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Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000


REVISION NO.: 8

EXAMPLE 5-009
SOLID - PRESTRESS APPLIED TO SOLID OBJECTS

EXAMPLE DESCRIPTION
The SAP2000 prestress applied to solid objects is verified in this example using a
simply supported concrete beam with a parabolic prestressing tendon profile and
different eccentricities at each end. The deflection, and the top and bottom
stresses, at the beam center are compared with independent hand- calculated
results.

SAP2000 has two options for modeling the effect of the prestress. One option
models the prestress as loads applied to the structure. The other models the
prestress tendon as internal tendon elements. Both options are verified in this
example.

In SAP2000 the beam is modeled using a 2x4x10 solid object mesh. Thus, each
solid object is 7.5 inches high by 9 inches wide by 36 inches long. This yields an
aspect ratio of 4.8.

Two separate models are used in this analysis. Model A has the prestress
modeled as loads. Models B treats the prestress as elements.

The effect of both wobble and curvature friction losses are included in the
example as well as elastic shortening of the concrete beam. The tendon is
stressed from the left end only.

Important Note: The incompatible bending mode option for the solid property
is used in this example.

Important Note: Shear deformations are included in this example.

EXAMPLE 5-009 - 1
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 8

GEOMETRY AND LOADING

T=220 k Beam neutral axis Prestressing tendon 18"


CL A

3"
10"

30"
A
Section A-A
10"

30' = 360"

Material Properties Section Properties Prestress Properties


E = 3600 k/in2 b = 18 in A = 1.5 in2
ν = 0.2 d = 30 in E = 29000 k/in2
G = 1500 k/in2 A = 540 in2 ν = 0.3
I = 40,500 in4
Av = 450 in2 (shear area)
Prestressing Tendon Notes
1. T is the component of the tension force in the prestressing tendon before losses.
2. The tendon is tensioned from the left end only.
3. The cable drapes at the left end, center and right end of the beam are illustrated in the figure.
4. The cable profile is parabolic.
5. The friction loss coefficient for curvature is 0.15.
6. The friction loss coefficient for wobble is 0.0001 / in.
7. Consider losses due to friction and beam elastic shortening.
8. Set the maximum tendon discretization length to 12 in.

TECHNICAL FEATURES OF SAP2000 TESTED


 Prestress tendon with parabolic tendon profile and different eccentricities at
the two ends
 Prestress tendon modeled using loads and applied to solid objects
 Prestress tendon modeled as elements and applied to solid objects
 Prestress losses

RESULTS COMPARISON
Independent results are hand calculated using basic principles and using the unit
load method described on page 244 in Cook and Young 1985.

Important Note: A simplifying assumption is made in the hand calculations that


the distributed load the prestress imposes on the beam is uniform. Thus the
SAP2000 and hand-calculated results are not expected to match exactly.

EXAMPLE 5-009 - 2
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 8

Output Percent
Model Parameter SAP2000 Independent Difference

A- By Loads Avg. Uz 0.16467 -0.6%


(top center) 0.16564
B- By Elements in 0.16097 -2.8%

A- By Loads Avg. S11 0.3624 -1.5%


(top center) 0.3681
B- By Elements kip/in2 0.3520 -4.4%

A- By Loads Avg. S11 -1.1227 +0.6%


(bot. center) -1.1163
B- By Elements kip/in2 -1.0931 -2.1%

COMPUTER FILES: Example 5-009a, Example 5-009b

CONCLUSION
The SAP2000 results and the independent results show an acceptable match.

EXAMPLE 5-009 - 3
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 8

HAND CALCULATION

EXAMPLE 5-009 - 4
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PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 8

EXAMPLE 5-009 - 5
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PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 8

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PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 8

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PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 8

EXAMPLE 5-009 - 8
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PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 8

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PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 8

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PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 8

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PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 8

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PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 8

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PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 8

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PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 8

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