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Useful for both lecturers and students

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VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

REVITALISATION PROJECT-PHASE II

NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN

CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

COURSE CODE: CEC 201

PRACTICAL/

1

CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

COURSE CODE: CEC 201

COURSE SPECIFICATION: PRACTICAL CONTENT

TABLE OF CONTENT

1 Osborne Reynold’s Test for Laminar flow

2 Osborne Reynold’s Test for Transition flow

3 Osborne Reynold’s Test for Turbulent flow

4 Permeability test for a soil sample

5 Permeability test for a clay sample

6 Head loss due to friction through smooth pipe

7 Head loss due to friction through rough

8 Flow over weirs (Rectangular weir)

9 Flow over weirs (V-notch weir)

10 Determination of hydraulic jump (specific energy

11 Determination of hydraulic jump (momentum function)

12 Site visit to a Dam site

13 Site visit to a Refinery industry

14 Site visit to a Brewery

2

WEEK 1: OSBORNE REYNOLDS TEST

TITLE: OSBORNE REYNOLDS TEST

AIM: To determine laminar flow

THEORY: The Re (non-dimensional) is the internationally recognized criterion denoting

fluid flow condition. The criterion is the ratio of the three parameters. Mean

Pipe velocity, Actual pipe diameter, Kinematics viscosity of the fluid. Re is

independent of pressure.

The two most commonly encountered terms describing fluids flow conditions

are laminar and turbulent. Laminar denotes a steady flow condition where all

stream lines flow parallel paths, there being no interaction (mixing) between

shear planes. The observer will note that under this condition, the dye

(indicator) will remain as a solid and easily identifiable component of flow.

Turbulent denotes on unsteady flow condition where stream lines interact

causing shear plane collapse and mixing of the fluid.

The observer will note that under this condition, the dye will become dispersed

as mixing occurs and will no longer remain a unit component of flow.

Re-denoting the flow of a fluid in a pipe has a value of less than 2000, the flow

will be laminar. If the Re is greater than 2800, the flow will be turbulent.

PROCEDURE:

- Lower the dye injector until it is above the bell mouth inlet

- Open the inlet valve and allow water to enter the stalling tank.

- Maintain a constant level by ensuring a small overflow spillage to waste

through the upper drain outlet.

- Fractionally open the control valve and allow a very slow flow through the

pipe and inject the dye.

- At low flow rates the dyes is draw out through the centre of the pipe.

- Increasing the flow rate produces eddies in the dye until the dye

completely diffuse into the water

RESULTS/CALCULATIONS:

Pipe Diameter (D) = 13m

Area (A) = 133mm2

3

Temperature + (oC) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Volume

Time T(Sec) T1

T2

T3

4

WEEK 2: OSBORNE REYNOLDS TEST

TITLE: OSBORNE REYNOLDS TEST

AIM: To determine transitional flow

THEORY: The Re (non-dimensional) is the internationally recognized criterion denoting

fluid flow condition. The criterion is the ratio of the three parameters. Mean

Pipe velocity, Actual pipe diameter, Kinematics viscosity of the fluid. Re is

independent of pressure.

The two most commonly encountered terms describing fluids flow conditions

are laminar and turbulent. Laminar denotes a steady flow condition where all

stream lines flow parallel paths, there being no interaction (mixing) between

shear planes. The observer will note that under this condition, the dye

(indicator) will remain as a solid and easily identifiable component of flow.

Turbulent denotes on unsteady flow condition where stream lines interact

causing shear plane collapse and mixing of the fluid.

The observer will note that under this condition, the dye will become dispersed

as mixing occurs and will no longer remain a unit component of flow.

Re-denoting the flow of a fluid in a pipe has a value of less than 2000, the flow

will be laminar. If the Re is greater than 2800, the flow will be turbulent.

PROCEDURE:

- Lower the dye injector until it is above the bellmouth inlet

- Open the inlet valve and allow water to enter the stalling tank.

- Maintain a constant level by ensuring a small overflow spillage to waste

through the upper drain outlet.

- Fractionally open the control valve and allow a very slow flow through the

pipe and inject the dye.

- At low flow rates the dyes is draw out through the centre of the pipe.

- Increasing the flow rate produces eddies in the dye until the dye

completely diffuse into the water

RESULTS/CALCULATIONS:

Pipe Diameter (D) = 13m

Area (A) = 133mm2

5

Temperature + (oC) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Volume

Time T(Sec) T1

T2

T3

6

WEEK 3: OSBORNE REYNOLDS TEST

TITLE: OSBORNE REYNOLDS TEST

AIM: To determine turbulent flow

THEORY: The Re (non-dimensional) is the internationally recognized criterion denoting

fluid flow condition. The criterion is the ratio of the three parameters. Mean

Pipe velocity, Actual pipe diameter, Kinematics viscosity of the fluid. Re is

independent of pressure.

The two most commonly encountered terms describing fluids flow conditions

are laminar and turbulent. Laminar denotes a steady flow condition where all

stream lines flow parallel paths, there being no interaction (mixing) between

shear planes. The observer will note that under this condition, the dye

(indicator) will remain as a solid and easily identifiable component of flow.

Turbulent denotes on unsteady flow condition where stream lines interact

causing shear plane collapse and mixing of the fluid.

The observer will note that under this condition, the dye will become dispersed

as mixing occurs and will no longer remain a unit component of flow.

Re-denoting the flow of a fluid in a pipe has a value of less than 2000, the flow

will be laminar. If the Re is greater than 2800, the flow will be turbulent.

PROCEDURE:

- Lower the dye injector until it is above the bellmouth inlet

- Open the inlet valve and allow water to enter the stalling tank.

- Maintain a constant level by ensuring a small overflow spillage to waste

through the upper drain outlet.

- Fractionally open the control valve and allow a very slow flow through the

pipe and inject the dye.

- At low flow rates the dyes is draw out through the centre of the pipe.

- Increasing the flow rate produces eddies in the dye until the dye

completely diffuse into the water

RESULTS/CALCULATIONS:

Pipe Diameter (D) = 13m

Area (A) = 133mm2

7

Temperature + (oC) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Volume

Time T(Sec) T1

T2

T3

8

WEEK 4: PERMEABILITY TEST

TITLE: PERMEABILITY TEST

AIM: To determine the rate of permeability of a laterite sample

THEORY: This is the determination of a soil property which indicate the rate lease with

which water will flow (q) through a cross-sectional area (A) of a soil.

Therefore q = KIA

q = Rate of flow/time

I = Hydraulic Gradient (h)

A = Cross Sectional Area

1. The size of the soil fluid

2. The properties of the pore fluid

3. The void ratio of the soil

4. the shapes and arrangement of pores

5. The degree of saturation

PROCEDURE:

Variable Head/Falling Head Test

- The disturbed soil sample is lightly compacted and place in a mould of

known cross-sectional area

- The mould is saturated with water and placed under the stand pipe.

- Water is allow to run through the stand pipe Area (A)

- The heights (h1) and (h2) of the water in the stand pipe measured at times

(t1) and (t2) after the start of the test

- At a time ((t2) water percolates through the soil and stand pipe is noted.

- Therefore to measure the coefficient of permeability.

- Place the soil in a measured permeameter and saturate water.

- Allow water to flow from the reservoir through the sample of known

cross-sectional area (A) at a constant.

- The Hydraulic head (h) is measured between two points distance (1) apart.

- When permeability is full completed water flows out through the sample

and is measured in cylinder quantity of water (Q) passing through the

sample due to (t).

9

RESULTS/CALCULATIONS:

Therefore according to Darey’s law

V = Ki

Q = Kx h

A x t I

K = (Q)(I)

(At)(h)

Where

K = Coefficient of permeability

Q = Discharge of water

A = Cross sectional area

T = Time interval

L = Length of soil apart

H = Hydraulic head

10

WEEK 5: PERMEABILITY TEST

TITLE: PERMEABILITY TEST

AIM: To determine the rate of permeability of a clay sample

THEORY: This is the determination of a soil property which indicate the rate lease with

which water will flow (q) through a cross-sectional area (A) of a soil.

Therefore q = KIA

q = Rate of flow/time

I = Hydraulic Gradient (h)

A = Cross Sectional Area

6. The size of the soil fluid

7. The properties of the pore fluid

8. The void ratio of the soil

9. the shapes and arrangement of pores

10. The degree of saturation

PROCEDURE:

Variable Head/Falling Head Test

- The disturbed soil sample is lightly compacted and place in a mould of

known cross-sectional area

- The mould is saturated with water and placed under the stand pipe.

- Water is allow to run through the stand pipe Area (A)

- The heights (h1) and (h2) of the water in the stand pipe measured at times

(t1) and (t2) after the start of the test

- At a time ((t2) water percolates through the soil and stand pipe is noted.

- Therefore to measure the coefficient of permeability.

- Place the soil in a measured permeameter and saturate water.

- Allow water to flow from the reservoir through the sample of known

cross-sectional area (A) at a constant.

- The Hydraulic head (h) is measured between two points distance (1) apart.

- When permeability is full completed water flows out through the sample

and is measured in cylinder quantity of water (Q) passing through the

sample due to (t).

11

RESULTS/CALCULATIONS:

Therefore according to Darey’s law

V = Ki

Q = Kx h

A x t I

K = (Q)(I)

(At)(h)

Where

K = Coefficient of permeability

Q = Discharge of water

A = Cross sectional area

T = Time interval

L = Length of soil apart

H = Hydraulic head

12

WEEK 6: HEADLOSS DUE TO FRICTION

TITLE: HEADLOSS DUE TO FRICTION

AIM: To confirm the head loss predicted by a pipe friction equation associated

with flow of water through a smooth bore pipe

THEORY: For a circular pipe flowing full, the head loss due to friction (MH2O) may be

calculated from the formula

H = 4tLv2 or DLv2

2gd 2gd

Where L = length of pipe between tapping (m) = 1m for all pipes.

d = internal diameter of the pipe (m)

v = mean velocity of water through the pipe (m/s)

g = 9.81 (acceleration due to gravity m/s2)

f = pipe friction coefficient (British) 4f = D (American)

Having established the value of Reynolds number R2 for flow in the pipe, the

value of f may be determined from a moody diagram

Re = ρvd

µ

µ = molecular viscosity = 1.15 x 10-3 NS/m3 at 15oC

ρ = density = 999kg/m3 at 15oC

PROCEDURE:

- The object is to obtain a series of readings of head loss at different flow rates

through the three smooth bore test pipe.

- Prime the pipe network with water

- Open and close the appropriate valve required test pipe.

- Measure flow rates using the volumetric tank in conjunction with flow control

valve V6.

- For small flow rate use the measuring cylinder in conjunction with flow control

valve V6 (V5 closed)

- Measure head loss between the tapping using the mercury manometer or

pressurized water manometer as appropriate.

- Obtained readings on test pipe 1, 2 and 3

- Measure the internal diameter of each test pipe sample using a vernier caliper.

13

RESULTS/CALCULATION:

Volume Time Flow Pipe Velocity Reynolds λ Calculated Head Head loss

V (T) rate dia. U No. Headloss loss (HmH2O)

(Litres) (Secs) (Q) (dm) (m/s) Re (hmH2O) (mmHg)

(m3/s)

= = 4Q = ρnd From = πLv2 HA – h Hg-hn

πd

-3 2

Vx10 µ moody dγd Or

T diagram 12.6H

14

WEEK 7: HEADLOSS DUE TO FRICTION

TITLE: HEADLOSS DUE TO FRICTION

AIM: To confirm the head loss predicted by a pipe friction equation associated

with flow of water through a rough bore pipe

THEORY: For a circular pipe flowing full, the head loss due to friction (MH2O) may be

calculated from the formula

H = 4tLv2 or DLv2

2gd 2gd

Where L = length of pipe between tapping (m) = 1m for all pipes.

d = internal diameter of the pipe (m)

v = mean velocity of water through the pipe (m/s)

g = 9.81 (acceleration due to gravity m/s2)

f = pipe friction coefficient (British) 4f = D (American)

Having established the value of Reynolds number R2 for flow in the pipe, the

value of f may be determined from a moody diagram

Re = ρvd

µ

µ = molecular viscosity = 1.15 x 10-3 NS/m3 at 15oC

ρ = density = 999kg/m3 at 15oC

PROCEDURE:

- The object is to obtain a series of readings of head loss at different flow rates

through the three smooth bore test pipe.

- Prime the pipe network with water

- Open and close the appropriate valve required test pipe.

- Measure flow rates using the volumetric tank in conjunction with flow control

valve V6.

- For small flow rate use the measuring cylinder in conjunction with flow control

valve V6 (V5 closed)

- Measure head loss between the tapping using the mercury manometer or

pressurized water manometer as appropriate.

- Obtained readings on test pipe 1, 2 and 3

- Measure the internal diameter of each test pipe sample using a vernier caliper.

15

RESULTS/CALCULATION:

Volume Time Flow Pipe Velocity Reynolds λ Calculated Head Head loss

V (T) rate dia. U No. Headloss loss (HmH2O)

(Litres) (Secs) (Q) (dm) (m/s) Re (hmH2O) (mmHg)

(m3/s)

= = 4Q = ρnd From = πLv2 HA – h Hg-hn

πd

-3 2

Vx10 µ moody dγd Or

T diagram 12.6H

16

WEEK 8: FLOW OVER WEIRS

TITLE: FLOW OVER WEIRS

AIM: To determine head-discharge relationship for rectangular

THORY: The volume flow rates for the two notches are given by the following equations.

Rectangular

The expressions in square brackets represent the ideal flow rates. The discharge

coefficient C is thus the ratio of the actual flow to the ideal flow for each notch.

Both equations can be expressed in logarithmic form as:

Log Q = Log K + Log H

PROCEDURE

- Stand the apparatus on the hydraulics bench and connect the bench supply

hose to the inlet pipe push the flexible outlet hose into the pipe leading to

the bench weighing tank (Rectangular).

- Carefully slide the rectangular notch plate into the groove on the apparatus

and check that the rubber seal makes contact with the plate along all the

three edges.

- Switch on the bench plump and open the bench supply value. Fill the

apparatus with water until the level reaches the bottom (crest) of the notch.

Close the supply value.

- Using a beaker, add or remove water until the water surface is just level

with the notch crest.

- Set the hook gauges dial to zero and slide the hook up or down until the

point of the hook just coincides with the water surface.

- Set the hook gauge to a reading of 60mm. Then adjust the bench supply

valve until the water level corresponds roughly to the hook gauge setting.

- Wait until water level has settled to a constant value, then adjust the hook

to the level and read the value of the head.

- Measure the flow rate by turning the collection of water in the bench

weighing tank.

17

- Now decrease the head by about weighing 5mm and take another set of

head and flow rate readings. Repeat this procedures until you have about 8

sets of readings over a range of heads down to about 15mm.

- Close the bench supply value and fit the rectangular notch to the apparatus.

Set the water level to the base of the rectangular space by adding or

removing water.

- Repeat the procedure as above for rectangular notch. But this time obtain

readings over a range of heads between 80 and 30mm.

- Switch off the bench pump. Record the width of rectangular notch.

RESULTS/CALCULATIONS

18

WEEK 9: FLOW OVER WEIRS

TITLE: FLOW OVER WEIRS

AIM: To determine head-discharge relationship for v-notch weirs

THORY: The volume flow rates for the v – notch weir is given by the following equation.

Vee

The expressions in square brackets represent the ideal flow rates. The discharge

coefficient C is thus the ratio of the actual flow to the ideal flow for each notch.

Both equations can be expressed in logarithmic form as:

Log Q = Log K + Log H

PROCEDURE

- Stand the apparatus on the hydraulics bench and connect the bench supply

hose to the inlet pipe push the flexible outlet hose into the pipe leading to

the bench weighing tank.

- Carefully slide the rectangular notch plate into the groove on the apparatus

and check that the rubber seal makes contact with the plate along all the

three edges.

- Switch on the bench plump and open the bench supply value. Fill the

apparatus with water until the level reaches the bottom (crest) of the notch.

Close the supply value.

- Using a beaker, add or remove water until the water surface is just level

with the notch crest.

- Set the hook gauges dial to zero and slide the hook up or down until the

point of the hook just coincides with the water surface.

- Set the hook gauge to a reading of 60mm. Then adjust the bench supply

valve until the water level corresponds roughly to the hook gauge setting.

- Wait until water level has settled to a constant value, then adjust the hook

to the level and read the value of the head.

- Measure the flow rate by turning the collection of water in the bench

weighing tank.

19

- Now decrease the head by about weighing 5mm and take another set of

head and flow rate readings. Repeat this procedures until you have about 8

sets of readings over a range of heads down to about 15mm.

- Close the bench supply value and fit the vee notch to the apparatus. Set

the water level to the base of the vee by adding or removing water.

- Switch off the bench pump. Record the semi-angle 8 of the vee notch.

RESULTS/CALCULATIONS

20

WEEK 10: DETERMINATION OF HYDRAULIC JUMP

TITLE: DETERMINATION OF HYDRAULIC JUMP

AIM: To estimate the energy head loss and power loss due to the hydraulic pump

by specific energy.

APPARATUS: Rectangular open channel with a down-stream control weir; sluice gate,

depth measuring device, flow rate measuring facility, stop watch and

measuring scale.

THEORY: Hydraulics jump occurs whenever water flows on a smooth surface run and

suddenly meets an abrupt surface or in the farm of rapids. At any point in the

flow, the specific energy E and momentum function M are given as

E = y + g2

2gy2

M = g2 + y2 per unit width

gy 2

Applying the E and M concepts to the flow under sluice gate with formation of

hydraulic jump, gives

(a) For flow under sluice gate E1 = E2 and

P = M2 - M1

Eg

i.e. g2 + y2 = g2 + y32

gy2 2 gy2 2

Procedure

- Adjust the channel bed to a horizontal position and place sluices gate at a

fixed height above the bed. Sealing the openings between the gate and

channel wall to prevent leakage.

- Record the height of the gate above the channel bed and the width of the

channel.

- Admit water into the channel and adjust the flow control and downstream

control weir to give the required flow profile.

- Allow the system to steady and take the discharge Q and the flow depth y1,

y2 and y3.

- Vary the flow rate and repeat the readings. Take the at least 4 readings

and record them as shown in the observation table.

21

RESULTS

water (S) (m3/s) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m3/s) (m) (m) (m)

collected

(m3)

22

WEEK 11: DETERMINATION OF HYDRAULIC JUMP

TITLE: DETERMINATION OF HYDRAULIC JUMP

AIM: To estimate the energy head loss and power loss due to the hydraulic pump

by momentum function.

APPARATUS: Rectangular open channel with a down-stream control weir; sluice gate,

depth measuring device, flow rate measuring facility, stop watch and

measuring scale.

THEORY: Hydraulics jump occurs whenever water flows on a smooth surface run and

suddenly meets an abrupt surface or in the farm of rapids. At any point in the

flow, the specific energy E and momentum function M are given as

E = y + g2

2gy2

M = g2 + y2 per unit width

gy 2

Applying the E and M concepts to the flow under sluice gate with formation of

hydraulic jump, gives

(c) For flow under sluice gate E1 = E2 and

P = M2 - M1

Eg

i.e. g2 + y2 = g2 + y32

gy2 2 gy2 2

Procedure

- Adjust the channel bed to a horizontal position and place sluices gate at a

fixed height above the bed. Sealing the openings between the gate and

channel wall to prevent leakage.

- Record the height of the gate above the channel bed and the width of the

channel.

- Admit water into the channel and adjust the flow control and downstream

control weir to give the required flow profile.

- Allow the system to steady and take the discharge Q and the flow depth y1,

y2 and y3.

- Vary the flow rate and repeat the readings. Take the at least 4 readings

and record them as shown in the observation table.

23

RESULTS

water (S) (m3/s) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m3/s) (m) (m) (m)

collected

(m3)

24

WEEK 12: SITE VISIT TO DAM SITE

AIM: To visit dam site to appreciate the hydraulic jump processes and spillways

25

WEEK 13: SITE VISIT TO REFINERY INDUSTRY

AIM: To visit refinery industry to appreciate flow in pipes

26

WEEK 14: SITE VISIT TO BREWERY INDUSTRY

AIM: To visit brewery industry to appreciate flow in pipes

27

WEEK FIFTEEN

DETERMINATION OF AMMONIA CONTENT IN WATER

PROCEDURE:

1) Operate meter in Miltivolt mode

2) Immerse the end of equilibrated electrode into the first standard (the lowest in

concentration i.e 1 x 103 MNTecl) at an angle of 200 to 300 to the vertical. This

reduces the possibility of trapping gas bubbles at the gas permable membrane. If

bubbles are trapped gently tap the body at ensures they are dislodged.

3) The reading in the meter will stabilize in 1 – 2 minutes. Add 1.0ml of 10M Na0H to

each 10ml of solution to adjust the PH to 11 or greater. (We recommend use of 10ml

disposable syringe), After stabilization, note the mV reading displayed.

4) Remove electrode from solution and raise with distilled water around the membrane

and blot dry. CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN TO AVOID TOUCHING THE GAS

PERMEABLE MEMBRANE.

5) Repeat steps, 2, 3, and 4 for each of the calibration standards being used. A minimum

of two are required. Remove the electrode and raise with distilled water around the

gas membrane and blot dry.

6) Construct a calibration curve on semi- log paper by plotting the values of the

concentration standards on the axis versus mV reading obtained in these standards on

the linear axis.

7) Immerse the electrode into the sample as prescribed in step 2. after stablisation, add

1.0ml of 10M NaoH and allow 1 – 2 minutes for the meter reading to stabilization

when the reading has stabilized consult the calibration graph to determine the

concentration of displaced value in mV correspondences.

28

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