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MUBASHIR IMDAD

02-134191-118
BS(CS)-1B

BIOMASS ENERGY
INTRODUCTION:
Biomass is a matter that is derived from plants and animals. Sunlight that is used by plants to
grow and animals like forests , matter that is wasted from agriculture and forestry residue and
organic matter of industriesl , humans and animal residue. Biomass can be generated from a
large number of resources which are as follows:
 Agricultural residues
 Wastes of animals
 Wood from natural forests
 Wastes of industries
 Sewage
 Forestry residues
In nature ,if the materials of biomass are kept drowsing down on the ground, it will decompose
after a long period of time , discharging carbon dioxide and it is going to reserve energy . By
heating the biomass material its reserve of energy is discharged quickly and most of the times in
a advantageous way. So reshaping biomass into a advantageous energy resembles the actual
process but at a fast speed.
Bio energy is the energy which retrieved from biomass sources. It is the largest used renewable
energy in the world. Bio energy is an important mean for waste disposal to prevent
environmental pollution and allow economical stability.
There are number of methods for conversion of bio-fuels. Largely classified as thermal, chemical
and bio-chemical. This is the oldest as well as the most significant source of renewable energy.
The biomass can be converted into fresh energy or different types of fuel through different
technologies. Beginning from combustion process to advanced technology of bio fuels.
Biomass transformation systems decreases gas emissions in two types of way. Two types of
energy, heat and electrical energy is produced which lowers the dependency on power stations
that are based on fossil fuels. The gas emissions are accordingly decreased by halting methane
emissions from rotting . Furthermore, rural areas can be developed by biomass energy stations
that are strikingly efficient in strapping the inaugural sources of energy.

TYPES OF BIOMASS:
MUBASHIR IMDAD
02-134191-118
BS(CS)-1B

AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES:
Agricultural residues includes all types of wastes produced from crops such as stalk, stem, straw,
bagasse, leaves, pulp etc. A large amount of crop wastes are produced annually worldwide. All
these wastes can easily be converted into energy. Another essential use of agricultural residue is
that it can be used for biological farming and cooking and heating purposes.
ANIMAL JUNK:
There is an expanded range of wastes of animal that can be converted into biomass power. The
most commonly known resources are animals and poultry junk. The best most significant way of
changing animal wastes into a advantageous form is anaerobic digestion that gives biogas which
can be utilized in combustion engines in the form of fuel.
FORESTRY DEBRIS:
Forestry debris are mostly generated by processes like irrigating of plantations, cleaning the
logging roads, removing wood for timber & pulp, and erosion. Stands harmed by insects, fire or
disease are an extra source of biomass. Forestry wastes generally have less frequency and
characters of fuel that keeps the cost of fuel high.
WOOD JUNK:
Wood processing plants generally include furniture, flooring, wood panel, sawmilling ,
moulding , plywood etc. Wood junks are processed generally at the processing plants. The
variety of waste created from wood plants varies from one type of plant to other.
INDUSTRIAL WASTES:
The industries of food generates a vast amount of wastes and by-products that can be used in the
form of bioenergy resources. Solid wastes include scraps and peeling from vegetables and fruits.
Liquid wastes are generally created by washing , vegetables and fruits, poultry, meat and fish etc.
These wasted waters holds a large amount of sugar, starches and other solid organic matter.
Paper and pulp industry is known to be one of the strikingly contaminating industries and uses a
huge amount of energy.
DAIRY WASTES:
Dairy waste is generated from farm animals. The dairy wastes are gathered in large quantity from
farms and are first washed then dried. This is used in biomass plants for combustion to create
heat for the generation of electricity.
MUBASHIR IMDAD
02-134191-118
BS(CS)-1B

METHODS OF CONVERTING BIOMASS:


COMBUSTION:
Combustion is a type of process in which the oxygen is present and the organic matter is burnt
due to which heat is generated. Because of this heat the water begins to boil, steam is generated,
and the turbines begin to turn and electricity is produced.
GASFICATION:
Gasfication is a type of process in which carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen is
produced by heating the organic matter. In this process low amount of oxygen is used. The by-
product is a gas called syngas which is also a type of fuel.
PYROLYSIS:
It is a process in which the oxygen is absent and the organic compound is generated into a form
according to the requirement. In this process, the organic compound is not heated as the oxygen
is absent. It is converted into 3 forms called bio char, bio oil and syngas.
BIO DIGESTION:
It is a type of process in which oxygen is absent and the organic compound is broke down by
bacteria. This process can be called as anaerobic respiration. The final obtained product is
biogas and it is heated again to produce electricity.
FERMENTATION:
It is a type of process in which the yeast is used to transform the organic compound into alcohol.
Ethanol is produced as a by-product which is mostly used to power automobiles.

ADVANTAGES OF USING BIOMASS:


RENEWABLE RESOURCE:
Biomass is acknowledged to be a recoverable resource of energy comparatively to the other
forms of energy. This is due to the raw materials that are used in biomass.
CHEAPER:
The production of biomass is considered to be very cheap comparatively to fossil fuels. The raw
materials of biomass are very available very cheaply. So the electricity that is produced by
biomass is generates less bills of the common man.
VARIETY OF PRODUCTS:
MUBASHIR IMDAD
02-134191-118
BS(CS)-1B

Bioenergy is very adaptable as it generates a large amount of products. It can be transformed into
a lot of forms in the absence and presence of oxygen.

DISADVANTAGES:
 Continues and constant supply of biomass is needed to produce biomass energy.
 The outcome of biomass is less as compared to the input of raw materials.
 All of the raw materials in biomass are junk products that can cause contamination and
bad smell.
 A very large area is needed for construction of biomass plants.
 A vast investment is needed to build plants.
 A large number of biomass crops are being grown as a result it reduces the fertility of
soil.

CONCLUSION:
So now we can conclude that, bioenergy is generally produced due to the heating or allowing the
organic compound to decay. Thus the carbon that is discharged into the atmosphere is minimal
which can be used for lifecycle by plants. So this is the way bioenergy works. Biomass energy
has more advantage than any other kind of energy because it is a recoverable resource of energy.
If biomass is used in a proper way, the electricity will soon be a cheap form of energy. More
technologies and research centers should be built so that the bioenergy can be developed.

REFERENCES:
https://naturalenergyhub.com/renewable-energy/biomass-types-methods-converting-energy-
advantages-disadvantages/
https://naturalenergyhub.com/renewable-energy/biomass-types-methods-converting-energy-
advantages-disadvantages/
https://www.bioenergyconsult.com/biomass-energy-introduction/
https://www.bioenergyconsult.com/tag/types-of-biomass/
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/biomass-conversion

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