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IOT Based Smart Signal 2018-19

Chapter 1

About 1 lakh cases have been registered against vehicles but none convicted. The
outstanding fines to the government from defaulters are over 20 crores and more than 23% of
automobile owners do not have a valid emission certification. Number plates are used for unique
identification of vehicles. The automated surveillance system uses image processing technique to
identify vehicles by their number plates. When a vehicle has stopped at a signal, the system extracts
the registration number from the number plate. The system checks for any pending cases or unpaid
fines or if it is a stolen car and alerts the nearest patrol party by searching the RTO database. It
also detects if a person is using a fake number plate or invalid registration number.

In case of any default, the system automatically finds the nearest patrol party using GPS
and sends an alert the patrol. If the same patrol party is to receive more than one alert, the alerts
are queued according to the seriousness of the offense. For example, if the system detects a stolen
car and a car without emission test together, the highest priority is given to the stolen car alert that
needs to be sent. It is a challenging task to detect the outer boundary of the number plate due to
the limited quality of camera and various textures and fonts of the number plates on the cars, also
the variations in light intensity at different places makes the task difficult.

The system controls the divider position based on the traffic density on either side. The
infrared sensors fitted on either sides of the road sense the traffic density, based on which the
divider is switched between positions 1, 2 and 3.This paper presents a method to build an IoT
based automated surveillance system to capture the registration number of vehicles and to alert
nearest traffic police in case of any default. Defaults imply any pending fines, pending cases and
violation of emission norms. This surveillance also helps in efficient search of stolen cars. This
methodology can be incorporated at toll gates to ease the vehicle movement. Based on live traffic,
a smart algorithm will change timer of the signal and move the divider based on the traffic
congestion.

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IOT Based Smart Signal 2018-19

In the trend of globalization, we have to receive and process a huge amount of information
which need to be archived, handled, summarized and classified in an effective way. In data
processing, image recognition is a complicated problem and plays an important role in many areas
such as hydrometeorology, environment, physics, etc. Although it has been interested by a lot of
researchers in many different areas for a long time, it is quite challenging at present. In content-
based image recognition, we can classify images by three main approaches: color-based approach,
texturebased approach and shape-based approach. Each method has its advantages and
disadvantages.

According to the image properties and analysis purposes, we can choose the suitable
method. This paper focuses on the texture-based method that studies about the spatial arrangement
of color or intensities in an image. In literature, In here comparison to the signal processing
approach, statistical approach based on the grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) is easy to use
and spend less computational cost. This method, in fact, gives a high classification performance
and is applied by many researchers. For example, Clausi combined GLCM and Fisher method to
classify natural textures, Bhogle and Patil combined GLCM and Mahalabonis distance to detect
oil spill, etc. In general, the well-known procedure of texture-based image recognition is
performed.

if we have a cases of distance d, b cases of direction θ and c extracted features for each
GLCM, we will receive abc Typical Variables for Texture (TVT) of image. However, it is not
meaningful to say that the more variables in the model, the better result we will receive.
Furthermore, an increase from the number of variables which are uncorrelated to the class of image
may create noise and cause a poor performance. In texture-based image recognition, the choices
of TVT and other researches are still based on experience, hence, their suitabilities are not ensured
for all cases of image database is used for searching reasonable TVT. Specifically, the TVT are
chosen so that the error rate in cross-validation set is minimized. Note that, besides the training
and test sets, we use an additional cross validation set. The MI-LXPM is used to minimize the
error in cross validation set instead of training set to avoid the overfitting problem. The selected
TVT are continued to measure the performance via an image dataset for testing. This article
proposes an algorithm to optimize the performance in texture classification by Bayesian method.

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Specifically, we extract several features from the Grey level cooccurrence matrices (GLCMs) with
different distances d and directions θ. We then apply Genetic algorithm to select the suitable
features that can minimize the error rate of using the cross validation set. This choice of features
continues to be used for classifying test data. Three numerical examples performed with synthetic
and real images show the superiority of proposed algorithm over some existing ones. They also
present the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method for texture recognition, especially
for some practical problems such as material and handwritten digit recognition.

The paper represents the automatic plate localization component of a Car License Plate
Recognition system. The approach concerns stages of preprocessing, edge detection, filtering,
detection of the plate's position, slope evaluation, and character segmentation and recognition.
Single frame gray-level images are used as the only source of information. In the experiments
Israeli and Bulgarian license plates were used, camera obtained at different daytime and whether
conditions. The results derived have shown that the approach is robust to illumination, plate slope,
scale, and is insensitive to plate’s country peculiarities. These results could be also usable for other
applications in the input-output transport systems, where automatic recognition of registration
plates, shields, signs, etc., is often necessary. Key words: Car license plates, Image processing,
Segmentation and Recognition, Input-output transport information systems.

Nevertheless that a lot of CLPR systems are available in the market worldwide, the research
and development still continues and new sophisticated solutions to plate localization, character
segmentation and recognition appear. This is due to the growing demand for the automatic vehicle
identification required for traffic control, border control, access-control, calculation of parking
time and payment, search for stolen cars or unpaid fees, and the requirement for reliable
identification at different lighting conditions, presence of random or structured noise in the plate,
and nationality specific features, concerning plate’s size and type of characters. A system for
automatic CLPR consists of a camera (color or gray level), frame grabber, computer and specially
designed software for image processing and analysis.

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A system should be ready to work with alternative image acquisition equipment, as well
as with previously or remotely captured and stored images. It should be capable of: - working
indoor and outdoor - working in a wide range of illumination conditions - being invariant to size,
scale and stroke thickness - being robust to broken strokes, printing defects, noise, etc. - being
robust to camera-car relative movement - giving a real-time response, as shown by Cohen et al,
Kim et al, and Nelson. A CLPR system can be conceptually considered as containing two separate
processing stages: • License Plate Localization (LPL) • License Plate Character Recognition
(LPCR).

In practice, cf. Hsieh et al, LPCR serves also as a verifier, providing an indication that the
clipped image fragment, referred to below as a “plate candidate” at the LPL stage is the actual
plate, otherwise LPL iterates attempting to find better candidates. The most popular approach,
which seems to become dominating since 2d half of 90s, is based on edge detection, gradient and
other variants of intensity derivatives, e.g. Kim, Jilin, and Lee. These techniques are sensitive to
noise and illumination variation, therefore they need to be supported or complemented by other
methods. This paper represents the LPL component of a CLPR system, which works with single
frame gray-level images, obtained at different daytime and weather conditions, as an input. It is
organized in the following way: Section 2 describes preprocessing procedures; Section 3 considers
the image segmentation the effect of which is verified.

The preprocessing has to improve the image and facilitate its analysis. Below, a series of
preprocessing steps, involved in our research, is described in the order they are applied. Most of
them can be considered heuristic modifications of well-known image processing techniques, e.g.,
cf. Sonka et al, and the paper accents generally on their joint application to the aims of LPL. Also,
for reasons of readability, many experimental constants hereinafter are given as they are, i.e
without any attempt for parametrization. The original image might be quite large (up to 1M pixels
and even larger), as the image size might vary depending on the image acquisition equipment in
use, and require much processing work. Because of trade-off between the size and processing time,
we first undersample the image to about 120 columns using simple and fast pixel decimation while
preserving the original aspect ratio.

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Solutions to problems in the field of digital image processing generally require extensive
experimental work involving software simulation and testing with large sets of sample
images.Although algorithm development typically is based on theoretical underpinnings,the actual
implementation of these algorithms almost always requires parameter estimation
and,frequently,algorithm revision and comparison of candidate solutions.Thus,selection of a
flexible,comprehensive,and well-documented software development environment is a key factor
that has important implications in the cost, development time,and portability of image processing
solutions. In spite of its importance,surprisingly little has been written on this aspect of the field
in the form of textbook material dealing with both theoretical principles and software
implementation of digital image processing concepts.

This book was written for just this purpose.Its main objective is to provide a foundation for
implementing image processing algorithms using modern software tools.A complementary
objective was to prepare a book that is self-contained and easily readable by individuals with a
basic background in digital image processing, mathematical analysis, and computer
programming,all at a level typical of that found in a junior/senior curriculum in a technical
discipline.Rudimentary knowledge of MATLAB also is desirable. To achieve these objectives,we
felt that two key ingredients were needed.The first was to select image processing material that is
representative of material covered in a formal course of instruction in this field.The second was to
select software tools that are well supported and documented,and which have a wide range of
applications in the “real”world.

To meet the first objective,most of the theoretical concepts in the following chapters were
selected from Digital Image Processing by Gonzalez and Woods,which has been the choice
introductory textbook used by educators all over the world for over two decades.The software tools
selected are from the MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox (IPT),which similarly occupies a
position of eminence in both education and industrial applications.A basic strategy followed in the
preparation of the book was to provide a seamless integration of well-established theoretical
concepts and their implementation using state-of-the-art software tools. The book is organized
along the same lines as Digital Image Processing.In this way, the reader has easy access to a more
detailed treatment of all the image processing concepts discussed here,as well as an up-to-date set
of references for further reading.

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Chapter 2

LITERATURE SURVEY

1. Paper Id : 7380-415 - Paper Title : “Neural Networks In Image


Processing and Visualization.” - Author : Amicis R.D., Stojanovic R.,
Conti G. - Year Of Publication : 2009
This paper presents a method to build an IoT based automated surveillance system to
capture the registration number of vehicles and to alert nearest traffic police in case of any default.
Defaults imply any pending fines, pending cases and violation of emission norms. This
surveillance also helps in efficient search of stolen cars. This methodology can be incorporated at
toll gates to ease the vehicle movement. Based on live traffic, a smart algorithm will change timer
of the signal and move the divider based on the traffic congestion.
About 1 lakh cases have been registered against vehicles but none convicted. The
outstanding fines to the government from defaulters are over 20 crores and more than 23% of
automobile owners do not have a valid emission certification. Number plates are used for unique
identification of vehicles. The automated surveillance system uses image processing technique to
identify vehicles by their number plates. When a vehicle has stopped at a signal, the system extracts
the registration number from the number plate. The system checks for any pending cases or unpaid
fines or if it is a stolen car and alerts the nearest patrol party by searching the RTO database. It
also detects if a person is using a fake number plate or invalid registration number.
In case of any default, the system automatically finds the nearest patrol party using GPS
and sends an alert the patrol. If the same patrol party is to receive more than one alert, the alerts
are queued according to the seriousness of the offense. The operation of the automated surveillance
system is dependent on factors such as lighting on the number plate, distance of the number plate
from the camera, weather conditions and font or background used on the number plate. For
example, if the system detects a stolen car and a car without emission test together, the highest
priority is given to the stolen car alert that needs to be sent.

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IOT Based Smart Signal 2018-19

It is a challenging task to detect the outer boundary of the number plate due to the limited
quality of camera and various textures and fonts of the number plates on the cars, also the variations
in light intensity at different places makes the task difficult.
The system controls the divider position based on the traffic density on either side. The
infrared sensors fitted on either sides of the road sense the traffic density, based on which the
divider is switched between positions 1, 2 and 3. The operation of the automated surveillance
system is dependent on factors such as lighting on the number plate, distance of the number plate
from the camera, weather conditions and font or background used on the number plate.A camera
is placed at every traffic signal which is used to capture images at a high rate. The captured images
are then stored in a cloud along with metadata such as the location of the signal from which the
image was captured and the time at which the image was captured, with the help of a python script
which runs continuously. The cloud stores a batch of images temporarily till processing is
completed on every batch.
The captured images are then passed through the number plate detection system which uses
the above mentioned algorithm implemented using a MATLAB code. After the unique
identification of every vehicle in the frame, the various plate numbers are extracted from the frame
and the image is deleted from memory. The extracted plate number is used to search through the
RTO database to get detailed information about the vehicle near the signal. In case of any
abnormality detected with the vehicle, the nearest police station is alerted.
This could be used to get hold of stolen vehicles, vehicles with no/fake number plate and
vehicles with a certain amount of fines pending against them etc., Another application of the
automated surveillance system would be to ease the access at toll gates, parking lot and other
secured areas. The vehicle number is read by the camera and the registration number along with
the entry toll number is stored on cloud.

Advantages : . The extracted plate number is used to search through the RTO database to get
detailed information about the vehicle near the signal. In case of any abnormality detected with
the vehicle, the nearest police station is alerted.
Disadvantages : The operation of the automated surveillance system is dependent on factors such
as lighting on the number plate.

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2. Paper Id : 2278-067 - Paper Title : “Finding edges and lines in


images” - Author : Canny, J. F – 1983
Edge detection forms the first stage in a very large number of vision modules, and any edge
detector should be formulated in i he appropriate context. However,the requirements of many
modules are similar and it seems as though it should be possible to design one edge detector that
performs well in several contexts. The crucial first step in the design of such a detector should be
the specification of a set of performance criteria that capture these requirements. specification of
these criteria and the derivation of optimal operators from them forms the subject of this report.
In this paper, I discuss the mathematical theorems and algorithms used in image processing.
Digital Image Processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital
images. Since the use of complex algorithms are allowed, digital image processing can o↵er both
more sophisticated performance at simple tasks, and the implementation of methods which would
be impossible by analog means. The uses include feature extraction and pattern recognition, for
which to occur, the identification of the edges is very important. Here, I will emphasize on the
Canny Edge Detection and the Sobel Edge Detection. With the fast computers and signal
processors available in the 2000’s, digital image processing has become the most common form
of image processing and is general used because it is not only the most versatile method but also
the cheapest. Firstly, images are a measure of parameter over space, while most signals are
measures of parameter over time.
Secondly, they contain a great deal of information; image processing is any form of
information processing for which the input is an image, such as frames of video; the output is not
necessarily an image, but can be, for instance, it can be a set of features of the image. Edge
detection is a process of locating an edge of an image. Detection of edges in an image is a very
important step towards understanding image features. Edges consist of meaningful features and
contain significant information. It significantly reduces the image size and filters out information
that may be regarded as less relevant, thus preserving the important structural properties of an
image. Most images contain some amount of redundancies that can sometimes be removed when
edges are detected and replaced during reconstruction. This is where edge detection comes into

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play. Also, edge detection is one of the ways of making images not take up too much space in the
computer memory.
Since edges often occur at image locations representing object boundaries, edge detection
is extensively used in image segmentation when images are divided into areas corresponding to
different objects. Edge detection helps in optimizing network bandwidth and it is needed to keep
track of data flowing in and out of the network. It helps to extract useful features for pattern
recognition. Although the Sobel operator is slower to compute, its larger convolution kernel
smoothes the input image to a greater extent and so makes the operator less sensitive to noise. The
larger the width of the mask, the lower its sensitivity to noise and the operator also produces
considerably higher output values for similar edges. Sobel operator electively highlights noise
found in real world pictures as edges though, the detected edges could be thick. The Canny edge
detector and similar algorithm solve these problems by first blurring the image slightly then
applying an algorithm that electively thins the edges to one pixel.
Transferring a 2-D pixel array into a statistically uncorrelated data set enhances the removal
of redundant data, which leads to the reduction of the amount of data required to represent a digital
image. Considering data communication these days, especially the internet, massive data transfer
causes serious problems for interactive network users and techniques such as these go a long way
to enable faster data transfer and solve, to a certain extent, the memory consumption problem.

Advantages : Edge detection helps in optimizing network bandwidth and it is needed to keep
track of data flowing in and out of the network.
Disadvantages: They contain a great deal of information; image processing is any form of
information processing for which the input is an image

3. Paper Id : 2278-067X - Paper Title : “Robust Statistics for


Computers Vision” - Author : Hanzi Wang - 2004
Robust Statistical methods (such as LMedS and LTS) were first introduced in computer
vision to improve the performance of feature extraction algorithms. One attractive feature of
traditional robust statistical methods is that they can tolerate up to half of the data points that do

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not obey the assumed model . However, they can break down at unexpectedly lower percentages
when the outliers are clustered; also, they cannot tolerate more than outliers. This is because that
these methods measure only one single statistic: for example, the least median of residuals (for
LMedS) or the least sum of trimmed squared of residuals (for LTS), omitting other characteristics
of the data. We realised that there are two possible ways to improve the robustness of the methods.
(i) to take advantage of special information in the data (e.g., symmetry); (ii) to take advantage of
information in the residuals (i.e., the probability density function (pdf) of the residuals). In terms
of these aspects, the thesis makes the following contributions:
• To leverage possible symmetry in the data, we adapt the concept of “Symmetry Distance”
to formulate an improved regression method, called the Least Trimmed Symmetry Distance
(LTSD).
• To exploit the structure in the pdf of residuals, we develop a family of very robust
estimators: Maximum Density Power Estimator (MDPE), Quick-MDPE (QMDPE), and variable-
bandwidth QMDPE (vbQMDPE) by applying nonparametric density estimation and density
gradient estimation techniques in parametric estimation. In these methods, we consider the density
distribution of data points in residual space and the size of the residual corresponding to the local
maximum of the density distribution in their objective functions. An important tool in our methods
is the mean shift method.
Contents
Summary
• The pdf of the residuals is important for scale estimation (more specifically, the
“shape/spread”). By considering distribution of the residuals, and by employing the mean shift
method and our proposed mean shift valley method, we develop the Two Step Scale Estimator
(TSSE). Furthermore, based on TSSE, we propose a family of novel robust estimators: Adaptive
Scale Sample Consensus (ASSC) and Adaptive Scale Residual Consensus (ASRC), which
consider both the residuals of inliers and the scale of inliers in the objective functions.
More specifically, the first contribution of this thesis is that we demonstrate the fragility of
LMedS and LTS and analyse the reasons that cause the fragility of these methods in the situation
when a large percentage of clustered outliers exist in the data. We introduce the concept of
Symmetry Distance to model fitting and formulate an improved regression method — the LTSD

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estimator. Experimental results are presented to show that the LTSD performs better than LMedS
and LTS under a large percentage of clustered outliers and large standard variance of inliers.
The traditional robust methods generally assume that the data of interests (inliers) occupy a
majority of the whole data. In image analysis, however, the data is often complex and several
instances of a model are simultaneously present, each accounting for a relatively small percentage
of the data points.
To deal with data including multiple structures and a high percentage of outliers remains a
challenging task. In this thesis, we assume that the inliers occupy a relative majority of the data,
by which it is possible that a robust estimator can tolerate more than outliers. A significant
contribution of this thesis is that we present a series of novel and highly robust estimators—MDPE,
QMDPE and vbQMDPE, which can tolerate more than outliers and is very robust to data with
multiple structures, by applying the mean shift algorithm in the space of the pdf.
Advantages: LTSD performs better than LMedS and LTS
Disadvantages : deal with data including multiple structures and a high percentage of outliers
remains a challenging task.

4. Paper Id : 2277-3754 - Paper Title : “Digital Image Processing


Using MALTLAB” - Author : Rafael C.Gonalez, Richard E. Woods
& Steven L. Eddins – 2004
Solutions to problems in the field of digital image processing generally require extensive
experimental work involving software simulation and testing with large sets of sample
images.Although algorithm development typically is based on theoretical underpinnings,the actual
implementation of these algorithms almost always requires parameter estimation
and,frequently,algorithm revision and comparison of candidate solutions.Thus,selection of a
flexible,comprehensive,and well-documented software development environment is a key factor
that has important implications in the cost, development time,and portability of image processing
solutions. In spite of its importance,surprisingly little has been written on this aspect of the field
in the form of textbook material dealing with both theoretical principles and software
implementation of digital image processing concepts.
This book was written for just this purpose.Its main objective is to provide a foundation for
implementing image processing algorithms using modern software tools.A complementary

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IOT Based Smart Signal 2018-19

objective was to prepare a book that is self-contained and easily readable by individuals with a
basic background in digital image processing, mathematical analysis, and computer
programming,all at a level typical of that found in a junior/senior curriculum in a technical
discipline.Rudimentary knowledge of MATLAB also is desirable. To achieve these objectives,we
felt that two key ingredients were needed.The first was to select image processing material that is
representative of material covered in a formal course of instruction in this field.
The second was to select software tools that are well supported and documented,and which
have a wide range of applications in the “real”world. To meet the first objective,most of the
theoretical concepts in the following chapters were selected from Digital Image Processing by
Gonzalez and Woods,which has been the choice introductory textbook used by educators all over
the world for over two decades.The software tools selected are from the MATLAB Image
Processing Toolbox (IPT),which similarly occupies a position of eminence in both education and
industrial applications.A basic strategy followed in the preparation of the book was to provide a
seamless integration of well-established theoretical concepts and their implementation using state-
of-the-art software tools.
The book is organized along the same lines as Digital Image Processing.In this way, the
reader has easy access to a more detailed treatment of all the image processing concepts discussed
here,as well as an up-to-date set of references for further reading. Following this approach made
it possible to present theoretical material in a succinct manner and thus we were able to maintain
a focus on the software implementation aspects of image processing problem solutions.Because it
works in the MATLAB computing environment,the Image Processing Toolbox offers some
significant advantages, not only in the breadth of its computational tools, but also because it is
supported under most operating systems in use today.
A unique feature of this book is its emphasis on showing how to develop new code to
enhance existing MATLAB and IPT functionality.This is an important feature in an area such as
image processing, which, as noted earlier,is characterized by the need for extensive algorithm
development and experimental work. After an introduction to the fundamentals of MATLAB
functions and programming, the book proceeds to address the mainstream areas of image
processing.
Advantages : Low cost security system.
Disvantages: To develop new code to enhance existing MATLAB and IPT functionality.

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5. Paper Id : 4244-1152 - “Adaptive License Plate Image Extraction”


- Author : V. Shapiro, D. Dimnov, S. Bonchev, V. Velichkov and
G.Gluhchev - 2004
The paper represents the automatic plate localization component of a Car License Plate
Recognition system. The approach concerns stages of preprocessing, edge detection, filtering,
detection of the plate's position, slope evaluation, and character segmentation and recognition.
Single frame gray-level images are used as the only source of information. In the experiments
Israeli and Bulgarian license plates were used, camera obtained at different daytime and whether
conditions. The results derived have shown that the approach is robust to illumination, plate slope,
scale, and is insensitive to plate’s country peculiarities. These results could be also usable for other
applications in the input-output transport systems, where automatic recognition of registration
plates, shields, signs, etc., is often necessary.
While the first industrial automatic systems of Car License Plate Recognition (CLPR)
started emerging in 80s, cf. Sgurev, Gluhchev et al , an outburst of commercial systems occurred
in 90s, cf. also . Nevertheless that a lot of CLPR systems are available in the market worldwide,
the research and development still continues and new sophisticated solutions to plate localization,
character segmentation and recognition appear. This is due to the growing demand for the
automatic vehicle identification required for traffic control, border control, access-control,
calculation of parking time and payment, search for stolen cars or unpaid fees, and the requirement
for reliable identification at different lighting conditions, presence of random or structured noise
in the plate, and nationality specific features, concerning plate’s size and type of characters. A
system for automatic CLPR consists of a camera (color or gray level), frame grabber, computer
and specially designed software for image processing and analysis.
A system should be ready to work with alternative image acquisition equipment, as well as
with previously or remotely captured and stored images. It should be capable of: - working indoor
and outdoor - working in a wide range of illumination conditions - being invariant to size, scale
and stroke thickness - being robust to broken strokes, printing defects, noise, etc. - being robust
to camera-car relative movement - giving a real-time response, as shown by Cohen et al , Kim et
al , and Nelson .

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A CLPR system can be conceptually considered as containing two separate processing


stages: • License Plate Localization (LPL) • License Plate Character Recognition (LPCR). In
practice, cf. Hsieh et al , LPCR serves also as a verifier, providing an indication that the clipped
image fragment, referred to below as a “plate candidate” at the LPL stage is the actual plate,
otherwise LPL iterates attempting to find better candidates. The most popular approach, which
seems to become dominating since 2d half of 90s, is based on edge detection, gradient and other
variants of intensity derivatives, e.g. Kim , Jilin , and Lee . These techniques are sensitive to noise
and illumination variation, therefore they need to be supported or complemented by other methods.
This paper represents the LPL component of a CLPR system, which works with single frame gray-
level images, obtained at different daytime and weather conditions, as an input. It is organized in
the following way: Section 2 describes preprocessing procedures; Section 3 considers the image
segmentation the effect of which is verified as described in Section 4. Section 5 presents some
experimental results.
Discussion and conclusion are included in Section. The preprocessing to improve the
image and facilitate its analysis. Below, a series of preprocessing steps, involved in our research,
is described in the order they are applied. Most of them can be considered heuristic modifications
of well-known image processing techniques, e.g., cf. Sonka et al , and the paper accents generally
on their joint application to the aims of LPL. Also, for reasons of readability, many experimental
constants hereinafter are given as they are, i.e without any attempt for parametrization. The
original image might be quite large (up to 1M pixels and even larger), as the image size might vary
depending on the image acquisition equipment in use, and require much processing work. Because
of trade-off between the size and processing time, we first undersample the image to about 120
columns using simple and fast pixel decimation while preserving the original aspect ratio.
Ideally, a CLPR system should not impose any restrictions on image content. The
background is entirely beyond developer’s control and any prediction or assumption about the
background behavior might lead to the localization failure.

Advantages : Tracking people, items and equipment in real time.

Disadvantages : RFID software is cost effective.

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Chapter 3

SYSTEM DESIGN
The operation of the automated surveillance system is dependent on factors such as lighting on the
number plate, distance of the number plate from the camera, weather conditions and font or
background used on the number plate.

Figure 3.1 : Block diagram – At traffic signal

process of detecting the number plate is as mentioned below:


• The The image is first turned into grayscale for better image processing capabilities.
• Every number plate present in the frame is then isolated using edge detection technique.
• The characters on the number plate are segmented and extracted.
• A neural network processes the extracted characters and identifies each vehicle by their
number plate.
A camera is placed at every traffic signal which is used to capture images at a high rate.
The captured images are then stored in a cloud along with metadata such as the location of the
Dept. of CSE, BGSIT Page 15
IOT Based Smart Signal 2018-19

signal from which the image was captured and the time at which the image was captured, with the
help of a python script which runs continuously. The cloud stores a batch of images temporarily
till processing is completed on every batch.

3.1 Block Diagram

Figure 3.2 : Block Diagram – At toll gates

The captured images are then passed through the number plate detection system which uses
the above mentioned algorithm implemented using a MATLAB code. After the unique
identification of every vehicle in the frame, the various plate numbers are extracted from the frame
and the image is deleted from memory.
The extracted plate number is used to search through the RTO database to get detailed
information about the vehicle near the signal. In case of any abnormality detected with the vehicle,
the nearest police station is alerted.

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This could be used to get hold of stolen vehicles, vehicles with no/fake number plate and
vehicles with a certain amount of fines pending against them etc., Another application of the
automated surveillance system would be to ease the access at toll gates, parking lot and other
secured areas. The vehicle number is read by the camera and the registration number along with
the entry toll number is stored on cloud.

At the exit toll the vehicle number is read by the camera, and a python code finds the entry
toll of the vehicle, calculates the amount that has to be paid. This largely reduces the traffic blocks
at toll gates. The IR sensors are placed on either sides of the road/ divider to detect the amount of
traffic and based on the comparison of traffic; the green light ON time of the signal is altered
giving preference to the side which has more traffic.

Table1: Observations

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Table2: Sample Database

This could be used to get hold of stolen vehicles, vehicles with no/fake number plate and
vehicles with a certain amount of fines pending against them etc., Another application of the
automated surveillance system would be to ease the access at toll gates, parking lot and other
secured areas. The vehicle number is read by the camera and the registration number along with
the entry toll number is stored on cloud.
At the exit toll the vehicle number is read by the camera, and a python code finds the entry
toll of the vehicle, calculates the amount that has to be paid. This largely reduces the traffic blocks
at toll gates. The IR sensors are placed on either sides of the road/ divider to detect the amount of
traffic and based on the comparison of traffic; the green light ON time of the signal is altered
giving preference to the side which has more traffic. We would like to express sincere gratitude to
our institute, PESIT-BSC for providing us with a conducive and competitive environment and
facilities that helped us to complete the project. We would also like to thank the department of
ECE for co-operating with us. We would like to express a deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Ananda
M, Asst. Professor who was very supportive throughout our project period.

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The IoT based smart signal can successfully extract the registration number from the
vehicle and this compares the registration number with the database and alerts the nearest police
patrol in case of a default. The system works for the standard format of the number plate.

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Chapter 4
ADVANTAGES
 No need of human power to identify violators during night.

 There are numerous potential benefits to enhanced traffic management. The most obvious
is that, by dynamically and intelligently controlling traffic flows based on real-time condi
tions, cities can decrease the amount of vehicle congestion in their streets, Zannoni says.
That decreases the amount of time residents spend idling in traffic, decreases carbon dioxi
de emissions that cause climate change, and improves air quality for residents.

 For example, according to IoT Revolution World, in New York City, the average driver s
pends 107 hours per year searching for a parking spot, adding up to $2,243 in costs to the
driver and $4.3 billion to the city. With IoT sensors that can quickly identify where empty
spaces are, New York and other cities can save a lot of money and cut tons of carbon dio
xide emissions every year.

 Those benefits can have spillover effects, Zannoni said. For example, cities may come to
be seen as more economically competitive. Businesses that can locate in numerous cities
may decide not to move to a city or set up a headquarters there if it is a city that is known
for traffic.

 City streets that are less congested also allow police cars, fire engines and ambulances thr
ough more quickly, which can save lives.

 City buses will operate more smoothly and transport residents more efficiently, making re
sidents more likely to take public transit, potentially increasing revenues for city transit sy
stem.

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 Zannoni says that IoT sensors networks for traffic management and smart transportation a
re complex, so it is difficult to calculate an ROI. Cameras may cost $2,000 to $3,000 each
, but the software platform needed to analyze the data from the cameras is likely going to
be significantly more expensive. It is also difficult to calculate whether a company has m
oved to a city just because of improved traffic patterns, Zannoni says, making it more diff
icult still to attribute the resulting economic activity and tax revenue to traffic manageme
nt. However, he says, in the end, the benefits seem to outweigh the costs.
 Easy to find the path for emergency condition in ambulance.

 The Traffic violators are captured and send to Police.

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Chapter 5
APPLICATIONS
5.1 More reliable public transportation
Public transportation is disrupted whenever there are road closures, bad weather, or equip
ment breakdowns. IoT can give transit authorities the real-time insights they need to implement c
ontingency plans, ensuring that residents always have access to safe, reliable, and efficient public
transportation. This might be done using insights from cameras or connected devices at bus shelt
ers or other public areas.

5.2 Energy-efficient buildings


IoT technology is making it easier for buildings with legacy infrastructure to save energy
and improve their sustainability. Smart building energy management systems, for instance, use Io
T devices to connect disparate, nonstandard heating, cooling, lighting, and fire-safety systems to
a central management application. The energy management application then highlights areas of h
igh use and energy drifts so staff can correct them. Research shows that commercial buildings w
aste up to 30 percent of the energy they use, so savings with a smart building energy managemen
t system can be significant. As more smart city buildings use energy management systems, the cit
y will become more sustainable as a whole.

5.3 Improved public safety


Smart cities and their CSP partners often implement video monitoring systems to tackle t
he safety concerns that come up in every growing city. Some cities now have hundreds of camera
s monitoring traffic for accidents and public streets for safety concerns. Video analytics software
helps process the thousands of hours of video footage each camera produces, whittling it down to
only important events. Systems using IoT technology turn every camera attached to the system i
nto a sensor, with edge computing and analytics starting right from the source. Artificial intellige
nce technology like machine learning will then complete the analysis and send video footage to h
umans who can react quickly to solve problems and keep residents safe.

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Cities are also improving public safety with smart lighting initiatives that replace tradition
al streelights with connected LED infrastructure. Not only do the LED lights last longer and cons
erve energy, they also provide information on outages in real time. City workers can use that info
rmation to ensure important areas are well lit to deter crimes and make the public feel safer.

5.4 THE MANUFACTURERS’ RESPONSE: SMART SENSOR SO


LUTIONS
This section looks at the smart sensors that have been developed for IoT applications in te
rms of both their building blocks and their fabrication, and then reviews some of the advantages t
hat accrue from the sensors’ in-built intelligence, especially the possibilities for self-diagnostics a
nd repair.

5.5 IoT Applications in Transportation


Understanding the context of IoT in transportation is of great importance, but what are the
se technologies going to look like? Where should we expect to find them?

We’ve already started to see the incorporation of IoT in transportation. They can be as sm
all scale as a vehicle-to-person communication (“Your Lyft is two minutes away!”) and as large s
cale as monitoring shipping logistics of a global company. Let’s discuss IoT applications in trans
portation that are revolutionizing the industry.

5.6 Maintaining Vehicle Health


We all know someone that owns a car and knows nothing about it. It might even be you.

It’s okay—cars are complicated pieces of machinery. There is some basic knowledge that
every car owner should have (i.e. how to check tire pressure), but there are many other working
pieces that are helpful to keep a car in tip-top condition and out of the shop. These require a more
in-depth knowledge of the workings of a car and its components.

Luckily, since 1996, onboard diagnostic ports (OBDs) have been installed in cars to help
manufacturers and mechanics glean information about a car’s health. Consumers have access to t
his information now through devices, such as Automatic’s adapter, which plugs into the OBD po
rt to monitor engine health along with an abundance of other capabilities (like tracking your car

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to its parking spot.) This makes car maintenance less of a mystery and can save consumer
s thousands of dollars in vehicle maintenance costs. But there’s no reason to stop there.

This type of technology is very important for the businesses working in this industry. Co
mpanies with fleets of vehicles spend millions of dollars in extraneous costs when their vehicles s
uddenly break down in the middle of a route or in the hands of a customer. With IoT, companies
can manage the performance of their fleet no matter where they are and catch issues before they o
ccur.

5.6 Image of smart transport in Asia pacific IoT project


Companies can also optimize other factors beyond vehicle health, such as fuel consumpti
on and idle time. This not only helps cut costs for the businesses but also relieves drivers of mon
otonous (and often error-prone) tasks like manual reporting.

5.7 Curbing Traffic


Let’s state the facts: no one enjoys traffic. Besides its ability to cause irritation instantly, t
raffic wastes millions of gallons of gas and cuts deep into otherwise productive work hours. Acco
rding to Texas A&M’s 2015 Urban Mobility Scorecard study, American commuters spend on av
erage an extra 42 hours a year sitting in traffic on top of their commute. In highly congested urba
n areas, that number soars to over 80. IoT, including smart city IoT applications, are poised to ad
dress these pain points in transportation.

5.8 Graph showing IoT applications in IoT as primary smart city int
erest
IoT has a huge opportunity to dissipate this routine (and completely avoidable!) annoyanc
e to society. The futurists who anticipate societies with fully autonomous vehicles will be the firs
t to tell you that self-driving cars are a huge component of the cure to traffic. When a car relies on
intelligent sensors to communicate with the cars around it, the flow of traffic will be more consta
nt rather than stop-and-go due to a few bad drivers.

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5.9 Image of smart sensing cars-an IoT application in transportation


Before this fully autonomous future occurs, we can use IoT to enable smarter route mappi
ng to avoid congestion. Waze jumped onto this business opportunity years ago by allowing driver
s and passengers to share information about their route with other drivers. With more sensor- and
camera-enabled vehicles on the road, there is ample opportunity for businesses and transportatio
n authorities to create systems that optimize routes in real-time without relying on input from hu
mans.

Car manufacturers diving into IoT as well. They’re building technology into their cars to
ease the stress that traffic places on drivers. Ford has a well-known technology called Traffic Jam
Assist: a mode that allows the car to match the speed of the car ahead of it in a congestion. Not o
nly does that kind of speed matching ease drivers’ moods; it also actually smoothes out traffic flo
ws and decreases congestion patterns. Other car makers have followed suit, demonstrating the im
portance of car makers’ willingness to adopt IoT-enabled technologies into their businesses proac
tively.

5.10 Transforming the Meaning of Vehicle Ownership


One of the more interesting future applications of IoT in transportation is around vehicle
ownership. According to a recent study completed by Tony Seba and James Arbib, car ownership
will decrease 80 percent by 2030. You can see it happening already. Urban dwellers are selling
—or never purchasing—cars. They’re opting to use ride and vehicle sharing platforms like Uber
and Lyft in addition to relying on steadily improving public transportation services.

Ride-sharing is becoming cost-competitive with the aggregate cost of car ownership (titling, insu
rance, maintenance, gas, and more). One day soon such post-ownership transportation models mi
ght tip the scales for good.

With a higher number of companies turning to IoT, these platforms will continue to expand, mult
iply, and get cheaper, driving down the demand for car ownership. So how do these companies e
mploy IoT? A vehicle must be tracked, no matter the location, and broadcasted through a platfor
m for users to find and utilize it.

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Mercedes’ parent company jumped onboard by purchasing a majority stake in Car2Go—a car-sh
aring program that allows users to unlock a vehicle of their fleet with their phone and drive it any
where within certain boundaries. A number of other factors need to be tracked such as fuel levels
and battery health, which ties back into (previously discussed) IoT-enabled fleet management. T
hese systems cannot work without IoT and will increasingly become smarter and more widesprea
d as other stakeholders enter the game.

5.11 Smart IoT applications in transportation showing vehicle load a


nd charge percentages
Now, remember: this is not just for cars. With bikes and electric scooters entering the pla
y in recent years with companies like Bird and Lime, there are a number of different ways compa
nies can capitalize on vehicle and ride-sharing and expand their IoT business while simultaneousl
y benefiting citizens and governments.

5.12 Improving Fleet Logistics


Fleet managers do more than simply manage vehicles. IoT can help them go the extra mile. Multi
ple IoT technologies can be employed to track shipments, optimize delivery and shipping routes,
cut costs associated with inefficiencies in logistics, and improve bottom lines.

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CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE


The IoT based smart signal can successfully extract the registration number from the
vehicle and this compares the registration number with the database and alerts the nearest police
patrol in case of a default. The system works for the standard format of the number plate.

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