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HANOI UNIVERSITY OF MINING AND GEOLOGY

ECH 51
Material Balances
First Exam
Monday April 15, 9:00-10:30
(Closed book and closed notes, calculators allowed)

ü Prof. Brian G. Higgins April 2012

Given for Exam:


Total Mass Balance

‡ r „V + ‡ r Hv - wL ÿ n „ A = 0
„t V HtL A HtL

Species Mass Balance (no reactions)



‡ rA „ V + ‡ rA HvA - wL ÿ n „ A = 0, A = 1, 2, …, N
„t V HtL A HtL

Problem 1 (10 pts)


As water flows over the dam illustrated in Figure below, it accelerates because of the action of gravity. When the
effect of gravity is much larger than the effect of the friction between the water and the surface of the dam, the magni-
tude of the velocity of the water can be expressed as

v= v20 + 2 g z

in which z is measured as indicated in the figure. This expression for the velocity is based on the idea that potential and
kinetic energy are conserved when frictional effects are negligible. If the width of the dam is constant and the water
level in the dam does not change appreciably, what is the thickness of the fluid stream, h(z) , as a function of z.
Assume that the density of the water is constant and that the velocity profile is flat everywhere as indicated in the
figure.
In your analysis be sure to indicate the CV you selected for your calculations
2 ECH51FirstExam1Soln_2012.nb

ü Solution
We will choose a control volume cuts the fluid passing over the weir with height ho an then cuts the fluid flow over the
dam wall at some arbitrary location z with height h(z). We assume that the flow is steady and the density is constant.
Under these assumptions the macroscopic balance becomes

‡ v ÿ n „A = 0
A

Note that v ÿ n is zero everywhere except at the entrance and exit of our control volume. Thus our macroscopic balance
becomes
- v0 ho b + v HzL h HzL b = 0

where b is the width of the dam. v(z) and h(z) represent the velocity and height at the exit denoted by position 1 in the
figure. We use the result

v= v20 + 2 gz

to solve for the fluid depth


v0 h0 h0
h HzL = =
v20 + 2 g z 2gz
1+
v20
ECH51FirstExam1Soln_2012.nb 3

Problem 2 (10 points)


In a four stage evaporation system shown in figure below, a 50% by weight sugar solution is concentrated to 75% by
°
weight in the liquid stream m4 leaving the fourth evaporator. Pure water leaves the top of each evaporator with the
same equal mass flow. In your analysis, let the sugar be species A and the water be species B. The mass flow rate
entering the system is 100 kg/min,
(i) Do a degree of freedom Analysis to show that it is possible to find the composition of the streams leaving the
second evapoartor. In your analysis make sure you do the following:
Ë List the generic varaibles for the problem
Ë List the generic constraints and specifications for the problem
Ë List theparticulat constraints/specifications for the problem.

(ii) Determine the mass fraction of the sugar solution leaving the second evaporator, i.e. HwA L2 . Show all control
volumes used in your analysis.
°
mB

1 2 3
4

ü Solution Problem 2
We begin our nalaysis by selecting a control volume that encompasses all 4 units and cuts stream #0, Stream #4 and
the sterams from the top of the unit. The species balance for sugar is
° °
Sugar HSpecies AL : - HwA L0 m0 + HwA L4 m4 = 0
° ° °
Water HSpecies BL : - HwB L0 m0 + 4 mB + HwB L4 m4 = 0
Instead of the species balance for water we can use the overall balance
° ° °
Overall Balance : - m0 + 4 mB + m4 = 0
Next we select a control volume that encompasses units 1 and 2
° °
Sugar HSpecies AL : - HwA L0 m0 + HwA L2 m2 = 0
° ° °
Overall Balance : - m0 + 2 mB + m2 = 0
° °
We solve then for m4 and mB using (16) and (18)
° °
° HwA L0 m0 ° m0 HwA L0
m4 = , mB = 1-
HwA L4 4 HwA L4
Given these two results we can use (19) and (20) to obtain
°
° m0 HwA L0 2 HwA L0
m2 = 1+ , HwA L2 =
2 HwA L4 Hw L
J1 + A 0 N
HwA L4

and the calaculated values of the mass fraction in stream #2 is given by


4 ECH51FirstExam1Soln_2012.nb

HwA L2 = 0.60

Problem 3 (15 points)


Liquid acetone (C3 H6 O, species A) is fed (Stream #1) a rate of 0.400 m3 /min into a heated evaporator, where it
evaporates into a nitrogen stream that enters the evaporator as Stream #2. The gas mixture leaving the evaporator
Stream #3 is diluted by another nitrogen stream (Stream #4) flowing at a measured rate of 419 m3 HSTPL/min. The
combined gases (Stream #5) are then compressed together and leave the compressor at a total pressure of 5550 mm Hg
and temperature of 325°C (Stream #6). The partial pressure of acetone in the exit stream (Stream #6) is
pA = 500 mm Hg. The ambient pressure is 763 mm Hg. A schematic of the flow is shown below

(i) What are the molar flow rates of N2 and acetone in the stream leaving the compressor (Stream #6)?
(ii) What is the volumetric flow rate of nitrogen entering the evaporator (Stream #2) if the temperature and pressure of
this stream are 27°C and 1238 mm Hg ?
Data given:
1 mol =0.0224 m3 HSTPL , rA = 0.791 g ë cm3 , MA = 58.06 g ê mol
The partial pressure is related to the total pressure by: pA = yA P
ü Solution
(ii) We select a control volume that cuts streams #1, #2, #4, and #6. At steady state the species balance for acetone is
° °
HMA L1 = HMA L6
and the overall balance is
° ° ° °
M1 + M2 + M4 = M6
From the data given we can compute the molar flow rate of acetone
°
HMA L1 =
m3 g 1 cm3 mol 5449.53 mol
.400 .791 = = 5.44953 µ 103 mol ê min
min 3 -6 3 58.06 g min
cm 10 m
Now the partial pressure of acetone in stream #6 is pA = 501 mm Hg. Hence the mole fraction of acetone is
pA 500. mmHg
HyA L6 = = = 0.0900901 (1)
P 5550 mmHg
Hence the mole fraction of nitrogen in stream #6 is
HyN2 L6 = 1 - HyA L6 = 1 - 0.0900901 = 0.90991 (2)

From the overall species balance for acetone it follows that


° °
HMA L1 = HyA L6 M6
°
Solving for M 6 we get
ECH51FirstExam1Soln_2012.nb 5

°
° HMA L1 mol 60 489.8 mol
M6 = = 5.44953 µ 103 ì 0.09009 =
HyA L6 min min
Thus the molar flow rates of N2 and acetone in stream #6 are
° mol
HMA L6 = 6.05 µ 104 ,
min
° mol 55 049.6 mol
HMN2 L6 = 6.05 µ 104 H0.90991L =
min min
(iii) An overall balance gives
° ° ° °
HMN2 L2 + HMA L1 + HMN2 L4 = M6
°
Solving for HMN2 L2 gives
° ° ° °
HMN2 L2 = M6 - HMA L1 - HMN2 L4
60 489.8 mol °
= - 5.44953 µ 103 mol ê min - HMN2 L4
min
We are given that the volumetric flow rate of N2 in stream #4 is 419 m3 HSTPL/min. Thus the molar flow rate is
° 419 m3 HSTPL ê min
HMN2 L4 = = 18 705.4 mol ê min
0.0224 m3 HSTPL ê mol
°
Thus HMN2 L2 is
60 489.8 mol 36 335. mol
- 5.44953 µ 103 mol ê min - 18 705.4 mol ê min =
min min
(ii) The the volumetric flow rate is determined from
°
° ° Vs T2 Ps 36 335. mol 0.0224 m3 H273 + 27L 760
V2 = HMN2 L2 : >=
Ts P2 min mol 273 µ 1238
549.066 m3
=
min