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UNESCO-NIGERIA TECHNICAL &

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
REVITALISATION PROJECT-PHASE II

NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

HYDRAULICS AND HYDROLOGY


COURSE CODE: CEC 201

YEAR II- SE MESTER 1

PRACTICAL/

Version 1: December 2008

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CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

COURSE: HYDRAULICS AND HYDROLOGY


COURSE CODE: CEC 201
COURSE SPECIFICATION: PRACTICAL CONTENT

TABLE OF CONTENT

WEEK EXPERIMENTS PAGE


1 Osborne Reynold’s Test for Laminar flow
2 Osborne Reynold’s Test for Transition flow
3 Osborne Reynold’s Test for Turbulent flow
4 Permeability test for a soil sample
5 Permeability test for a clay sample
6 Head loss due to friction through smooth pipe
7 Head loss due to friction through rough
8 Flow over weirs (Rectangular weir)
9 Flow over weirs (V-notch weir)
10 Determination of hydraulic jump (specific energy
11 Determination of hydraulic jump (momentum function)
12 Site visit to a Dam site
13 Site visit to a Refinery industry
14 Site visit to a Brewery

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WEEK 1: OSBORNE REYNOLDS TEST
TITLE: OSBORNE REYNOLDS TEST
AIM: To determine laminar flow
THEORY: The Re (non-dimensional) is the internationally recognized criterion denoting
fluid flow condition. The criterion is the ratio of the three parameters. Mean
Pipe velocity, Actual pipe diameter, Kinematics viscosity of the fluid. Re is
independent of pressure.
The two most commonly encountered terms describing fluids flow conditions
are laminar and turbulent. Laminar denotes a steady flow condition where all
stream lines flow parallel paths, there being no interaction (mixing) between
shear planes. The observer will note that under this condition, the dye
(indicator) will remain as a solid and easily identifiable component of flow.
Turbulent denotes on unsteady flow condition where stream lines interact
causing shear plane collapse and mixing of the fluid.
The observer will note that under this condition, the dye will become dispersed
as mixing occurs and will no longer remain a unit component of flow.
Re-denoting the flow of a fluid in a pipe has a value of less than 2000, the flow
will be laminar. If the Re is greater than 2800, the flow will be turbulent.

APPARATUS/REAGENTS: Osborne Reynold apparatus


PROCEDURE:
- Lower the dye injector until it is above the bell mouth inlet
- Open the inlet valve and allow water to enter the stalling tank.
- Maintain a constant level by ensuring a small overflow spillage to waste
through the upper drain outlet.
- Fractionally open the control valve and allow a very slow flow through the
pipe and inject the dye.
- At low flow rates the dyes is draw out through the centre of the pipe.
- Increasing the flow rate produces eddies in the dye until the dye
completely diffuse into the water

RESULTS/CALCULATIONS:
Pipe Diameter (D) = 13m
Area (A) = 133mm2

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Temperature + (oC) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Volume
Time T(Sec) T1
T2
T3

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WEEK 2: OSBORNE REYNOLDS TEST
TITLE: OSBORNE REYNOLDS TEST
AIM: To determine transitional flow
THEORY: The Re (non-dimensional) is the internationally recognized criterion denoting
fluid flow condition. The criterion is the ratio of the three parameters. Mean
Pipe velocity, Actual pipe diameter, Kinematics viscosity of the fluid. Re is
independent of pressure.
The two most commonly encountered terms describing fluids flow conditions
are laminar and turbulent. Laminar denotes a steady flow condition where all
stream lines flow parallel paths, there being no interaction (mixing) between
shear planes. The observer will note that under this condition, the dye
(indicator) will remain as a solid and easily identifiable component of flow.
Turbulent denotes on unsteady flow condition where stream lines interact
causing shear plane collapse and mixing of the fluid.
The observer will note that under this condition, the dye will become dispersed
as mixing occurs and will no longer remain a unit component of flow.
Re-denoting the flow of a fluid in a pipe has a value of less than 2000, the flow
will be laminar. If the Re is greater than 2800, the flow will be turbulent.

APPARATUS/REAGENTS: Osborne Reynold apparatus


PROCEDURE:
- Lower the dye injector until it is above the bellmouth inlet
- Open the inlet valve and allow water to enter the stalling tank.
- Maintain a constant level by ensuring a small overflow spillage to waste
through the upper drain outlet.
- Fractionally open the control valve and allow a very slow flow through the
pipe and inject the dye.
- At low flow rates the dyes is draw out through the centre of the pipe.
- Increasing the flow rate produces eddies in the dye until the dye
completely diffuse into the water

RESULTS/CALCULATIONS:
Pipe Diameter (D) = 13m
Area (A) = 133mm2

5
Temperature + (oC) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Volume
Time T(Sec) T1
T2
T3

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WEEK 3: OSBORNE REYNOLDS TEST
TITLE: OSBORNE REYNOLDS TEST
AIM: To determine turbulent flow
THEORY: The Re (non-dimensional) is the internationally recognized criterion denoting
fluid flow condition. The criterion is the ratio of the three parameters. Mean
Pipe velocity, Actual pipe diameter, Kinematics viscosity of the fluid. Re is
independent of pressure.
The two most commonly encountered terms describing fluids flow conditions
are laminar and turbulent. Laminar denotes a steady flow condition where all
stream lines flow parallel paths, there being no interaction (mixing) between
shear planes. The observer will note that under this condition, the dye
(indicator) will remain as a solid and easily identifiable component of flow.
Turbulent denotes on unsteady flow condition where stream lines interact
causing shear plane collapse and mixing of the fluid.
The observer will note that under this condition, the dye will become dispersed
as mixing occurs and will no longer remain a unit component of flow.
Re-denoting the flow of a fluid in a pipe has a value of less than 2000, the flow
will be laminar. If the Re is greater than 2800, the flow will be turbulent.

APPARATUS/REAGENTS: Osborne Reynold apparatus


PROCEDURE:
- Lower the dye injector until it is above the bellmouth inlet
- Open the inlet valve and allow water to enter the stalling tank.
- Maintain a constant level by ensuring a small overflow spillage to waste
through the upper drain outlet.
- Fractionally open the control valve and allow a very slow flow through the
pipe and inject the dye.
- At low flow rates the dyes is draw out through the centre of the pipe.
- Increasing the flow rate produces eddies in the dye until the dye
completely diffuse into the water

RESULTS/CALCULATIONS:
Pipe Diameter (D) = 13m
Area (A) = 133mm2

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Temperature + (oC) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Volume
Time T(Sec) T1
T2
T3

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WEEK 4: PERMEABILITY TEST
TITLE: PERMEABILITY TEST
AIM: To determine the rate of permeability of a laterite sample
THEORY: This is the determination of a soil property which indicate the rate lease with
which water will flow (q) through a cross-sectional area (A) of a soil.
Therefore q = KIA
q = Rate of flow/time
I = Hydraulic Gradient (h)
A = Cross Sectional Area

Permeability depends on a number of factors. The main area as follows:


1. The size of the soil fluid
2. The properties of the pore fluid
3. The void ratio of the soil
4. the shapes and arrangement of pores
5. The degree of saturation

PROCEDURE:
Variable Head/Falling Head Test
- The disturbed soil sample is lightly compacted and place in a mould of
known cross-sectional area
- The mould is saturated with water and placed under the stand pipe.
- Water is allow to run through the stand pipe Area (A)
- The heights (h1) and (h2) of the water in the stand pipe measured at times
(t1) and (t2) after the start of the test
- At a time ((t2) water percolates through the soil and stand pipe is noted.
- Therefore to measure the coefficient of permeability.
- Place the soil in a measured permeameter and saturate water.
- Allow water to flow from the reservoir through the sample of known
cross-sectional area (A) at a constant.
- The Hydraulic head (h) is measured between two points distance (1) apart.
- When permeability is full completed water flows out through the sample
and is measured in cylinder quantity of water (Q) passing through the
sample due to (t).

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RESULTS/CALCULATIONS:
Therefore according to Darey’s law
V = Ki

Q = Kx h
A x t I

K = (Q)(I)
(At)(h)

Where
K = Coefficient of permeability
Q = Discharge of water
A = Cross sectional area
T = Time interval
L = Length of soil apart
H = Hydraulic head

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WEEK 5: PERMEABILITY TEST
TITLE: PERMEABILITY TEST
AIM: To determine the rate of permeability of a clay sample
THEORY: This is the determination of a soil property which indicate the rate lease with
which water will flow (q) through a cross-sectional area (A) of a soil.
Therefore q = KIA
q = Rate of flow/time
I = Hydraulic Gradient (h)
A = Cross Sectional Area

Permeability depends on a number of factors. The main area as follows:


6. The size of the soil fluid
7. The properties of the pore fluid
8. The void ratio of the soil
9. the shapes and arrangement of pores
10. The degree of saturation

PROCEDURE:
Variable Head/Falling Head Test
- The disturbed soil sample is lightly compacted and place in a mould of
known cross-sectional area
- The mould is saturated with water and placed under the stand pipe.
- Water is allow to run through the stand pipe Area (A)
- The heights (h1) and (h2) of the water in the stand pipe measured at times
(t1) and (t2) after the start of the test
- At a time ((t2) water percolates through the soil and stand pipe is noted.
- Therefore to measure the coefficient of permeability.
- Place the soil in a measured permeameter and saturate water.
- Allow water to flow from the reservoir through the sample of known
cross-sectional area (A) at a constant.
- The Hydraulic head (h) is measured between two points distance (1) apart.
- When permeability is full completed water flows out through the sample
and is measured in cylinder quantity of water (Q) passing through the
sample due to (t).

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RESULTS/CALCULATIONS:
Therefore according to Darey’s law
V = Ki

Q = Kx h
A x t I

K = (Q)(I)
(At)(h)

Where
K = Coefficient of permeability
Q = Discharge of water
A = Cross sectional area
T = Time interval
L = Length of soil apart
H = Hydraulic head

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WEEK 6: HEADLOSS DUE TO FRICTION
TITLE: HEADLOSS DUE TO FRICTION

AIM: To confirm the head loss predicted by a pipe friction equation associated
with flow of water through a smooth bore pipe

THEORY: For a circular pipe flowing full, the head loss due to friction (MH2O) may be
calculated from the formula
H = 4tLv2 or DLv2
2gd 2gd
Where L = length of pipe between tapping (m) = 1m for all pipes.
d = internal diameter of the pipe (m)
v = mean velocity of water through the pipe (m/s)
g = 9.81 (acceleration due to gravity m/s2)
f = pipe friction coefficient (British) 4f = D (American)
Having established the value of Reynolds number R2 for flow in the pipe, the
value of f may be determined from a moody diagram

Re = ρvd
µ
µ = molecular viscosity = 1.15 x 10-3 NS/m3 at 15oC
ρ = density = 999kg/m3 at 15oC

APPARATUS: Fluid Friction apparatus

PROCEDURE:
- The object is to obtain a series of readings of head loss at different flow rates
through the three smooth bore test pipe.
- Prime the pipe network with water
- Open and close the appropriate valve required test pipe.
- Measure flow rates using the volumetric tank in conjunction with flow control
valve V6.
- For small flow rate use the measuring cylinder in conjunction with flow control
valve V6 (V5 closed)
- Measure head loss between the tapping using the mercury manometer or
pressurized water manometer as appropriate.
- Obtained readings on test pipe 1, 2 and 3
- Measure the internal diameter of each test pipe sample using a vernier caliper.

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RESULTS/CALCULATION:

Volume Time Flow Pipe Velocity Reynolds λ Calculated Head Head loss
V (T) rate dia. U No. Headloss loss (HmH2O)
(Litres) (Secs) (Q) (dm) (m/s) Re (hmH2O) (mmHg)
(m3/s)
= = 4Q = ρnd From = πLv2 HA – h Hg-hn
πd
-3 2
Vx10 µ moody dγd Or
T diagram 12.6H

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WEEK 7: HEADLOSS DUE TO FRICTION
TITLE: HEADLOSS DUE TO FRICTION

AIM: To confirm the head loss predicted by a pipe friction equation associated
with flow of water through a rough bore pipe

THEORY: For a circular pipe flowing full, the head loss due to friction (MH2O) may be
calculated from the formula
H = 4tLv2 or DLv2
2gd 2gd
Where L = length of pipe between tapping (m) = 1m for all pipes.
d = internal diameter of the pipe (m)
v = mean velocity of water through the pipe (m/s)
g = 9.81 (acceleration due to gravity m/s2)
f = pipe friction coefficient (British) 4f = D (American)
Having established the value of Reynolds number R2 for flow in the pipe, the
value of f may be determined from a moody diagram

Re = ρvd
µ
µ = molecular viscosity = 1.15 x 10-3 NS/m3 at 15oC
ρ = density = 999kg/m3 at 15oC

APPARATUS: Fluid Friction apparatus

PROCEDURE:
- The object is to obtain a series of readings of head loss at different flow rates
through the three smooth bore test pipe.
- Prime the pipe network with water
- Open and close the appropriate valve required test pipe.
- Measure flow rates using the volumetric tank in conjunction with flow control
valve V6.
- For small flow rate use the measuring cylinder in conjunction with flow control
valve V6 (V5 closed)
- Measure head loss between the tapping using the mercury manometer or
pressurized water manometer as appropriate.
- Obtained readings on test pipe 1, 2 and 3
- Measure the internal diameter of each test pipe sample using a vernier caliper.

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RESULTS/CALCULATION:

Volume Time Flow Pipe Velocity Reynolds λ Calculated Head Head loss
V (T) rate dia. U No. Headloss loss (HmH2O)
(Litres) (Secs) (Q) (dm) (m/s) Re (hmH2O) (mmHg)
(m3/s)
= = 4Q = ρnd From = πLv2 HA – h Hg-hn
πd
-3 2
Vx10 µ moody dγd Or
T diagram 12.6H

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WEEK 8: FLOW OVER WEIRS
TITLE: FLOW OVER WEIRS
AIM: To determine head-discharge relationship for rectangular
THORY: The volume flow rates for the two notches are given by the following equations.
Rectangular

Q = C 2/3 √ 2gbh 3/2

The expressions in square brackets represent the ideal flow rates. The discharge
coefficient C is thus the ratio of the actual flow to the ideal flow for each notch.
Both equations can be expressed in logarithmic form as:
Log Q = Log K + Log H

APPARATUS/REAGENTS: Hydraulic Bench, Stop Clock


PROCEDURE
- Stand the apparatus on the hydraulics bench and connect the bench supply
hose to the inlet pipe push the flexible outlet hose into the pipe leading to
the bench weighing tank (Rectangular).
- Carefully slide the rectangular notch plate into the groove on the apparatus
and check that the rubber seal makes contact with the plate along all the
three edges.
- Switch on the bench plump and open the bench supply value. Fill the
apparatus with water until the level reaches the bottom (crest) of the notch.
Close the supply value.
- Using a beaker, add or remove water until the water surface is just level
with the notch crest.
- Set the hook gauges dial to zero and slide the hook up or down until the
point of the hook just coincides with the water surface.
- Set the hook gauge to a reading of 60mm. Then adjust the bench supply
valve until the water level corresponds roughly to the hook gauge setting.
- Wait until water level has settled to a constant value, then adjust the hook
to the level and read the value of the head.
- Measure the flow rate by turning the collection of water in the bench
weighing tank.

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- Now decrease the head by about weighing 5mm and take another set of
head and flow rate readings. Repeat this procedures until you have about 8
sets of readings over a range of heads down to about 15mm.
- Close the bench supply value and fit the rectangular notch to the apparatus.
Set the water level to the base of the rectangular space by adding or
removing water.
- Repeat the procedure as above for rectangular notch. But this time obtain
readings over a range of heads between 80 and 30mm.
- Switch off the bench pump. Record the width of rectangular notch.

RESULTS/CALCULATIONS

Q = C 2/3 √ 2gbh 3/2 - Rectangular notch

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WEEK 9: FLOW OVER WEIRS
TITLE: FLOW OVER WEIRS
AIM: To determine head-discharge relationship for v-notch weirs
THORY: The volume flow rates for the v – notch weir is given by the following equation.

Vee

Q = C 8/15 √ 2g tan θ H 5/2

The expressions in square brackets represent the ideal flow rates. The discharge
coefficient C is thus the ratio of the actual flow to the ideal flow for each notch.
Both equations can be expressed in logarithmic form as:
Log Q = Log K + Log H

APPARATUS/REAGENTS: Hydraulic Bench, Stop clock

PROCEDURE
- Stand the apparatus on the hydraulics bench and connect the bench supply
hose to the inlet pipe push the flexible outlet hose into the pipe leading to
the bench weighing tank.
- Carefully slide the rectangular notch plate into the groove on the apparatus
and check that the rubber seal makes contact with the plate along all the
three edges.
- Switch on the bench plump and open the bench supply value. Fill the
apparatus with water until the level reaches the bottom (crest) of the notch.
Close the supply value.
- Using a beaker, add or remove water until the water surface is just level
with the notch crest.
- Set the hook gauges dial to zero and slide the hook up or down until the
point of the hook just coincides with the water surface.
- Set the hook gauge to a reading of 60mm. Then adjust the bench supply
valve until the water level corresponds roughly to the hook gauge setting.
- Wait until water level has settled to a constant value, then adjust the hook
to the level and read the value of the head.
- Measure the flow rate by turning the collection of water in the bench
weighing tank.

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- Now decrease the head by about weighing 5mm and take another set of
head and flow rate readings. Repeat this procedures until you have about 8
sets of readings over a range of heads down to about 15mm.
- Close the bench supply value and fit the vee notch to the apparatus. Set
the water level to the base of the vee by adding or removing water.
- Switch off the bench pump. Record the semi-angle 8 of the vee notch.

RESULTS/CALCULATIONS

Q = C 8/15 √ 2g tan θ H 5/2 - Vee notch

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WEEK 10: DETERMINATION OF HYDRAULIC JUMP
TITLE: DETERMINATION OF HYDRAULIC JUMP

AIM: To estimate the energy head loss and power loss due to the hydraulic pump
by specific energy.

APPARATUS: Rectangular open channel with a down-stream control weir; sluice gate,
depth measuring device, flow rate measuring facility, stop watch and
measuring scale.

THEORY: Hydraulics jump occurs whenever water flows on a smooth surface run and
suddenly meets an abrupt surface or in the farm of rapids. At any point in the
flow, the specific energy E and momentum function M are given as
E = y + g2
2gy2
M = g2 + y2 per unit width
gy 2

Applying the E and M concepts to the flow under sluice gate with formation of
hydraulic jump, gives
(a) For flow under sluice gate E1 = E2 and
P = M2 - M1
Eg

(b) For hydraulic jump M2 = M3


i.e. g2 + y2 = g2 + y32
gy2 2 gy2 2

Procedure
- Adjust the channel bed to a horizontal position and place sluices gate at a
fixed height above the bed. Sealing the openings between the gate and
channel wall to prevent leakage.
- Record the height of the gate above the channel bed and the width of the
channel.
- Admit water into the channel and adjust the flow control and downstream
control weir to give the required flow profile.
- Allow the system to steady and take the discharge Q and the flow depth y1,
y2 and y3.
- Vary the flow rate and repeat the readings. Take the at least 4 readings
and record them as shown in the observation table.

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RESULTS

Vol. of Time Discharge y1 y1 y2 Y3 G2 E2 E3 E2t


water (S) (m3/s) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m3/s) (m) (m) (m)
collected
(m3)

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WEEK 11: DETERMINATION OF HYDRAULIC JUMP
TITLE: DETERMINATION OF HYDRAULIC JUMP

AIM: To estimate the energy head loss and power loss due to the hydraulic pump
by momentum function.

APPARATUS: Rectangular open channel with a down-stream control weir; sluice gate,
depth measuring device, flow rate measuring facility, stop watch and
measuring scale.

THEORY: Hydraulics jump occurs whenever water flows on a smooth surface run and
suddenly meets an abrupt surface or in the farm of rapids. At any point in the
flow, the specific energy E and momentum function M are given as
E = y + g2
2gy2
M = g2 + y2 per unit width
gy 2

Applying the E and M concepts to the flow under sluice gate with formation of
hydraulic jump, gives
(c) For flow under sluice gate E1 = E2 and
P = M2 - M1
Eg

(d) For hydraulic jump M2 = M3


i.e. g2 + y2 = g2 + y32
gy2 2 gy2 2

Procedure
- Adjust the channel bed to a horizontal position and place sluices gate at a
fixed height above the bed. Sealing the openings between the gate and
channel wall to prevent leakage.
- Record the height of the gate above the channel bed and the width of the
channel.
- Admit water into the channel and adjust the flow control and downstream
control weir to give the required flow profile.
- Allow the system to steady and take the discharge Q and the flow depth y1,
y2 and y3.
- Vary the flow rate and repeat the readings. Take the at least 4 readings
and record them as shown in the observation table.

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RESULTS

Vol. of Time Discharge y1 y1 y2 Y3 G2 E2 E3 E2t


water (S) (m3/s) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m3/s) (m) (m) (m)
collected
(m3)

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WEEK 12: SITE VISIT TO DAM SITE
AIM: To visit dam site to appreciate the hydraulic jump processes and spillways

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WEEK 13: SITE VISIT TO REFINERY INDUSTRY
AIM: To visit refinery industry to appreciate flow in pipes

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WEEK 14: SITE VISIT TO BREWERY INDUSTRY
AIM: To visit brewery industry to appreciate flow in pipes

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WEEK FIFTEEN
DETERMINATION OF AMMONIA CONTENT IN WATER

Ammonia (Using corning Amonis Electrode)


PROCEDURE:
1) Operate meter in Miltivolt mode
2) Immerse the end of equilibrated electrode into the first standard (the lowest in
concentration i.e 1 x 103 MNTecl) at an angle of 200 to 300 to the vertical. This
reduces the possibility of trapping gas bubbles at the gas permable membrane. If
bubbles are trapped gently tap the body at ensures they are dislodged.

3) The reading in the meter will stabilize in 1 – 2 minutes. Add 1.0ml of 10M Na0H to
each 10ml of solution to adjust the PH to 11 or greater. (We recommend use of 10ml
disposable syringe), After stabilization, note the mV reading displayed.

4) Remove electrode from solution and raise with distilled water around the membrane
and blot dry. CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN TO AVOID TOUCHING THE GAS
PERMEABLE MEMBRANE.

5) Repeat steps, 2, 3, and 4 for each of the calibration standards being used. A minimum
of two are required. Remove the electrode and raise with distilled water around the
gas membrane and blot dry.

6) Construct a calibration curve on semi- log paper by plotting the values of the
concentration standards on the axis versus mV reading obtained in these standards on
the linear axis.

7) Immerse the electrode into the sample as prescribed in step 2. after stablisation, add
1.0ml of 10M NaoH and allow 1 – 2 minutes for the meter reading to stabilization
when the reading has stabilized consult the calibration graph to determine the
concentration of displaced value in mV correspondences.

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