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Linear Programming

Problem with Two Variables


The Wayside Pottery makes two types of clay pots. One is plain clay pot with reinforced rim.
The other is a smaller but fancier urn with handles and rope-like decoration on the sides.
Making the plain clay pot requires four pounds of clay and one hour of labor. It brings in a profit
of $4 per unit. The fancier urn is smaller, so it uses only three pounds of clay, but requires two
hours of labor. It brings in profits of $5 per unit. The firm employs one potter who works a 40
hours a week and is applied with 120 pounds of clay per week. How many plain pots and how
many urns should be made in order to maximize the company’s profit?
1. Define the variables
Let X = number of plain clay pots produced each day
Y = number of urns produced each day
2. Define the objective function
Maximize Z = 4X + 5Y
3. Define the constraints :
a) labor - X + 2Y ≤ 40
b) materials 4X + 3Y ≤ 120

4. State the non-negativity constraints X + Y ≥0


5. Solving the two equations by eliminating one variable to find the value of
other variable.
(X + 2Y ≤ 40 ) 3 = 3X + 6Y = 120
(4X + 3Y ≤ 120) -2 = -8X - 6Y = -240
-5X + 0 = -120
-5X/-5 = -120/-
X = 24

To find Y X + 2Y = 40
24 + 2Y = 40
2Y = 40 - 24
2Y = 16
Y = 16/2
Y= 8
6. Using graph method calculate the profit for each feasible solution (4 region points/vertices)
and identify the one which give the highest profit.
Maximize Z = 4X + 5Y
= 0+0=0
= 0 + 5(20) = $100
= 4(24) + 5(8) = $96 + $40 = $136
= 4(30) + 0 = $120

Steps in solving linear programming using graphical method

Step 1 Define Constraints


All constraints relevant to a linear programming problem need to be defined in the form of
inequalities.
Step 2 Define the Objective Function
The objective of solving a problem is expressed in the form of a mathematical equation.
Step 3 Plot the constraints on a graph paper
Constraint inequalities, as defined in Step 1, should be plotted on a graph.
You may plot the constraints in the same manner as you would plot an equation.
Step 4 Highlight the feasible region on the graph
Once you have plotted the constraint inequalities on the graph, you need to shade the area of
the graph which is outside the constraint limits, i.e. which is not feasible.
Step 5 Plot the objective function on the graph
Objective Function line may be drawn on the graph in the same way as the constraint lines
except that you may choose to differentiate it from constraint lines, e.g. by drawing a dotted
line instead of the usual line.
Step 6 Find the optimum point
Optimum point of a linear programming problem always lies on one of the corner points of the
graph's feasible region.
Step 7 Find the coordinates of the optimum point

Exercises:
1. A farmer owns a 240 acres of land. If he will plant corn he could earn a profit of $40 per
acre and if oats will be planted he could earn a profit of $30 per hectare. Available number of
labor is 320 hours. For corn it requires 2 hours per acre, while for oats it requires 1 hour per
acre. How many acres will be planted for each product to maximize profit
Assumption: Let X represents number of acres for corn
while Y represents number of acres for oats
Objective: Maximize Profit Z = 40X + 30Y
Constraints: No. of acres (240), No. of hours available (320)
X + Y ≤ 240 2X + Y ≤ 320
Non-negativity X ≥ 0 Y ≥ 0 or X + Y ≥ 0
Profit Z = $40X + $30Y
Z= 0+0 =0
Z = 0 +240(30) = $7,200
Z = 80($40) + 160 ($30) = $3,200 +$4,800 = $8,000
Z = 160(40) + 0 = $6,400
Homework/Seatwork

3. The Riverside Furniture Co. makes two types of wooden rocking chairs. The big but simple
which spends 1 day labor and bring profits of P1,500 per chair. While the small special
rocking chair spends 2 days and brings profit P2,000 per chair. The firm employs one
carpenter who works a 24 days a month and is supplied with 1920 meters lumber per month.
The big and simple rocking chair uses 120 meters and 80 meters for small special per month .
Using linear programming, how many simple and special rocking chairs should be produced
per week in order to maximize the profits? Also complete the graph below by showing the
area of feasible solutions.