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GLOSSARY OF PLUMBING

TERMS
Compiled by:

Nelson M. Quinto, ME, RMP

September 24, 2018

Al Ahsa Saudi Arabia

[Type text]
GLOSSARY OF PLUMBING TERMS

ABSORPTION – The immersion in a fluid for a definite period of time, usually expressed as a percent of the weight
of the dry pipe.

ACCESS DOOR – Hinged panel mounted in a frame with a lock, normally mounted in a wall or ceiling to provide
access to concealed valves or shock absorbers which require frequent attention.

ACCUMULATOR – A container in which fluid or gas is stored under pressure as a source of power.

ALLOY – A substance composed of two or more metals of a metal and none-metal intimately united, usually fused
together and dissolving in each other when molten.

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE – The prevailing temperature in the immediate vicinity or the temperature of the medium
surrounding an object.

BRITISH THERMAL UNIT – BTU. The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound (0.45 kg) of
water to one degree Fahrenheit (0.56° C).

CAPACITY – The maximum or minimum flows obtained under given conditions of media, temperature, pressure,
velocity, etc. Also, the volume of media which may be stored for each other and for those of the solid.

CATHODIC PROTECTION – The use of materials and liquid to cause electricity to flow to avoid corrosion. The
control of the electrolytic corrosion of an underground or underwater metallic structure by the application of an
electric current in such a way that the structure is made to act as the cathode instead of anode of an electrolytic cell.

CAVITATION – A localized gaseous condition that is found within a liquid stream.

CHANNEL – The trough which any media may flow.

CIRCUIT – The directed route taken by a flow of media from one point to another.

COEFFICIENT OF EXPANSION – The increase in unit length, area, or volume for one degree rise in temperature.

COMBUSTIBLE CONSTRUCTION – A structure which any part of its structural framework will ignite and burn at a
temperature of 756° C or less.

CONTROL – A device used to regulate the function of the component or system.

DAMPEN – To check or reduce. To deaden vibration.

DEWPOINT – The temperature of gas or liquid at which condensation or evaporation occurs.

DIFFERENTIAL – The variance between two target values, one of which is the high value of conditions, the other
being the low value of conditions.

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DISPLACEMENT – The volume or weight of a fluid, such as water displaced by a floating body.
DRY BULB TEMPERATURE – The temperature of air as measured by an ordinary thermometer.

DRIFT/ WANDER – The sustained deviation in a corresponding controller, resulting from the pre-determined relation
between values and controlled variable and positions of the final control elements.

DROOP – The amount by which the controlled variable pressure, temperature, liquid level, or differential pressure
deviates from the set value at minimum controlled flow when the flow through the regulator is gradually increased
from the minimum controllable flow to the rated capacity.

DROSS – Waste or foreign matter mixed with a substance or left as a residue after that substance has been used or
processed. The solid scum that forms on the surface of a metal, as lead or antimony, when molten or melting, largely
as a result of oxidation but sometimes because of the rising of dirt and impurities to the surface.

ELASTIC LIMIT – The greatest stress which a material can withstand without a permanent deformation after release
of the stress.

ELECTROLYSIS – The process of producing chemical changes by passage of an electric current through an
electrolyte (as in cell) The ions present carrying the current by migrating to the electrodes where they may form new
substances (as in the disposition of metals or the liberation of gases).

FLASH POINT – The temperature at which a fluid first gives off flammable vapor to ignite when approached with a
flame or spark.

FLUE – An enclosed passage, primarily vertical, for removal of gaseous products of combustion to the outer air.

FOOTING – The part of the foundation wall or column resting on the bearing soil, rock, or piling which transmits the
superimposed load to the bearing material.

GALLONS PER MINUTE - GPM

GALVANIC ACTION – When two dissimilar metals are immersed in the same electrolytic solution and connected
electrically, there is an interchange of atoms carrying an electric charge between them. The anode metal with the
higher electrode potential corrodes, the cathode is protected. Thus, magnetism will protect iron, iron will protect
copper.

MALLEABLE – Capable of being extended or shaped by beating with a hammer, or by the pressure of the rollers.

SHAFT – A vertical opening for elevators, dumb waiters, light, ventilation, or similar purposes.

STRAIN – Change of shape or size of a body produced by the action of stress.

VELOCITY – Time rate of motion in a given direction and sense.

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ADOPTION AND PROMULGATION OF THE REVISED NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES
(R.A. 1378)

NAMPAP – National Master Plumbers Association of the Philippines Board for Master Plumbers

PLUMBING CODE COMMITTEE – Tasked to amend/ revise the National Plumbing Code.
PLUMBING CODE REVIEW COMMITTEE – To go over the work of the Plumbing Code Committee.

REVISED NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES – Shall govern the practice of plumbing in the
Philippines, the design, installation and use of plumbing fixtures and materials in buildings and infrastructure projects
where such fixtures and materials are necessary.

HISTORY OF PLUMBING PRACTICE

WALLED CITY – Intramuros

20th CENTURY – Plumbing took a great leap. Health and hygiene became priority
1
902 – The Plumbing Trade was recognized.

GOVERNOR GENERAL HARRISON – Issued a letter of instruction on proper waste disposal in all municipalities.

17 PERSONS WHO PIONEERED & ORGANIZED THE NAMPAP IN 1935:


Francisco Geronimo, Mariano de Ocampo, Igmidio Suarez, Eusebio Mina, Jose Rivera, Raymundo Reyes Sr.,
Roberto Feliciano, Gregorio Lazaro, Raymundo Gumapac, John Jones, Trinitario Ortiz, Valentin Casupanan,
Catalino Casupanan, Crispin Francisco, Teodoro Pastor, Cornelio Odvina, and Jesus Tanghal Dera.

ACT OF CONGRESS, CITY ORDINANCE 2411 – Known as the Plumbing Code for the City of Manila

1954 – The Third Congress of the Republic of the Philippines in its Second Session, approved after the third reading
House Bill No. 962. This became Republic Act No. 1378.

JUNE 18, 1955 – R.A. 1378, otherwise known as Plumbing Law of the Philippines was signed by President Ramon
Magsaysay.

JANUARY 28, 1959 – The N.P.C. prepared by NAMPAP was promulgated and approved by Malacañang.

1966-1969 – The Board of Examiners for Master Plumbers and the NAMPAP prepared a Curriculum for Plumbing
Engineering that was approved by the Department of Education and was first introduced at the Feati University.

NOVEMBER 28, 1967 – The First Amendment to the National Plumbing Code was approved, which effected the
inclusion of asbestos cement pipe as an approved plumbing material.

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REPUBLIC ACT NO. 6541 – Building Code of the Philippines (1972) was passed with the National Plumbing Code f
the Philippines (1959) as referral code in full text.

BOMP – Board of Master Plumbers

DECEMBER 21, 1999 – The Revised Plumbing Code of 1999 was approved by President Joseph Ejercito Estrada.

BASIC PRINCIPLES

Principle No. 1 – All premises intended for human habitation, occupancy or use shall be provided with a supply of
pure and wholesome water, neither connected with unsafe water supplies nor subject to hazards of backflow or back-
siphonage.

Principle No. 2 – Plumbing fixtures, devices and appurtenances shall be supplied with water in sufficient volume and
at pressure adequate to enable then to function satisfactorily and without undue noise under all normal conditions of
use.

Principle No. 3 – Plumbing shall be designed and adjusted to use the minimum quantity of water consistent with
proper performance and cleaning.

Principle No. 4 – Devices for heating and storing water shall be so designed and installed as to prevent dangers
from explosion through overheating.

Principle No. 5 – Every building having plumbing fixtures installed and intended for human habitation, occupancy or
use on premises abutting on a street, alley, or easement where there in a public sewer, shall be connected to the
sewer system.

Principle No. 6 – Each family dwelling unit on premises abutting on a sewer or a private sewage disposal system
shall have at least one water closet and one kitchen type sink. Further, a lavatory and bathtub or shower shall be
installed to meet te basic requirements of sanitation and personal hygiene.

Principle No. 7 - Plumbing fixtures shall be made of smooth non-absorbent material, free from concealed fouling
surfaces and shall be located in ventilated enclosures.

Principle No. 8 – The drainage system shall be designed, constructed, and maintained to safeguard against fouling,
deposit of solids, clogging, and with adequate cleanouts so arranged that the pipes may be readily cleaned.

Principle No. 9 – All pipings of plumbing systems shall be of durable NAMPAP-APPROVED materials, free from
defective workmanship, designed and constructed by Registered Master Plumbers to ensure satisfactory service.

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Principle No. 10 – Each fixture directly connected to the drainage system shall be equipped with a water-sealed
trap.

Principle No. 11 – The drainage piping system shall be designed to provide adequate circulation of air free from
siphonage, aspiration, or forcing of trap seals under ordinary use.

Principle No. 12 – Vent terminals shall extend to the outer air and installed to prevent clogging and the return of foul
air to the building.

Principle No. 13 – Plumbing systems shall be subjected to such tests to effectively disclose all leaks and defects in
the workmanship.

Principle No. 14 – No substance which will clog the pipes, produce explosive mixtures, destroy the pipes or their
joints or interfere unduly with the sewage disposal process shall be allowed to enter the building drainage system.

Principle No. 15 – Proper protection shall be provided to prevent contamination of food, water, sterile goods, and
similar materials by backflow of sewage. When necessary, the fixture, device, or appliance shall be connected
indirectly with the building drainage system.
Principle No. 16 – No water closet shall be located in a room or compartment which is not properly lighted and
ventilated.

Principle No. 17 – If water closets or other plumbing fixtures are installed in buildings where there is no sewer within
a reasonable distance, suitable provision shall be made for disposing of the building sewage by some accepted
method of sewage treatment and disposal, such as a septic tank.

Principle No. 18 – Where a plumbing drainage system may be subject to backflow of sewage, suitable provision
shall be made to prevent its overflow in the building.

Principle No. 19 – Plumbing systems shall be maintained in serviceable condition by Registered Master Plumbers.

Principle No. 20 – All plumbing fixtures shall be installed properly spaced, to be accessible for their intended use.

Principle No. 21 – Plumbing shall be installed by Registered Master Plumbers with due regard to the preservation of
the strength of the structural members and the prevention of damage to walls and other surfaces through fixture
usage.

Principle No. 22 – Sewage or other waste from a plumbing system which may be deleterious to surface or sub-
surface waters shall not be discharged into the ground or into any waterway, unless first rendered innocuous through
subjection to some acceptable from of treatment.

MASTER PLUMBERS CODE OF ETHICS

A Registered Master Plumber shall maintain a professional bearing consistent with an honorable and dignified pursuit
of his/ her profession, adhering to a set of conduct becoming of his/ her calling, and shall not:

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 Act in an unprofessional manner and demand any remuneration other than his/ her original charges except
for additional services not covered in the basic contract.
 Supplant another Registered Master Plumber after definite steps have already been taken toward his/ her
being commissioned to perform the contract.
 Underbid another Registered Master Plumber by reducing his/ her professional fees after being informed of
the fees charged by the other Registered Master Plumber.
 Take the advantage of salaried government position to compete unfairly with a practicing Registered Master
Plumber.
 Allow the use of his/ her License as Registered Master Plumber for a fee to an unlicensed Master Plumber in
plumbing works without his/ her personal supervision.
 Injure falsely or maliciously, directly, or indirectly, the reputation of another Master Plumber by reviewing his/
her work for the same client unless the professional services of the former have been fully paid by the client.
 Advertise in self-laudatory language, act in any manner and engage in any practice which tend to bring
dishonor to the dignity of the Registered Master Plumber, the National Master Plumbers Association of the
Philippines, and the plumbing profession.

ADMINISTRATION

REGISTERED & LICENSED MASTER PLUMBER – Holding a valid, unexpired, and unrevoked certificate of
registration.

APPLICATION – (1) Identify and describe the plumbing work;


(2) Describe the land;
(3) Indicate the use or occupancy;
(4) Be accompanied by plans, drawings, diagrams, computations, technical specifications, and other data as required
in Subsection 102.2.;
(5) Give such other data and information as required by the Administrative Authority;
(6) Be signed by owner or permittee;
(7) Be signed and sealed by the Registered and Licensed Master Plumber.

6 SETS – Required on application for a permit (plumbing plans, drawings, diagrams, design analysis/ computations,
as required, technical specifications, bills of materials, and other required documents for all types of occupancy shall
be prepared, signed and sealed by the Registered and Licensed Master Plumber, without limitations.

PARTIAL PERMIT – The Administrative Authority may issue for the construction of a part of a large and/ or
complicated plumbing system.

EXPIRATION – A plumbing permit issued under the provisions of this Code shall expire and become null and void if
the plumbing work authorized therein in not commenced within one year from the date of such permit or if the
plumbing work so authorized is suspended or abandoned at any time after having been commenced for a period of
120 days or 4 months. In case of a renewal of plumbing permit, a fee equivalent to one-half the amount of the
original fee shall be paid.

SUSPENSION OR REVOCATION – Has error, incorrect information supplied, or violation of pertinent ordinances,
rules, and regulations.

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OPERATION OF PLUMBING EQUIPMENT – Not more than 72 hours or 3 days

INSPECTION REQUESTS – Be filed to the Administrative Authority at least 3 working days before such inspection is
intended. Such request shall be in writing and jointly signed by the Owner and the Registered Master Plumber –
Contractor.

ADMINISTRATION & ENFORCEMENT TERMINOLOGIES

ADMINISTRATIVE ENFORCING AUTHORITY – The individual official, board, department, or agency established
and authorized by the Office of the President (R.A. 1378) to administer and enforce the provisions of the National
Plumbing Code.

AIR TEST – A test that is applied to the plumbing system upon its completion, but before the building is plastered.

APPROVED – Accepted or acceptable under an applicable specifications or standard stated or cited in this Code, or
accepted as suitable for any proposed used under procedures and powers of the Administrative Authority.

APPROVED TESTING AGENCY – An organization primarily established for the purpose of testing to approve
standards and approved by the Administrative Authority.

AUTHORITY, ADMINISTRATIVE – The Administrative Authority including the Building Official, the Commission, the
Board, and such other department or agency established and authorized to administer and enforce the provisions of
Republic Act 1378 – The Plumbing Code of the Philippines, Presidential Decree No. 223; as amended by P.D. 657 –
creating the Professional Regulation Commission and prescribing its powers and functions, and Letter of Instruction
No. 1000 – ordering and directing the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC), the former Ministry of Human
Settlements, the Departments of Foreign Affairs, Education, and Culture, Public Works and Highways, Tourism,
Transportation, and Communication all 500T agencies concerned, to authorize and support PRC Accredited
Bonafide Professional Organizations only, and their members to organize, host, sponsor, or represent the Filipino
Professionals in national, regional, and international fora, conventions where the concerned professions are involved;
and further orders and directs that all government agencies and instrumentalities shall give priority to bonafide
members of the accredited professional organizations in the hiring of its employees and engagement of professional
services.

BOARD – The Licensure Board for Master Plumbers.

CERTIFIED BACKFLOW ASSEMBLY TESTER – A person who has shown competence to test and maintain
backflow assemblies to the satisfaction of the Administrative Authority having jurisdiction.

CODE – The word ‘Code’ or ‘this Code’ when used alone, shall mean this regulations, subsequent amendments
thereto, or any emergency rule or regulation which the Administrative Authority having jurisdiction may lawfully adopt.

COMMERCIAL STANDARD – CS

COMMISSION – The Professional Regulation Commission (PRC).

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COMMON – That part of the plumbing system designed and installed to serve more than one (1) appliance, fixture,
building, or system.

DEPARTMENT HAVING JURISDICTION – The Administrative Authority and includes any other law enforcement
agency concerned by any provision of the Code, whether such agency is specifically named or not.

EXISTING WORK – A plumbing system or any part thereof which has been installed prior to the effective date of this
Code.

GENERALLY ACCEPTED STANDARD – A document referred to in the Code, covering a particular subject, and
accepted by a designated authority.

INSANITARY – The term applied to conditions that in fact is insanitary. A condition which is contrary to sanitary
principles or is injurious to health.

JOURNEYMAN PLUMBER – A person who performs the manual work of installing plumbing under the direction of
the Master Plumber. Allowed only to install under the responsibility of the Master Plumber.

JURISDICTION – The Administrative Authority under the Department of Health, the Department of Public Works and
Highways, the Department of Interior and Local Government, the City Mayors of Chartered Cities, Environmental
Management Bureau (D.E.N.R.) and other government entities that regulate the practice of Registered and Licensed
Master Plumbers.

LABELLED – Equipments or materials bearing a label of a listing agency. All labels shall be embossed, stamped, or
indelibly marked with stickers, glued on the finished product indicating the weight, specifications, and logo of the
manufacturer.

LISTED – Equipment or materials included in a LIST published by a listing agency that maintain periodic inspection
on current production of listed equipment or materials and whose listing state either that the equipment or materials
complied with approved standards or have been tested and found suitable for use in specified manners.

LISTING AGENCY – An agency accepted by the Administrative Authority, Philippine government or government of
other countries, which lists or labels and maintains a periodic inspection program on current production of listed
models. It makes available a published report of such listing in which information is included that the product has
been tested and complies with generally accepted standards and found safe for use in a specified manner.

MASTER PLUMBER/ PLUMBING ENGINEER – A person technically and legally qualified and licensed to practice
the profession of Master Plumbing without limitations in accordance with Republic Act 1378, having passed the
examinations conducted by the Professional Regulation Commission, has received a Certificate of Registration from
the Board of Master Plumbing and possesses the current license to practice. An individual who is licensed and
authorized to install and assume responsibility for contractual agreements pertaining to plumbing and to secure any
required permits.

NAMPAP – National Master Plumbers Association of the Philippines.

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NUISANCE – Embraces public nuisance as known at common law or in equity jurisprudence, and whatever is
dangerous to human life or detrimental to health and property, and inadequate or unsafe water supply and or sewage
disposal system. Whatever building, structure, or premises which is not sufficiently ventilated, sewered, drained,
cleaned, or lighted, in reference to the intended or actual use. And whatever rendered the air or human food, or drink
or water supply unwholesome, are also severely, in contemplation of this Code, nuisance.

PIPELINE WELDER – A person who specializes in welding of pipes and holds a valid Certificate of Competency
from a recognized testing laboratory or agency, based on the requirements of the regulating authority, A.S.M.E.
boiler and pressure vessels.
PLUMBING – The practice, materials, and fixtures used in the installation, maintenance, extension, repair,
replacement, relocation, and alteration of all piping, fixtures, appliances, and appurtenances in connection with any
part of the following: sanitary drainage or storm drainage or storm drainage facilities, the venting system and the
public or private water supply systems and/or the storm water, liquid waste or sewage system of any premises to
their connection with any point of public disposal or other acceptable terminal.

PLUMBING ENGINEERING – The application of scientific principles to the design, installation, and operation of
efficient, economical, ecological, and energy-conserving systems for the transport and distribution of liquids and
gases.

PLUMBING FIRM – A sole proprietorship or corporation composed of Registered and Licensed Master Plumbers
together with allied professionals, with the Master Plumbers composing the majority of the membership,
incorporators, directors, and/or executive officers and Licensed Master Plumber only render work and services within
the cognizance of the Registered Master Plumber and members of the allied professions also only render work and
services within the cognizance of their respective professions.

PLUMBING INSPECTOR – Any person, who under the supervision of the Department having Jurisdiction, is
authorized to inspect plumbing and drainage systems as defined in the Code for the province, city, or municipality
and complying with the laws of licensing and/or registration.

PLUMBING OFFICIAL – The Administrative Authority, individual official, board, department, or agency established
and authorized by the province, city, or municipality or other political subdivision created by law to administer and
enforce the provisions of the National Plumbing Code.

PLUMBING SYSTEM – All potable water supply and distribution pipes, all plumbing fixtures and traps, all sanitary
and storm drainage systems, vent pipes, roof drains, leaders, and downspouts, and all building drains and sewers,
including their respective joints and connections, devices, receptacles, and appurtenances within the property lines
of the premises and shall include potable tap, hot, and chilled water pipings, potable water treating or using
equipment, fuel, gas piping, water heaters, and vents for same. Piping for boilers, air conditioners, commercial
refrigerators, and the likes are excluded.
PRIVATE/ PRIVATE USE – In classification of plumbing fixtures, ‘private’ applies to plumbing fixtures in residences
and apartments, private bathrooms in hotels and hospitals, rest rooms in commercial establishments containing
restricted use, single fixture or groups of a single fixtures and similar installations, where the fixtures are intended for
the use of the family or an individual.

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PUBLIC/ PUBLIC USE – In classification of plumbing fixtures, ‘public’ applies to toilet rooms and bathrooms used by
employees, occupants, visitors, or patrons, in or about any premises, and locked toilet rooms or bathrooms to which
several occupants or employees on the premises possess keys and have access thereto.

QUALITY OF MATERIALS – All plumbing fixture and materials used in any discharge or plumbing system or parts
thereof shall be free from defects.

SECOND HAND – As applied to material or plumbing equipment is that which has been used, removed, and pass to
another ownership or possession.

BUILDING CODE

ALLEY – Any public space, public park, or thoroughfare not more than three meters but not less than two meters in
width which has been dedicated or deeded to the public for public use.

ALTER/ ALTERATION – Any change, addition, or modification in construction or occupancy.

BUILDING – A structure built, erected, and framed of component structural parts designed for the housing, shelter,
enclosure, or support of persons, animals, or property of any kind.

BUILDING CLASSIFICATION – The arrangement in the Building Code for the designation of buildings in classes
based upon their use or occupancy.

COURT – An open, unoccupied space, bounded on two or more sides by walls of the building.

DWELLING – A one-family unit with or without accessory building.

FAMILY – One person living alone or a group living together, whether related to each other by birth or not.

FLOOR AREA – The area included within the surrounding walls of the building (or portion thereof), exclusive of vent
shafts and courts).

HEIGHT OF BUILDING – The vertical distance from the ‘Grade Line’ to the highest point of the coping of a flat roof
or to the deck line of a mansard roof or to the average height of the highest gable of a pitch or hip-roof.

INNER COURT – A court entirely within the exterior walls of the building. All other courts are outer courts.

LOT – A single or individual parcel or area of land legally recorded or validated by means acceptable to the Plumbing
Official on which is situated a building or which is the site of any work regulated by this Code, together with the yards,
courts, and unoccupied spaces legally required for the building or works, and which is owned by or as in the lawful
possession of the owner of the building or works.

MAY – The word ‘may’ is a permissive term.

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OCCUPANCY – The purpose for which the building is used or intended to be used. The term shall also include the
building or room housing for such use. Change of Occupancy is not intended to include change of tenants or
proprietor.

PERSON – A natural person, his heirs, executors, administrators, or assigns and shall also include a firm,
partnership or corporation, its or their successors or assigns or agents of any of the aforesaid, municipal or quasi-
municipal corporation, or governmental agency. Singular (includes plural, males includes females).

REPAIR – The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing building for the purpose of its maintenance. The
term shall not apply to any change of construction or occupancy.

SHALL – The word ‘shall’ denotes mandatory acceptation.

SINGLE FAMILY DWELLING – A building designed as a home by the owner of such building, and shall be the only
dwelling located on a parcel of ground with the usual accessory building.

STOREY – That portion of the building included between the upper surface of any floor and the upper surface of the
floor next above, except the topmost storey shall be that portion of the building included between the upper surface
of the topmost floor of the ceiling or above. If the finished floor level directly above a basement or cellar is more than
1.8288 meters (6 feet) above grade such basement or cellar shall also be considered as such.

YARD – An open, unoccupied space, other than a court, unobstructed from the ground to the sky, except specifically
provided by this Code, on the lot on which a building is situated.

AREAS

BATHROOM – A room equipped with a shower stall or bathtub.

CONFINED SPACE – A room or space having a volume less than 1.4 cu. meter with 250 kilogram calorie of the
aggregate input rating of all fuel-burning appliances installed in that space.

UNCONFINED SPACE – A room space having a volume equal to at least 1.4 cu. m. of the aggregate input rating of
the fuel-burning appliance installed in that space. Room adjacent and open to the space where the appliance is
installed, through openings not furnished with doors, are considered a part of the unconfined space.

PIPE DEFINITIONS

ALLOY PIPE – A steel pipe with more than one element other than carbon which give it greater resistance to
corrosion and more strength than carbon steel pipe.

ANGLE OF BEND – The angle between radial lines from the beginning and end of the bend to the center.

BELL/ HUB – That portion of the pipe which, for a short distance, is sufficiently enlarged to receive the end of
another pipe of the same diameter for the purpose of making a caulked or push-on joint.

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B & S - Brown and Sharpe (Specification) or Bell and Spigot (Ends of Pipes).

BRANCH – Any part of the piping system other than the main, the riser, or the stack.

BY-PASS – An auxiliary loop in a pipeline, intended for diverting flow around a valve or other piece of equipment.
CONDUIT – A pipe or channel for conveying media.

DEAD-END – The extended portion of a pipe that is closed at one end to which no connections are made on the
extended portion, thus permitting the stagnation of liquid or air therein.

DEVELOPED LENGTH – The length along the centerline of the pipe or fittings, both horizontal and vertical.

DIAMETER – Unless specifically stated, the term ‘diameter’ is the nominal diameter as designated commercially. ID
denotes inside diameter of pipe and OD denotes outside diameter of tube (brass and copper tubes).

EXPANSION LOOP – A large radius bend in a pipe line to absorb longitudinal thermal expansion in the line due to
heat.

GAS DISTRIBUTION PIPING – All piping from the house wide of the gas meter piping that distributes the gas
supplied by the public utility to all fixtures and apparatus used for illumination or fuel in any building.

GAS METER PIPING – The piping from the shut-off valve inside the building to the outlet of the meter.

GAS SERVICE PIPING – The supply pipe from the street main through the building wall and including the stopcock
or shut-off valve inside the building.

GRADE – The slope or fall of a line of pipe with reference to a horizontal plane. In drainage, it is usually expressed
as the fall in centimeters per meter or percentage slope of pipe.

HORIZONTAL PIPE - Any pipe or fitting which is installed in a horizontal position or which makes an angle of not
more than 45° with the horizontal plane.

INVERT – The lowest portion of the inside of the pipe or conduit that is not vertical.

LENGTH OF PIPE – The length as measured along the centerline of the pipe.

MAIN – The principal artery of the system of a continuous piping to which branches may be connected.

PIPE – A cylindrical conduit or conductor conforming to the particular dimensions commonly known as ‘pipe size’ and
is denoted by its interior diameter or ID.

PIPING – As used in this Code, shall include fittings, valves and other accessories or appurtenances required to
make a complete installation.

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PITCH – The amount of slope or grade given to horizontal piping and expressed in inches of vertically projected drop
per foot (mm/m) on a horizontally projected run of pipe.

RETURN OFFSET – A double offset installed as to return the pipe to its original alignment.

SIZE OF PIPE/ TUBE – Unless otherwise stated, the nominal diameter as designated commercially. Shall mean
internal diameter (ID) except brass and copper tubing, wherein the term shall mean outside diameter (OD).

SPIGOT – The end of the pipe which fits into the bell or hub. Also, a word synonymously with faucet.

TUBE – A cylindrical conduit or conductor conforming to the particular dimensions known as ’tube size’ and denoted
by its outside diameter or OD.

VERTICAL PIPE – Any pipe or fitting which is installed in a vertical position or which forms an angle of not more than
45° with the vertical line. 45° installed pipe is a vertical pipe.

KINDS OF PIPES

BITUMINOUS PIPE INSTITUTE – BPI

CAST IRON SOIL PIPE

EXTRA HEAVY – Description of piping materials, usually cast iron indicating piping thicker than standard
pipe.

HUBLESS PIPES – Are cast iron soil pipes with plain ends connected together with bolted stainless steel
bands and neoprene gaskets.

IRON PIPE SIZE – I.P.S.

BLACK PIPE – A steel pipe that has not been galvanized.

PLASTIC/SYNTHETIC PIPE

ACRYLONYTRILE BUTADIENE STYRENE – A thermoplastic compound from which fittings, pipes, and
tubing are made.

CHLORINATED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE – CPVC

POLYBUTYLENE – PB. Tube made of plastic material and colored black. The cross-sectional shape is
normally oval and is denoted by its outside diameter or OD. Normally used as water service connection from
main to meter.

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POLYETHYLENE – PE. Tube made of plastic material and colored black. The cross-sectional shape is
circular and is denoted by its outside diameter OD.

POLYVINYL CHLORIDE – PVC. Potable water piping are color-coded Blue. Drainpipes are manufactured in
toxic components and are color-coded Gray, Orange, or Brown.

VITRIFIED SEWER PIPE – Conduit made of fired and glazed earthenware installed to receive waste or sewage or
sewerage.

DEFINITION

FITTING – Is a device used to connect one or more pipes and/or used to change the direction of the straight run of
pipes. Codes require that any change of direction of piping in a drainage system should have a radius curvature
large enough to prevent solids from accumulating and to provide good hydraulic flow characteristics. Fittings that
satisfy this characteristics are known as Drainage Pattern Fittings or Sanitary-Type Fittings. They are required by the
Code to be used in drainage system. Vent piping does not require drainage-pattern fittings.

KINDS OF FITTINGS & CONNECTIONS

ADAPTER FITTING – Any of various fittings designed to mate or fit to each other, two pipes or fittings which are
different in design, when connecting the two together would not be otherwise possible. A fitting that serves to
connect two different tubes or pipes to each other, such as copper tube to iron pipe, etc.

BALL JOINT – A type of pipe connection in which a ball-shaped end is held in a cuplike shell and allows movements
in every direction.

BIBB – Synonymous to faucet, cock, tap, plug, spigot, etc.

BUSHING – A pipe fitting for connecting a pipe with a female fitting of larger size. It is a hollow plug with internal and
external threads.

CAP – An internally threaded (female thread) fitting, screwed, or caulked over the end of the pipe for closing the end
of the pipe.
CLEANOUT – A plug or cover joined to an opening in a pipe, which can be removed for the purpose of cleaning or
examining the interior of the pipe.

COUPLING – A short pipe fitting internally threaded (female threads) at both ends and used to connect two pipes in
a straight line.

SHIELDED COUPLING – An approved elastomeric sealing gasket with an approved outer shield and a
tightening mechanism.

DOUBLE BEND FITTING – A pipe fitting with adjacent reverse bends and shaped like the letter ‘S’.

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BENDS/ SWEEPS – These are accompanied with fractions. It is a fitting used to change direction especially in
sanitary drainage system. Fittings are available with changes at various angles. A 1/4 bend is a 90° fitting. It is
available as either short or long sweep (short or long radius curvature). A 1/8 bend is a 45° fitting and a 1/16 is a 22
½ fitting. It is suitable for use in water supply system as well as vent system. Elbows are available with end
connections of all similar sizes or in various combinations of reduced pipe sizes.

ELBOW – These are accompanied with degrees. A pipe fitting having a bend that makes an angle between adjacent
pipes for a change in direction, the angle is 90°, unless another angle is specified.

 DROP ELBOW – A small elbow having wings cast on each side, the wings having countersunk holes so that
they may be fastened by wood screws to a ceiling, wall, or framing timbers.

 REDUCING ELBOW – Joins two pipes of different diameters at right angle of each other. When specifying
reducer fittings, the bigger diameter is stated first, followed by the smaller diameter.

 STREET ELBOW/ SERVICE ELL/ STREET ELL – A pipe fitting having a 45° or 90° bend with an inside
thread (female thread) on one end and an outside thread (male thread) on the other.

FACE-TO-FACE DIMENSION – The dimension from the face of the inlet port to the face of the outlet port of a valve
or fitting.

FERRULE – A metallic sleeve, caulked, or otherwise joined to an opening in a pipe, into which a plug is screwed that
can be removed for the purpose of cleaning or examining the interior of the pipe.

FLANGE – A ring-shaped plate with a projecting collar along the edge fitted on the end of a pipe at right angles and
provided with holes for bolts to allow fastening the pipe to a similarly equipped adjoining pipe. The resulting joint is a
flanged joint. It is used on installation requiring an increased area coverage for added mechanical strength.

BLANK FLANGE – A solid plate flange used to seal off flow in a pipe. This is not drilled for bolt holes.

BLIND FLANGE – A flange that closes the end of the pipe. There is no opening for the passage of liquid or
gas.

COMPANION FLANGE – A pipe flange to connect with another flange or with a flange valve or fitting. It is
attached to the pipe by the threads, welding, or other method and differs from a flange which is an integral
part of a pipe or fitting.

FLANGE BONNET – A valve bonnet having a flange through which bolts connect it to a matching flange of
the valve body.

FLANGE ENDS – A valve or fitting having flanges for joining the other piping elements. It can be plain faced,
raised face, large male and female, large tongue and groove, small tongue and groove, and ring joint.

FLANGED FITTING – A fitting which utilizes a radially extending collar for sealing and connection.

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GOOSENECK – A return bend of small-sized pipe, one end of which is about 30 cm. long and the other end is about
7.5 cm. long. It is commonly used as a faucet for a pantry sink. Also, the term means the flexible tubing connection
between a service pipe and a water main.

NIPPLE – A short piece of pipe, threaded on the outside (male threads) at both ends, used to join couplings or other
fittings.

 CLOSE NIPPLE – A type of nipple with the entire length externally threaded, twice the length of the standard
pipe rotated to provide passageway for fluid.

 OPEN NIPPLE – A type of nipple having both ends externally threaded and the midsection unthreaded.

OFFSET – In a line of piping is a combination of elbows or bends, which brings one section of the pipe out of line but
into a line parallel with the original section

 CROSS-OVER – A fitting with a double offset, or shaped like the letter ‘U’ with the ends turned out, used to
pass the flow of one pipe pass another when the pipes are in the same plane.

 DOUBLE OFFSET – Two offsets in succession or series such that the centerlines of the outside ends are in
the same straight line.

 ECCENTRIC FITTINGS – Fittings whose openings are offset allowing liquid to flow freely.

PLUG – An externally threaded (male thread) fitting usually with a square head used to close the end of the pipe.
REDUCER – A pipe fitting with inside threads, larger at one end than at the other. A fitting so shaped at one end that
it receives a larger pipe size in the direction of flow.
RETURN BEND – An open return bend, usually made up of two 90° bends with inside and outside threads, flanged,
or welded fittings. Also applied to a 180° bend in copper tubing.
SLIP JOINT – An adjustable tubing connection, consisting of a compression nut, a friction ring, and a compression
washer, designed to fit a threaded adapter fitting or a standard taper pipe thread.
SOCKET – It has similar application as a coupling but its ends are enlarged to provide additional mechanical
strength.
TEE – A ‘t’ shaped pipe fitting that joins three or four pipes at perpendicular directions or connect a branch pipe into
straight run of piping at 90° angle. Where flow characteristics are important, such as in drainage system, Codes
require that a sanitary tee be used. Where flow is not a consideration, such as water supply and vent piping system,
standard tees are permitted. They are available with end connections of all similar sizes or in various combinations of
reduced pipe sizes in any direction.
 BRANCH TEE – A tee having one side branch.
 BULL HEAD TEE – A tee, of which the branch is larger than the run.
 CROSS – A pipe fitting of four branches in pairs, each pair on one axis, and the axis at right angles with
each other.
 DOUBLE SWEEP TEE – A tee made with easy (long radius) curves between body and branch.
 DROP TEE – A tee having the wings of the same type as the drop elbow.

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 SANITARY TEE – A tee used as fitting for a soil pipe, designed with a slight curve in the 90° transition so as
to channel flow from a branch line toward the direction of the main flow.
 TAPPED TEE – A bell-end tee with a branch tapped to receive a threaded pipe or threaded fittings.
UNION/ UNION PATENTE – A pipe fitting, used to connect the ends of two pipes, neither of which can be turned. It
consists of three pieces, the two end pieces having internal threads (female threads).
WYE/ WYE BRANCH (Drainage System) – A fitting used to connect a branch pipe into a straight run of piping at
45° angle. A hose connection with two-gated outlets permitting two connections of the same or smaller coupling
diameter to be taken from a single supply line. Also, a pipe fitting of three branches that for the letter ‘wye’. Wyes are
available with end connections that are of the same size or with various combinations of reduced pipe sizes in any
direction.

JOINTS
BELL AND SPIGOT JOINT – The commonly used joint in the cast iron pipe. Each piece is made with an enlarged
diameter or bell at one end into which the plain or spigot end of another piece is inserted. The joint is then made tight
by cement, oakum, lead, or rubber caulked into the bell around the spigot.
 CAULKING – The method of rendering a joint tight against water or gas by plugging it with oakum, lead, or
other materials that are pounded into the annular space. Also, the material pounded into the annular
opening.
 OAKUM – Hemp or old hemp rope soaked in oil or tar to make it waterproof.
BRAZED JOINT – Any joint obtained by joining of metal parts with alloys which melt at temperatures higher than
1000° F (449° C), but lower than the melting temperatures of the part to be joined.
 BRAZING ENDS – The ends of a valve or fitting which are prepared for silver brazing.
CEMENT JOINT – The union of two fittings by insertion of material. Sometimes this joint is accomplished
mechanically, sometimes chemically.
COMPRESSION FITTING – A fitting which seals and grips by means of adjustable deformation. A fitting designed to
join pipe or tube by means of pressure or friction.
COMPRESSION JOINT – A multi-piece joint with cup-shaped threaded nuts which, when tightened, compress
tapered sleeves so that they form a tight joint on the periphery of the tubing they connect.
END CONNECTION – A reference to the method of connecting the parts of a piping system i.e. threaded, flanged,
butt weld, socket weld, etc.
EXPANSION JOINT – A joint whose primary purpose is to absorb longitudinal thermal expansion in the pipe line due
to heat.
SOLDERED JOINT – A pipe joint obtained by joining of metal parts with metallic mixtures or alloys which melt at a
temperature below 1000° F (427° C) and above 300° F (149° C).
WELDED JOINT/ SEAM – Any joint or seam obtained by the joint of two metal parts in the plastic molten state.
 BACKING RING – A metal strip used to prevent melted metal from the welding process, from entering a pipe
when making a butt-welded joint.
 BUTT WELD PIPE – A welded pipe joint made with the ends of two pipes butting each other, the weld being
around the periphery. A pipe welded along a seam-butted edges and not scarfed or lapped.
WELDING FITTING – A fitting attached by welding.

VALVES & CONTROL DEVICES


VALVE – A fitting installed by plumbers in a system to control the flow of fluid within that system in one or more of
the following ways:
 To turn the flow on

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 To turn the flow off
 To regulate the flow by permitting flow in one direction only (that is, to prevent backflow, to regulate
pressure, or to relieve excessive temperature and/or pressure).
ASPIRATOR – A fitting or device supplied with water or other fluid under pressure which passes through an integral
orifice or ‘constriction’ causing a vacuum.
ANGLE VALVE – A device, usually of globe type, in which the inlet and outlet are at right angles to one another. It is
used for individual plumbing fixture control such as lavatory, water closet, etc.
BACKFLOW VALVE – A device that prevents the reversal of flow which might flood and cause damage to the
building.
BACKWATER VALVE – A device which permits drainage in one direction but has a check valve that closes against
backflow and back pressure of sewage from flooding the basement or lower floors of the building. Sometimes used
conjunctively with gate valves designed for sewage.
TYPES OF BACKWATER VALVE:
 SWING BACKWATER VALVE – Is installed in areas where the sewer main is subject to stoppage.
 BALL TYPE BACKWATER VALVE
BALL VALVE/ QUICK OPENING VALVE – A valve in which the flow of liquid is controlled by a rotating drilled ball
that fits tight against a resilient (flexible) seat in the valve body. A ball valve is a basically a core cock with a spherical
seat.
BRONZE TRIM/ BRONZE MOUNTED – An indication that certain internal parts of the valves known as trim
materials (stem, disc, seat rings, etc.) are made of copper or alloy.
BUBBLE TIGHT – The condition of the valve seat that when closed, prohibits the leakage of visible bubbles.
BUTTERFLY VALVE – A device deriving its name from the wing-like action of the disc which operates at right angles
to the flow that fits within the valve body. The disc impinges against the resilient liner with low operating torque. The
rotation of the disc is by means of a shaft from the disc connected to the handle.
BY-PASS VALVE – A device used to divert the flow to go pass the part of the system through which it normally
passes.
CHECK VALVE/ NON-RETURN VALVE/ REFLUX VALVE – A valve that automatically closes to prevent the flow of
liquid or gas in a reverse direction.
TYPES OF CHECK VALVE AS TO MANNER OF INSTALLATION:
 HORIZONTAL CHECK VALVE
 VERTICAL CHECK VALVE
TYPES OF CHECK VALVE AS TO MECHANISM:
 SWING CHECK VALVE
 LIFT CHECK VALVE
 BALL CHECK VALVE – A device used to stop the flow of media in one direction while allowing flow
in an opposite direction. The closure member used is spherical or ball-shaped.
CHAINWHEEL OPERATED VALVE – A device which is operated by a chain driven wheel which opens and closes
the valve seats.
DIAPHRAGM CONTROL VALVE – A control valve having a spring diaphragm actuator.
DIAPHRAGM – A flexible disc used to separate the control medium from the controlled medium and which
actuates the valve stem.
FLAP VALVE – A non-return valve in the form of a hinged disc or flap sometimes having either leather or rubber
faces.
FLOAT VALVE – A valve which is operated by means of a bulb or ball floating on the surface of a liquid within a
tank. The rising and falling action operates a lever which opens and closes the valve.

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FLUSH VALVE – A device located at the bottom of the tank for the purpose of flushing the water closets and similar
fixtures.
FLUSHOMETER VALVE – A device which discharges a pre-determined quantity of water into fixtures for flushing
purposes and is actuated by direct water pressure.
FOOT VALVE – A valve that is installed at the base or foot of the suction line of a pump in a water cistern or
reservoir.
GATE VALVE/ FULLWAY VALVE – A valve in which the flow of water is cut off by means of a circular disc or gate
like wedge disc, fitting against machine-smoothed face called seat, at right angles to the direction of the flow. The
disc is raised or lowered by means of a threaded stem connected to the handle of the valve. The opening of the
valve is usually as large as the full bore of the pipe.
TYPES OF GATE VALVE:
 BALL VALVE – A spherical-shaped gate valve providing very tight shut-off.
 CLAMP GATE VALVE – A gate valve whose body and bonnet are held together by a ‘U’ bolt clamp.
 DOUBLE DISC – A two piece disc used in the gate valve. Upon contact with the
 DOUBLE WEDGE – A device used in gate valves, similar to double disc in that last downward turn
of the stem spreads the split wedges and each seals independently.
GLOBE VALVE – A compression type valve in which the flow of water is cut off by means of a circular disc that fits
over, forced (compressed) onto or withdrawn against the horizontal annular ring, known as the valve seat. The plane
of movement of the disc is parallel to the normal direction of flow of water through the orifice resulting to a tortuous
passage which offers a high pressure loss.
HYDRANT VALVE – A valve in a hydrant for drawing water directly from the main; primarily used in connection with
fire protection or suppression system.
MIXING VALVE – A valve which mixes liquid, by either automatic or manual regulation.
PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE/ PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE – An automatic device used for converting
high, fluctuating inlet water pressure to a lower constant pressure.
REGULATING EQUIPMENT – Includes all valves and controls used in plumbing systems which are accessible.
RELIEF VALVE – A safety device that automatically provides protection against excessive temperatures, excessive
pressures, or both. This is installed in water heating equipment to protect from the danger of overheating and
explosion.
STOP AND WASTE VALVE – A type of compression stop valve with a side port into the valve body. This is used to
control the flow of water to fixtures, such as sillcocks, that are subject to freezing.
TYPES OF STOP AND WASTE VALVE:
 SILLCOCKS – Is installed on the outside of a building so that a garden hose may be attached. It has
a mounting flange.
 BOILER DRAIN – Is a valve that is installed on a tank (such as water heater) or draining and/or
flushing. It has screw threads for direct mounting onto the tank.
STOP VALVE – A valve used for the control of water supply, usually to a single fixture.
VACUUM RELIEF VALVE – A device to prevent excessive vacuum in the pressure vessel.

PLUMBING TOOLS/ MATERIALS


ADJUSTABLE HANGER – A hanger consisting of a beam clamp and an adjustable ring.
ANCHOR – A device used to fasten or secure pipes to the building or structure.
BALL PEEN HAMMER – Used for caulking.

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BENDING PIN/ IRON – A tool used for straightening or bending lead pipe.
BLOWTORCH – Used as a source of heat when melting lead and heating the soldering copper for caulk joint.
CAULKING IRON – Used for caulking oakum and lead for bell and spigot joints.
CLOSET AUGER – Used for removing clogs in drain pipes, usually at water closet, urinal and lavatory stoppage.
COLD CHISEL – Used for cutting cast iron pipes and for boring holes.
FILE – Used to remove the burrs of the cut pipes.
HACK SAW – Used for cutting pipes.
JOINT RUNNER/ POURING ROPE – Used to close the gap between the hub and the spigot of a cast iron soil pipe
while molten lead is poured into the joint of a horizontal pipe run.
LEAD POT/ MELTING POT – Used as a vessel for holding lead to be melted.
PLUMB BOB – Used for establishing vertical runs for pipes.
PLUMB LEVEL – Used to establish and guide grades on horizontal drainpipe runs.
PLUNGER – Used to clear the trap, at floor drains, or minor obstructions through a pumping action. Also known as
plumber’s friend or plumber’s helper.
POURING LADLE – Used for scooping up melted lead to be poured into cast iron soil pipes to make a caulk joint.
RULE/ PUSH-PULL TAPE – Used to measure pipes to be cut and for measuring the run of the pipes.
SOLDERING COPPER – Used for soldering lead on flashings of vent pipes on galvanized iron roofing.
SUPPORTS – Supports, hangers, anchors, brackets, cradles, are devices for holding and securing pipes and fixtures
to walls, ceilings, floors, or structural members.
TIN SNIP – Used for cutting galvanized iron sheets for straps to anchor pipes.

PLUMBING FIXTURE TERMINOLOGIES


ACCESSIBLE – When applied to fixture, connection, appliance, or equipment, shall mean having access thereto, but
which first may require prior removal of an access panel, door, or similar obstruction.
READILY ACCESSIBLE – Shall mean direct access without the necessity of removing or moving any panel,
door, or similar obstruction.
BATTERY OF FIXTURES – Any group of two or more similar adjacent fixtures which discharge into a common
horizontal soil or waste branch.
FIXTURE BRANCH – The water supply pipe between the fixture supply pipe and the water distributing pipe. A pipe
connecting several fixtures.
FIXTURE CARRIER – A metal unit designed to support an off-the-floor plumbing fixture.
FIXTURE DRAIN – The drainpipe from the trap of a fixture to the junction of the drain with any other drainpipe.
FIXTURE SUPPLY – A water supply pipe connecting the fixture with the fixture branch.
FIXTURE UNIT – Is an arbitrary quantity in terms of which the load-producing effects or water requirements on the
plumbing systems of different kinds of plumbing fixtures are expressed on some arbitrarily chosen scale. One fixture
unit is equivalent to rate of flow at 28.3 liters per minute (1 cu. ft./ minute).
FIXTURE UNIT FLOW RATE – The total discharge flow in GPM of a single fixture divided by 7.5 which provides the
flow rate of that particular plumbing fixture as a unit of flow. Fixtures are rated as multiples of this unit of flow.
FLOOD LEVEL – The level in the fixture at which water begins to overflow over the top or rim of the fixture.
FLOOD LEVEL RIM – The top edge or rim of a receptacle or fixture from which water can overflow regardless of the
location of any overflow piping from the receptacle.
FLOODED – A condition when liquid rises to the flood level rim of the fixture.
FLOOR SET/ FLOOR MOUNTED – Refers to a plumbing fixture that rests from the floor.
LOAD FACTOR – The percentage of the total connected fixture unit flow rate which is likely to occur at any point in
the drainage system. It represents the ratio of the probable load to the potential load and is determined by the

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average rates of flow of the various kinds of fixtures, the average frequency of use, the duration of flow during one
use, and the number of fixtures installed.
PLUMBING ACCESSORIES – Soap holder, roll paper holder, toothbrush and tumbler holder, towel holder/ towel
bar/ towel rail bracket, shower curtain rod, seat cover, medicine cabinet etc.
PLUMBING APPLIANCE – Any one of the special class of device or equipment intended to perform a special
plumbing function. Its operation and/or control may be dependent upon one or more energized components such as
motors, controls, heating elements, and pressure-temperature-sensing elements. Such device or equipment may
operate automatically through one or more of the following actions: a time cycle, a temperature range, a pressure
range, a measured volume or weight, or the device or equipment may be manually adjusted or controlled by the user
or operator.
PLUMBING APPURTENANCE – A manufactured device, pre-fabricated assembly or on-the-job assembly of
component parts which is an adjunct to the basic piping system and plumbing fixtures. An appurtenance demands no
additional water supply nor does it add any discharge load to a fixture or drainage system. It is presumed that it
performs some useful functions in the operation, maintenance, servicing, economy, or safety of the plumbing system.
PLUMBING FIXTURE – Approved type of installed receptacles, devices, or appliances other than a trap which are
supplied with water or which receive liquid or liquid-borne wastes and discharge such wastes into the drainage
system to which they may be directly or indirectly connected. A receptacle other than a trap attached to the plumbing
system into which water or wastes may be collected or retained for ultimate discharge into the plumbing system.
Except industrial or commercial tanks, vats, and similar processing equipments are not plumbing fixtures, but may be
connected to or discharged into approved traps or plumbing fixtures when and as otherwise proved for elsewhere in
this Code.
PLUMBING FIXTURE QUALITY OF MATERIALS – Quality of fixtures must be dense, durable, non-absorbent
materials, and must have smooth impervious surfaces, free from unnecessary concealed fouling surfaces. All
porcelain enamel surfaces on plumbing fixture shall be acid resistant. Water closet bowls for public use shall be
elongated bowl types equipped with open-front seats for the water closet bowl used.
PLUMBING FIXTURE TRIM/ ACCESSORIES – The water supply and drainage fittings which are installed on the
fixture to control the flow of water into the fixture and the flow of wastewater from the fixture to the sanitary drainage
system.
PLUMBING UNIT – A minimum standard quantity of plumbing fixtures that discharge wastes into a plumbing
installation including: one (1) water meter, one (1) water closet, one (1) lavatory, one (1) showerhead and drain for a
bathtub or shower stall, one (1) kitchen sink, one (1) laundry tray and three (3) floor drains, and four (4) faucets/ hose
bibb. Total of 13 number of fixture and fittings that comprise a plumbing unit.
PROHIBITED FIXTURES/ CROSS CONNECTIONS/ INSANITARY – Pan, washout, and valve plunger offset,
without water closets having invisible seats or unventilated space or having walls, which are not thoroughly washed
out at each discharge shall be prohibited. Any water closet which might permit siphonage of the contents of the bowl
back into the water tank shall be prohibited as well as trough urinal. Long hopper water closets or similar appliances
shall not be installed. Latrine is also prohibited by most health authorities for permanent installations. Drinking
fountains shall not be installed inside the public toilet rooms.
RIM – An unobstructed top open edge of a fixture.
ROUGHING-IN – The installation of all piping and fitting parts of the plumbing system, which can be completed prior
to the installation of the fixtures and accessories. These include sanitary and storm drainage, tap, hot, and chilled
water supplies, gas piping, vent piping, and the necessary fixture supports.
SANITARY WARE/ SANIWARE – Porcelain enamel ware such as bathtubs, sewer pipes, toilet bowls, wash basins,
etc.
TAILPIECE – The pipe or tubing that connects the outlet of a plumbing fixture to the trap.

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WALL HUNG/ WALL MOUNTED – Refers to plumbing fixture which is supported from the wall.

TYPES OF PLUMBING FIXTURES


 WATER CLOSET – A water-flushed plumbing fixture used to receive human excrement and to discharge it
through a waste pipe, using water as a conveying medium. Water closets are classified according to design,
make, flushing mechanism used, shape, and installation. Also known as toilet or a room in which the fixture
is located.
QUALITY OF A WATER CLOSET:
 Flush down quietly.
 Flush down the liquid and waste completely.
 Must function efficiently.
 Must retain large amount of standing water surface area inside the bowl to prevent fouling and
contamination.
TYPES OF WATER CLOSET AS TO DESIGN:
 SIPHON WASHDOWN (WD) WATER CLOSET – The most common, least expensive but the
noisiest. Only a small amount of standing water – susceptible to fouling, staining, and contamination.
It is more subject to clogging than the other types. The trap way is irregular in shape because of its
exterior design and the methods of manufacturing. It is recognized by the bulging shape in front. It
flushes through a simple wash down action. It discharge waste into a trap way located at the front of
the bowl. It is mechanically satisfactory and is lower in price. It cost less but least efficient and the
noisiest of all types. Hence, it is widely used and entirely acceptable where price is the main
consideration.
 SIPHON JET (SJ)/ SIPHON ACTION (SA) WATER CLOSET – The jet being submerged,
introduces its underwater so that its operation is entirely muffled. It has a large amount of standing
water that mostly cover the bowl interior to prevent fouling. It has large trap-way making it less likely
to clog and the flushing action is silent than the other types. It is costlier than the washdown and the
reverse trap type, but is mechanically efficient in service, very sanitary, and easy to clean.
 SIPHON VORTEX (SV) WATER CLOSET – This type of bowl develops its flushing action through
the water entering through diagonal holes around the rim or whirlpool motion which creates a
swirling action which forms a vortex in the center, followed by a flush down of the liquid and waste
completely. It retains a large amount of standing water covering almost the entire interior surface of
the bowl. It is considered to be the most quiet, most efficient, most expensive, and most sanitary
water closet.
 REVERSE TRAP (RT) WATER CLOSET – It flushes through a siphon action created in the trap
way located at the rear of the water closet, eliminated the bulge at the front. The design and
appearance of the bowl plus its large water area and quietness in operation, makes it desirable than
the washdown, fouling and staining of the interior bowl is unlikely to occur. It is efficient but
moderately noisy. The trap-way is round and less likely to be clogged. This type of water closet is
little more expensive than the washdown type.
 DIRECT FLUSH VALVE WATER CLOSET – This type of water closet is sometimes referred to as
DFV. This type is installed in places where water supply is sufficient and pressurized. The DFV
water closet eliminates the use of water tank. Flushing action can be obtained directly from a flush
valve connected into the bowl. It is preferred in commercial, hospitals, industrial and institutional
comfort rooms for efficiency of service and ease in cleaning.
 BLOWOUT (BO) WATER CLOSET – Noisy but highly efficient.

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TYPES OF WATER CLOSET AS TO MAKE:
 ONE PIECE WATER CLOSET – The water closet fixture is manufactured with the bowl and the
flush tank molded into single unit. It is usually used in tandem with bidet/ sitz bath.
 CLOSED COUPLED WATER CLOSET – A water closet where in the flush tank is separate but is
attached to the toilet bowl. It is a two-piece model.
 PAIL FLUSH WATER CLOSET – A water closet comprising only of a bowl without a flush tank. It is
the cheapest, the smallest, and the simplest form of water closet. Some called this type as mini-
closet, intended for installation in a very limited space and budget. Flushing action is obtained only
through water poured from a pail or bucket. This is used in areas where running water systems are
not available.
 SQUAT BOWL WATER CLOSET – A water closet that is otherwise known as ‘Eastern type’ since
the user assumes a squatting position rather than a sitting position. This is another simple type of
water closet without water tank installed flat on the floor. The flushing action can be agitated with
one half gallon of water similar that of the pail flush type water closet. Recommended for low cost
and rural housing public toilets. This type however, is commonly seen installed in a public toilet for
ladies.
TYPES OF WATER CLOSET AS TO FLUSHING MECHANISM USED:
 FLUSH TANK – A tank located above or integral with water closet, urinal, or similar fixtures for
flushing or removing excrements in the fixture. Holds a supply of water for flushing a fixture such
as the water closet. It has a capacity of 5 to 6 gallons. Commonly used in residential buildings.
o HIGH TANK – Flush tank is located high up behind the toilet bowl.
o CLOSE COUPLED – Flush tank is attached at the back of the toilet bowl.
o ONE PIECE – Toilet is similar to freestanding model, except that the tank and bowl are
single piece.
o FREESTANDING – Toilet has a tank sitting on top of bowl. The bowl is mounted on
bathroom floor.
o CORNER TOILET – Has a triangular shaped tank. Good for small bathrooms.
o LOW PROFILE – One piece with tank rising only slightly above height of the toilet bowl.
 FLUSH VALVE/ FLUSHOMETER/ FLUSHOMETER VALVE – Is integrated within an air
accumulator vessel which is designed to discharge a pre-determined quantity of water into fixtures
for flushing purposes. A valve designed to supply a fixed quantity of water for flushing purposes. It
is activated by direct water pressure without the use of the flush tank. The flush valve requires 10
to 20 psi flow pressure. It is commonly used for commercial buildings.
o DIAPHRAGM TYPE FLUSHOMETER VALVE
o PISTON TYPE FLUSHOMETER VALVE
TYPES OF WATER CLOSET AS TO SHAPE:
 REGULAR ROUND FRONT BOWL/ PLAIN BOWL WATER CLOSET – Intended for installation in a
limited space.
 ELONGATED FRONT TYPE WATER CLOSET – Is more comfortable but occupies a larger space,
used in commercial or public purposes. This type has large amount of standing water inside the
bowl that is more sanitary and easier to maintain.
TYPES OF WATER CLOSET AS TO INSTALLATION:
 FREE STANDING/ FLOOR MOUNTED
 WALL HUNG/ WALL MOUNTED

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FROST-PROOF WATER CLOSET – A hopper that has no water in the bowl and has the trap and
the control valve for its water supply installed below the frost line.
LATRINE – A water closet consisting of a continuous trough containing water. The trough extends
under two or more adjacent seats. Prohibited by health authorities for permanent installations.
 URINAL – A sanitary fixture equipped with water supply and drain for flushing away urine.
WOMEN’S URINAL – These are urinals designed for women where the used is in straddled position
when using this fixture. One type of this fixture if the floor-set and the other is the wall-hung which is
supported by a chair carrier. Both type have integral or built-in trap.
TYPES OF URINAL AS TO INSTALLATION:
 WALL HUNG URINAL
 WITH PEDESTAL URINAL
 STALL URINAL
 TROUGH URINAL
TYPES OF URINAL AS TO FLUSHING ACTIONS:
 WASHOUT
 SIPHON JET
 BLOWOUT
 LAVATORY/ WASHBASIN – A fixture designed for washing of the hands or face.
MATERIALS FOR LAVATORY:
 PORCELAIN
 FORMED STEEL
 VITREOUS CHINA
 ENAMELED CAST IRON
 STAINLESS STEEL
 ACRYLIC PLASTIC/ PERSPEX
 GLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER
 CERAMIC
TYPES OF LAVATORY AS TO INSTALLATION:
 WALL HUNG LAVATORY
 WITH PEDESTAL LAVATORY
 COUNTER TYPE LAVATORY – Over Counter or Under Counter (placed below the built-in counter
top).
 ONE PIECE LAVATORY – Countertop is integrated with the lavatory.
 MOLDED ONE PIECE WITH INTEGRAL COUNTERTOP
o BUILT-IN INSTALLATION SELF-RIMMING – The lavatory fittings are installed through a
hole drilled at the counter top.
o FITTING LEDGE INSTALLATION SELF-RIMMING – The lavatory fittings are installed in a
hole provided within the lavatory itself.
TYPES OF LAVATORY AS TO SHAPE:
 ROUND
 SQUARE
 OVAL
 RECTANGULAR
 TRIANGULAR
 TRAPEZOIDAL

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SIDE ELEVATION OF A LAVATORY IS EITHER:
 SHALLOW OR DEEP
 NEARLY VERTICAL OR GRADUALLY SLOPING SIDE
TYPES OF LAVATORY FAUCETS:
 WASHER-TYPE FAUCET
 CARTRIDGE FAUCET
 DIAPHRAGM FAUCET
 BIDET/ SITZ BATH – A plumbing fixture, low-set bowl designed as a combination lavatory where the person
sits down on it, equipped with cold and hot running water with inverted water sprayer and drain installation,
which is used for washing the middle private part of the body, especially the genitals. It also serves as a foot
bath or for any function that a lower set of bowl might perform. It is much more closely related to a shower
than to a toilet although it appears more likely as a toilet bowl.
 BATHTUB – A tub for bathing. Usually a fixed plumbing installation designed to fit one person but may be
large enough to accommodate couple bathing together. Some one person bathtubs are equipped with seats,
shelves for soap and shampoo with non-skid surfaces. Others have built-in water pressure pipes and
sprayers for soothing the muscle pain. It is available in left outlet and right outlet.
FIBERGLASS BATHTUB – The lightest bathtub introduced in the market. Although it is not as
durable as the porcelain, it is easier to clean and maintain. The surface is coated smoothly with
attractive gel.
Note: Requirements for Whirlpool bathtubs: (1) Provide removable access panel to the pump. (2)
Locate the circulation pump above the crown weir of the trap. (3) The pump and the circulation
piping shall be self-draining to minimize water retention. (4) Suction fittings shall comply with the
listed standards.
TYPES OF BATHTUB AS TO INSTALLATION:
 RECESSED BATHTUB/ BUILT-IN BATHTUB
 BATH-SHOWER MODULE
TYPES OF BATHTUB FAUCETS:
 OVERRIM BATHTUB FITTING – Consists of a faucet assembly and a mixing spout. These are
mounted on the wall on the drain end of the tub with the spout above the flood level rim of the tub
(hence the name overrim).
o COMPRESSION FAUCET BATHTUB FITTING
o SINGLE HANDLE BATHTUB FITTING
 COMBINATION BATH AND SHOWER MODULE
o COMPRESSION FAUCET FITTING
o SINGLE HANDLE FITTING
 BATHTUB DRAIN FITTINGS
o COMBINATION WASTE AND OVERFLOW FITTING
o LIFT WASTE FITTING
 SHOWER BATH – An apparatus for spraying water in the body, usually from above. Drain is through the
shower bath floor drain.
Note: Each shower receptor shall be constructed to have a finished dam, curb, or threshold of at
least 25.4 mm. lower than the outside floor. The dam and threshold shall not be less than 51 mm.
nor more than 228 mm. in depth, when measured from the top of the dam or threshold to the top of
the drain.

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 KITCHEN SINK – A plumbing fixture usually consisting of a shallow, flat-bottomed basin with a water supply,
connected with a drain used in cleaning dishes and in lieu of food preparation.
COMBINATION FIXTURE – A fixture which combines one sink and tray or a two or three
compartment sink or tray in one unit.
MATERIALS FOR A KITCHEN SINK:
 CAST IRON ENAMEL
 FORMED STEEL COATED WITH PORCELAIN ENAMEL
 STAINLESS STEEL
TYPES OF KITCHEN SINK AS TO MAKE:
 SINGLE COMPARTMENT KITCHEN SINK
 DOUBLE COMPARTMENT KITCHEN SINK – These are manufactured in enameled cast iron,
enameled pressed steel and stainless steel.
o SINGLE BOWL – SINGLE DRAIN
o DOUBLE BOWL – SINGLE DRAIN
o DOUBLE BOWL – DOUBLE DRAIN
o TRIPLE BOWL
o CORNER SINK
Note: Restaurant kitchen and other special-use sinks may be made of approved type bonderized
and galvanized sheet steel of not less than Gauge No. 16 U.S. B & S or 1.6 mm. thick.
 DISWASHER – Is an electric appliance for washing dishes.
 GARBAGE DISPOSER/ FOOD WASTE DISPOSER/ GRINDER – Is an electric grinding device used with
water to grind food wastes into pulp and discharge these wastes into the drainage system.
 SCRUB SINK – A plumbing fixture usually located in the operating room in a hospital to enable personnel to
scrub their hands prior to a surgical procedure. The hot and cold water supply is activated by a knee-action
mixing valve or by wrist or pedal control.
 SERVICE SINK/ SLOP SINK/ MOP SINK/ JANITOR’S SINK – A deep sink, usually set low and used by
janitors for emptying pails of dirty water and mop cleaning. These are installed in janitor’s closets and
building maintenance area for use of the building maintenance personnel.
 FLOOR DRAIN – Is a plumbing fixture or receptacle used to receive water that is to be drained from the floor
into the drainage system.
TYPES OF FLOOR DRAIN:
 FLOOR DRAINS WITH INTEGRAL TRAP
 FLOOR DRAINS WITH BODY TO USE A SEPARATE P-TRAP
 DRY PAN FLOOR DRAIN
 SHOWER DRAIN
 KITCHEN DRAIN
 CANOPY DRAIN
 BALCONY DRAIN
 DECK DRAIN
 PLANTBOX DRAIN
 SCUPPER DRAIN
 ROOF DRAIN
FEATURES OF A FLOOR DRAIN:
(1) The minimum outlet size of a floor drain shall be 2 inches. (2) The floor drain strainer or grate must
be removable. (3) The combined free area of the holes in the strainer/ grate must equal the size of the

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drain outlet. (4) Floor drain trap must be deep seal with 3 inches minimum trap seal. (5) Floor drains
installed below ground level must be equipped with backwater valve/ backflow preventer.
USES OF A FLOOR DRAIN:
(1) Home laundry with utility rooms (2) Basement of all buildings (3) Public rest rooms (4) Janitors
closet (5) Entrances and exits to large shower rooms (6) Building entryways (7) Garages (8)
Restaurant kitchens (9) Food markets.
LOCATIONS OF FLOOR DRAN:
(1) In toilet rooms containing two or more contiguous water closets or urinals. (2) In every kitchen area
with floor of impervious material. (3) Near urinals. (4) Near slop sinks. (5) Near bathtubs. (6) In areas
of impervious material where splashes of water is expected to flow.
FLUSHING TYPE FLOOR DRAIN – A floor drain which is equipped with an integral water supply,
enabling flushing of the drain receptor and trap.
 DRINKING FOUNTAIN – A fixture consisting of shallow basin, together with water jet designed to provide
potable water for human consumption.
 LAUNDRY TUB/ LAUNDRY TRAY/ SET TUB – A deep wide fixed tub or sink, installed in the laundry area
used for washing and other household items such as clothes, fabrics, cloth, draperies, etc.
TYPES OF LAUNDRY TRAY:
 FLOOR SET LAUNDRY TRAY
 WALL-HUNG LAUNDRY TRAY
 POOL – A water receptacle used for swimming or as a plunge or other bath, designed to accommodate
more than one bather at a time.
REFLECTING POOL – A water receptacle used for decorative purposes.
SWIMMING POOL – A water basin, chamber, or tank containing water for swimming, diving, or
recreational bathing, used to accommodate many bathers at a time and having a depth of two feet or
more at any point. It is properly connected to a disposal system, fills and draws water supply or
provided with approved water purification and recirculation system.

PLUMBING TRAPS AND INTERCEPTORS TERMINOLOGIES


CROWN WEIR – The highest point of the bottom of the internal surface of the trap crown.
DIP – The lowest portion of the inside top surface of the channel through the trap.
HYDRAULIC GRADIENT – The amount of inclination of a discharge line between the trap outlet and the vent
connections, not exceeding one pipe diameter in this total length.
INTERCEPTOR/ CLARIFIER – A device designed and installed so as to separate and retain deleterious, hazardous,
or undesirable matter from normal wastes and permit normal sewage or liquid wastes to discharge into the disposal
terminal by gravity.
SEAL – The vertical distance between the dip and the crown weir of the trap. Also, the water in the trap between the
dip and the crown weir.
TRAP – A fitting or device so designed and constructed as to provide when properly vented, a liquid seal which will
prevent the back passage of foul air or methane gas or emission of sewer gas or entry of some kind of vermin or
insects to a room through the fixture without materially affecting the flow of sewage or wastewater through it.

CLASSIFICATION OF TRAPS:

 PERMISSIBLE TRAP
o P-TRAP, 1/2 S-TRAP, GOOSENECK - Used at lavatories, sinks, floor drains, and scuppers.

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o DRUM TRAP - A cylindrical trap commonly used on the drain pipe from a bathtub, bidet, or
under the bathroom floor.
o RUNNING TRAP
o GREASE TRAP/ GREASE INTERCEPTOR – A device designed to retain grease from one to a
maximum of four fixtures. A device for removing fat and grease from wastewater by allowing the
retained liquid to cool and the grease solidify. Then the grease is separated by floatation. It rises
to the top of the trap, where it is held. The prime purpose is to assure a free-flowing drainage
through pipe lines at all times by intercepting, accumulating and recovering globules of grease
fat and oils from wastewater. An interceptor of at least 3 cubic meters capacity to serve one or
more fixtures and which is remotely located.
Note: A grease trap is not required for individual dwelling units or for any private living quarters.
No food waste disposal unit shall be connected to or discharged into any grease trap.
o HOUSE TRAP – A device installed to have circulation of air between the drainage of the
building and the building sewer.

 OBJECTIONABLE TRAP – (1) Full S-Trap (2) 3/4 S-Trap (3) Bag Trap (4) Mechanically Sealed
Trap (5) Internal Partition Trap (6) Light Metal Partition Trap (7) Bell Trap

TRAP ARM – That portion of a fixture drain between a trap and the vent.
TRAP PRIMER – A device or system of piping to maintain a water seal in a trap.
TRAP SEAL – The maximum vertical depth or distance of liquid that a trap will retain, measured between the crown
weir and the top of the dip of the trap. (SEAL: 2 inches in normal traps and 3 inches or more in deep seal traps).
TRAP SEAL LOSS – Can be attributed directly to inadequate ventilation of the trap and the subsequent minus and
plus pressures which occur in the piping system.

FIVE CAUSES OF TRAP SEAL LOSS:

 SIPHONAGE/ VACUUM – Any pressure less than exerted by the atmosphere and may be termed as
negative pressure/ minus pressure. The withdrawal of a liquid from a trap due to a suction caused by liquid
flow in a pipe.
o DIRECT SELF-SIPHONAGE – Trap seal loss that occurs as a result of removing water from
unvented traps that serve oval-bottom fixtures such as lavatories, due to rapid discharge.

o INDIRECT/ MOMENTUM SIPHONAGE – Indirect manner or momentum of water as it passes


through a fixture trap outlet. It is caused by a large discharge of water from a fixture installed one or
more floors above the affected fixture at lower elevation. It is caused by simultaneous fixture use
that overtaxes the plumbing system causing a positive pressure that affects the trap seal.

 BACKPRESSURE/ BACK SIPHONAGE – A pressure within the sanitary drainage or vent piping system
that is greater than atmospheric pressure/ plus pressure. Pressure developed in opposition to the flow of
liquid in a pipe due to friction, gravity, or some other restriction to flow of the conveyed fluid.
 EVAPORATION – This is a phenomenon of nature that causes trap seal loss. Occurs when a fixture is not
used for a long time. A deep seal trap is the best solution but clogs the pipe due to accumulated solids. A
trap seal located in a room where the air is not saturated with water serves as a water source and it

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gradually evaporates. Under ordinary conditions, it would entail many weeks for a trap seal to evaporate but
frequent use of the fixture would eliminate the problem on evaporation.

 CAPILLARY ACTION/ ATTRACTION – The action by which the surface of a liquid where it is in contact with
a solid, is elevated or depressed depending upon the relative attraction of the molecules of the liquid for
each other and for those of the solid. Foreign objects such as rags, string, lint, and hair clogged in the trap
where one end is n the inlet side and the other on the outlet side (trap arm) causes loss on trap seal by
capillary action by acting as a wick. The material is soaked up and the water seal is removed thereby
allowing gas to pass through.

 WIND EFFECT – Wind of high velocity passing over the top of the soil pipe roof terminal affects the trap
seal. A downdraft occurring in the plumbing system tends to ripple the liquid content of the trap and force a
quantity of it in the outlet arm of the trap. This is not quite a problem since not the entire trap seal is removed
rather a portion of which is forced out. Some precaution can be taken to terminate the soil stack away from
valleys, gables, or any abrupt roof projections where the wind may hit and be directed into or across the soil
pipe roof terminal.

 LEAK – Any trap that is not properly fitted or connected may pose the possibility of allowing liquid waste to
leak and lose its protective trap. All fixtures and fixture connections must be checked and tested to ensure
the water tightness of connection and joints.

SANITARY DRAINAGE SYSTEM TERMINOLOGIES

ACID WASTE PIPE – A pipe which conveys liquid waste matter containing a Ph of 6.9 or less.

BACKFILL – That portion of the trench excavation which is replaced after the sewer line has been laid or the
material above the pipe (up to the original pipe line).

BASE – The lowest portion or lowest point of the stack of vertical pipe.

BIOLOGICAL OXYGEN DEMAND – BOD. The measure of the strength of the sewage in relation to the total amount
of organic material it contains.
UNTREATED DOMESTIC SANITARY SEWAGE – Average BOD of about 200 mg/ liter
D.E.N.R. STANDARD – 50 mg/ liter

BLOW OFF – A controlled outlet on a pipe line used to discharge waste or detritus.

BRANCH INTERVAL – A length of soil or waste stack corresponding in general to a storey height, but in no case
less than 2.43 meters within which the horizontal branches from one floor or storey of a building are connected to the
stack.

BUILDING/ HOUSE DRAIN – That part of the lowest horizontal piping of a drainage system which receives the
discharge from soil, waste, and other drainage pipes inside the walls of the building and conveys it to the building
sewer beginning 0.6 meter outside the building wall.

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BUILDING/ HOUSE SUB-DRAIN – That portion of the underground system which cannot drain by gravity into the
building sewer. It conveys the drainage from the lower portion of the building to an ejector pot or sump pit from which
it is pumped into the building or house sewer.
BUILDING/ HOUSE SEWER – That part of the horizontal piping of the drainage system which starts from the end of
the building drain and which receives the discharge of the building drain and conveys it to the public sewer, private
sewer, individual sewage disposal system, or other point of disposal.

BUILDING GRAVITY DRAINAGE SYSTEM – A drainage system that drains by gravity into the building sewer.

CHASE – A recess in a wall in which pipes can be run. A vertical shaft for installation of different pipe stacks.

COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT SYSTEM – A specially designed system of waste piping embodying the
horizontal wet venting of one or more sinks or floor drains by means of a common waste and vent pipe, adequately
sized to provide free movement of air above the flow line of the drain.

CONTINUOUS WASTE – A drain connecting the compartments of a set of fixtures to a trap or connecting other
permitted fixtures to a common trap.

DOMESTIC SEWAGE/ SANITARY SEWAGE – The wastewater containing human excrements and liquid household
waste. The liquid or water-borne wastes derived from the ordinary living processes, free from industrial wastes, and
of such character as to permit satisfactory disposal, without special treatment, into the public sewer or by means of a
private sewage disposal system.

DRAIN – Any pipe which carries waste or water-borne wastes in a building drainage system.

DRAIN, WASTE, AND VENT – DWV

DRAIN FIELD – The area of the piping system arranged in troughs for the purpose of disposing unwanted liquid
waste.

DRAINAGE FITTING – A special type of fitting or fittings utilized in the drainage system for connecting pieces of
pipes or to change direction. They are similar to cast iron fittings, except that instead of having bell and spigot,
drainage fittings are recessed and tapped to eliminate ridges on the inside of the installed pipe. The fittings make
possible a smooth and continuous interior surface for the piping system.

DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT – DFU. A measure of the probable discharge into the drainage system by various types
of plumbing fixtures, equivalent to a discharge rate of 7.5 gallons per minute or 1 cubic per minute.

DRAINAGE SYSTEM – The drainage piping within public or private premises which convey sewage, rain, water,
water, or other liquid wastes to an approved or legal point of disposal, but does not include the mains of the public
sewer system or a private or public sewage treatment or disposal plant.

DURHAM SYSTEM – A term used to describe soil or waste system where all piping is of threaded pipe, tubing, or
other such rigid construction, using recessed drainage fittings to correspond to the types of piping.

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ESCHERICHIA COLI – E coli bacterium. Fecal/ human waste coliform bacterium. The presence of E coli indicates
that water is contaminated with fecal wastes and pathogens may be present.
D.E.N.R. STANDARD – 10,000 MPN/ 100 ml
SAFE DRINKING WATER – Not more than 1 E coli per 100 ml (about 0.4) cup of water
WATER FOR SWIMMING – Not more than 200 E coli per 100 ml water

FRENCH DRAIN/ RUBBLE DRAIN – A drain consisting of an underground passage made by filling a trench with
loose stones and covering with earth.
GRINDER PUMP – A special class of solid-handling pump which grinds sewage solids to a fine slurry, rather than
passing through entire spherical solids.

HORIZONTAL BRANCH – A drain pipe extending laterally from a soil or waste stack or building drain with or without
vertical sections or branches, which receives the discharge from one or more fixture drains and conducts it to the soil
or waste stack or to the building drain.

INDUSTRIAL WASTE – Any and all liquid or water-borne waste from industrial or commercial processes except
domestic sewage.

LATERAL – In plumbing, a secondary pipeline. In sewerage, a common sewer to which no other branch sewer is
connected. It receives sewage from building sewer service connections only.

LIQUID WASTE – Is the discharge from any fixture, appliance, or appurtenance in connection with the plumbing
system which does not receive fecal matter.

PATHOGENS – Are disease-causing bacteria.

PRIMARY BRANCH – Of the building drain is the single sloping drain from the base of the stack to its junction with
the main building drain or with another branch thereof.

PRIVY – An outhouse or structure used for the deposition of excrement.

PRIVY VAULT – A pit beneath the privy where excrement collects.

PUBLIC TOILET – A toilet facility located at public places like markets, bus stations, buildings, etc. intended for
public use.

RAW SEWAGE – Untreated sewage that is mostly pure water since it comprises about 99.9 % water and only 0.1%
impurities. However, this contains biodegradable organic material, which is very likely to contain pathogenic
organisms. It contains an average of 35 mg/ liter of nitrogen and 10 mg/ liter of phosphorus.

SANITARY DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPING SYSTEM – Are installed by the plumber to remove wastewater and
water-borne wastes from the plumbing fixtures and appliances, and to provide circulation of air within the drainage
piping.

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SANITARY DRAINAGE PIPES – Pipes installed to remove the wastewater and water-borne wastes from plumbing
fixtures and convey these to the sanitary sewer and other point of disposal.

SECONDARY BRANCH – Any branch in a building drain other than the primary branch.

SEWAGE – Any liquid waste containing animal or vegetable matter is suspension or solution and may include liquids
containing chemical in solution.

SEWER – A pipe or conduit for carrying sewage and wastewater.

SEWERAGE/ SEWERAGE WORKS – A comprehensive term, including all constructions for collection,
transportation, pumping, treatment, and final disposition of sewage.

SOIL PIPE – Any pipe which conveys the discharge of water closets, urinals, or fixtures having similar functions, with
or without the discharges from other fixtures to the building drain or building sewer.

SOIL STACK PIPE – A vertical soil pipe conveying fecal matter and liquid waste.

STACK – A general term for any vertical line of soil, vent, or inside leader piping. This does not include vertical
fixture and vent braces that do not extend through the roof or that pass through not more than two stories before
being reconnected to the vent stack or stack vent.

STACK GROUP – The location of fixtures in relation to the stack so that by means of proper fittings, vents may be
reduced to a minimum.

SUMP PUMP – A mechanical device used to eject or pump the liquid waste from the sump pit into the gravity
drainage
system.

WASTE PIPE – A pipe which conveys only liquid waste free of fecal matter.
Note: A waste pipe is generally smaller than a soil pipe because of the nature of matter being discharged into the
system. A waste may be connected directly or indirectly depending on the type of fixtures.

TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS – TSS. The measure of the strength of the sewage in relation to the total amount of
suspended solids.

UNTREATED DOMESTIC SANITARY SEWAGE – Average TSS of about 240 mg/ liter

SEWAGE DIPSOSAL SYSTEMS

CESSPOOL – A non-watertight lined excavation in the ground which receives the discharge of a sanitary drainage
system or part thereof, so designed as to retain the organic matter and solids discharging there from, but permitting
the liquids to seep through the bottom and the sides.

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COMMUNAL EXCRETA DISPOSAL SYSTEM – An excreta disposal system serving a group of dwelling units.

INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM – A system for disposal of domestic sewage by means of a septic tank
or mechanical treatment, designed for use apart from a public sewer to serve a single establishment or building, to
be approved by Plumbing Official having jurisdiction. An excreta disposal system serving a dwelling unit.

LATERAL SEWER – A sewer which does not receive sewage from any other common sewer except house
connections.

LEACHING CESSPOOL – A cesspool that is not watertight.

LEACHING WELL/ PIT/ DRY WELL – A pit or receptacle having porous walls which permit the contents to seep into
the ground.

MATERIAL FOR EXCRETA DRAINAGE SYSTEM

 Excreta drainage piping shall be cast iron, ductile iron, galvanized steel, galvanized wrought iron, lead,
copper, brass, series 1000 PVC DWV, extra-strength vitrified clay pipe or other approved material having
smooth and uniform bore.
 No galvanized wrought iron or galvanized steel pipe shall be used underground and shall be kept at least
152 mm above ground.
 ABS and PVC DWV piping installations shall be used in high rise buildings, provided that its use shall be the
discretion of the designer and also with the full consent of the owner.
 No vitrified clay pipe or fittings for drain or sewer shall be used above ground or whenever piping is
pressurized by a pump or ejector. They shall be kept at least 0.30 meter below finish ground level.
 Drainage fittings shall be of cast iron, malleable iron, lead, brass, copper, ABS, PVC, vitrified clay, or other
approved materials have a smooth interior waterway of the same diameter as the piping served and all such
fittings shall be compatible with the type of pipe used.
 Fittings on screwed pipe joints shall be of recessed type. Burred ends shall be reamed to the full bore of the
pipe.
 The threads of drainage fittings shall be tapped to allow 2% or 20 mm./ m grade.

SIZE OF DRAINAGE PIPING


 The minimum sizes of vertical and/or horizontal drainage piping shall be determined from the total of all
fixture units connected thereto, and additional, in case of vertical drainage pipes, in accordance with their
height or length.

FIXTURE CONNECTIONS
 Drainage piping shall be provided with approved inlet fittings or fixture connections, correctly located
according to the size and type of fixture proposed to be connected.
 Two fixtures set back-to–back, or side-by-side, within the distance allowed between a trap and its vent, may
be served by a single vertical drain pipe, provided that each fixture wastes separately into an approved
double fitting, such as double sanitary tee or double wye and 1/8 bend having inlet openings at the same
level.

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CHANGES IN DIRECTION OF EXCRETA DRAINAGE FLOW
 Changes in direction shall be made by the appropriate use of approved fittings and shall be of the angles
presented by 22 ½ ° or 1/16 bend, 45° or 1/8 bend and 60° or 1/6 bend or other approved fittings of
equivalent sweep.
 Horizontal drainage branch lines, connecting with the stack shall enter through 45 or 60 wye branches,
combination wye and 1/8 bend branches, sanitary tee, or sanitary tapped tee branches of other approved
fittings of equivalent sweeps. No fitting having more than one inlet at the same level shall be used unless
such fitting is constructed so the discharge from one inlet cannot readily enter into the other inlet. Double
sanitary tees may be used when the barrel of the fitting is at least two pipe sizes larger than the largest inlet
(pipe sizes recognized for this purpose are 51, 64, 76, 89, 102, 114, 127, and 152 mm. diameters).
 Horizontal drainage lines connecting with other horizontal drainage line shall enter through forty-five degree
wye branches, combination wye, and 1/8 bend branches or other approved fittings of equivalent sweep.
 Vertical drainage lines connecting with the horizontal drainage lines shall enter through forty-five degree
branches or other approved fittings of equivalent sweep. Sixty degree branches or offsets may be used only
when installed in a true vertical position.

GRADE OF HORIZONTAL DRAINAGE PIPING – Horizontal drainage piping shall be run in practical alignment and
at uniform slope of not less than 2% of 20mm/ m towards the point of disposal, provided that, where it is impractical
due to the depth of street sewer or to adverse structural features or to some irregular arrangements of affected
building or structure to obtain a slope of 2% or any such pipe or piping 102 mm or larger in diameter may have a
slope of not less 1% or 10 mm/ m when first approved by the authority.

CLEANOUT/ ACCESS EYE/ CLEANING EYE – A plug or cover joined to an opening in a pipe, which can be
removed for the purpose of cleaning or examining the interior of the pipe. A pipe fitting with a removable plug which
provide access for inspection or cleaning of the pipe run. Types of cleanouts include a removable plug or cap, a
removable fixture trap and a water closet.

CLEANOUT MATERIAL – The body of cleanout ferrules shall be made of standard pipe sizes, shall conform in
thickness to that required for pipes and fittings of the same metal, and extended not less than 38 mm above the hub.
The cleanout cap or plug shall be of heavy brass of not less than 3.175 mm thick and must be provided with raised
nut or recessed socket for removal.
 Each horizontal drainage pipe shall be provided with a cleanout at its upper terminal and each run of piping
which is more than 15 meters in total developed length shall be provided with a cleanout and at every 15
meter length or a fraction thereof.
 Cleanouts may be omitted on a horizontal drain line less than 1.5 meters in length unless such line is serving
sinks or urinals.
 Cleanout may be omitted on short horizontal drainage pipe installed at an angle of seventy two degrees or
less from the vertical line.
 An approved type of two-way cleanout fitting, installed inside the building wall near the connection between
the building drain and building sewer or installed outside of the building at the lower end of the building drain
and extended to grade, may be substituted for an upper terminal cleanout.
 An additional cleanout shall be provided on a horizontal line with an aggregate offset angle of direction
exceeding one hundred and thirty five (135°) degrees.

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 Each cleanout shall be installed so it opens in the direction of flow to allow cleaning of the soil or waste pipe
or at straight angles thereto and, except in the case of a wye branch and end-of-line cleanouts, shall be
installed vertically above the flow line of the pipe.
 Each cleanout extension shall be considered as drainage piping and each ninety degrees cleanout extension
shall be extended from a wye type fitting or other approved fitting of equivalent sweep.
 Each cleanout for an interceptor shall be outside of such interceptor.
 Each cleanout, unless installed under an approved cover plate, shall be above grade, readily accessible, and
so located to serve the purpose it is intended. Cleanout located under cover plates shall be installed to
provide the clearances and accessibility required.
 Each cleanout in piping 51 mm or less in size shall be installed so that there is a clearance of not less than
305 mm in front of the cleanout. Cleanouts in piping larger than 51 mm shall have a clearance of not less
than 450 mm in front of the cleanout. Cleanout under floor piping shall be extended to or above the finish
floor or shall be extended outside the building when there is less than 0.45 m vertical and 0.75 m horizontal
from the means of access to such cleanout. No under floor cleanout in any residential occupancy shall be
located more than 6.1 m from an access door, trap door, or crawl hole.
 Cleanouts shall be provided for pressure drainage systems.
 Countersunk cleanout plugs shall be installed where raised heads may cause hazard to passing personnel
or vehicle.
 When a hubless blind plug is used for a required cleanout, the complete coupling and plug shall be
accessible for removal or replacement.

LOCATIONS OF CLEANOUT:
 At the upper end of every horizontal waste or soil pipe.
 At every change in direction of horizontal soil or waste piping when the change of direction is more
than twenty-two and one half (22 ½ °) degrees.
 At a point within 1.5 meter inside the property line before house sewer connection.
 At the foot of every soil or waste stack unless easily reached conveniently with sewer rod or wire.
 At every 15 meters run of horizontal soil or waste piping.
 On top of septic vaults immediately above the invert of the submerged inlet and outlet of sanitary
tees.
 On top of every grease trap with no removable airtight covers.
 At the end of the invert of a garage trap.
 At the bottom of exposed fixture traps below the water seal.
 At opening or outlets and connections intended for future use.

MOBILE HOME PARK SEWER – That part of the horizontal piping of sanitary drainage system which measures
0.60 meters downstream from the last mobile home site and conveys sewage to a public sewer, private sewer,
individual sewage disposal system or other points of disposal.

PRIVATE SEWER – A building sewer, which is privately owned and not directly operated by public authority. A
building sewer which receives the discharge from more than one building drain and conveys it to a public sewer,
private sewage disposal system, or other points of disposal.

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PRIVATE SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM – A septic tank with the effluent discharging into a subsurface disposal
field, into one or more seepage pits or into a combination of subsurface disposal field and seepage pit, or of such
other facilities as may be permitted under the procedures set forth elsewhere in this Code.

PUBLIC SANITARY SEWER – A common sewer directly controlled by public authority to which all abutters have
equal rights of connections.

SANITARY SEWER – A sewer intended to receive sanitary sewage with or without pre-treated industrial wastes and
without the admixture of rain or ground water. A pipe which carries sewage and excludes storm, surface, and ground
water.

SEEPAGE PIT – A loosely lined excavation in the ground, which receives the discharge of the septic tank so
designed as to permit the effluent from the septic tank to seep through its bottom and sides. Also, a covered pit with
open jointed or perforated lining into which the septic tank effluent is discharged. The liquid portion of sewage seeps
into the surrounding porous soil. The remaining solids or sludge is retained in the pit.

SEPTIC TANK – A watertight receptacle which receives the discharge of the sanitary plumbing system or part
thereof, designed and constructed to separate solids from the liquid, digest organic matter through a period of
detention and to allow the liquids to discharge into the soil outside of the tank through a system of open-jointed sub-
surface piping or a seepage pit meeting the requirements of this Code.

AEROBIC BACTERIA – Bacteria living or active only in the presence of free oxygen.

AEROBIC (BACTERIAL) DIGESTION – Digestion of the waste through the natural bacteria digestive action
in the tank or chamber.

ANAEROBIC BACTERIA – Bacteria living or active in the absence of free oxygen.

DIGESTION – That portion of the sewage treatment process where biochemical decomposition of organic
matter takes place resulting in the formation of simple organic and mineral substance.

DISINFECTION – A process to disinfect the effluent with chemicals.

DOSING TANK – A watertight tank in a septic system placed between the septic tank and the distribution
box and equipped with a pump or automatic siphon designed to discharge sewage intermittently to a
disposal field. This is done so that rest periods may be provided between discharges.

EFFLUENT – Treated or partially treated sewage flowing out of the treatment system.

FILTRATION – A means of filtering out any solid matter from the effluent.

INFLUENT – Untreated sewage flowing into a treatment system.

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MANHOLE – A large opening constructed in a sewer line or any part of the plumbing system of sufficient
size for a man to gain access therein for maintenance purposes and facility for changes of line and/or grade
of pipeline (min .60 m).

PERCOLATION – The flow or tricking of a liquid downward through a filtering medium.

PUTREFACTION – Biological decomposition of organic matter with the production of ill-smelling.

SEDIMENTATION – Formation of layers of heavy particles in the influent.

SLUDGE – The accumulated suspended solids of sewage deposited in tanks, beds, or basins, mixed with
water to form a semi-liquid mass.

ACTIVE SLUDGE – The sewage sediment rich in destructive bacteria that can be used to break
down fresh sewage more quickly.

SEWAGE TREATMENT PROCESS – Divided into four major steps:

 PRELIMINARY TREATMENT – 35% of BOD and 60% of TSS are removed.

 PRIMARY TREATMENT – 85% of BOD and 85% TSS are removed

o SEDIMENTATION AND RETENTION – Raw sewage is retained for the preliminary


separation of indigestible solids and the start of aerobic action.

o AERATION – Introduction of air through natural convection or mechanical blowers to


accelerate the decomposition of organic matters.

o SKIMMING – Removal of scum that floats on top of the partially treated sewage

o SLUDGE REMOVAL – Disposal of heavy sludge at the bottom of the treated sewage.

 SECONDARY TREATMENT – The removal of colloidal and dissolved organic material.

 TERTIARY TREATMENT – That is, the removal of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus and
disinfection of effluent by the addition of chemicals, such as chlorine (10 mg/ liter).

SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM – A system for the treatment and disposal of domestic sewage by means of a septic
tank, cesspool, or mechanical treatment, all designed for use apart from a public sewer to serve a single
establishment, building, or development. Basic purposes are to destroy pathogenic microorganisms and to remove
most suspended and dissolved biodegradable organic materials.

SEWAGE EJECTOR – A mechanical device used to pump or eject sewage.

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SEWAGE EJECTOR POT – A tank or pit that receives sewage located below the normal grade of the gravity system
and that must be emptied by mechanical means.

SUB-MAIN SEWER – A sewer into which the sewage forms two or more lateral sewers is discharged. Also known as
Branch Sewer.

SUB-SURFACE DISPOSAL FIELD – A system of open joint tile or perforated pipes or drains through which storm
water or the sewage effluent from a septic tank is distributed beneath the surface of the ground for absorption into
the soil, as well as evaporation into the air during favorable weather conditions.

SUMP – An approved tank or pit which receives sewage or liquid waste and is located below the normal grade of the
gravity system and must be emptied by mechanical means.

SUMP PIT – A tank or pit that receives clear liquid wastes, that do not contain organic materials or compounds
subject to decomposition, located below the normal grade of the gravity system and which must be emptied by
mechanical means.

STORM DRAINAGE SYSTEM

AREA DRAIN – A receptacle designed to collect surface or rainwater from a determined or calculated open area.
BUILDING/ HOUSE STORM SEWER – The pipeline from the building to the public or street storm sewer system.
CATCH BASIN – A receptacle in which liquids are retained for a sufficient period of time to allow settleable material
to deposit.
CONDUCTOR – The water channel from the roof to the building storm drain, combined building sewer, or other
approved means of disposal and located inside of the building.
DOWNSPOUT – The rain leader from the roof to the building storm drain, combined building sewer, or other means
of disposal and located outside of the building.
DRAIN – A pipe, which carries ground and surface waters, storm water, or wastewater into a building drainage
system.
FLASHING – A piece of sheet metal fitted under another piece of that metal or wood over which water is expected to
run.
GROUND WATER – The water that stands in or passes through the ground.
LEADER – A pipe connected from building gutter to the downspout or conductor. The water conductor from the roof
to the building storm drain combined with building sewer, or other means of disposal.
PRECIPITATION – The total measurable supply of water received from the clouds as snow, rain, hail, or sleet. It is
expressed in inches or millimeters per day, month, or year.
ROOF DRAIN – A drain installed to receive water collecting on the surface of a roof and to discharge it into the
leader or downspout.
STORM SEWER – A sewer used for conveying rainwater, surface water, condensate, cooling water, or similar liquids
wastes, exclusive of sewage and industrial wastes.
STORM WATER – That portion of the rainfall or other precipitation which runs off over the earth surface after a
storm.
SUB-SOIL DRAIN – An underground drainpipe which receives only subsurface or seepage water and conveys it to a
sump by gravity flow or by lift pump.
SURFACE WATER – That portion of rainfall or other precipitation which runs off over the surface of the ground.

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INDIRECT WASTE PIPING, WET-VENTED SYSTEMS, & SPECIAL WASTES
AIR BREAK (Drainage System) – A physical separation, which may be a low inlet into the indirect waste receptor
from the fixture, appliance or device indirectly connected, at least 25 mm. A piping arrangement in which a drain from
a fixture, appliance, or device indirectly discharges into a fixture, receptacle, or interceptor at a point below the flood
level run of the receptacle to prevent backflow or back siphonage.
AIR GAP (Drainage System) – The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest
opening from any pipe, plumbing fixture, appliance, or appurtenance conveying waste to the flood level rim of the
receptor.
CLEAR WATER WASTE – Cooling water and condensate drainage from refrigeration and air conditioning
equipment, cooled condensate from steam heating systems, cooled boiler blowdown water, wastewater drainage
from equipment rooms and other areas where water is used without an appreciable addition of oil, gasoline, solvent
acid, etc. and treated effluent in which impurities have been reduced below a minimum concentration, considered
harmful.
INDIRECT WASTE PIPE – A waste pipe that does not connect directly with the drainage system but conveys liquid
wastes into the drainage system through an air break or air gap into the trap of a plumbing fixture, interceptor, or
receptacle which is directly connected to the drainage system.
INDIRECT WASTE PIPING – The drains of the following equipments shall not be directly connected to any soil,
waste, and vent pipes:
 EVAPORATING COOLER
 AIR WASHER
 AIR CONDITIONER
 COLD STORAGE ROOM
 REFRIGERATOR
 COOLING COUNTER
 FOOD AND DRINKS STORAGE
 CULLINARY/ DISHWASHING SINK FOR FOOD PREPARATION ROOM
RECEPTOR – An approved plumbing fixture or device or such material, shape and capacity as to adequately receive
the discharge from indirect waste pipe, so constructed and located as to be readily cleaned.
SPECIAL WASTES – Wastes which require some special method of handling such as the use of indirect piping and
receptors, corrosion resistant piping, sand, oil, or grease interceptors, condensers or other pre-treatment facilities.

VENTS AND VENTING TERMINOLOGIES


ABSOLUTE PRESSURE – The total pressure from absolute vacuum. It equals the sum of gauge pressure and
atmospheric pressure corresponding to the barometer (expressed in psi or Kpa).
ABSOLUTE ZERO - Zero point on the absolute temperature scale. A point of total absence of heat. Equivalent to
minus 459 °F or minus 273.188 °C
BURST PRESSURE – That pressure which can be slowly applied to a valve at room temperature for 30 seconds
without causing rupture.
COMPRESSED AIR – Air at any pressure greater than atmospheric pressure.
COMPRESSIBILITY – The property of air which directly affects the ventilation system.
COMPRESSOR – A mechanical device for increasing the pressure of air or gas.
DENSITY OF THE ATMOSPHERE – Standard Temperature and Pressure
FREE AIR – Air which is not contained and which is subject only to atmospheric condition.

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FRESH AIR INLET – A vent line connected with the building drain just inside the house trap and extending to the
outer air. It provides fresh air at the lowest point of the plumbing system and with the vent stacks provides a
ventilated system. A fresh air inlet is not required there a septic tank system of sewage disposal is employed.
LOCAL VENTILATING PIPE – A pipe on a fixture side of the trap through which vapor or foul air is removed from a
room or fixture.
OXIDATION – Material deterioration caused when gases in the plumbing system are combined with other elements
which will cause a reaction between gases and material.
PRESSURE – The normal force exerted by a homogenous liquid or gas, per unit of area on the wall of the container.
Note: Pressure increases proportionally with depth, pressure below sea level increases and decreases above sea
level.
STATIC PRESSURE – The pressure existing without any flow motion.
RESIDUAL PRESSURE – The pressure available at the fixture or water outlet. Allowance is made for
pressure drop due to friction loss, head, meter, and other losses in the system during maximum demand
period.
SIPHONAGE/ VACUUM – Any pressure less than exerted by the atmosphere and may be termed as negative
pressure.
STACK VENTING – A method of venting a fixture or fixtures through the soil or waste stack.
STANDARD AIR – Air having a temperature of 70° F (21.1° C), a standard density of 0.0075 lbs/ft (0.11 kg/m) and
under pressure of 14.70 psi (101.4 kPa). (The gas industry usually considers 60° F (15.6° C as the temperature of
the standard air).
VENT – Pipes and fittings installed in the system to provide air circulation so as to protect trap seals from siphonage
and back pressure.
VENTILATION SYSTEM – That portion of the drainage system installation designed to maintain atmospheric
pressure within it. They are system of pipes installed to provide flow of air to or from drainage system or to provide
circulation of air within such system to protect trap seal from siphonage and backpressure. It also includes vent
pipes, fittings, and other related devices. Failure of the provision of sufficient ventilation system may result to any of
the following:
 TRAP SEAL LOSS
 RETARDATION OF FLOW
 DETERIORATION OF MATERIAL – PIPES & FITTINGS
VENT PIPE – A pipe or opening used for ensuring the circulation of air in the plumbing system and for relieving the
negative pressure exerted on the trap seals.
VENT PIPING – The piping that conveys air to or from a drainage system.

TYPES OF VENTS
 ARTERIAL VENT – A vent serving the building drain, it also vents the public sewer.
 ACID VENT – A pipe venting an acid waste system.
 BACKVENT/ INDIVIDUAL VENT/ REVENT PIPE – The part of a vent line which connects directly with an
individual trap underneath or behind the single fixture and extends to the branch or main vent pipe at any
point higher than the fixture or fixture traps in serves. A pipe installed to vent a fixture trap and which
connects with the vent system above the fixture served or terminates in the open air.
VENT THRU WALL – VTW
VENT AT CEILING – VAC
 BLIND VENT – A vent pipe which terminates at the upper side of the fixture and does not connect to the
drainage system, with the intent of cheating.

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 BRANCH VENT – A horizontal vent connecting one or more individual vertical back vents with a vent stack
or stack vent.
 BY-PASS VENT – A vent stack which runs parallel to the soil stack (or a waste stack) and is connected to it
at frequent intervals.
 CIRCUIT VENT – A type of relief vent. A group of vent pipe which starts in front of the extreme fixture
connection on a horizontal branch and connects to the vent stack. The portion of the venting system which
ventilates two or more fixture traps that discharge into a soil or waste branch. Usually used for 8 or more
plumbing fixtures.
 CIRCUIT VENT/ LOOP VENT – A vertical vent connection on a horizontal soil or waste pipe branch at a
point downstream of the last fixture connection and turning to a horizontal line above the highest fixture
connected thereat. The terminus connected to the stack vent in the case of loop venting or to the vent stack
nearby in the case of circuit venting.
 COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT – A type of vent system, which serves as vent as well as waste
conductor.
 COMMON VENT/ DUAL VENT/ DUPLEX/ UNIT VENT – A vent connecting at the junction of two fixture
drains and serving as a vent for both fixtures. An arrangement of venting so installed that one vent pipe will
serve two traps. The portion of the vent pipe system which ventilates two fixture of similar design installed on
opposite sides of a partition.
 CONFLUENT VENT – A vent serving more than one fixture or stack vent.
 CONTINUOUS VENT – A vertical vent that is the continuation of the drain, a soil pipe, or a waste pipe to
which the vent connects.
 CROWN VENT – A vent pipe connected to the topmost point in the crown of the trap.
 EJECTOR VENT – A pipe used to provide air in a sump pit and prevent pressure build-up.
 FIXTURE VENT – A pipe serving as a sole or primary vent for a trap or group of traps located near the base
of the fixture vent.
 GROUP VENT – A branch vent that performs its functions for two (2) or more traps.
 LOCAL VENT/ LOCAL VENTILATING PIPE – A pipe or shaft on the fixture side of the trap to convey foul
air from the plumbing fixture or a room to the outer air. It is not connected to the stack.
 LOOP VENT/ VENTING LOOP – Any vent connecting the waste or soil branch or fixture drain with the stack
vent of the originating waste or soil stack. A vent from a single fixture which is connected into the same stack
which the fixtures discharge. If such serves more than one fixture, it is one type of circuit vent. Usually used
with fewer fixtures.
 LOOPED VENT – A method of ventilation system used in fixtures which are located in the room away from
partitions or walls.
 MAIN SOIL AND WASTE VENT – The portion of the soil stack pipe above the highest installed fixture
branch extending through the roof.
 MAIN VENT – The principal artery of the venting system to which vent branches may be connected. It
serves as a collecting vent line.
VENT STACK – A vertical vent pipe installed primarily for the purpose of providing circulation of air
to and from any part of the soil, waste of the drainage system.
DRY VENT – Does not serve as a drain and is located where it is not exposed to back-up of waste
from a drainage pipe. A vent that does not carry liquid or water-borne wastes.
REDUCED SIZE VENT – Dry vents which are smaller than those allowed by model
plumbing codes.

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 RELIEF VENT – A vertical vent line, installed so as to permit additional circulation of air between the
drainage and vent stack and the soil or waste stack where the drainage system might otherwise be air bound
to eliminate back pressure and retardation of waste flow. Also acts as an auxiliary vent on a specially
designed system such as ‘yoke vent’ connection between the soil and vent stacks.
 SIDE VENT – A vent connecting to the drain pipe through a fitting at an angle not greater than 45° to the
vertical/ diagonal vent.
 STACK VENT/ SOIL AND WASTE VENT – The extension (to the open air) of a soil or waste stack above
the highest horizontal drain or fixture branch connected to the stack.
STACK VENT THROUGH ROOF – SVTR Stack vent on the uppermost end above the roof
WET VENT – That portion of the vent pipe system, usually oversized which functions both as a
fixture branch and as a vent. A vent which also serves as a drain/ wastepipe.
 UTILITY VENT – A vent which rises well above the highest water level of a fixture and then turns downward
before it connects to the main vent or stack vent. This is used for basement or underground public restrooms
where a vent stack may not be possible to extend three meters above the ground, as it may constitute a
hazard and is unsightly.
 YOKE VENT – A type of relief vent. A pipe connecting upward from a soil or waste stack below the floor and
below horizontal connection to an adjacent vent stack at a point above the floor and higher that the highest
spill level of fixtures for the purpose of preventing pressure changes in the stacks. Connected at intervals of
3-5 stories in the building.

FIRE CONTROL SYSTEMS


FIRE HYDRANT VALVE – A valve that when closed, drains at an underground level to prevent freezing.
FIRE LINE – A system of pipes and equipment used exclusively to supply water for extinguishing fires.
SIAMESE CONNECTION – A hose fitting with clapper valves for combining the flow from two or more lines of hose
into a single stream. The inlet fitting of the fire standpipe located above ground level. An eye connection used on fire
lines so that two lines of hose may be connected to a hydrant or to the same nozzle.
SPRINKLER –
TYPES OF SPRINKLER AS TO ORIENTATION:
 UPRIGHT TYPE - Open area use. This type of sprinkler is designed for installation above the piping and
protects the floor or area below the piping.
 PENDANT TYPE – Ceiling area use. This type of sprinkler is designed to be installed below the piping,
with the water stream directed downward against that envelops the sprinkler’s spray pattern.
 SIDEWALL SPRINKLER – Designed to discharge a spray pattern resembling one quarter of the sphere
to protect the floor area beneath a fire sprinkler on a wall.
o VERTICAL SIDEWALL SPRINKLER – The discharges in a vertical (upward or downward) direction
against a deflector.
o HORIZONTAL SIDEWALL SPRINKLER – Located on sidewalls in which the nozzles discharge in a
horizontal direction against a deflector.
 OLD STYLE/ CONVENTIONAL – A type of sprinkler used in the USA prior to 1950’s and remains in
common use in Europe, used in either upright or in a pendent position.
 INTERMEDIATE LEVEL SPRINKLER – Pendant or upright type with shield attached.
TYPES OF SPRINKLER AS TO FUNCTION:
 DRY SPRINKLER – This is sealed assemblies consisting of a length of air-filled or nitrogen-filled pipe
equipped with an automatic sprinkler.
o DRY PENDANT (With ceiling)

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o DRY UPRIGHT (Without ceiling)
 CORROSION-RESISTANT – Sprinkler intended to resist corrosive environment. They are provided with
a special type or plating.
STANDPIPE – A vertical pipe or a reservoir in which water is pumped to give it at a head. A vertical pipe used for the
storage of water frequently under pressure.
TYPES OF STANDPIPE:
 AUTOMATIC STANDPIPE SYSTEM – Operates automatically by opening a hose valve.
 DRY STANDPIPE – Having no permanent water inside the pipe.
 MANUALLY-OPERATED STANDPIPE SYSTEM – Remote control device at each hose station.
 WET STANDPIPE – Water pressure is maintained at all times.

TYPES OF WATER
 BLACK WATER/ SEPTIC WATER – Water plus human waste that is flushed out of toilets and urinals.
 CONDENSATE HOT WATER – Water which has liquefied from a steam.
 CONTAMINATED WATER/ POLLUTED WATER – Water with any material or substance that affects the
quality of water and affects the health of an individual.
 GREY WATER – Water from laundries, wash basins, sinks, showers, and bathtubs.
 HARD WATER – Water with the presence of elements such as Calcium (Ca) Magnesium (Mg), Iron (Fe),
and Aluminum (Al) which causes hardness. This is characterized by the difficulty of producing lather from
detergents and the presence of scale deposits in pipes, heaters, and boilers.
 NATURAL WATER – Readily found in nature, as impounded from precipitation, contains impurities
(physical, chemical, bacteriological, or radiological).
 POTABLE WATER – Water which is satisfactory for drinking, culinary, and domestic purposes and meets
the requirements of the Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water.
 PURE WATER – Water that is colorless and odorless and not found in nature as purified water (a product of
water purification).
 PURIFIED WATER – Water which undergoes treatment, either physical, biological, or chemical means to
improve water quality. Purification is an artificial means of obtaining chemically pure water.
 SOFT WATER – Water without the presence of Calcium and Magnesium. This is characterized by easiness
of producing lather from detergents and absence of scale formation in boilers, heaters, and pipes.
 STORM WATER – Rain, surface run-off.
 SURFACE WATER – That portion of the rainfall or other precipitation which runs off over the surface of the
ground.

WATER SOURCES
 GROUNDWATER – That portion of the rainwater which has percolated into the earth to form underground
deposits called aquifers.
AQUIFERS – Reservoir, water-bearing soil formations into the ground.
WATER TABLE – The top zone of the aquifers, the level at which the water stands in a well that is
not being pumped.
WELLS – Are holes in the earth from which a fluid may be withdrawn using manual or mechanical
means such as draw bucket, pump, etc.
WATER WELLS – Water that flows into wells is called ground water. This water comes from rain
that is absorbed into the ground and is slowly filtered through the different layers of the ground.

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 DUG WELLS – These are constructed with hand tools or power tools. It can be dug to a depth
of about 15 meters (50 feet) and can have the greatest diameter that a space may allow.
 DRIVEN WELLS – These are the simplest and usually the least expensive. A steel drive-well
point is fitted on one end of the pipe section and driven into the earth. The drive point is usually
1 ¼ inch to 2 inches (32 – 51 mm) in diameter. The point may be driven into the ground to a
depth of up to 15 meters (50 feet).
 BORED WELLS – These are dug with earth augers, are usually less than 30 meters (100 feet)
deep. They are used when the earth to be bored is boulder free and will not cave in. the
diameter ranges from 2 to 30 inches. The well is lined with metal, vitrified tile, or concrete.
 DRILLED WELLS – These require more elaborate equipment of several types, depending on
the geology of the site. They measure up to 300 meters (984 feet).
o PERCUSSION/ CABLE TOOL METHOD – Involves the raising and dropping of a
heavy drill bit and stem. Having thus pulverized, the earth being drilled is mixed with
water to form slurry, which is periodically removed. As drilling proceeds, a casing is
also lowered (except when drilling through rock).
o ROTARY DRILLING METHODS (Hydraulic or Pneumatic) – Utilize cutting bit at
the lower end of the drill pipe; a drilling fluid (or pressurized air) is constantly
pumped to the cutting bit to aid in the removal of particles of earth, which are then
brought to the surface. After the drill pipe is withdrawn, a casing is lowered into
position.
o DOWN-THE-HOLE PNEUMATIC (AIR) HAMMER – Which combines the
percussion effect with the rotary drill bit.

WATER TREATMENT TERMINOLOGIES


CONTAMINATION/ HIGH HAZARD – An impairment of the quality of the potable water which creates an actual
hazard to the public health through poisoning or spread of disease by sewage, industrial fluids, or waste.
CONTAMINATOR – A media of condition which spoils the nature or quality of another media.
POLLUTION/ LOW HAZARD – An impairment of the quality of water to a degree which creates hazard to the public
health and adversely affects the aesthetic and potable qualities of water for domestic use.
WATER CONDITIONING/ TREATING DEVICE/ WATER TREATMENT – A device which conditions or treats a water
supply so as to improve water quality, change its chemical content or remove suspended solids by filtration.

WATER TREATMENT METHODS


 ADSORPTION – Is a mechanism of contaminant removal making use of the adsorption phenomenon.
ADSORPTION – The act of physical adhesion of molecules or colloids to the surface of the medium
without chemical reaction. Some porous materials have the ability to attract contaminants to their
surfaces, thereby removing them from solution.
 AERATION/ OXIDATION – This process can improve the taste and color of water, remove iron and
manganese, and decrease in corrosiveness. In aeration, as much of the water surface as possible is
exposed to air. An artificial method in which water and air are brought into direct contact with each other.
One purpose is to release certain dissolved gases which often cause water to have obnoxious odors or
disagreeable tastes. Also used to furnish oxygen to waters that are oxygen deficient. The process may be
accomplished by spraying the liquid in the air. Bubbling air through the liquid or by agitation of the liquid to
promote surface absorption of the air. The methods used are rich in esthetic possibilities – the spraying of

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water into air, the fall of a turbulent stream of water over a spillway, and flow forms, sculptural waterfalls
designed to carry water in a rhythmical, pulsating pattern.
 COAGULATION/ FLOCCULATION – This process also removes suspended matter, along with some
coloration. A chemical such as alum (hydrated aluminum sulfate) is added to turbulent water.
 CORROSION CONTROL – It is important to control corrosion in order to keep water systems operating
freely and to prevent corrosive water from increasing the concentration of hazardous materials (as from
copper pipes).
CORROSION – Is a slow degradation of a metal by a flow of electric current from the metal to its
surroundings.
 DISINFECTION – This is the most important health-related water treatment. Although chlorination has
become the standard approach to removing harmful organism from water, there are other alternatives:
ultraviolet light, bromine, iodine, and heat treatment among others. Although chlorine affects the taste and
odor of water, it is also effective in removing less desirable tastes and odors.
 DISTILLATION – This is a simple approach to purification that produces the equivalent of bottled water for
drinking, cooking, and laboratory uses. In this process, water is heated to allow condensation. As the water
turns to vapor, virtually all pollutants are left behind. When this vapor encounters cooler surfaces, it
condenses, and pure water although flat in taste can be collected from this surface.
 FILTRATION – This is very common treatment can remove suspended particles, some bacteria, and some
color.
FILTER – A device through which fluid is passed to separate contaminates from it.
FILTER ELEMENT/ FILTER MEDIA – A porous device which performs the process of filtration.
PERCOLATION – The flow or tricking of a liquid downward through a contact or filtering medium.
The liquid may or may not fill the pores of the medium.
SAND FILTER – A treatment device or structure constructed above or below the surface of the
ground, for removing solid or colloidal material of a type that cannot be removed by sedimentation.
 FLUORIDATION – The advantage of fluoridation is that children who drink fluoridated water have lower
rates of tooth decay. Its disadvantages are that only children need the fluoride, not adults, and that in
amounts above those used in water treatment, fluoride is toxic and can cause mottled teeth. Small water
systems can be equipped with fluoridation units. However, fluoride levels in the water supply must be
carefully monitored.
 NUISANCE CONTROL – Some organisms may be not injurious to health but can multiply so rapidly that
piping or filters become clogged or the water’s appearance, odor, and taste are affected. Algae growths, the
most prevalent nuisance, can be usually controlled by applying copper sulfate (blue stone or blue vitriol) to
the water body. Cooling towers are a specially difficult water treatment problem. To treat cooling tower water
successfully, a method is used for microbial control, removing organics and precipitating inorganic.
 OZONATION – This is less esthetic than aeration but more certain oxidation process. It is commonly used in
cooling tower treatment and in addition, ozonation has a very wide range of treatment applications.
 SEDIMENTATION – This process removes some suspended matter from water simply by allowing time and
the inactivity of water to do the work of settling out heavier suspended particles.
 ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION – Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a method of treating relatively
small-scale water supplies. In this process, the water is exposed to ultraviolet radiation after it has been
filtered. Only momentary exposure is required to kill bacteria, but this condition may not be fulfilled if the
bacteria are shielded by particles of sediment in the water.
 WATER DESALINIZATION – The procedure is done by heating seawater and then pumping water into a
low pressure tank, where the water partially vaporized. The water vapor is then condensed and removed as

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pure water. The process is repeated many times. The remaining liquid, called brine, contains a large amount
of salt and is removed and often processed for minerals.

WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM – The system of a building or premises which consists of the building water service pipe,
the water supply line, water distributing pipes, and the necessary branch pipes, fittings, control valves, and all
appurtenances carrying or supplying potable water in or adjacent to the building or premises.

WATER SUPPLY PIPES


BUILDING SUPPLY/ WATER SERVICE CONNECTION – The pipe carrying potable water from the water meter or
other source of water supply to a building or other point of use or distribution on the lot.
RISER – A water supply pipe which extends vertically one full storey or more to convey water into pipe branches or
plumbing fixtures.
WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPE – A pipe within the structure or on the premises which conveys water from the water
service pipe or meter to the points of utilization. A pipe which conveys potable water from the building supply pipe to
the plumbing fixtures and other water outlets in the building..
WATER SERVICE PIPE/ SERVICE PIPE – The pipe from the street water main or source of water supply to the
building served. The pipe carrying potable water from the water meter or other source of water supply to a building or
other point of distribution on the lot.

WATER SERVICE CONNECTION


AIR CHAMBER – A continuation of the water piping beyond the branch to fixtures, finished with a cap designed to
eliminate shock or vibration of the piping when the faucet is closed suddenly.
AIR GAP (Water Distribution) – The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the
lowest opening from any pipe or faucet conveying potable water to the flood-level rim of any tank, vat, or fixture.
BACK UP – A condition where the wastewater may flow back into another fixture or compartment but not backflow
into the potable water system.
BACKFLOW – The flow of water or other liquids, mixtures, or substances into the distributing pipes of a potable
supply of water from any source or sources other than from its intended source.
BACKFLOW CONNECTION – Condition or any arrangement whereby reverse flow may occur.
BACKFLOW PREVENTER/ VACUUM BREAKER – A device or means to prevent backflow into the potable water
system by siphonic action.
BACKPRESSURE BACKFLOW – Occurs due to an increased reverse pressure above the supply pressure. This
may be due to pumps, boilers, gravity, or other sources of pressure.
BACK SIPHONAGE – The flowing back of used, contaminated, or polluted water from a plumbing fixture or vessel
into the potable water supply pipe due to a negative pressure in such pipes.
BOILER BLOW-OFF – Any outlet on a boiler to permit emptying or discharge of sediment.
BOILER BLOW-OFF TANK – A vessel designed to receive the discharge from a boiler blow-off outlet to cool the
discharge to a temperature which permits its safe discharge to the drainage system.
CORPORATION COCK/ CURB STOP – A stopcock screwed into the street water main to supply the building or
house service connection. A stop valve placed at the connection of the water service pipe to the water main.

CRITICAL LEVEL – The C-L or C/L marking on a backflow prevention device or vacuum breaker is a point
conforming to approved standards and established by the testing laboratory (usually stamped on the device by the
manufacturer) which determines the minimum elevation above the flood level rim of the fixture or receptacle served

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at which the device may be installed. When a backflow prevention device does not bear a C-L or C/L marking, the
bottom of the vacuum breaker, combination valve, or the bottom of any such approved device shall constitute the C-L
or C/L.
CROSS-CONNECTION – Any physical connection or arrangement between two otherwise separated piping
systems, one of which contains potable water and the other water or other substances of unknown or questionable
safety, whereby flow may occur from one system to the other, the direction of flow depending on the pressure
differential between the two systems.
CURB BOX – A device at the curb that contains a valve that is turned to shut-off a supply line, usually of gas or
water.
EFFECTIVE OPENING – The minimum cross-sectional area of the point of water supply discharge measured or
expressed in terms of (1) diameter of the circle, (2) if the opening is not circular, the diameter of the circle of
equivalent to cross-sectional area. This is applicable to air gap installation.
FIXTURE SUPPLY – A water supply pipe connecting the fixture with the fixture branch or directly to the main water
supply pipe.
FAUCET – A valve located at the end of the water pipe by means of which water can be drawn from or held within
the pipe.
SIPHONAGE/ VACUUM – A suction created by the flow of liquids on pipes. A pressure less than atmospheric
pressure.
SUPPLY FIXTURE UNIT – A measure of the probable hydraulic demand on the water supply by various types of
plumbing fixtures. The value for the particular fixture depends on its volume rate of supply on the time duration of the
single supply operation and on the average time between successive operations.
TURBULENCE – Any deviation from parallel flow in a pipe due to rough inner wall surfaces, obstructions, or
directional changes.
WATER HAMMER – The force pounding noises and vibration which develops in a piping system when a column of
non-compressible liquid flowing through a pipe line at a given pressure and velocity is stopped abruptly.
WATER HAMMER ARRESTER – A device other than an air chamber, designed to provide protection against
excessive surge pressure.
WATER MAIN/ STREET MAIN – A water supply pipe for public or community use controlled by public authority.
WATER OUTLET – Is the discharge opening for the water (1) to a fixture; (2) to atmospheric pressure (except into
an open tank which is part of the water supply system); (3) to a boiler or heating system; (4) to any water-operated
device or equipment requiring water to operate, but not a part of the plumbing system.

Note: Discclaimer

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