Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 22

Marketing Strategy and Positioning

Submitted by: Bindakini Kiritbhai Patel

1. Evaluate competitive environment of the following products. How the

situation impacts marketing mix model used in the marketing

 Ryanair Airline Tickets

The marketing planning process involves some steps which are generally called
SOSTAC Model, which is used to implement and monitor plan’s progress.

S stands for Situation Analysis

Situation analysis answers where the business is right now. It involves

conducting a marketing audit which is a comprehensive and periodic
examination of Ryanair’s marketing activities so as to identify problem areas
and then propose solution for overcoming problems. The situation analysis can
be done using SWOT, Porter’s five forces and PESTLE analysis.

O stands for Objective Setting

Objectives are what the company wants to achieve through its activities. To set
objective for Ryanair , SMART criteria can be used. Objective can be corporate,
business and marketing. Corporate objective for Ryanair includes increase their
profitability, marketing objective includes increase their market share through
their extensive marketing campaign.

S stands for Strategy Development

Strategies are the means to achieve Ryanair’s objectives. Strategy can be

developed through various techniques such as- the ANSOFF’s matrix, Boston
Consulting Group (BCG) matrix. These strategies are used to fulfil Ryanair’s
objective to expand and grow its profitability in the market

T stands for Tactical Development

Tactics are the techniques to achieve the objective of Ryanair through the
chosen strategy. Tactics development includes the use and manipulation of
7P’s- Product, Price, Place, Promotion, People, Process and Physical evidence.

A stands for Action

Actions are required to take when strategy and tactic has been set for Ryanair.
Action plan for Ryanair includes three activity- Allocating tasks and
responsibilities, Scheduling of marketing activities and Setting the marketing

C stands for Control

When the chosen strategy with the correct tactics has been implemented for
Ryanair control is required which means taking corrective measures if things
are going according to plan. Control includes benchmarking and balanced
scorecard method.

Marketing Audit Using SWOT, Porter’s 5 Forces, PESTLE Analysis for


Marketing audit might be defined as a comprehensive, systematic, independent

and periodic examination of a company’s environment, objectives, strategies
and activities to determine problem areas and opportunities, and to recommend
a plan of action to improve the company’s marketing performance.

SWOT Analysis

SWOT stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. The

SWOT analysis evaluate the company’s internal strengths and weaknesses on
which it has control over, it also evaluate company’s external opportunities and
threats on which the company might not have control over. The main objective
of SWOT analysis is to convert threats into opportunities and weaknesses into

1 Strengths

Strength is internal issue for an organization. It is the aspects of the organization

in which they are better than other competitor’s. For Ryanair, strengths are-
Ryanair is Europe’s largest low-cost carrier which is a greater advantage for
them as they can attract more customers who wants to travel to different places
without expending too much money.Ryanair’s turnover and pre-tax profit
increased than previous year which is an advantage as with the increased profit
they can use them to increase their routes and number of fleets.Ryanair has the
world’s youngest fleet of Boeing 737-800s which means that they will be able
to use them for longer time than their competitor

2 Weaknesses

Weakness is also an internal issue which refers to aspects in which any

organization lacks compared to its competitor. For Ryanair, greatest weakness is
as they are low-cost carrier, they tend to cut down some facilities for their
passenger which other company’s might take advantage to compete with

3 Opportunities

Opportunities are external issue on which the company can take advantage of.
For Ryanair, the opportunities includes.Approved open sky pact which will
enable Ryanair to fly over anywhere from EU to USA. It means that they will
be able to launch new routes from EU to major US cities in more competitive
fare.Forecast of growth in the number of passengers carried by UK based
airlines. As Ryanair planning to increase their fleet by 2012, it will be perfect
timing for them because they will be able to carry more passengers with the
increased number of fleet.

4 Threats

Threats are another external factor on which the company has no control over.
Threats are issues that create challenge to any organization to achieve their
goals. For Ryanair, threats are-Government legislation of doubled air passenger
duty. This is direct threat to Ryanair as it will affect the fare policy of Ryanair.
Either they will have to increase their fare or absorb the additional cost
Campaign of various environmental groups. These groups are blaming airline
industry for greenhouse effect which might force government to make
legislation to make carbon offsetting 1 mandatory resulting pressure to use
larger and fuel-efficient aircraft not to mention the fare

Porter’s 5 Forces

Porter’s five forces are used to analyse and better understand the industry in
which Ryanair operates. These five forces can affect all the company in the
industry. Ability to earn higher profit depends on the strength of these forces.
According to Porter’s framework a strong competitive force can be regarded as
a threat while weak competitive force may be regarded as opportunities. It may
be possible for a company to alter the strength of one or more of the five forces
to its advantages through it strategy. These five forces are-

1. Bargaining power of buyers

2. Bargaining power of suppliers
3. Availability of substitutes
4. Threats of new entrants
5. Competitive Rivalry

1 Bargaining power of buyers

Buyers are the consumer of the company who use the services or products. It
refers to choices of buyers have regarding the product they buy from company.
As in the case of Ryanair, bargaining power of buyer will be higher if they want
to operate in Bangladesh as there are many airlines operating from Bangladesh
namely Bangladesh Biman, United Airlines, GMG Airlines, Qatar airways etc.
So the buyer has the availability of choice from various airlines.

2 Bargaining power of supplier

Suppliers provide the necessary impacts needed by Ryanair to provide its

services. If there are fewer suppliers for a particular site, then Ryanair has more
bargaining power as in the case of aircraft. There are only two aircraft
manufacturing company in the world- Boeing and Airbus. Ryanair uses Boeing,
so the bargaining power is higher for the airlines manufacturing company as
Ryanair has to depend on Boeing for its activity. Bargaining power of supplier
is higher for fuel supplying as only Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation has the
authority to supply fuel.

3 Availability of substitute

Substitutes are alternative products that can satisfy the same consumer needs.
Substitute could be either direct or indirect. In the case of Ryanair, the direct
substitute is Biman Bangladesh, United Airways, GMG Airlines whereas
indirect substitute is high speed rail service, Bus services.

4 Threat of new entrants

This refers to how easy or difficult it is for new competitors to enter the firm’s
industry. Entry of new competitors depends on various factors such as-

Government regulations
Cost of capital or investment needed

Level of expertise required

Demand and profit level

Exit cost

Ryanair operates in airline industry which is very expensive and requires much
higher capital and investment than many other industries. So the threats of new
entrants is lower for Ryanair In the airline industry people required to work
should be highly skilled and highly expert. So for a new competitor to come in
the airline industry is very difficult.

5 Competitive rivalry

Competitive rivalry refers to the level of the intensity of competition in the

firm’s industry. There are generally two types of competition- friendly
competition and hostile competition. In the airlines industry the competition is
very fierce. Every company tries to take advantage of other companies fault. In
Bangladesh rivalry is friendly rather than cut throat.

PESTLE Analysis

PESTLE analysis helps to analyse and better understand the company’s external
or macro environment. The company has no control over these factors and
should therefore change and adopt changes to these factors. This analysis seeks
to predict the extent to which change is likely to occur and its possible
consequences for the organization. PESTLE stands for-

1. Political
2. Economic
3. Socio-culture
4. Technological
5. Legal
6. Ecological

1 Political factor

There are various political factors that impact the company decision to run its
business. If Ryanair tries to expand its route to Bangladesh then they will have
to consider that Bangladesh doesn’t have as much political stability as India has.
Incidence of strike fairly common but the situation has improved over last few
years as there was no such incidentThreat of terrorism is a hot issue in the
current context. Bangladesh might be the right choice if Ryanair chooses to
operate, as the country does not have any record of having such incident.

2 Economic factor

Ryanair must concentrate on various economic factors if they want to expand its
route into another country. Main concerns in economic factors are- Recession,
Demand, Interest rate, Inflation, Exchange rate, Employment level, Disposable

If Ryanair decides to include Bangladesh in their route then they need to

consider the demand and disposable income level as they will impact the most
for the profitability of the company. Demand for airlines is high especially from
European countries as lots of Bangladeshi people live here. There are well over
150,000 Bangladeshi people living in London and the south east of England
(BBC, 2010) alone and many of them travel frequently to their home country.
So the demand of airlines is high for Bangladesh. Another factor might need to
be consider is the exchange rate of local currency. In 2009 exchange rate of
Bangladeshi taka (BDT) to per US dollar was 69.047tk (CIA, 2010). So, this
factor is also positive for Ryanair.

3 Socio-cultural factor

Before considering expanding the business, Ryanair needs to consider various

socio-cultural factors which includes-Education level, Population demography,
Religion, Beliefs and values, Aesthetic, Ethics.

Education factor would be the biggest factor for Ryanair if they choose to
operate in Bangladesh. Literacy rate is 47.9% (CIA, 2010) in Bangladesh and
this will impact the company’s business as they mainly operate online. As few
people are educated enough, Ryanair need to find alternative ways to operate
their business in Bangladesh.

4 Technological factor

As Ryanair sells their ticket online only, technological factor are the biggest
issue in the country they are operating such as- Communication structure,
transport facilities, technological skills.

Communication structure such as- availability of broadband, radio, TV etc. are

getting better in Bangladesh. Government has taken initiative to widen the
broadband service to whole country, new license has been given to operate 3G,
Wi-Fi service in the country. In 2008 total number of broadband user was
556,000 (CIA, 2010).
5 Legal factor

Legal factor such as- employment law, health and safety law, investment law
are also needed to consider to operate in a certain country. There are about 47
labor-related laws, which regulate wages and employment, trade union and
industrial disputes, working environment and labor administration, and related
matters (Bangladesh High Commission, 2010). So for Ryanair, it will be easier
to operate in Bangladesh as there are specific laws regarding investing of their

6 Ecological factor

Ecological or environmental factor also plays a very big role in the business.
Issues like pollution, recycling, green factor is needed to be considered. In
Bangladesh emphasize has been given to minimize pollution and there are
recycling center which has been built in the city.

Price Mix:

Price is the money charged for a product or service. Price plays a very important
role in marketing. For Ryanair, they are already the cheapest airlines in Europe.
They can continue to do so if they chose to expand their business in Bangladesh
as that will attract more customers because the flights that are operated inside
the country are not cheap.

Place Mix:

Place involves company activities that make the product available to target
buyers. For Ryanair, the only place their service can be bought is through
internet. But if they want to operate in Bangladesh, the company will need to
change their strategy for selling their service through internet to travel agencies
as most people don’t have the accessibility to use internet.

Promotion Mix:

Promotions are the activities that attract customer to the product or service the
company selling. If Ryanair chooses to operate in Bangladesh they can give
some promotional offer such as family package which might include discount if
three or four people of the same family buy tickets from Ryanair. They can also
promote their product through media such as TV, Newspaper. They can also
sponsor in various cricket tournament that are held in the country, in this way
they can reach to wide range of customer.

People Mix:
People are the employees that work in the company. Ryanair will need to hire
motivated people and train them to give the service to the customer to maintain
the brand image of Ryanair if they want to extend their service to Bangladesh.

Process Mix:

Process mix involves how the activities are done in Ryanair. As Ryanair do not
operate through travel agencies, they will need to plan thoroughly to maintain
queuing, delivery schedule if they choose to operate in Bangladesh.

Physical evidence mix:

Physical evidence means the aspect of Ryanair that consumer can see and feel
which in the process might influence their perceptions of the service provided.
Ryanair can print brochure and supply them through their office in Bangladesh.
Another example of physical evidence can be introducing special outfit for the
staff of Ryanair as the culture of Bangladesh is different from Europe and they
need to reflect the culture of their operating country through the outfit. They can
also use magazine, in-flight movies, halal foods as the most of the customer are
Muslim. They can also improve the seats for their customer


Thus it can be concluded that Ryanair can choose to operate in Bangladesh to

increase their profitability. To do so they will need to implement strategy that
has been discussed along with marketing audit using various techniques. To
operate in Bangladesh a strategy has been recommended and marketing mix has
been applied to explain the strategy.

2. Define the life-cycle stage of each product. What kind of marketing

startegy should be used to prolong the product life-cycle

 Ipad

The life cycle of iPad range from six months iPad 3 up to three years iPad 2 and
Mini 2. The strategy of a quick withdrawal from the market is understandable in
the case of the first iPad which after gaining acceptance among the customers
quickly needed another model fixing all of the first version faults and iPad 3,
another of Apple's technological setbacks, replaced in half a year’s time by iPad
4. A rather unusual operation was the release of the 2014 iPad 3 Mini, which
was an almost unchanged version of its predecessor and was replaced by an
improved model- iPad 4- after a year. It would seem that the release of the third
Mini version was only provisional, aimed at maintaining Apple’s regular market
penetration with new products. The optimal lifespan of an iPad on the market
lasts about two and a half years. The classic iPad line, which was rebranded in
2013 and has changed its name to iPad Air, has begun its seventh year on the
market, but the chart analysis indicates its future withdrawal. The empty space
on the market will be therefore taken by the Pro line. Currently it is in the
growth phase being little over one year old. The iPad mini line has been on the
market for more than four years, and the life cycle curve points to the decline
stage. Apple probably does not intend to release any further iPad Minis, so it's
likely that the brand will "die" over two consecutive years or be rebranded to
the iPad Mini Pro.

Product Life Cycle of Apple ipad

 Introduction Stage of Apple ipad
 Growth Stage of Apple ipad
 Maturity Stage of Apple ipad
 Decline Stage of Apple ipad

 KIA Sportage, 2014 model

They always ensure that all the phases of car production, from design and
assembly to distribution and disposal, can contribute to making humanity
happier and, at the same time, protecting the Earth.

Design for Environment

Kia Motors is developing ECO-Friendly cars that feature a high recycling rate.
We are working to reduce the discharge of hazardous substances by operating
the Green Design System and Chemical Management System.

Clean Production Flow
With the goal of building an efficient production system and raising our
production volume, Kia Motors strives to reduce the amount of inputted
materials during the manufacturing process, including energy and natural
resources, while curbing the output of waste materials, greenhouse gases and
environmental pollutants.

Smart Logistics System
Kia Motors has a dedicated team that is working to make continuous
improvements in optimizing the logistics system across the entire supply chain,
including parts procurement, production and sales. Through these efforts, we
are saving social costs and energy while reducing CO₂ emissions.

Resource Regeneration
Since 2005, Kia Motors has operated the ‘Automobile Recycling Center’, with
annual vehicle recycling capacity of 4,000 units. The center provides support
for designing recyclable vehicles and develops recycling technologies to reduce
waste by improving the end-of-life vehicle disposal process.

 H&M Spring 2018 collection


H&M is classified as a brand that offers homogenous shopping products. This

means that their consumerspurchase their products at H&M because of its
pricing and features. Many consumers that shop at H&M getattracted to
purchase several items they didn't plan to get. The reason to that is the
convenience of having alldepartments in one retail store, which gives H&M a
large Product mix width. Every department H&M offers havevarious product
lines to be able to attract as wide demographically as possible.


The price strategy of H&M is designed based on their customers’ needs which
is low price and high fashion. H&M outsources the production to countries
where the labor cost is much lower. To control transportation cost, outsourcing
was arranged according to different product. Those high fashion products which
target at the European market were produced in Turkey, because of the short
product life cycle. In addition, basic products are produced in Asia because they
allow longer transportation time and bear lower risk. The company also conduct
strict cost control plan. For example, very few executives have secretaries or
have cell phone privilege.These two steps allow H&M to achieve a low price
fashion business.


To develop an promotion strategy, a company should firstly identify and

understand target audience. H&M’starget customers are young women who
want more fashion cloth at low price. Young people have plenty access to
information. A multi-channel promotion strategy including advertising, internet
promotion, sales promotion was adapted by H&M. These multi-channel strategy
increases the exposure of H&M.


The features for H&M logistics are simplicity, reliability and transparency.
H&M design clothes and outsource it. Basic goods are made in Asia, while
fashionable goods are made in Turkey. Instead of owning factories, H&M
chooses to own outlets. The realization of H&M’s business ideas rely on the
success of their distribution strategy. Lightning turnaround is the reason for the
success of H&M.

 Sales Peak Struggle to keep the sales up due to competition / price wars
 Cost Low per customer Reduce costs, supplier margin lowers. Focus on
lean processes
 Profits High Focus lies on margin, therefore profits remain.
 Customers Majority Habit consumer, Consumer is well informed
 Competitors Stable Growing, due to the crisis price wars drive
consumers into competitors arm

3. What kind of pricing strategy should be used for each product?

 Samsung Galaxy S8

When it comes to pricing it is one of the trickiest issues in marketing because it

require understand the product and the market. Samsung is face with highly
rivalry by others in the market like Apple, LG, HTC, etc to name a few.
Samsung has taken a pricing strategy that is in fact a winning one.”Samsung
seeks a competitive pricing strategy in ensuring a competitive edge. Palmer
(2004) argues that in order for a company to acquire a competitive edge, it
requires to have a marketing strategy that is optimal and unique. This is the
advice that Samsung followed and developed a marketing strategy which
enables it to become an industry leader in the technology sector.”(Samsung
Pricing Strategy) Samsung's pricing strategy only undertakes two components
the first is skimming price and the second is competitive pricing which is a good
thing for the Galaxy S8. Skimming is only utilized by the company so that they
can only compete with its rival. Just like its competitive price.

 New internet TV subscription service

When pricing in the product world, it comes down to the price you charge for
the service capabilities and features you offer. But, it’s not that simple when
talking about subscriptions because there’s now the added element of time.
What term does your video subscription offer? Monthly? Yearly? Are there
different options? Let’s suppose the functionality and use of the product
changes during the subscription period.

1. Start with a basic plan with a fixed price.

2. When adding new video products, you should consider focusing on how to
drive upgrades with additional customer value and experiment with billing
frequencies (ranging from monthly, annually, and multi-year).
3. Consider exploring add-ons and bundles.
4. Gather as much information on customer segments and needs as possible, so
you can produce different editions with different feature sets and price points.
5. Monitor usage pricing and keep track of what’s working with your customers
and what’s not.

There are many different ways to go about pricing. But here are four basic and
proven models that will help you get started with your video subscription site:

One-time Rate-A very traditional pricing model with which Netflix started is
the one-time rate model. This plan is also considered as the 1 disc-per-person
strategy. It is very simple – you offer one customer at a time one price for one

Fixed Recurring-This model can be a smart move if you are planning on

launching a new service. It is easy to manage because you will be providing one
product for one price, and charge on a recurring basis. Then it’s easy to add
more products as you go.

Per User / Per Unit-A little more advanced, this model comes down to quantity
used or the number of people using the service. The number of units used can be
determined by data consumption, while per user depends on how many users
have access.

Usage-This is quite a bit more in depth than the other options as it lets
customers pay for what they are using and nothing else. If the customer uses
more or less of the product, the price will change accordingly

Everybody likes free stuff, so it should go without saying that offering a free
promotion is a quick and easy way to bring in new customers.

You want to gain as many customers as possible while keeping marketing costs
down and offering a free trial is a great way to let people see what you can do
for them. Once they are happy and see the value in your service, they’re much
more likely to start paying for it.Now, you just have to decide what promotional
strategy to use. Free trials and premium are two of the most popular choices and
here’s what they can do:

This is a great way to let your customers try your full service for a specified
limited amount of time. Say you offer a 7-day trial that gives them access to all
videos and content, they can use the service completely for that time then they
either have to stop or they have to buy.

 Milka chocolate with new taste

Consumers concern about the price of the products and buy products according
to their income, desires etc. They are willing to pay more money for better
quality products. In order to attract more consumers, Milka Chocolate provide
price-related promotions, which varies from retailer to retailer (Dibb, Simkin,
Pride, & Ferrell, 2012). For instance, sometimes Dutch supermarket chain
Jumbo offers price discounts to Milka Chocolate products (for instance 10%, 20
% discount). In addition, they offer a quantity discount to their customers from
time to time (‘1+1 FREE’, ‘2 for 1,59’). There is also an online platform, which
search for discounts for selected product in the Netherlands, where you can find
various price-related discounts in the Netherlands (Milka Aanbiedingen, 2017).
Currently, there is Milka biscuits discount for 1.19 instead of 1. 49 (price
discount) and 2 Milka chocolate for 1.29 (quantity discount).
Milka Chocolate prices vary from retailer to retailer, from country to country,
however, it still stays affordable for most customers, even though Milka
medium quality chocolate for a medium price. Milka used/ use discounts as a
pricing tactic to attract customers (Price your product or service, 2016). As
Milka chocolate is fast consumer goods, people tend to buy more chocolate
during discounts and store it for future. As a result, this pricing tactic
results into a higher volume of sales. Furthermore, Milka and its retailers use
odd value pricing in order to influence consumer buying behavior
(psychological pricing). Milka chocolate price is usually 0.84-1.09 instead of 1
euro, as the price looks more attract for the consumer in this way. Consumer
perception of price depends on various facts from other alternatives price to
quality. However, Milka still can affect consumer price. One of the possible
alternatives is to use psychological pricing in order to affect consumer buying
behavior. It is proven that consumers usually look at the first numbers in price,
so using 99-ending can stimulate them to make a purchase.

4. Which marketing research methods would you use in the following

situations? Why?

 Organic cosmetics brand wants to enter German market.

On this competitive market, you need to meet the minimum market
requirements as well as stand out from other products and suppliers.
Opportunities are strong for speciality ingredients: essential oils, botanicals and
vegetable oils. Buyers operate on the principle that “if it is not broken, do not
fix it”. Only with diligent, continual marketing efforts and by offering the right
quality at better prices can you grow your business. Be ready to grab
opportunities when they arise.

However, buyers might be interested in new suppliers of ingredients that they

use already with a better value in terms of price, service or quality. This makes
German a very interesting market for new entrants.

Many suppliers of speciality ingredients try to enter the German market. If you
want to succeed, you will need to stand out in terms of:

 price, which is the bottom line for all buyers. Every company in the
supply chain is facing more competition, higher costs and concerns over
flatline growth. Companies are looking to reduce costs wherever possible
to maintain profit margins;
 quality and stability in quality (supported by technical documentation,
robust supply chain and traceability);
 highly demanded and well supported active or functional properties;
 certified sustainability practices or practices supported by data on local
impact and developments;
 origin;
 marketing stories.

 Chinese Restaurant in Riga wants to analyze client satisfaction.

Restaurants are a notoriously difficult business to own or operate. Not only is it

a relatively capital and employee-intensive business, restaurants are also highly
regulated, low margin and in most cases have a plethora of competition to deal
with. A successful restaurant can make a lot of money for the owner and a lot of
prestige comes with being associated with a popular restaurant. While the food
and atmosphere of a restaurant are obviously critical factors--for all segments
with the possible exception of fine dining--the presentation of the menu, pricing
points and other marketing considerations are equally important.

There are several different types of pricing strategies, such as market-skimming

pricing, market-penetration pricing, new product pricing and discount pricing.
Market-penetration pricing: Setting a low price for a new product in order to
attract a large number of buyers and a large market share. As here, we start to
use market-penetration pricing strategy, the common price of buffet in riga is
about 10 euros and the food menu mainly around 7 courses, and almost every
restaurant in the same model to meet rigas flavour market. Anyway, product
and service mainly depends on pricing if there is a possibility to give a discount,
it should be carefully considered, to cover these costs and market factors. As a
new fast-food enterprise in the riga area, a company should consider more
factors to attract customers. So, combined with the cost factors we decided to
make lower price than our competitors.

5. Define the target customer of the following products. Characterize

him/her in detail.

 Tickets to Barcelona Soccer Club games

Members will continue to enjoy discounts on the purchase of tickets, and non-
members will also continue to enjoy an exclusive pre-sale day and a 50%
discount on the price of tickets for most games at the Stadium, excluding those
of special importance such as El Clásico or the knockout stages of the
Champions League.

This new system of ticket sales will contribute to improving attendance at the
Camp Nou, progressively increase revenues from the sale of tickets and also
favour the fight against fraud, by preventing tickets from entering circulation
until 48 hours before the game. In addition, it will also help members and fans,
especially those who buy tickets from abroad, as they won't have to purchase
via unofficial or resale channels. This will reinforce the security and confidence
given by the different official channels of the Club regarding the secondary
market, increasing the legitimacy and giving a more effective protection to the
buyer, as long as they make good use of the purchasing process.

The possibility of having more tickets in advance will see the development of a
new commercial strategy. This will allow selling to new markets that until now
were very difficult to reach, and to be able to satisfy a demand that requires an
anticipation in the purchase, for example in the case of tourists who plan to visit
the city on certain dates.

This model of ticket sales will be applied in the six league matches that will be
played at Camp Nou starting with the game against Rayo Vallecano (match day
26). Beginning next season, the new model will be implemented in all league
matches except against Real Madri) and in the three groups stage matches of the
Champions League.

 Huggies diapers

Marketing in a digital world means meeting your consumers where it is most

natural for them while providing real value, as opposed to pushing a one-sided
marketing message. During pregnancy and birth stages our consumers are eager
for information, and Huggies, as a leading baby care brand in Israel, is
committed to providing them value through high-quality and relevant content.
Following the successful cooperation of Huggies and Outbrain it is only natural
that we expand our collaboration to other categories in the company.
It has a very large and loyal number of consumers and they have also been able
to target a market that doesn’t even buy their products yet – this audience is
comprised of mothers to be. Huggies wanted to be able to reach these women
and engage them before they had their babies so that there was an emotional
connection before they made their purchase decisions. The key to doing so
successfully was to create authentic content that would resonate with new
moms – the viral video that they created triggered an emotional response in
plenty of expectant mothers and really anyone with a soul. Huggies teamed up
with Baby Center to reach out to expectant moms and collect stories about their
upcoming family additions to use in their video content. One story stood out
among the rest; a first time mom who wanted her sister to be able to meet her
new nephew but she couldn’t afford to travel to do so. Huggies ended up
surprising the new mom with the arrival of her sister in the delivery room and
captured it all on film to create a video viewed by millions.

 French business language course

We all know French as the language of love, but it is also a great language for
business. With a total of 75 million speakers in 39 countries, French is still a
very popular language today. In fact, it is estimated that around 220 million
people also speak French as a second language, and that number is projected to
rise to 750 million by 2050, possibly even overtaking English and Mandarin.
Online, it’s estimated to have around 102 million Internet surfers.

Post-Brexit, we can expect the European Union to begin using French more
often, even if English remains an official EU language. French is also an official
language of several international organizations, including the United Nations
and the World Trade Organization,
The French-speaking world also includes Africa, which is growing rapidly and
rich in natural resources. The top 5 fastest-growing African economies include
Rwanda, Tanzania, Mozambique, Cote D’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of
Congo and Ethiopia. French is an official language in 3 of them. In countries
like Algeria, Morocco, Vietnam and Cambodia, where there is a low level of
proficiency in English, French is particularly useful as a lingua franca.
If you are targeting consumers in these countries, French translation could be a
good investment

6. Characterize the brand equity of the following brands.

 Emirates Airline

According to top 500 brand ranking of 2014, Emirates is recognized as the most
valued brand across the globe. The airline completed 234th out of the 500
international brands, and Emirates reported a brand value of about USD 5.48
billion, which is 34% increase from the last year.

Emirates continuously strive to enhance its customer brand experience by

making an investment in service and quality product concept in order to offer
customers with high-quality traveling experience. On the other hand, Emirates
maintains its durable AAA- brand rating, in spite of severe competition from
other airline businesses.
• Emirates is considered as the most luxurious airline.
• Emirates have the well-trained staff that satisfies all needs of customers.
• The airline also has the flatbed in the private quarters, the Zen-like shower spa,
and the champagne and lobster.
• Emirates has a history of 30 years, which brought comfortable and glamorous
travel experience.
• Emirates constantly strive to expand aggressively into major international
markets that threaten to leave the United States airlines in its wake, pushing
them to think again their business plans, marketing strategies, and service

 Subway

Subway has branded itself as a healthier fast food option. According to their
website, “Nourishment wellbeing and sustenance quality range unit our high
needs.” In observance of this, they promote healthier selections, and aim to
produce quality nourishment for their consumers. Chains are required to meet
the advertiser Code of Conduct. Their strengths are a combination of healthy
selections and new technology. Subway recently added a new service to their
platform, which is both strength and uniqueness. According to Dianna Dilworth,
“Restaurant chain Subway has partnered with mobile marketing services firm
Model Media Inc. to offer mobile promotions to customers ha 345 Subway
franchises in the Seattle-Tacoma area ” This has added to the success of the
business and allows its technical customers a different option for ordering. Their
uniqueness to provide these healthier selections at a low cost, and quick
convenience allows them to branch into new markets. Most fast food chains are
more associated with unhealthy product. Subway was one of the first to set itself
aside by offering other, healthiest selections. In an article written on healthier
choices, the authors say, “During the past 20 years, the United States has seen a
dramatic increase in obesity (Wisdom, Downs, & Lowenstein, 2010).” This
article discuses being more cautious of personal choices in everyday life.

 L’Oreal
7. Evaluate positioning strategy of the following products. What are the
competitive advantages of these products?

 Nike Running shoes

The Positioning statement of Nike is “For serious athletes, Nike gives

confidence that provides the perfect shoe for every sport”. In today’s
competitive environment, Nike, one of the global leaders in sporting goods
industry, has established a strong position for enhancing athletic life style. It’s
the number one sports manufacturer in the world. It is the leading sporting
goods Company in the United States and hundred and ten countries.

The consumer’s perception of brand influences their buying decision in sports

industry, so Nike always has been able to position to customer’s expectation
and athletic fantasy that is endorsed by real athletes.
Nike is a brand that has been engrained in the United States and around the
world. Motivating people worldwide to “Just Do It and be active; it is a beacon
of health, wellness, fashion, and promoting physical activity. However, Nike
hasn’t always been this successful. Arguably Nike’s most important product
line is their running shoes. Nike has had fierce competition from Under Armour
and Adidas for many years. Nike took a step forward and used gamification to
increase customer engagement and brand awareness to take control of the
running shoe market.
In order to gain a competitive advantage, Nike implemented gamification to
their marketing mix and was able to secure a controlling portion of the running
shoe market. In 2006, Nike controlled 47% of the running shoe market and
launched Nike+ in the middle of the year. In 2007, they controlled 57% of the
market, and 61% in 2009. They’ve had a controlling portion of the running shoe
market ever since. In 2007 there were 500,000 Nike+ members. In 2013, there
were 11,000,000 Nike+ members and the numbers keep growing.
Overall, the development of Nike+ was very successful. It created an incredible
community where physical health is celebrated and encouraged. They used
gamification to create a community based around running and friendly
competition. The demand for Nike shoes skyrocketed, and the brand awareness
led to a controlling share of the running shoe market. Now the Nike name and
logo is instantly recognized almost anywhere in the world.

 Nivea Creme for Face and Body

Bouquet of products:
Since the company has strong product portfolio catering to each customer
segment like Men, Women, and Baby, it is helping the company in increasing
its TRV Total Relationship Value of the customers during customer Lifecycle
which ensures repeat purchases and crosses sell opportunities to the
existing customer base of the brand.

Experience bought in by the parent company:

As the parent company of the Brand is already dealing in 7 brands in the skin
care and body care industry so it is easy for the company to understand the
market and come up with the products which are best suited to the
changing needs of the customers and at the same time cannot be copied by the

 Volvo XC90

While exploring the secondary data, this study found that attributes such as
dynamic leadership, positive and ethical corporate culture, customer centric
orientation, empowering employees helped Volvo to achieve competitive
advantage over its competitor.
Volvo is a company name of commitment. It is a trademark of best supplier of
different vehicles in the automotive industry. It is a group which manufactures
cars, trucks, buses, marine and industrial engines and offers financial services.
There are several aspects which made Volvo the number one choice. Some of
competitive advantages are:

Part of Guinness Book of World Records

In 2013, the Most Miles Driven by a Single Owner in a Non-Commercial

Vehicle record was made with a total mileage of 3 million miles. It is an
amazing achievement made by Volvo car which others couldn’t think of!

World’s First Catalytic Exhaust Emission Control

In 1976, this title was given to Volvo. This title relates that pollutants were
obtained by the catalytic converters from the exhaust emissions. This happens
when the engines balance air-fuel mixture allowed by the oxygen sensor.

Imposing design

When thinking to travel with the family, a van is the first thing that comes into
the mind but they never look classy. Then there comes Volvo which looks
completely wonderful yet being safe and conformable. An unknown fact is that
royal families use Volvo cars when they go to royal events!

Efficient Engines

Recently produced Drive-E engines by Volvo are not only smart as they have
very less fuel consumption but they are also designed in an extensible way so
that both diesel and petrol units can also be used in a hybrid way.

Volvo Luxury
These cars have everything that makes your drive incredible and relaxing like
the leather cushioning, air filters, heated and ventilated front and back seats and
dual zone automatic climate control. Also, the Scandal-design items have been
used to make the interior cool and classy.


To keep you accompanied throughout your journey, Volvo cars are incorporated
with many technology features. These are:
• Standard touch screen
• Senses Navigation

8. What kind of untraditional marketing methods could be used to

generate awareness about recycling?

Many traditional forms of advertising hail back to the 1960’s, and have been the
standard for marketers ever since. However, today their effectiveness is on the
decline. No Call Lists make telemarketing more challenging, direct mail is
expensive and offers a small return on investment, while cable TV, Tivo, and
iPods have made it simple to skip radio and television ads.
Non-traditional marketing strategies rely on new and unorthodox marketing
methods. Anything that falls outside the categories of traditional marketing can
be considered non-traditional, but the term has typically referred to a more
specific range of marketing tactics.
The goal of non-traditional advertising is to create striking advertising
experiences that capture interest through their creativity and unpredictably.
Much of non-traditional marketing involves putting ads in unusual places, or
displaying ads in unusual ways, hoping to command the attention of
unassuming viewers.
There are a number of techniques your recycling business could use to reach
potential new customers. These include:
 Mail shots by post or email. If you use bought business mailing lists, it is
important to ensure that these are as up to date as possible with valid contact
details for key decision-makers.
 Advertising in the press, radio, billboards and even television. While useful in
terms of raising awareness of your services, WRAP Waste & Resources Action
Programme trials have shown this to be less cost-effective than other marketing
 Public relations and press releases. As with advertising, this may help increase
awareness of your business but may not lead to many new enquiries.
 Collection vehicle branding to promote your business' services. This is
relatively cheap and is important in presenting a professional image to current
and potential customers.
 Online marketing via a dedicated website or search engines ads. A well-
designed website can be a relatively low-cost way of attracting new customers.

Green marketing refers to selling products or services by highlighting their

environmental benefits. Some call it eco-marketing or environmental marketing
and consumers recognize such brands by terms like "organic," "eco-friendly,"
"recyclable," or "sustainable."
For example Starbucks has been certified by LEED since 2005, but it has move
beyond that by planning to eliminate all plastic straws by 2020 and open 10,000
environmentally friendly stores by 2025.

Starbucks tries hard to engage its community in sustainable issues. It uses green
materials for producing, packaging, and delivering its product to customers. As
part of its "Green Store" initiative, the brand also plans to reduce waste and use
30 percent less water and 25 percent less power during production processes.

The brand designs disposable coffee cups, is involved in recycling and green
building, supports farmers and the environmentally sustainable community, and
has been hard at work on communicating this message to its target audience.