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IF NECESSARY OR IF ASKED WHATS A RESOLUTION

They can amend or change the constitution itself. Senators and Representatives work on
two documents: bills and resolutions.
Resolution- it conveys principles and sentiments of the Senate or the house of
representatives. They are divided into: Joint, Concurrent, Simple
14th Congress pa nung last nagkaroon ng resolutions.
 Joint resolutions – require approval from the Senate, the HOR, and the
signature of the President. They have the force and effect of a law once
approved.
- Walang pinagkaiba ang bill sa joint resolutions.
- Used when dealing with a single item or issue, such
as continuing emergency appropriations bill.
- Also used for proposing amendments to the
Constitution.
- EXAMPLE: JOINT RESOLUTION NO. 4
(https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2019/02/22/joint-
resolution-no-4-4/
 Concurrent resolutions – used for matters affecting operations of both
chambers and must be approved in the same form by both. They do not
have the same force and effect of law because these are not transmitted to
the President.
 Simple resolutions – deals with matters entirely within one of the
chambers. This is like concurrent resolutions in terms that it also does not
have the force and effect of law because they are not referred to the
President.
 Used to express the opinion of a single house on a
current issue.
 Oftentimes, it is also called for a congressional action
on an issue affecting national interest.
How a Bill becomes a Law (Script)
We’ll now proceed to the law making process.
The Congress is responsible in enacting or making laws that uphold the spirit of the
constitution. It consists of two chambers: The Upper House (the Senate) and the Lower
House (House of Representatives).
According to the Website of the Congress, the Senate has 24 seats while the House of
Representatives has 303 members but with 6 deceased, 1 resigned, 1 dropped, and 4
appointed, there are currently 291 house representatives.
*
6 deceased: Henedina Abad, Jum Akbar, Rodel Batocabe, Ciriaco Calalang, Maximo
Dalog, Tupay Loong,
1 Resigned: Sitti Turabi-Hataman
4 Appointed: Emmeline Aglipay-Villar, Karlo Nograles, Harry Roque, Mark Villar
1 Dropped: Eugene De Vera
*
(reads slide about bill)
So bago pa maging law ang isang bill kailangan nya muna dumaan ng proseso. As said,
under Sec 26, Paragraph 2 of Article 6, No bill passed by either House shall become a
law unless it has passes three readings.
So to give you a detailed process of the 3 readings, the first step is the preparation of the
bill.
 Either a senator or a congressman could be an author of a bill.
Every bill passed by the Congress shall embrace only one subject matter expressed in
its title.
 Walang bill na pwedeng magkaroon ng more than one subject matter as it
is contrary to the Constitution and is considered illegal.
 It is a requirement.
The Purpose of securing one exclusive subject matter ina bill is to avoid hodge-podge or
logrolling legislation.
 Hodge-podge or logrolling legislation is referring to any proposed
measure consisting of general or more unrelated subjects.
 Kapag ang bill filed in the House is labeled “H.B.” or House Bill. On the other
hand kapag it is filied in the Senate, it is labeled “S.B.” or Senate Bill.
 The bill is filed in the Office of the Secretary with the Secretary General (17th
Congress Acting Secretary General, Dante Roberto Maling) where it is
given a corresponding number and calendared for First Reading.
For First Reading
 The Secretary General would read the title, number, and the author of the
bill. After that, the bill would be referred to the appropriate committee. After
that comes committee hearings/report.
 Senate President is responsible for referring bills introduced to appropriate
committees.
Under committee hearings/report, the committee would debate amongst themselves if
whether or not they would approve the proposed bill without an amendment, or would
approve it with changes, or would recommend merging it with similar bills filed.
Committee Reports describes the purpose and scope of the bill, explains any
committee amendments, indicates proposed changes in existing law and such other
materials that are relevant.
The Committee Report with its approved bill version is then submitted to the Committee
on Rules for calendaring for the Second Reading. (Majority Leader: Fredenil Castro)
Babalik na sa Plenary for Second Reading. Kapag sinabing Plenary, lahat ng Senators
or lahat ng Congressmen/women magsasama-sama. (Kasi sa Committee for example sa
Senate, sa Committee on Agriculture and Food, there are only 11 members. (chairperson:
Cynthia villar)) so those 11 members plus the remaining 13 members of the senate will
be present sa second reading.
Sa Second reading, the bill is read in its entirety including amendments if there are any.
The following takes place:
 Period of Sponsorship and Debate
The bill author delivers sponsorship speech on the floor. He or She would
briefly discuss his/her proposed bill and this would pave way for the next
part which is the debate. The Senators would engage in the said debate to
highlight the pros and cons of the bill.
 Period of Amendments
Incorporates necessary changes in the bill proposed by the committee or
introduced by the Senators themselves.
 Voting
https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2019/02/22/joint-resolution-no-4-4/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rGGJ3nYY6fA&t=168s
For example ur part of a congress, how would you contradict the veto of the
President?
- You will need 2/3 votes of the whole Congress. We have 24 Senators and
291 HOR, 2/3 of that is 210 people.
After third reading, the proposed bill would be referred to the other house.
1st reading – refer sa committee
2nd reading – committee itself
3rd reading – final voting of the whole house
Next: to the other house
Process again.
Pano kung iba ang version ng HOR and sa Senate? What will happen?
- Bicameral Committee: Representatives from both houses will debate.
- If approved dun palang isusubmit sa President.
- If denied from the President, 2/3 votes of the Congress is needed to override
the veto of the President,

 Sa Congress yung very powerful for example sa HOR, yung speaker of the house
sya yung presiding officer( AYE OR NAYE) but yung preside talaga, yung maggguide
talaga sa lahat is the MAJORITY FLOOR LEADER.
 In order na masama ka sa Calendar for a session, you need to be recognized by the
MAJORITY LEADER. If you aren’t recognized, you cannot talk you cannot speak
there.