You are on page 1of 13

FUPROC-04624; No of Pages 13

Fuel Processing Technology xxx (2015) xxx–xxx

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Fuel Processing Technology

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/fuproc

Influence of vertical burner tilt angle on the gas temperature deviation in a 700 MW low
NOx tangentially fired pulverised-coal boiler
Dengfeng Tian a, Lijin Zhong b, Peng Tan a, Lun Ma a, Qingyan Fang a,⁎, Cheng Zhang a,
Dianping Zhang b, Gang Chen a,⁎
a
State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, PR China
b
Zhuhai Power Plant, Zhuhai 519000, PR China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In the present paper, computational fluid dynamic modelings were established to research a newly presented re-
Received 19 April 2015 heat steam temperature deviation solution on the basis of FLUENT 6.3.26 considering a 700 MWe tangentially
Received in revised form 26 June 2015 fired pulverised-coal boiler, which confronted with severe flue gas and re-heat steam temperature deviation.
Accepted 4 July 2015
The model was solidly validated by grid independence test and comparison with the experimental data obtained
Available online xxxx
from a series of on-site measurements. Upon reliable validation, the model was further used to investigate the
Keywords:
forming mechanism of re-heat steam temperature deviation as well as the influence of burner tilt angle on it.
Tangentially fired boiler The conclusions mainly include (1) Residual swirling flow in the upper furnace caused the flue gas velocity
Reheat steam temperature deviation and temperature deviations in crossover pass. For a typical anticlockwise tangential firing system, the flue gas
Gas temperature deviation velocity and temperature were lower in left part of crossover pass. The deviation of flue gas further generated
Tilt angle the convective heat transfer imbalance of final re-heater, therefore, the temperature deviation of re-heat steam
was severe. (2) Tilting the burner upward can effectively reduce the intensity of residual flow as well as the
flue gas deviation degree. The +11° tilt angle of burner was relatively optimum considering the flue gas deviation
and final re-heater overheating potential. Specifically, the intensity of residual swirl flow dropped 44% with
burner tilting upward for +11°. Practical operation of boiler demonstrated that the reheat steam temperature
deviation was reduced from 22 °C to 10 °C in this case. (3) When the tilt angle of additional air (AA) was bias
set, the flow field of upper furnace was changed. Consequently, the residual swirl flow intensity and the flue
gas deviation were reduced considerably. On-site measurements indicated that the combination of tilting burner
upward for +11° and setting the bias of AA tilt angle for 10° can further reduce the re-heat steam temperature
deviation to 4 °C.
© 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.

1. Introduction investigated the temperature deviation from the perspective of nonlin-


ear flow characteristics and concluded that the flue gas temperature de-
Tangentially fired boilers are most widely used in power generation viation was inevitable due to nonlinear flow in the furnace. The flue gas
industry. To a tangentially fired boiler in which the burners were deviations further cause steam temperature deviation and increase the
installed at the four corners separately, the air jet flow and fuel inlets failure potential of heat exchanger pipes. Therefore, the economic per-
from each corner interact with each other and form a concentric formance and safety of the boiler operation are seriously influenced
swirling fire ball in the middle of the furnace. This combustion method [8–11]. As an inherent feature of a tangentially fired boiler, the flue
ensures sufficient residence time of the coal particles, high combustion gas temperature deviation was also found to increase considerably
efficiency, good flame stability and fullness, and good adaptability to with increasing boiler capacity [12]. Ghen and Zheng [13] found a posi-
loads and various coal types. However, the main disadvantage of this tive correlation between the voluminal heat load of upper furnace qv.
method is the residual swirling of flue gas at entrance of the platen up and the deviation of the flue gas temperature by analyzing a large
zone, which was widely believed to be the primary cause of flue gas amount of reliable operational data. The higher voluminal heat load of
temperature and velocity deviation in crossover pass [1–6]. Zhang [7] the upper furnace signifies that the more fuel was burned and more
flue gas was produced in the upper furnace per unit time and unit
volume. It partially explained the substantially increase of flue gas
⁎ Corresponding authors. temperature and velocity deviations along with the raised voluminal
E-mail addresses: qyfang@hust.edu.cn (Q. Fang), gangchen@hust.edu.cn (G. Chen). heat load of the upper furnace.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.07.002
0378-3820/© 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Please cite this article as: D. Tian, et al., Influence of vertical burner tilt angle on the gas temperature deviation in a 700 MW low NOx tangentially
fired pulverised-coal boiler, Fuel Processing Technology (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.07.002
2 D. Tian et al. / Fuel Processing Technology xxx (2015) xxx–xxx

employed computational fluid dynamic code FLUENT to investigate


Nomenclature
the usage of brown coal and beneficiated semicoke in a 600 MW
ultra-critical tangentially fired boiler. They numerically analyzed the
σ standard deviation
blending coal combustion characteristics by changing variables includ-
n grid number of P7
ing coal injection location, brown coal blending ratio, air staging ratio
P swirling momentum moment of flue gas, N m
and blending ratio of beneficiated semicoke.
ρ flue gas density, kg/m3
To date, electricity power generation industry has been the major
ni grid number of x axis
source of greenhouse gas emissions, and it is necessary to take
nj grid number of y axis
effective measures to reduce the greenhouse gas emission through
xi distance between the ith grid of x axis and the center of
the application of carbon capturing technology. Available carbon
furnace, m
capturing technology includes the pre-combustion capture, post-
yj distance between the jth grid of y axis and the center of
combustion capture and oxy-fuel combustion. Since the oxy-fuel
furnace, m
combustion was widely considered most viable technology applica-
Δx grid space of x axis, m
ble in coal-fired power plant, scholars have done intense research
Δy grid space of y axis, m
on this subject by means of computational fluid dynamic code re-
Δh unit of furnace height, m
cently [22–26].
Vxi tangential velocity of ith grid of x axis, m/s
As far as the authors are aware, no numerical research has been con-
Vyj tangential velocity of jth grid of y axis, m/s
ducted about the relationship between the flue gas temperature devia-
q heat transfer quantity of flue gas per unit mass through
tion of tangentially fired boiler and the burner tilt angle. The major
flue which is l meters in length, J
objective of this paper is to propose a new method that tilt the main
l length of flue gas pass, m
burners upward and set the tilt angle of additional air (AA) bias in
Δt equivalent heat transfer temperature difference, K
each corner to alleviate the flue gas and reheat steam temperature devi-
h coefficient of convective heat transfer, W/(m2 K)
ation. Validated computational fluid dynamic modeling considering a
A equivalent area of heat transfer, m2
700 MW low-NOx tangentially fired pulverised-coal boiler was
S equivalent sectional area of flue gas pass, m2
established and the model was further used to intensively analyze the
Q equivalent total amount of heat transfer of flue gas
mechanism of this newly presented method with particularly attention
pass, J
on the flow pattern within the furnace.

2. Computational methodology
The temperature and velocity deviation of flue gas and its influence
on the steam temperature has been a significant research topic for 2.1. The utility boiler
decades, massive amount of experience accumulated. The existing
solutions to flue gas temperature deviation can be divided into two This study has been conducted considering a 700 MW tangentially
categories. One category of solution involves reduction of the heat fired pulverised-coal utility boiler at the Zhuhai Power Station, Guang-
transfer deviation from the side of the steam by optimizing the structure dong Province, China. The boiler was manufactured by Mitsubishi
and re-arranging the platen heat exchanger [4]. The other involves Heavy based on Mitsubishi Advanced Combustion Technology
weakening the residual swirling intensity, usually by opposing the tan- (MACT), which combined a Multiple Pollution Minimum (MPM) prima-
gential swirling direction of the air jet flow from the over fire air (OFA) ry air burner and deep air staging combustion. The schematic diagram of
or the separated over fire air (SOFA) [14–16]. In addition, the applica- the boiler is shown in Fig. 1 The boiler is equipped with the following
tion of a dual-tangential-circle firing system within a single chamber nozzles: six primary air (PA) nozzles, six secondary air (SA) nozzles,
is also helpful to decrease the residual swirling intensity via two three OFA nozzles and three AA nozzles located at each corner. Approx-
counteracting tangential flue gas flow systems in opposite directions imately 30% of the total combustion air was supplied into the furnace
[17,18]. Although partially opposing the tangential circle direction of through AA nozzles acting as deep air staging combustion nozzles to
OFA or SOFA has been proven to be effective solution to decrease the achieve low NOx combustion. The tilt angle of the PA, SA, and OFA
gas temperature deviation, it is not applicable for boilers installed nozzles can be changed from −25 to +25 continuously in the vertical
with burners that cannot change their yaw angle horizontally. The direction, and the tilt angles of the AA nozzles can be changed from
present paper describes a suitable method, i.e., tilting the main burners −30 to +30 vertically. However, the yaw angle of the AA nozzles can-
upward and setting the bias of the tilt angle of the additional air (AA) in not be regulated horizontally.
each corner, to alleviate the flue gas and reheat steam temperature As shown in Fig. 1, the horizontal planes P1 (52 m) and P2 (48 m) are
deviation. located at the middle and bottom of the platen zone, respectively. P3
As an effective research approach, computational fluid dynamic (43 m) is located at the entrance cross-section of platen zone. P4
(CFD) has been widely used in acquiring and analyze the combustion, (38 m) is located exactly above the upper most AA burner. The vertical
flowing and heat transfer characteristics in tangentially fired boiler. In planes P5 and P6 were the longitudinal cross-sections of the left and
recent study, researchers mainly focus on application of brown coal, right sides of the furnace, respectively, and the vertical plane P7 is the
blended multifuel combustion and the numerical prediction of oxy- entrance cross-section of the final re-heater. All these planes are crucial
fuel combustion. Audai et al. [19] developed a computational fluid for the following analysis.
dynamic modeling for the combustion characteristic of brown coal in The practical operating parameters of this boiler indicate that the
a 550 WMe tangentially fired boiler under different operation scenarios reheat steam temperature of the right side was 20 °C higher than that
on the basis of AVL Fire CFD code. Their work revealed the combustion of the left side and that the reheat steam overheating on the right side
characteristics of brown coal within 550 MWe boiler and the solution occurred frequently for the final re-heater, resulting in desuperheating
to optimize the operation. Dodds et al. [20] numerically analyzed the water spraying system being frequently acting and the local right-side
wear distribution due to coal particle and sand within the mill duct sys- tube over overheating during boiler operation. It has negative influence
tem of a brown coal fueled power plant by means of computational fluid on the security and economic performance of the boiler operation.
dynamic code. The authors found the greater erosion on the upper leg Generally, the reheat steam temperature will rise with increasing of
swirl vanes compared with the lower leg due to the orientation of sec- burner tilt angle, while the reheat steam and metal temperatures may
ondary flows attributed to the mill-duct geometry. Jian et al. [21] exceed their design values with an excessive tilt angle. Therefore, the

Please cite this article as: D. Tian, et al., Influence of vertical burner tilt angle on the gas temperature deviation in a 700 MW low NOx tangentially
fired pulverised-coal boiler, Fuel Processing Technology (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.07.002
D. Tian et al. / Fuel Processing Technology xxx (2015) xxx–xxx 3

AA 3
AA 2
AA 1

OFA 3
OFA 2
OFA 1

F
EF
E
DE
D
CD
C

BC
B
AB
A
AA

(a) (b) (c)


Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of boiler (a), arrangement of burners (b) and grid of the horizontal cross-section in the burner zone (c). (x, y and z axes stand for the directions of depth, width,
and height, respectively).

burner tilt angle for practical operation should be properly set, consider- model [35], i.e., one reaction controls at low temperature and the
ing the reheat steam temperature, metal temperature, and boiler other reaction at high temperature:
efficiency.
K v1
CoalðsÞ → α 1 Volatileðg Þ þ ð1−α 1 ÞcharðsÞ ð2Þ
2.2. Mathematical models
K v2
The numerical simulation was performed on the basis of CFD code CoalðsÞ → α 2 Volatileðg Þ þ ð1−α 2 ÞcharðsÞ: ð3Þ
known as Fluent 6.3.26. Pulverised coal combustion processes within
the boiler furnace contain several closely coupled sub-processes, includ- Char combustion was controlled by both oxygen diffusion and the
ing turbulent flow, solid particle transport and combustion, gas phase surface chemical reaction rate [36,37]. The recommended kinetic data
combustion and multiform of heat transfer. In the present study, the of devolatilization and char combustion were available in Table 1.
turbulent flow was calculated using the standard k-ε model [30,31]. Non-premixed combustion model was adopted to simulate the gas
Solid particle transport was simulated by Stochastic Particle Trajectory phase turbulent combustion, the transport equations of mixture-
(SPT) model, which considered the influence of the turbulent fluctua- fraction were solved instead of a series of reactions for individual
tion of the continuous phase on the particle trajectories. Particle radia- species. The concentration of species was then derived from calculated
tion interaction was also considered. Radiation heat transfer within mixture-fraction on the basis of chemical equilibrium assumption. In-
furnace was calculated by P-1 model, which considered the radiation fluence of turbulence fluctuation on chemistry was taken into consider-
scattering effect and was suitable for combustion equipment with ation by β probability density function (PDF) [40,41].
large optical thickness and complex geometry. The emissivity of flue In this study, the formation of thermal NOx and fuel NOx was consid-
gas was calculated by weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model (WSGGM) ered, while prompt NOx was ignored [25–29]. The thermal NOx was
[32] which has been widely used in computational fluid dynamics and formed by oxidating of N2 in combustion air and simulated by a set of
reached good balance between calculating efficiency and accuracy [33, strongly temperature-dependent chemical reactions [26,43] from ex-
34]. WSGGM assumed that the emissivity of flue gas was decided by tended Zeldovich mechanism. Fuel NOx was simulated by De Soete
local temperature and partial pressure of gas species. Specifically, the model [44], assuming that the fuel-bound nitrogen was distributed
emissivity of flue gas ε(T,χi) can be expressed as a sun of the emissivity within char and volatile. The nitrogen from volatile was firstly released
of several hypothetical gray gas weighted by temperature-depended as intermediates HCN and NH3, then the intermediates were oxidated to
factors: NO or reduced to N2, while nitrogen from char converted to NO directly.

X
Iþ1  
εðT; χ i Þ ¼ α εi ðT Þ 1−e−ðai pþBTcÞs ð1Þ Table 1
i¼1 Reaction kinetic parameters [38,39].

Reaction K ¼ A ; expð− RT
E
Þ
where αεi(T) is the weighting factor of ith gray gas, s is the path length, ai
A E
is the absorption coefficient of gas mixture, and p is the sum of partial
pressure of gas species e.g. H2O and CO2 [26]. Coal particle heteroge- Char combustion 0.0043 kg/m2 s Pa 8.37 × 107 J/kmol
neous combustion consisted of devolatilization and char combustion Devolatilization 1(α1 = 0.3) 3.75 × 105 s−1 7.366 × 104 J/mol
Devolatilization 2 (α2 = 1) 1.46 × 1013 s−1 2.511 × 105 s−1 J/mol
processes. Devolatilization was modeled by two-competing-reaction

Please cite this article as: D. Tian, et al., Influence of vertical burner tilt angle on the gas temperature deviation in a 700 MW low NOx tangentially
fired pulverised-coal boiler, Fuel Processing Technology (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.07.002
4 D. Tian et al. / Fuel Processing Technology xxx (2015) xxx–xxx

The partial equilibrium approach was adopted to calculate the concen- Table 3
tration of [O] and [OH] [26–28]. Since the concentration of NO was far Coal property.

lower than main species in coal combustion processes, the NOx forma- Proximate analysis, (wt.%), as received (ar)
tion was usually decoupled from coal combustion processes and the Volatile matter 27.0
transport equations for NO, HCN, and NH3 were calculated on the Moisture 16.30
basis of given convergent flow-field solution [21,26–28]. Audai [26] Ash 8.77
simulated the NOx formation together with the coal combustion pro- Fixed carbon 47.93
Low heating value, (kJ/kg) 23,035.0
cesses by solving the transport equations simultaneously with the coal
combustion reaction. They found that whether the NOx formation was Ultimate analysis, (wt.%), as received (ar)
decoupled from coal combustion processes or not has little impact on Carbon 61.30
NOx simulation results. The influence of turbulent flow temperature Hydrogen 3.65
and species concentration fluctuation on NO formation was taken into Oxygen 8.90
consideration by the adopting of β probability density function (β Nitrogen 0.78
Sulfur 0.30
PDF) [42].

2.3. Cases studied set up

In actual operation of the boiler, the burner was usually tilted up- 2.5. Grid independence test
ward for specific angle in order to increase the steam temperature,
while the reheat steam temperature and metal temperatures may ex- Special attention was paid to the grid system to improve the accura-
ceed their design values with an excessive tilt angle. Therefore, the cy of the numerical calculation. The structured grids were used because
burner tilt angle should be properly established. The numerical simula- this approach can ensure the high quality of grid system. Grid indepen-
tions were conducted for 8 cases presented in Table 2, which were dence test was conducted for case 1 in order to reach the balance be-
established on the basis of practical operating parameters. Cases 1–4 tween computational accuracy and computing cost. Three grid
were conducted to study the influence of the burner tiling up angle on systems with 1,270,946, 2,501,812 and 3,466,378 cells were considered
the flue gas deviation. Cases 3, 5, and 6 were conducted to study the in- respectively. The latter two grid systems were achieved by refining the
fluence of the bias setting of the AA tilt angle. Cases 3, 7, and 8 with 100% meshes in burner region and upper furnace that represent regions of
load, 75% load and 50% load, respectively, were performed to validate high variables and flow gradients. All the grid systems were assessed
the confidence of the numerical simulation. The coal properties are pre- by comparing the gas velocity component Vy, gas temperature along
sented in Table 3. the line 1 (x = 0–18.60 m, y = 10.73 m, z = 18.16 m in the B layer
PA cross-section) and line 2 (x = 0–18.60 m, y = 10.73 m, z =
2.4. Boundary condition 21.70 m in the D layer PA cross-section). It is evident from Fig. 2 that
the computational results of grid system with 2,501,812 cells and
The boundary condition of the burner inlets, the mass flow rate and 3,466,378 cells are almost identical. Therefore, the grid system with
the temperature of the air inlets were properly established according to 2,501,812 cells was adopted in present study considering computation-
practical operating parameters. Operating parameters are presented in al accuracy and computing cost. Besides, the grids of the horizontal
Table 4. The wall function method was used to consider the near-wall cross-section were properly designed, i.e., the grid lines were set ap-
effect, and the temperature boundary condition was used for the heat proximately along the flow direction to decrease the pseudo-diffusion
transfer boundary condition of the wall. In this study, 24 surface type error [46] as shown in Fig. 1.
of injections were set up in each of the primary air inlets. The pulverised
coal particle diameter distribution obeys Rosin-Rammler algorithm
with an average diameter of 65 μm and a spread parameter of 1.5 2.6. Full-scale experimental tests
achieved form the pulverised-coal sampling. Total number of tracked
particles was 25,920. The SIMPLE algorithm of pressure correction was The experimental measurements of combustion were conducted
used to consider the coupling of the velocity and pressure fields [45]. under different loads. Some performance parameters, such as the
The governing equations were calculated with appropriate under- carbon content in the fly ash, the oxygen concentration in the flue gas,
relaxation and TDMA line-by-line iterations. A first-order finite differ- and NOx emissions, were measured. A MSI EURO-type flue gas analyzer
ence scheme was used and the calculation didn't end until the solution was used to measure the components of the flue gas. Flue gas and fly ash
satisfies the pre-specified tolerances, which were set to 1 × 10−6 for in- samplings were conducted at the entrance of the air pre-heater. Coal
teractions of energy, radiation heat transfer, NO, and 1 × 10−4 for other sampling was performed at the coal hopper exits. Pulverised coal sam-
equations. pling was conducted using the sampling equipment installed on the

Table 4
Table 2
Operating parameters.
Simulation cases.
Case 1 (100% Case 7 (75% Case 8 (50%
Main burner tilt angle (°) AA tilt angle (°)
load) load) load)
#1 #2 #3 #4 #1 #2 #3 #4
Mass flow rate (kg/s)
Case 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total air flow rate 681 538 380
Case 2 +4 +4 +4 +4 +4 +4 +4 +4 Primary air 172 142 95
Case 3 +11 +11 +11 +11 +11 +11 +11 +11 Secondary air 175 141 108
Case 4 +22 +22 +22 +22 +22 +22 +22 +22 OFA 108 89 51
Case 5 +11 +11 +11 +11 +12 +16 +16 +12 AA 226 162 126
Case 6 +11 +11 +11 +11 +6 +16 +16 +6 Pulverised coal feed rate 76 58 40
Case 7 +11 +11 +11 +11 +11 +11 +11 +11 Inlet temperature (K)
Case 8 +11 +11 +11 +11 +11 +11 +11 +11 Primary air and coal mixture 338 338 338
Secondary air, OFA and AA 578 578 578
(“+” stands for tilting up the burners).

Please cite this article as: D. Tian, et al., Influence of vertical burner tilt angle on the gas temperature deviation in a 700 MW low NOx tangentially
fired pulverised-coal boiler, Fuel Processing Technology (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.07.002
D. Tian et al. / Fuel Processing Technology xxx (2015) xxx–xxx 5

Fig. 2. Grid independence test: (a) gas velocity component Vy and (c) gas temperature along line 1 (x = 0–18.60 m, y = 10.73 m, z = 18.16 m in the B layer PA cross-section) and (b) gas
velocity component Vy and (d) gas temperature along line 2 (x = 0–18.60 m, y = 10.73 m, z = 21.70 m in the D layer PA cross-section).

pipes of the primary air and the pulverised coal mixture. The bottom ash 3. Results and discussion
was also sampled.
The flue gas temperature measurement was conducted using a 3.1. Validation of the numerical simulations
suction thermocouple through four observation ports along the fur-
nace height. The measurement points were 1.0 m away from the Validation of the numerical simulations after achieving convergent
front wall and 2.6 meter away from the right side wall. In addition, solutions is mandatory. The calculated flue gas temperatures were com-
the flue gas temperatures were also measured through seven obser- pared with the measured values along the furnace height and at the
vation ports along the furnace width at the platen zone. These mea- platen zone. Fig. 3 indicates that the calculated temperatures were con-
suring points were 1.0 m away from the front wall and 1.0 m above sistent to the measured values, with maximum error less than 9%. The
the furnace nose. comparison of the calculated and measured values of the carbon

Fig. 3. Comparison of the simulated and measured temperature profiles of case 3: (a) profile along the furnace height, (b) profile along the furnace width.

Please cite this article as: D. Tian, et al., Influence of vertical burner tilt angle on the gas temperature deviation in a 700 MW low NOx tangentially
fired pulverised-coal boiler, Fuel Processing Technology (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.07.002
6 D. Tian et al. / Fuel Processing Technology xxx (2015) xxx–xxx

Table 5 agreement with the measured values. The calculated results can proper-
Comparison between the calculated and experimental results. ly reveal the variation characteristics of the carbon content and the NOx
Item Case 3 Case 7 Case 8 emissions. These results indicated that the models adopted in the pres-
O2 (vol.%) Calculated 2.74 3.62 3.91
ent study are suitable for correctly investigating the flow, combustion,
Measured 2.60 3.80 3.84 and heat transfer characteristics of the boiler.
NOx (mg/m3, 6% O2) Calculated 132.8 146.7 138.7
Measured 147 153 148 3.2. Flue gas deviation characteristics of case 1
Carbon content in fly ash (%) Calculated 1.46 1.27 1.12
Measured 1.17 1.41 0.88
CO (ppm) Calculated 495 439 84 Fig. 4 shows the flue gas velocity and temperature distributions in
Measured 653 395 75 the boiler for case 1. The four horizontal planes are cross-sections of
PA, OFA, and AA and the entrance of the platen zone. As shown in
Fig. 4, the distribution of velocity and temperature are in good agree-
content in the fly ash and O2, the CO concentration, and the NO emis- ment, demonstrating the existence of a tangential fire ball inside the
sions in the flue gas is presented in Table 5. The calculated values of furnace. The penetration depth of the AA air flow was larger than
the carbon content, O2 concentration and NOx emissions are in good those of the PA and the OFA for its larger mass flow rate and

Fig. 4. Gas velocity and temperature distribution in the boiler: (a) velocity (m/s), (b) temperature (K).

Fig. 5. Velocity and temperature distributions of the inlet cross-section P7 of the final re-heater: (a) velocity (m/s), (b) temperature (K).

Please cite this article as: D. Tian, et al., Influence of vertical burner tilt angle on the gas temperature deviation in a 700 MW low NOx tangentially
fired pulverised-coal boiler, Fuel Processing Technology (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.07.002
D. Tian et al. / Fuel Processing Technology xxx (2015) xxx–xxx 7

(a) P5(left) (b) P6(right)


Fig. 6. Streamline distributions of the vertical cross-sections in the upper furnace (m/s): (a) P5 (left), (b) P6 (right).

vffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
momentum. The tangential flow in the furnace was intensified by AA air u
u 1 X n
inlets, and tangential flow at the entrance of the platen zone, i.e., the re- σT ¼ t ðT i −T ave Þ2
sidual swirling momentum of the flue gas, was also observed. n‐1 i¼1
Since P7 is inlet cross-section of final re-heater, the flue gas flow and
temperature distribution characteristics of P7 have crucial impact on
heat transfer characters of final re-heater and reheat steam temperature V ave þ 3σ v
deviations. Fig. 5 shows the simulated velocity and temperature Mv ¼ ð5Þ
Vave
distributions of P7. This figure indicates the obvious deviations of flue
gas velocity and temperature. To perform quantitative analysis of the vffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
u
flue gas deviations, P7 was divided into four parts by center lines u 1 X n

along the width and height directions. Flue gas velocity and tempera- σv ¼ t ðV −V ave Þ2
n‐1 i¼1 i
ture distributions were relatively more uniform in the upper part of
P7 and non-uniform in the lower part. The velocity and temperature where Ti is the temperature in the ith cell of P7, Vi is the velocity in the
in the right zone of the bottom part were larger than that in the left ith cell of P7, and Tave and Vave are the average temperature and velocity
zone. values of P7. ET and Ev represent the deviation degree between the right
To conduct quantitatively evaluation of the flue gas deviation de- part and left part of P7, respectively; these quantities are defined below.
gree; the non-uniformity coefficient M and the deviation factor E are in-
troduced. MT represents the non-uniformity degree of temperature T ave:right
distribution of P7. Mv represents the non-uniformity degree of velocity ET ¼ ð6Þ
T ave:left
distribution of P7. MT and Mv are defined as follows:

T ave þ 3σ T V ave:right
MT ¼ ð4Þ Ev ¼ : ð7Þ
T ave V ave:left

(a) P2 (b) P1
Fig. 7. Streamline distributions of the cross-sections P1 and P2 in the platen zone (m/s): (a) P2, (b) P1.

Please cite this article as: D. Tian, et al., Influence of vertical burner tilt angle on the gas temperature deviation in a 700 MW low NOx tangentially
fired pulverised-coal boiler, Fuel Processing Technology (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.07.002
8 D. Tian et al. / Fuel Processing Technology xxx (2015) xxx–xxx

introduced to conduct quantitative analysis of swirling intensity of


flue gas for different cases and different positions. P is defined as fol-
lows:
0 1
1 @X X
ni nj
P¼ 2
ρ V x ΔxΔh þ ρ j V y j y j ΔyΔhA
2
ð8Þ
2 i¼1 i xi i j¼1

where ρ is the gas density, Vxi and Vyj are the tangential velocity of flue
gas in x and y directions, respectively, xi and yj are the distances between
the a cell and the furnace center in x and y directions, respectively, Δx
and Δy are grid spacings in the x and y directions. Δh is the unit of fur-
nace height. The flue gas swirling momentum moment P in P4 and P3
is 4.558 N m and 2.504 N m, respectively, indicating rapid decay of
flue gas swirling movement intensity in the furnace nose area. The ver-
tical velocity component Vz increased with the furnace height, and the
horizontal components (Vxi and Vyj) reduced at the same time because
of the gradually reducing passage area of the furnace arch. Consequent-
ly, the calculated value of P decreases considerably.
Fig. 8. Tube metal temperature of the outlet header of the final re-heater. Fig. 6 shows the simulated flow field of the upper furnace. Planes P5
and P6 are vertical cross-sections of the left and right sides of the fur-
nace respectively. As shown in Fig. 6, the flue gas in the right side (P6)
Based on the analysis above, the flue gas deviation was mainly found flows directly into the horizontal flue gas pass, while the flue gas in
in the lower part of P7, while the distribution was relatively more uni- the left side (P5) tends to flow towards the front wall. This difference
form in the upper part. For this case, the deviation factor of the upper of flow pattern in the upper furnace is mainly caused by the residual
and bottom parts, Eup and Ebottom, respectively, is introduced. The defini- swirling of flue gas, which causes the horizontal velocity component
tions of Eup and Ebottom are of similar form, with the only difference that Vx of flue gas in the left side point towards the front wall, while in the
Eup is defined as the ratio of the average value of corresponding variable right side, Vx points towards the horizontal flue gas pass. This flow
in upper-right to that in the upper-left and Ebottom was defined as the field difference of upper furnace influences the distribution of the
ratio of that in the bottom-right to the bottom-left. The values of Eup horizontal component Vx as well as the flue gas flow rate distribution
and Ebottom in case 1 were ET.up = 1.059, ET.bottom = 1.309, Ev.up = along the width of the horizontal flue gas pass.
1.434, Ev.bottom = 7.881, MT = 1.599, and Mv = 2.611. It is clear that Fig. 7 shows the flow pattern of the platen zone by using streamlines
the values of E, Eup, Ebottom, and M exhibit high degree of consistency of the flue gas. The horizontal cross-sections P1 and P2 are located in the
with gas deviation distribution characteristics. Therefore, in this paper, upper and lower part of platen zone respectively. Fig. 7(a) indicates that
these coefficients and factors will be used synthetically to conduct the flow pattern of the right and left sides of the horizontal flue gas pass
quantitative evaluation and comparison of flue gas velocity and temper- is remarkably different. In the left side, a part of flue gas flows towards
ature deviations for different cases. the front wall and further flows across the platen heat exchanger be-
cause of the residual swirling, forming some vortices between the
plates. Moreover, a fraction of flue gas in the left part flows through
3.3. Mechanism analysis of the flue gas temperature deviation the gaps between the front wall and division platen super-heater to
the right part of flue gas pass. However, the flue gas in the right part
Fig. 4 shows the anti-clockwise residual swirling of flue gas before it flows along the arrangement of plates. It implies that the velocity and
enters into the platen zone. The swirling momentum moment P [1] is net flow rate deviation of flue gas in the horizontal flue gas pass is

Fig. 9. Vertical velocity component Vz and Vx distributions along the width of the cross-section P4: (a) Vz, (b) Vx.

Please cite this article as: D. Tian, et al., Influence of vertical burner tilt angle on the gas temperature deviation in a 700 MW low NOx tangentially
fired pulverised-coal boiler, Fuel Processing Technology (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.07.002
D. Tian et al. / Fuel Processing Technology xxx (2015) xxx–xxx 9

the flow deviation of flue gas is located mainly in lower half of the
horizontal flue gas pass.

3.4. Mechanism analysis of the re-heat steam temperature deviation

The residual swirling of the flue gas causes the deviation of the ve-
locity and the net flow rate of the flue gas in the horizontal flue gas
pass along its width, as detailed above. These deviations result in the
heat transfer deviation for the re-heater and further cause the deviation
of the reheat steam temperature. Because the final re-heater is a convec-
tive heat exchanger, only the convective heat transfer is considered
here. The equivalent heat transfer quantity of flue gas per unit mass
through flue pass, which is l meters in length, is q, and it is expressed
as follows:

l
q ¼ hAΔt ð9Þ
Vx

where h is equivalent surface coefficient of the convective heat transfer


Fig. 10. Swirling momentum moment distributions along the furnace height. between flue gas and final re-heater, A is the equivalent area of heat
transfer, and Δt is the equivalent heat transfer temperature difference.
mainly caused by the residual swirling of flue gas. As shown in Fig. 7(b), The equivalent surface coefficient of the convective heat transfer can
the flow pattern of the upper part of the platen zone (P1) is relatively be expressed as follows [47] (Re b 1.0 × 105):
more symmetrical than that of P2, which indicates that the swirling in- 0:65
tensity of flue gas weakens rapidly due to the influence of the plates and h ¼ αV x ð10Þ

Fig. 11. Evaluation indices of flue gas deviation of P7: (a) indices of temperature under different burner tilt angles, (b) indices of velocity under different burner tilt angles, (c) indices of
temperature with AA bias setting, (c) indices of velocity with AA bias setting.

Please cite this article as: D. Tian, et al., Influence of vertical burner tilt angle on the gas temperature deviation in a 700 MW low NOx tangentially
fired pulverised-coal boiler, Fuel Processing Technology (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.07.002
10 D. Tian et al. / Fuel Processing Technology xxx (2015) xxx–xxx

where coefficient α is independent of V x. The formulas (7) and (8) show for approximately 30% of the total air, was added into the furnace from
the negative correlation between q and Vx. Therefore, with greater flue AA nozzles at approximately 32 m in height; as a result, the rapidly de-
gas velocity, the heat release per unit mass of flue gas becomes smaller, creasing tendency of P is obviously reduced, and even a slight increase in
i.e., the flue gas temperature becomes higher. In this case, the flue gas in the swirling momentum moment P is observed. In the furnace nose and
the right part of the horizontal flue pass (in which flue gas velocity and the platen zone, the swirling momentum moment P decreases relatively
the net flow rate are greater than those in the left part) has the higher faster. Overall, the swirling momentum moment P curves decrease with
temperature. The total amount of equivalent heat transfer Q within increasing in tilt angle. The swirling momentum moment P in entrance
flue gas pass can be expressed as follows: cross section of platen zone (P3) is 2.52 N m in case 1, 1.94 N m in case 2,
1.71 N m in case 3, and 1.41 N m in case 4.
0:65 l 0:65 Fig. 11 shows the evaluation indices of the flue gas deviation under
Q ¼ αV x AΔt SV x ¼ αV x AlSΔt ð11Þ
Vx different cases. It clearly demonstrates that the evaluation indices of
the flue gas deviation reduce with the increase of burner tilt angle.
where S is the equivalent sectional area of flue gas pass and SV x is the The variation of ET.bottom and Ev.bottom with the increase of burner tilt
equivalent flow rate of flue gas. This qualitative formula indicates that angle is particularly remarkable compared with the other correspond-
the total amount of convective heat transfer in the right part of flue ing items. Fig. 12 shows the temperature distributions of final re-
pass is greater than that in the left because of the larger Vx. As a result, heater inlet cross-section P7. The temperature distribution becomes
the reheat steam temperature of the right part is higher than that in more evenly with the increasing of burner tilt angle. Based on analysis
the left part. Based on the analysis above, the gas temperature and re- of each evaluation index in Fig. 11 and temperature distribution of
heat steam deviations are basically determined by the flow deviation final re-heater inlet cross-section presented in Fig. 12, we can draw
of the flue gas and the flow deviation is caused by the residual swirling
of the flue gas.
The tube metal temperatures of the final re-heater were determined
from the distributed control system (DCS) under different loads. The
measuring points are located at the inlet tube of the outlet header of
the final re-heater and are evenly distributed along the width of the fur-
nace roof. Fig. 8 shows the tube metal temperature of the final re-heater
outlet header. The temperature profiles of tube metal basically coincid-
ed with the flue gas temperature distribution characteristics shown in
Fig. 5. As shown in Fig. 8, the temperature of the 13th point at the
right is found to be relatively higher than the temperature of the other
points and closest to the warning value of 610 °C. This high temperature
is mainly caused by the heat transfer imbalance described previously.
Therefore, the reduction of the flue gas deviation can also be helpful to
reduce the excessive temperature of the tube metal of the final re- (a) Case 1 (b) Case 2
heater.

3.5. Effect of the burner tilt angle on flue gas temperature deviation

Fig. 9 shows the profiles of Vz and Vx along the width direction of


cross-section P4 under different burner tilt angles. As shown, the pro-
files of Vz for different cases under different burner tilt angles are similar.
All of these profiles have the M-shaped overall curve, and the profiles
are basically symmetrical. The vertical velocity component Vz of the
flue gas considerably increases with the rising of burner tilt angle. This
increase occurs mainly because the air jet-flow momentum in z direc-
tion provided from the air inlets increase with the tiling up angles of
the burners, while those of the x- and y-directions decrease. Fig. 9
shows that the profiles of Vx under different burner tilt angles are also
similar, with the same symmetrical double-peak curve. The horizontal
(c) Case 3 (d) Case 4
velocity component Vx decreases with an increasing tilt angle, whereas
the tangential circle of the swirling flue gas, which is defined as the
distance between the two peaks of the Vx profile, obviously decreases.
Fig. 10 shows the profile of flue gas swirling momentum moment P
along the furnace height. As shown in Fig. 10, the profiles of P for the dif-
ferent cases have the similar form of a single peak curve. The swirling
momentum moment initially increased with the furnace height. On
the one hand, the momentum of the air jet-flow provided into the fur-
nace from the burners is converted into the swirling momentum of
the flue gas within the tangential firing system. On the other hand, the
turbulent dissipation weakens the swirling intensity of tangential flue
gas, i.e., the swirling momentum moment of flue gas is weakened to
some degree. The maximum of P occurs in the center area of main burn-
er zone at approximately 22 m in height due to the combined action of (e) Case 5 (f) Case 6
the two abovementioned factors. Meanwhile, because no air jet flow is
added into the furnace between the upper-most OFA and the first Fig. 12. Temperature distributions of the inlet cross-section P7 of the final re-heater
layer of the AA, the moment P decreases rapidly. The AA, which accounts (K):(a) case 1, (b) case 2, (c) case 3, (d) case 4, (e) case 5, (f) case 6.

Please cite this article as: D. Tian, et al., Influence of vertical burner tilt angle on the gas temperature deviation in a 700 MW low NOx tangentially
fired pulverised-coal boiler, Fuel Processing Technology (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.07.002
D. Tian et al. / Fuel Processing Technology xxx (2015) xxx–xxx 11

(a) Case 3 (b) Case 5 (c) Case 6


Fig. 13. Streamline distributions of the cross-section P3 (m/s): (a) case 3, (b) case 5, (c) case 6.

the conclusion that the velocity and temperature deviation of the flue angle of all the burners was normally set to +11°. In this circumstance,
gas in the horizontal flue gas pass are reduced considerably by tilting the reheat steam temperature of right side can reach the designed value,
up the burners. During the practical operation of this boiler, the tilt and the deviation of reheat steam temperature decreases from

(a) Case 3 (b) Case 5

(c) Case 6
Fig. 14. Streamline distributions of the cross-section P2 in the platen zone: (a) case 3, (b) case 5, (c) case 6.

Please cite this article as: D. Tian, et al., Influence of vertical burner tilt angle on the gas temperature deviation in a 700 MW low NOx tangentially
fired pulverised-coal boiler, Fuel Processing Technology (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.07.002
12 D. Tian et al. / Fuel Processing Technology xxx (2015) xxx–xxx

approximately 20 °C to 10 °C. The frequency of the right-side reheat is injected. The conversion of gas jet momentum to swirling momentum
steam over-heating was also reduced. If burner tilt angle further in- requires good interaction of the air jet flow from each corner, i.e., the
creased, the right-side metal over-heating of final re-heater may formation of a tangential firing system requires a symmetrical arrange-
occur. The tilting upward of burners is an effective measure to decrease ment of the air jet flow of the four corners. When the bias of the tilt
the flue gas deviation. However, when the tilt angle of the burners angle of AA was set, the air jet flow from each corner was no longer sym-
reached approximately 11°, the reheat steam temperature deviation metrically organized, which partially inhibited the conversion of the gas
remained 10 °C, and a further increasing in burner tilt angle to reduce jet momentum to the swirling momentum. The swirling momentum
the flue gas deviation is not applicable considering the over-heating po- moment of the flue gas at the entrance cross section of the platen
tential of the final re-heater right-side pipes. zone (P3) was 1.71 N m in case 3, 1.42 N m in case 5, and 1.08 N m in
case 6, and the effectiveness of reducing the residual swirling momen-
3.6. Effect of AA tilt angle bias setting on flue gas temperature deviation tum moment P by setting the bias of the AA tilt angle is of the same
order of magnitude as the effectiveness of tilting the main burners up-
As described above, titling the burners upward to further reduce the ward detailed in Fig. 10. Fig. 11(c) and (d) shows the evaluation indices
flue gas deviations and reheat steam temperature deviation is not appli- of flue gas deviations of cases 3, 5, and 6. Fig. 12 shows the temperature
cable for the over-heating potential of final re-heater right-side pipes distribution of final re-heater inlet cross-section P7. Fig. 11 and Fig. 12
when the tilt angle exceeds +11°. In this work, a new measure to de- indicate that the bias setting of the tilt angle of AA can effectively reduce
crease the flue gas deviation is presented, which was achieved by set- the flue gas deviations in crossover pass. During practical operation,
ting the tilt angle of AA at each corner bias, as described in Table 2. the bias setting scheme of case 6 can reduce the reheat steam tem-
The AA tilt angles of the first and fourth corners were less than those perature deviation from approximately 10 °C in case 3 to less than
of the second and third corners. Fig. 13 shows the streamline distribu- 4 °C. At the same time, the super-heat steam temperature can
tions in the horizontal cross-section P3 of cases 3, 5, and 6. Fig. 13 clearly reach the designed value without pipes over-heating, the boiler effi-
indicates that the center of the swirling flue gas is moved noticeably to- ciency can reach approximately 94.72%, and the NOx emission is less
wards the bottom-right corner of P3 when the AA tilt angle was bias set. than 147 mg/m3(φ(O2) = 6%). Therefore, the application of tilting
This result mainly occurred because the horizontal component of air jet main burners at + 11° upward and setting the AA tilt angle bias at
momentum from the first and fourth corner is larger than that from sec- 10° can effectively reduce the reheat steam temperature deviation to
ond corner and third corner, so the center of the swirling flue gas is less than 4 °C ensuring high boiler efficiency and low NOx emission.
pushed towards the bottom-right corner. The moving of the center of
the swirling flue gas before the platen zone further influenced the
flow field of the platen zone. As mentioned previously, a part of the 4. Conclusions
flue gas flowed across the platen heat ex-changer and formed some vor-
tices between the plates because of flue gas residual swirling, which il- In this study, CFD modelings were developed to investigate a newly
lustrated the flow field deviation of flue gas pass. As shown in Fig. 14, presented solution of re-heat steam temperature deviation on the
four typical vortices are observed in P2 of case 3, which are mainly dis- basis of FLUENT 6.3.26 considering a 700 MWe tangentially fired
tributed at the left part of the horizontal flue gas pass. In Fig. 14(b) and pulverised-coal boiler. The residual swirling of the flue gas in the
(c), four typical vortices are still observed, but they have moved right- upper furnace was found to cause flue gas deviation in the bottom
ward at different levels. This observation indicates that the region of part of the final re-heater inlet cross section. Flue gas velocity and
platen zone in which the flow field is influenced by the flue gas residual temperature in the right part were higher than those in the left
swirling spatially moved rightward, i.e., the flow deviation was reduced part for a typical anticlockwise tangential firing system. These flue gas
to a certain extent. deviations accounted for steam temperature deviation and frequent
Fig. 15 shows the profiles of swirling momentum moment P of the right-side steam overheating.
flue gas along the furnace height for cases 3, 5, and 6. The figure clearly Tilting the burner upward can effectively reduce the intensity of re-
shows that the bias setting of the AA tilt angle has no significant influ- sidual flow as well as the flue gas deviation degree. The burner tilt angle
ence on the profile of P below the position of AA, while the influence of +11° was relatively optimum considering the flue gas deviation and
is observable after AA inputting position. The flue gas swirling momen- potential of final re-heater overheating. The intensity of residual swirl
tum moments of case 5 and case 6 were less than that of case 3 after AA flow dropped about 44% and boiler practical operation demonstrated
that the reheat steam temperature deviation was reduced from 22 °C
to 10 °C in this condition.
The newly presented methods involve tilting the burner upward and
setting the bias of the AA tilt angles. When the tilt angle of AA was bias
set, the flow field of upper furnace was changed. Consequently, the
residual swirl flow intensity and the flue gas deviation were reduced
considerably. During practical operation, when the burner tilt angle
was set at +11° and the bias of the AA tilt angle was set at 10°, the re-
heat temperature deviation was reduced to less than 4 °C from the ini-
tial 20 °C of case 1. Besides, the frequency of the right-side re-heat
steam overheating was also reduced while ensuring a high boiler
efficiency and low NOx emission in this circumstance.

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the Project on the Integration


of Industry, Education and Research of Guangdong Province (No.
2012B091100173), Youth Foundation of Huazhong University of Sci-
ence and Technology (No. 2014QN185) and the National Natural Sci-
Fig. 15. Swirling momentum moment distributions along with the furnace height. ence Foundation of China for funding this research (No. 51390494).

Please cite this article as: D. Tian, et al., Influence of vertical burner tilt angle on the gas temperature deviation in a 700 MW low NOx tangentially
fired pulverised-coal boiler, Fuel Processing Technology (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.07.002
D. Tian et al. / Fuel Processing Technology xxx (2015) xxx–xxx 13

References [22] A.A. Bhuiyan, J. Naser, Numerical modelling of oxy fuel combustion, the effect of ra-
diative and convective heat transfer and burnout, Fuel 56 (2015) 268–284.
[1] Y.G. Zhou, M.C. Zhang, T.M. Xu, S.N. Hui, Effect of opposing tangential primary air [23] A.H. Al-Abbas, J. Naser, D. Dodds, A. Blicblau, Numerical modelling of oxy-fuel com-
jets on the flue gas velocity deviation for large-scale tangentially fired boilers, bustion in a full-scale tangentially-fired pulverised coal boiler, Procedia Eng. 56
Energy Fuel 23 (2009) 5375–5382. (2013) 375–380.
[2] Z. Zhang, X.C. Xu, Closed streamline numerical simulation on two-phase flow field of [24] A.A. Bhuiyan, J. Naser, Computational modelling of co-firing of biomass with coal
upper furnace and superheater platen zones in tangential-firing boiler, J. Comput. under oxy-fuel condition in a small scale furnace, Fuel 143 (2015) 455–466.
Sci. Technol. 8 (2) (2002) 97–102 (in Chinese). [25] A.H. Al-Abbas, J. Naser, D. Dodds, CFD modelling of air-fired and oxy-fuel combus-
[3] Y.F. Diao, B.X. He, J.Y. Xu, Three-dimensional motion of vortices in the platen zone of tion in a large-scale furnace at Loy Yang A brown coal power station, Fuel 102
tangentially fired furnace, Proc. CSEE 23 (5) (2003) 170–175 (in Chinese). (2012) 646–665.
[4] C.G. Yin, L. Rosendahl, T.J. Condra, Further study of the gas temperature deviation in [26] A.H. Al-Abbas, J. Naser, Effect of chemical reaction mechanism and NOx modeling on
large-scale tangentially coal-fired boilers, Fuel 81 (2002) 1127–1137. air-fired and oxy-fuel combustion of lignite in a 100-kW furnace, Energy Fuel 26 (6)
[5] J.H. Zhou, G.L. Song, Y.B. Chen, Test and research of flue gas temperature deviation at (2012) 3329–3348.
the furnace exit of a 2008 t/h boiler with tangential firing, Thermal Power Gener. 6 [27] Q.Y. Fang, H.J. Wang, H.C. Zhou, L. Lei, X.L. Duan, Improving the performance of a
(2003) 31–35 (in Chinese). 300 MW down-fired pulverised-coal utility boiler by inclining downward the F-
[6] C.G. Yin, L. Rosendahl, T.J. Condra, Thermal load deviation model for superheater and layer secondary air, Energy Fuel 24 (2010) 4857–4865.
re-heater of a utility boiler, Appl. Therm. Eng. 20 (2000) 545–558. [28] Q.Y. Fang, A.B. Musa, Y. Wei, Z.X. Luo, H.C. Zhou, Numerical simulation of multifuel
[7] M. Yang, Y.Y. Shen, H.T. Xu, M. Zhao, S.W. Shen, K. Huang, Numerical investigation of combustion in a 299 MW tangentially fired utility boiler, Energy Fuel 26 (2012)
the nonlinear flow characteristics in an ultra-supercritical utility boiler furnace, 313–323.
Appl. Therm. Eng. (2014) 1–11. [29] L.I. Díez, C. Cortés, J. Pallarés, Numerical investigation of NOx emissions from a
[8] L.J. Xu, A.J. Kahana, Z.H. Chen, Thermal load deviation model for superheater and re- tangentially-fired utility boiler under conventional and overfire air operation, Fuel
heater of a utility boiler, Appl. Therm. Eng. 20 (2000) 545–558. 87 (7) (2008) 1259–1269.
[9] H.B. Vuthaluru, R. Vuthaluru, Control of ash related problems in a large scale tangen- [30] B.E. Launder, D.B. Spalding, Mathematical Models of Turbulence, Academic Press,
tially fired boiler using CFD modelling, Appl. Energy 87 (2010) 1418–1426. New York, 1972.
[10] L. Yan, B.S. He, F. Yao, R. Yang, X.H. Pei, C.J. Wang, J.G. Song, Numerical simulation of [31] B.E. Launder, D.B. Spalding, The numerical computation of turbulent flows, Comput.
a 600 MW utility boiler with different tangential arrangements of burners, Energy Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 3 (2) (1974) 269–289.
Fuel 26 (2012) 5491–5502. [32] H.C. Hottel, A.F. Sarofim, Radiative Transfer, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1967.
[11] H. Zhou, K. Zhou, Q. Tang, S.B. Chen, K.F. Cen, Using a core-vector machine to correct [33] T.F. Smith, Z.F. Shen, J.N. Friedman, Evaluation of coefficient for the weighted sum of
the steam-separator temperature deviations of a 1000 MW boiler, Fuel 130 (2014) gray gases model, J. Heat Transf. 104 (4) (1982) 602–608.
142–148. [34] C.G. Yin, Refined weighted sum of gray gases model for air-fuel combustion and its
[12] Y.G. Zhou, T. Xu, S. Hui, Experimental and numerical study on the flow fields in impact, Energy Fuel 27 (2013) 6287–6294.
upper furnace for large scale tangentially fired boilers, Appl. Therm. Eng. 29 [35] H. Kobayashi, J.B. Howward, A.F. Sarofilm, Coal devolatilization at high tempera-
(2009) 732–739. tures, Symposium (International) on Combustion, 16 (1) 1977, pp. 411–425.
[13] G. Cheng, C.G. Zheng, Relation between the volume heat load of upper furnace and [36] M. Baum, P.J. Street, Predicting the combustion behavior of coal particles, Combust.
the fuel gas temperature deviation for tangential firing boiler, Proc. CSEE 22 (11) Sci. Technol. 3 (5) (1971) 231–243.
(2002) 146–148 (in Chinese). [37] M.A. Fried, Rate of combustion of size-grated fractions of char from a low rank coal
[14] M.H. Xu, J. Yuan, S. Ding, H. Cao, Simulation of gas temperature deviation in large- between 1200 K and 2000 K, Combust. Flame 13 (1969) 237–252.
scale tangential coal fired utility boilers, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 155 [38] Y.C. Guo, C.K. Lau, Numerical studies of pulverised coal combustion in a tubular coal
(1999) 369–380. combustor with slanted oxygen jet, Fuel 82 (2003) 893–907.
[15] Y.P. Ho, H.B. Se, Y.J. Kim, Numerical and experimental investigation on the gas tem- [39] C.D. Sheng, B. Moghtaderi, R. Gupta, T.F. Wall, A computational fluid dynamics based
perature deviation in a large scale, advanced low NOx, tangentially fired pulverised study of the combustion characteristics of coal blends in pulverised coal-fired fur-
coal boiler, Fuel 104 (2013) 614–646. nace, Fuel 83 (2004) 1543–1552.
[16] B.X. He, L.Y. Zhu, J.W. Wang, S.M. Liu, Computational fluid dynamics based retrofits [40] W. Jones, J. Whitelaw, Calculation methods for reacting turbulent flows: a review,
to re-heater panel overheating of No. 3 boiler of Dagang Power Plant, Comput. Fluids Combust. Flame 48 (1982) 1–26.
36 (2007) 435–444. [41] Y. Sivathanu, G. Faeth, Generalized state relationships for scalar properties in non-
[17] C.M. Shen, Numerical Simulation of Pulverised Coal Combustion Process in a premixed hydrocarbon/air flames, Combust. Flame 82 (1984) 211–230.
1000 MW Dual Circle Tangential Firing Single Chamber Boiler, Harbin Institution [42] L.D. Smoot, P.J. Smith, Coal Combustion and Gasification, Plenum Press, New York,
of Technology, 2006. (in Chinese). 1989.
[18] L. Sha, H. Hui, L.F. Xu, Q.X. Cao, Q. Li, S.H. Wu, Research on the elliptic aerodynamic [43] S.C. Hill, L.D. Smoot, Modeling of nitrogen oxides formation and destruction in com-
field in a 1000 MW dual circle tangential firing single furnace ultra supercritical bustion systems, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 26 (2000) 417–458.
boiler, Energy 46 (2012) 364–373. [44] G.G. De Soete, Overall reaction rates of NO and N2 formation from fuel nitrogen,
[19] A.H. Al-Abbas, J. Naser, E.K. Hussien, Numerical simulation of brown coal combus- 15th Symposium (International) on Combustion, Pittsburgh, PA 1975,
tion in a 550 MW tangentially-fired furnace under different operating conditions, pp. 1093–1102.
Fuel 107 (2013) 688–698. [45] S.V. Patankar, Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, McGraw-Hill, New York,
[20] D. Dodds, J. Naser, Numerical study of the erosion within the pulverised-fuel mill- 1980.
duct system of the Loy Yang B lignite fueled power station, Powder Technol. 217 [46] M. Norbert, Computational modeling of a utility boiler tangentially-fired furnace
(2012) 207–215. retrofitted with swirl burners, Fuel Process. Technol. 91 (2010) 1601–1608.
[21] J. Zhang, Q.Y. Wang, Y.J. Wei, L. Zhang, Numerical modeling and experimental inves- [47] Y.G. Zhou, T.M. Xu, S.E. Hui, Research on the forming mechanism of the flue-gas
tigation on the use of brown coal and its beneficiated semicoke for coal blending temperature deviation in the horizontal pass for tangentially fired boiler, Power
combustion in a 600 MW utility furnace, Energy Fuel 29 (2015) 1196–1209. Eng. 21 (5) (2001) 1422–1425 (in Chinese).

Please cite this article as: D. Tian, et al., Influence of vertical burner tilt angle on the gas temperature deviation in a 700 MW low NOx tangentially
fired pulverised-coal boiler, Fuel Processing Technology (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.07.002