

If lim n p |a n | = L < 1, then the series P n=1 a n converges absolutely (and hence is convergent).

n

If lim n p |a n | = L > 1 or lim n p |a n | = , then the series P is divergent.

If lim n p |a n | = 1, then the Root test is inconclusive and we cannot determine if the series converges or diverges using this test.

n

n

n=1 a n

n

Example 5

Test the following series for convergence P

n=1 (1) n1

n+1 n

2n

Rearrangi

r
n
2n
2n
2
lim n→∞
p n |a n | = lim n→∞
n+1 ” n = lim n→∞ n+1 = lim n→∞
1+1/n =
2 > 1

Annette Pilkington

Lecture 28 :Absolute Convergence, Ratio and root test

Absolute convergence

Conditional convergence

The Ratio Test

The Root Test

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

The Root Test