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# PROBLEM 11.

CQ10

## A child walks across merry-go-round A with a constant speed u relative to A. The

merry-go-round undergoes fixed axis rotation about its center with a constant
angular velocity ω counterclockwise.When the child is at the center of A, as
shown, what is the direction of his acceleration when viewed from above.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d )
(e) The acceleration is zero.

SOLUTION
Polar coordinates are most natural for this problem, that is,

a = (r − rθ 2 )er + (rθ + 2rθ)eθ
(1)
From the information given, we know  r = 0, θ = 0, r = 0, θ = ω, r = -u. When we substitute
these values into (1), we will only have a term in the −θ direction.

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201
PROBLEM 11.133

## Determine the smallest radius that should be used for a highway

if the normal component of the acceleration of a car traveling at
72 km/h is not to exceed 0.8 m/s 2 .

SOLUTION

v2
an = an = 0.8 m/s 2
ρ
v = 72 km/h = 20 m/s

(20 m/s) 2
0.8 m/s 2 = ρ = 500 m  
ρ

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202
PROBLEM 11.134

## Determine the maximum speed that the cars of the roller-coaster

can reach along the circular portion AB of the track if ρ is 25 m
and the normal component of their acceleration cannot exceed 3 g.

SOLUTION

v2
We have an =
ρ

## or (vmax ) AB = 97.6 km/h 

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203
PROBLEM 11.135

A bull-roarer is a piece of wood that produces a roaring sound when attached to the
end of a string and whirled around in a circle. Determine the magnitude of the
normal acceleration of a bull-roarer when it is spun in a circle of radius 0.9 m at
a speed of 20 m/s.

SOLUTION

v2 (20 m/s) 2
an = = = 444.4 m/s 2
ρ 0.9 m

 an = 444 m/s 2 

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204
PROBLEM 11.136

To test its performance, an automobile is driven around a circular test track of diameter d. Determine (a) the
value of d if when the speed of the automobile is 45 mi/h, the normal component of the acceleration
is 11 ft/s 2 , (b) the speed of the automobile if d = 600 ft and the normal component of the acceleration is
measured to be 0.6 g.

SOLUTION

## (a) First note v = 45 mi/h = 66 ft/s

v2
Now an =
ρ

(66 ft/s) 2
ρ= = 396 ft
11 ft/s 2
d = 2ρ d = 792 ft 

v2
(b) We have an =
ρ

1 
Then v 2 = (0.6 × 32.2 ft/s 2 )  × 600 ft 
2 
v = 76.131 ft/s
v = 51.9 mi/h 

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205
PROBLEM 11.137

## An outdoor track is 420 ft in diameter. A runner increases her speed at a constant

rate from 14 to 24 ft/s over a distance of 95 ft. Determine the magnitude of the total
acceleration of the runner 2 s after she begins to increase her speed.

SOLUTION
We have uniformly accelerated motion

## Substituting (24 ft/s)2 = (14 ft/s)2 + 2at (95 ft)

or at = 2 ft/s 2

Also v = v1 + at t

## At t = 2 s: v = 14 ft/s + (2 ft/s 2 )(2 s) = 18 ft/s

v2
Now an =
ρ

(18 ft/s) 2
At t = 2 s: an = = 1.54286 ft/s 2
210 ft

## Finally a 2 = at2 + an2

At t = 2 s: a 2 = 22 + 1.542862

or a = 2.53 ft/s 2 

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206
PROBLEM 11.138

A robot arm moves so that P travels in a circle about Point B, which is not
moving. Knowing that P starts from rest, and its speed increases at a constant
rate of 10 mm/s2, determine (a) the magnitude of the acceleration when t = 4 s,
(b) the time for the magnitude of the acceleration to be 80 mm/s2.

SOLUTION

## Tangential acceleration: at = 10 mm/s 2

Speed: v = at t

v2 at2 t 2
Normal acceleration: an = =
ρ ρ
where ρ = 0.8 m = 800 mm
(a) When t = 4 s v = (10)(4) = 40 mm/s

(40)2
an = = 2 mm/s 2
800

## Acceleration: a = at2 + an2 = (10) 2 + (2) 2

a = 10.20 mm/s 2 

## (b) Time when a = 80 mm/s 2

a 2 = an2 + at2
2
2 (10) 2 t 2  2
(80) =   + 10 t 4 = 403200 s 4
 800 
t = 25.2 s 

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207
PROBLEM 11.139

A monorail train starts from rest on a curve of radius 400 m and accelerates at the constant rate at . If the
maximum total acceleration of the train must not exceed 1.5 m/s 2 , determine (a) the shortest distance in
which the train can reach a speed of 72 km/h, (b) the corresponding constant rate of acceleration at .

SOLUTION

## When v = 72 km/h = 20 m/s and ρ = 400 m,

v2 (20)2
an = = = 1.000 m/s 2
ρ 400

## Since the train is accelerating, reject the negative value.

(a) Distance to reach the speed.
v0 = 0

Let x0 = 0

## v12 = v02 + 2at ( x1 − x0 ) = 2at x1

v12 (20) 2
x1 = = x1 = 178.9 m 
2at (2)(1.11803)

## (b) Corresponding tangential acceleration.

 at = 1.118 m/s 2 

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208
PROBLEM 11.140
A motorist starts from rest at Point A on a circular entrance ramp when
t = 0, increases the speed of her automobile at a constant rate and
enters the highway at Point B. Knowing that her speed continues to
increase at the same rate until it reaches 100 km/h at Point C,
determine (a) the speed at Point B, (b) the magnitude of the total
acceleration when t = 20 s.

SOLUTION

## Speeds: v0 = 0 v1 = 100 km/h = 27.78 m/s

π
Distance: s = (150) + 100 = 335.6 m
2

## v12 − v02 (27.78) 2 − 0

at = = = 1.1495 m/s 2
2s (2)(335.6)

π
At Point B, vB2 = v02 + 2at sB where sB = (150) = 235.6 m
2

## Since v < vB , the car is still on the curve. ρ = 150 m

v2 (22.99)2
Normal component of acceleration: an = = = 3.524 m/s 2
ρ 150

(b) Magnitude of total acceleration: |a| = at2 + an2 = (1.1495) 2 + (3.524) 2 | a | = 3.71 m/s 2 

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209
PROBLEM 11.141

## Racecar A is traveling on a straight portion of the track while racecar B is

traveling on a circular portion of the track. At the instant shown, the
speed of A is increasing at the rate of 10 m/s2, and the speed of B is
decreasing at the rate of 6 m/s2. For the position shown, determine (a) the
velocity of B relative to A, (b) the acceleration of B relative to A.

SOLUTION

## Speeds: v A = 240 km/h = 66.67 m/s

vB = 200 km/h = 55.56 m/s

## Velocities: vA = 66.67 m/s

vB = 55.56 m/s 50°

## vB/A = (55.56 cos 50°) ← + 55.56sin 50° ↓ + 66.67

= 30.96 → + 42.56
= 52.63 m/s 53.96°
vB /A = 189.5 km/h 54.0° 

## Tangential accelerations: (aA )t = 10 m/s 2

(aB )t = 6 m/s 2 50°

v2
Normal accelerations: an =
ρ
Car A: ( ρ = ∞) (aA ) n = 0

Car B: ( ρ = 300 m)
(55.56)2
(aB ) n = = 10.288 (aB ) n = 10.288 m/s 2 40°
300
(b) Acceleration of B relative to A: aB/A = aB − aA

a B/A = (a B )t + (a B ) n − (a A )t − (a A ) n
=6 50° + 10.288 40° + 10 → + 0
= (6cos 50° + 10.288cos 40° + 10)
+ (6sin 50° − 10.288sin 40°)

## = 21.738 → + 2.017 a B/A = 21.8 m/s 2 5.3° 

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210
PROBLEM 11.142

## At a given instant in an airplane race, airplane A is flying

horizontally in a straight line, and its speed is being increased
at the rate of 8 m/s 2 . Airplane B is flying at the same altitude
as airplane A and, as it rounds a pylon, is following a circular
path of 300-m radius. Knowing that at the given instant the
speed of B is being decreased at the rate of 3 m/s 2 , determine,
for the positions shown, (a) the velocity of B relative to A,
(b) the acceleration of B relative to A.

SOLUTION

## (a) We have v B = v A + v B/A

The graphical representation of this equation is then as shown.

## vB/A = 501.10 km/h

540 501.10
and =
sin α sin 60°
α = 68.9°
v B/A = 501 km/h 68.9° 

## (b) First note a A = 8 m/s 2 (a B )t = 3 m/s 2 60°

v 2B (150 m/s) 2
Now ( aB ) n = =
ρB 300 m

(a B ) n = 75 m/s 2 30° 

 Then a B = (a B )t + (a B )n
= 3(− cos 60° i + sin 60° j) + 75(−cos 30° i − sin 30° j)
= −(66.452 m/s 2 )i − (34.902 m/s 2 ) j

Finally a B = a A + a B/A

## a B/A = ( −66.452i − 34.902 j) − (8i )

= −(74.452 m/s 2 )i − (34.902 m/s 2 ) j

## a B/A = 82.2 m/s 2 25.1° 

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211
PROBLEM 11.143

## From a photograph of a homeowner using a snowblower, it

is determined that the radius of curvature of the trajectory of
the snow was 30 ft as the snow left the discharge chute at A.
Determine (a) the discharge velocity v A of the snow, (b) the
radius of curvature of the trajectory at its maximum height.

SOLUTION

## (a) The acceleration vector is 32.2 ft/s .

At Point A, tangential and normal components of a are as shown
in the sketch.

## an = a cos 40° = 32.2 cos 40° = 24.67 ft/s 2

v A2 = ρ A (a A ) n = (30)(24.67) = 740.0 ft 2 /s 2

## (b) At maximum height, v = vx = 20.84 ft/s

an = g = 32.2 ft/s 2 ,

v2 (20.84) 2
ρ = = ρ = 13.48 ft 
an 32.2

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212
PROBLEM 11.144

## A basketball is bounced on the ground at Point A and rebounds with a velocity v A of

magnitude 2.5 m/s as shown. Determine the radius of curvature of the trajectory
described by the ball (a) at Point A, (b) at the highest point of the trajectory.

SOLUTION
v 2A
(a) We have (a A ) n =
ρA

(2.5 m/s) 2
or ρA =
(9.81 m/s 2 ) sin 15°

or ρ A = 2.46 m 

vB2
(b) We have ( aB ) n =
ρB
where Point B is the highest point of the trajectory, so that
vB = (v A ) x = v A sin 15°

[(2.5 m/s) sin 15°]2
Then ρB = = 0.0427 m
9.81 m/s 2
or ρ B = 42.7 mm 

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213
PROBLEM 11.145

A golfer hits a golf ball from Point A with an initial velocity of 50 m/s
at an angle of 25° with the horizontal. Determine the radius of curvature
of the trajectory described by the ball (a) at Point A, (b) at the highest
point of the trajectory.

SOLUTION

v 2A
(a) We have (a A ) n =
ρA

(50 m/s)2
or ρA =
(9.81 m/s 2 ) cos 25°

or ρ A = 281 m 

vB2
(b) We have ( aB ) n =
ρB
where Point B is the highest point of the trajectory, so that
vB = (v A ) x = v A cos 25°

## [(50 m/s) cos 25°]2

Then ρB =
9.81 m/s 2
or ρ B = 209 m 

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214
PROBLEM 11.146

## Three children are throwing snowballs at each other. Child A

throws a snowball with a horizontal velocity v0. If the snowball
just passes over the head of child B and hits child C, determine
the radius of curvature of the trajectory described by the snowball
(a) at Point B, (b) at Point C.

SOLUTION

## The motion is projectile motion. Place the origin at Point A.

Horizontal motion: v x = v0 x = v0 t

Vertical motion: y0 = 0, (v y ) = 0

1
v y = − gt y = − gt 2
2
2h
t= , where h is the vertical distance fallen.
g

| v y| = 2 gh

## Speed: v 2 = vx2 + v 2y = v02 + 2 gh

Direction of velocity.
v0
cos θ =
v
Direction of normal acceleration.
gv0 v 2
an = g cos θ = =
v ρ

v3
gv0

At Point B, hB = 1 m; xB = 7 m

(2)(1 m)
tB = = 0.45152 s
9.81 m/s 2
xB 7m
xB = v0t B v0 = = = 15.504 m/s
t B 0.45152 s
vB2 = (15.504) 2 + (2)(9.81)(1) = 259.97 m 2 /s 2

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215
PROBLEM 11.146 (Continued)

## (a) Radius of curvature at Point B.

(259.97 m 2 /s 2 )3/ 2
ρB = ρ B = 27.6 m 
(9.81 m/s 2 )(15.504 m/s)

At Point C hC = 1 m + 2 m = 3 m

## vC2 = (15.504) 2 + (2)(9.81)(3) = 299.23 m 2 /s 2

(b) Radius of curvature at Point C.
(299.23 m 2 /s 2 )3/2
ρC = ρC = 34.0 m 
(9.81 m/s 2 )(15.504 m/s)

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216
PROBLEM 11.147

## Coal is discharged from the tailgate A of a dump truck with an

initial velocity v A = 2 m/s 50° . Determine the radius of
curvature of the trajectory described by the coal (a) at Point A,
(b) at the point of the trajectory 1 m below Point A.

SOLUTION

## Sketch tangential and normal components of acceleration at A.

(a A ) n = g cos 50°

vA2 (2) 2
ρA = = ρ A = 0.634 m 
(a A ) n 9.81cos 50°

= 21.97 m 2 /s 2

## (vB ) y = 4.687 m/s

(vB ) y 4.687
tan θ = = , or θ = 74.6°
(vB ) x 1.286

aB = g cos 74.6°

vB 2 (vB ) 2x + (vB ) 2y
ρB = =
(aB )n g cos 74.6°

(1.286) 2 + 21.97
= ρ B = 9.07 m 
9.81cos 74.6°

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217
PROBLEM 11.148

## From measurements of a photograph, it has been found

that as the stream of water shown left the nozzle at A,
it had a radius of curvature of 25 m. Determine (a) the
initial velocity vA of the stream, (b) the radius of
curvature of the stream as it reaches its maximum
height at B.

SOLUTION

v 2A
(a) We have (a A ) n =
ρA

4 
or v A2 =  (9.81 m/s 2 )  (25 m)
 5 
or v A = 14.0071 m/s

## vA = 14.01 m/s 36.9° 

vB2
(b) We have ( aB ) n =
ρB
4
Where vB = ( v A ) x = vA
5

( 4 × 14.0071 m/s )
2

Then ρB = 5
9.81 m/s 2
or ρ B = 12.80 m 

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218
PROBLEM 11.149

## A child throws a ball from Point A with an initial velocity v A of

20 m/s at an angle of 25° with the horizontal. Determine the
velocity of the ball at the points of the trajectory described by the
ball where the radius of curvature is equal to three-quarters of its
value at A.

SOLUTION

Assume that Points B and C are the points of interest, where yB = yC and vB = vC .

v 2A
Now (a A ) n =
ρA

v 2A
or ρA =
g cos 25°

3 3 v A2
Then ρB = ρA =
4 4 g cos 25°

vB2
We have ( aB ) n =
ρB
where (aB ) n = g cos θ

3 v A2 vB2
so that =
4 g cos 25° g cos θ
3 cos θ 2
or vB2 = vA (1)
4 cos 25°
Noting that the horizontal motion is uniform, we have
( v A ) x = ( vB ) x

## Then v A cos 25° = vB cos θ

vA
or cos θ = cos 25°
vB

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219
PROBLEM 11.149 (Continued)

## Substituting for cos θ in Eq. (1), we have

3  vA  v A2
vB2 =  cos 25° 
4  vB  cos 25°
3 3
or vB3 = vA
4

3
vB = 3 v A = 18.17 m/s
4
4
cos θ = 3 cos 25°
3
θ = ± 4.04° v B = 18.17 m/s 4.04° 

## and v B = 18.17 m/s 4.04° 

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220
PROBLEM 11.150

## A projectile is fired from Point A with an

initial velocity v 0 . (a) Show that the radius
of curvature of the trajectory of the
projectile reaches its minimum value at
the highest Point B of the trajectory.
(b) Denoting by θ the angle formed by
the trajectory and the horizontal at a given
Point C, show that the radius of curvature
of the trajectory at C is ρ = ρ min /cos3 θ .

SOLUTION
For the arbitrary Point C, we have
vC2
(aC ) n =
ρC

vC2
or ρC =
g cos θ
Noting that the horizontal motion is uniform, we have
(v A ) x = (vC ) x

## Then v0 cos α = vC cos θ

cos α
or vC = v0
cos θ
2
1  cos α  v 2 cos 2 α
so that ρC =  v0  = 0
g cos θ  cos θ  g cos3 θ

(a) In the expression for ρC , v0 , α , and g are constants, so that ρC is minimum where cos θ is
maximum. By observation, this occurs at Point B where θ = 0.
v02 cos 2 α
ρ min = ρ B = Q.E.D. 
g

1  v02 cos 2 α 
(b) ρC =  
cos3 θ  g 
ρ min
ρC = Q.E.D. 
cos3 θ

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221
PROBLEM 11.151*

Determine the radius of curvature of the path described by the particle of Problem 11.95 when t = 0.
PROBLEM 11.95 The three-dimensional motion of a particle is defined by the position vector
r = (Rt cos ωnt)i + ctj + (Rt sin ωnt)k. Determine the magnitudes of the velocity and acceleration of the
particle. (The space curve described by the particle is a conic helix.)

SOLUTION

dr
We have v= = R(cos ωn t − ωn t sin ωn t )i + cj + R (sin ωn t + ωn t cos ωn t )k
dt
dv
and a=
dt
(
= R − ωn sin ωn t − ωn sin ωn t − ωn2t cos ωn t i )
(
+ R ωn cos ωn t + ωn cos ωn t − ωn2 t sin ωn t k )
or a = ωn R [−(2 sin ωn t + ωn t cos ωn t )i + (2 cos ωn t − ωn t sin ωn t ) k ]

## Now v 2 = R 2 (cos ωn t − ωn t sin ωn t )2 + c 2 + R 2 (sin ωn t + ωn t cos ωn t )2

(
= R 2 1 + ωn2 t 2 + c 2 )
( )
1/2
Then v =  R 2 1 + ωn2 t 2 + c 2 
 
dv R 2ωn2 t
and =
( )
1/ 2
dt  2
R 1 + ωn2 t 2 + c 2 
 
2 2
 dv   v 
2
2
Now a = at2 + an2 =   +  
 dt   ρ 
dv
At t = 0: =0
dt
a = ωn R(2 k ) or a = 2ωn R

v2 = R2 + c2
dv
Then, with = 0,
dt
v2
we have a=
ρ
R 2 + c2 R 2 + c2
or 2ωn R = ρ= 
ρ 2ωn R

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222
PROBLEM 11.152*

Determine the radius of curvature of the path described by the particle of Problem 11.96 when t = 0, A = 3,
and B = 1.

SOLUTION

With A = 3, B =1

we have ( )
r = (3t cos t )i + 3 t 2 + 1 j + (t sin t )k

dr  3t 
v= = 3(cos t − t sin t )i +  2 j + (sin t + t cos t )k
 t + 1 
Now
dt  

  t 
dv  t 2
+ 1 − t   j
and a= = 3(− sin t − sin t − t cos t )i + 3  t2 + 1 
dt  2
 t + 1 
+ (cos t + cos t − t sin t )k
1
= − 3(2sin t + t cos t )i + 3 2
j
(t + 1)1/2
+ (2 cos t − t sin t )k

t2
Then v 2 = 9 (cos t − t sin t )2 + 9 + (sin t + t cos t )2
t2 + 1
Expanding and simplifying yields

## Then v = [t 4 + 19t 2 + 1 + 8(cos 2 t + t 4 sin 2 t ) − 8(t 3 + t )sin 2t ]1/ 2

dv 4t 3 + 38t + 8(−2 cos t sin t + 4t 3sin 2 t + 2t 4 sin t cos t ) − 8[(3t 2 + 1)sin 2t + 2(t 3 + t ) cos 2t ]
and =
dt 2[t 4 + 19t 2 + 1 + 8(cos 2 t + t 4 sin 2 t ) − 8(t 3 + t ) sin 2t ]1/ 2
2 2
 dv   v 
2
Now a 2 = at2 + an2 =   +  
 dt   ρ 

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223
PROBLEM 11.152* (Continued)

At t = 0: a = 3j + 2k

or a = 13 ft/s 2

dv
=0
dt
v 2 = 9 (ft/s) 2
dv
Then, with = 0,
dt

v2
we have a=
ρ

9 ft 2 /s 2
or ρ= ρ = 2.50 ft 
13 ft/s 2

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224
PROBLEM 11.153
A satellite will travel indefinitely in a circular orbit around a planet if the normal component of the
acceleration of the satellite is equal to g ( R /r ) 2 , where g is the acceleration of gravity at the surface of the
planet, R is the radius of the planet, and r is the distance from the center of the planet to the satellite. Knowing
that the diameter of the sun is 1.39 Gm and that the acceleration of gravity at its surface is 274 m/s 2 ,
determine the radius of the orbit of the indicated planet around the sun assuming that the orbit is circular.

SOLUTION

## For the sun, g = 274 m/s 2 ,

1 1
and R= D =   (1.39 × 109 ) = 0.695 × 109 m
2 2

gR 2 v2
Given that an = and that for a circular orbit a n =
r2 r

gR 2
Eliminating an and solving for r, r =
v2

For the planet Earth, v = 107 × 106 m/h = 29.72 × 103 m/s

(274)(0.695 × 109 ) 2
Then r = = 149.8 × 109 m r = 149.8 Gm 
(29.72 × 103 ) 2

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225
PROBLEM 11.154
A satellite will travel indefinitely in a circular orbit around a planet if the normal component of the
acceleration of the satellite is equal to g ( R /r ) 2 , where g is the acceleration of gravity at the surface of the
planet, R is the radius of the planet, and r is the distance from the center of the planet to the satellite. Knowing
that the diameter of the sun is 1.39 Gm and that the acceleration of gravity at its surface is 274 m/s 2 ,
determine the radius of the orbit of the indicated planet around the sun assuming that the orbit is circular.

SOLUTION

## For the sun, g = 274 m/s 2

1 1
and R= D =   (1.39 × 109 ) = 0.695 × 109 m
2 2

gR 2 v2
Given that an = .and that for a circular orbit: a n =
r2 r

gR 2
Eliminating an and solving for r, r =
v2

For the planet Saturn, v = 34.7 × 106 m/h = 9.639 × 103 m/s

(274)(0.695 × 109 ) 2
Then, r = = 1.425 × 1012 m r = 1425 Gm 
(9.639 × 103 )2

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226
PROBLEM 11.155
Determine the speed of a satellite relative to the indicated planet if the satellite is to travel indefinitely in a
circular orbit 100 mi above the surface of the planet. (See information given in Problems 11.153–11.154).

## Venus: g = 29.20 ft/s 2 , R = 3761 mi.

SOLUTION

gR 2
From Problems 11.153 and 11.154, an =
r2

v2
For a circular orbit, an =
r

g
Eliminating an and solving for v, v= R
r

## r = 3761 + 100 = 3861 mi = 20.386 × 106 ft

29.20
Then, v = 19.858 × 106 = 23.766 × 103 ft/s
20.386 × 106

v = 16200 mi/h 

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227
PROBLEM 11.156
Determine the speed of a satellite relative to the indicated planet if the satellite is to travel indefinitely in a
circular orbit 100 mi above the surface of the planet. (See information given in Problems 11.153–11.154).

## Mars: g = 12.17 ft/s 2 , R = 2102 mi.

SOLUTION

gR 2
From Problems 11.153 and 11.154, an =
r2

v2
For a circular orbit, an =
r

g
Eliminating an and solving for v, v= R
r

## r = 2102 + 100 = 2202 mi = 11.6266 × 106 ft

12.17
Then, v = 11.0986 × 106 = 11.35 × 103 ft/s
11.6266 × 106

v = 7740 mi/h 

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228
PROBLEM 11.157
Determine the speed of a satellite relative to the indicated planet if the satellite is to travel indefinitely in a
circular orbit 100 mi above the surface of the planet. (See information given in Problems 11.153–11.154).

## Jupiter: g = 75.35 ft/s 2 , R = 44, 432 mi.

SOLUTION

gR 2
From Problems 11.153 and 11.154, an =
r2

v2
For a circular orbit, an =
r

g
Eliminating an and solving for v, v= R
r

## r = 44432 + 100 = 44532 mi = 235.13 × 106 ft

75.35
Then, v = (234.60 × 106 ) 6
= 132.8 × 103 ft/s
235.13 × 10

v = 90600 mi/h 

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229
PROBLEM 11.158

A satellite is traveling in a circular orbit around Mars at an altitude of 300 km. After the altitude of the satellite
is adjusted, it is found that the time of one orbit has increased by 10 percent. Knowing that the radius of Mars
is 3382 km, determine the new altitude of the satellite. (See information given in Problems 11.153–11.155.)

SOLUTION

R2 v2
We have an = g and an =
r2 r

R2 v2
Then g =
r2 r

g
v=R where r =R+h
r
The circumference s of a circular orbit is equal to
s = 2π r
Assuming that the speed of the satellite in each orbit is constant, we have
s = vtorbit
Substituting for s and v
g
2π r = R torbit
r

2π r 3/2
torbit =
R g
2π ( R + h)3/2
=
R g

## Now (torbit ) 2 = 1.1(torbit )1

2π ( R + h2 )3/2 2π ( R + h1 )3/2
= 1.1
R g R g

h2 = (1.1)2/3 ( R + h1 ) − R
= (1.1)2/3 (3382 + 300) km − (3382 km)

h2 = 542 km 

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230
PROBLEM 11.159

Knowing that the radius of the earth is 6370 km, determine the time of one orbit of the Hubble Space
Telescope, knowing that the telescope travels in a circular orbit 590 km above the surface of the earth.
(See information given in Problems 11.153–11.155.)

SOLUTION

R2 v2
We have an = g and an =
r2 r

R2 v2
Then g =
r2 r

g
or v=R where r =R+h
r
The circumference s of the circular orbit is equal to
s = 2π r
Assuming that the speed of the telescope is constant, we have
s = vtorbit
Substituting for s and v
g
2π r = R torbit
r

2π r 3/2
or torbit =
R g
2π [(6370 + 590) km]3/2 1h
= −3 2 1/2
×
6370 km [9.81 × 10 km/s ] 3600 s

or torbit = 1.606 h 

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231
PROBLEM 11.160

Satellites A and B are traveling in the same plane in circular orbits around
the earth at altitudes of 120 and 200 mi, respectively. If at t = 0 the
satellites are aligned as shown and knowing that the radius of the earth is
R = 3960 mi, determine when the satellites will next be radially aligned.
(See information given in Problems 11.153–11.155.)

SOLUTION

R2 v2
We have an = g and an =
r2 r
R2 v2 g
Then g = or v=R
r2 r r

where r =R+h

## The circumference s of a circular orbit is

equal to s = 2π r

s = vT

## Substituting for s and v

g
2π r = R T
r

2π r 3/ 2 2π ( R + h)3/2
or T= =
R g R g

## Now hB > hA  (T ) B > (T ) A

Next let time TC be the time at which the satellites are next radially aligned. Then, if in time TC satellite B
completes N orbits, satellite A must complete ( N + 1) orbits.

Thus,
TC = N (T ) B = ( N + 1)(T ) A

 2π ( R + hB )3/2   2π ( R + hA )3/2 
or N  = ( N + 1)  
 R g   R g 

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232
PROBLEM 11.160 (Continued)

( R + hA )3/2 1
or N= =
( )
3/ 2 3/2 3/2
( R + hB ) − ( R + hA ) R + hB
−1
R + hA

1
= = 33.835 orbits
( )
3/2
3960 + 200
3960 +120
−1

2π ( R + hB )3/2
Then TC = N (T ) B = N
R g

= 33.835
2π [(3960 + 200) mi] × 1 h 3/2

(
3960 mi 32.2 ft/s 2 × 1 mi 1/2 3600s
5280 ft )
or TC = 51.2 h 
Alternative solution
From above, we have (T ) B > (T ) A . Thus, when the satellites are next radially aligned, the angles θ A and θ B
swept out by radial lines drawn to the satellites must differ by 2π . That is,
θ A = θ B + 2π
For a circular orbit s = rθ
g
From above s = vt and v = R
r

s vt 1  g R g R g
Then θ= = = R
  t = 3/2 t = t
r r r r  r ( R + h)3/2

R g R g
At time TC : 3/2
TC = TC + 2π
( R + hA ) ( R + hB )3/ 2

or TC =
R g 1 − 1 
 ( R + hA )3/ 2 ( R + hB )3/ 2 

=
( )
1/2
(3960 mi) 32.2 ft/s 2 × 5280
1 mi
ft

1
× 1
− 1
[(3960 + 120) mi ]3/ 2 [(3960 + 200) mi ]3/ 2
1h
×
3600 s
or TC = 51.2 h 

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233
PROBLEM 11.161

## The oscillation of rod OA about O is defined by the relation θ = (3/π )(sin π t ),

where θ and t are expressed in radians and seconds, respectively. Collar B slides
along the rod so that its distance from O is r = 6(1 − e−2t ) where r and t
are expressed in inches and seconds, respectively. When t = 1 s, determine (a) the
velocity of the collar, (b) the acceleration of the collar, (c) the acceleration of the
collar relative to the rod.

SOLUTION
Calculate the derivatives with respect to time.
3
r = 6 − 6e −2t in. θ= sin π t rad
π
r = 12e −2t in/s θ = 3cosπ t rad/s
r = −24e−2t in/s 2 θ = −3π sin π t rad/s2
At t = 1 s,
3
r = 6 − 6e −2 = 5.1880 in. θ= sin π = 0
π
r = 12e −2 = 1.6240 in/s θ = 3cos π = −3 rad/s
r = −24e−2 = −3.2480 in/s 2
 θ = −3π sin π = 0
(a) Velocity of the collar.
v = rer + rθeθ = 1.6240 e r + (5.1880)(−3)eθ

## v = (1.624 in/s)er + (15.56 in/s)eθ 

(b) Acceleration of the collar.

## a = (r − rθ 2 )e r + (rθ + 2rθ)eθ

= [ −3.2480 − (5.1880)( −3) 2 ]er + (5.1880)(0) + (2)(1.6240)(−3)]eθ

## (−49.9 in/s 2 )er + (−9.74 in/s 2 )eθ 

(c) Acceleration of the collar relative to the rod.

a B /OA = 
re r a B /OA = (−3.25 in/s 2 )er 

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234
PROBLEM 11.162

## The rotation of rod OA about O is defined by the relation θ = t 3 − 4t , where

θ and t are expressed in radians and seconds, respectively. Collar B slides along
the rod so that its distance from O is r = 2.5t 3 − 5t 2 , where r and t are expressed
in inches and seconds, respectively. When t = 1 s, determine (a) the velocity of the
collar, (b) the acceleration of the collar, (c) the radius of curvature of the path of
the collar.

SOLUTION
Calculate the derivatives with respect to time.
r = 2.5t 3 − 5t 2 θ = t 3 − 4t
r = 7.5t 2 − 10t θ = 3t 2 − 4

r = 15t − 10 θ = 6t
At t = 1 s,
r = 2.5 − 5 = −2.5 in. θ = 1 − 4 = −3 rad
r = 7.5 − 10 = −2.5 in./s θ = 3 − 4 = −1 rad/s
r = 15 − 10 = 5 in./s 2 θ = 6 rad/s 2
(a) Velocity of the collar.
v = rer + rθeθ = −2.5er + (−2.5)( −1)eθ

## Unit vector tangent to the path.

v
et = = −0.70711e r + 0.70711eθ
v
(b) Acceleration of the collar.

## a = (r − rθ 2 )e r + (rθ + 2rθ)eθ

= [5 − (−2.5)(−1)2 ]er + [(−2.5)(6) + (2)(−2.5)(−1)]eθ

## a = (7.50 in/s 2 )er + (−10.00 in/s 2 )eθ 

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235
PROBLEM 11.162 (Continued)

## (c) Radius of curvature of path.

v2
an =
ρ
v 2 (3.5355 in./s) 2
ρ= = ρ = 7.07 in. 
an 1.7674 in./s 2

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236
PROBLEM 11.163

## The path of particle P is the ellipse defined by the relations

r = 2/(2 − cos π t ) and θ = π t , where r is expressed in meters, t is
in seconds, and θ is in radians. Determine the velocity and the
acceleration of the particle when (a) t = 0, (b) t = 0.5 s.

SOLUTION
2
We have r= θ = πt
2 − cos π t

−2π sin π t
Then r = θ = π
(2 − cos π t )2

## π cos π t (2 − cos π t ) − sin π t (2π sin π t )

and r = −2π θ = 0
(2 − cos π t )3
2cos π t − 1 − sin 2 π t
= −2π 2
(2 − cos π t )3
(a) At t = 0: r=2m θ =0

r = 0 θ = π rad/s
r = −2π 2 m/s 2 θ = 0
Now v = rer + rθeθ = (2)(π )eθ

or v = (2π m/s)eθ 

## and a = (r − rθ 2 )e r + (rθ + 2rθ)eθ

= [ −2π 2 − (2)(π )2 ]er

## or a = −(4π 2 m/s 2 )er 

π
(b) At t = 0.5 s: r =1 m θ= rad
2
−2π π
r = 2
= − m/s θ = π rad/s
(2) 2

−1 − 1 π 2
r = −2π 2 3
= m/s 2 θ = 0
(2) 2

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237
PROBLEM 11.163 (Continued)

 π
Now v = rer + rθeθ =  −  e r + (1)(π )eθ
 2

π 
or v = −  m/s  er + (π m/s)eθ 
 2 

## and a = (r − rθ 2 )e r + (rθ + 2rθ)eθ

π 2    π 
= − (1)(π ) 2  e r +  2  −  (π )  eθ
 2    2 

π2 
or a = −  m/s 2  er − (π 2 m/s 2 )eθ 
 2 

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238
PROBLEM 11.164

The two-dimensional motion of a particle is defined by the relations r = 2a cos θ and θ = bt 2 /2, where a and b
are constants. Determine (a) the magnitudes of the velocity and acceleration at any instant, (b) the radius of
curvature of the path. What conclusion can you draw regarding the path of the particle?

SOLUTION
1
(a) We have r = 2a cos θ θ = bt 2
2
Then r = −2aθ sin θ θ = bt
and r = −2a (θ sin θ + θ 2 cos θ )
 θ = b

## Substituting for θ and θ

r = −2abt sin θ
r = −2ab(sin θ + bt 2 cos θ )


or v = 2abt 

## Also ar = r − rθ 2 = −2ab(sin θ + bt 2 cos θ ) − 2ab 2 t 2 cos θ

= −2ab(sin θ + 2bt 2 cos θ )

## and aθ = rθ + 2rθ = 2ab cos θ − 4ab 2 t 2 sin θ

= −2ab(cos θ − 2bt 2 sin θ )

## a = ar2 + aB2 = 2ab[(sin θ + 2bt 2 cos θ ) 2

Then
+ (cos θ − 2bt 2 sin θ ) 2 ]1/2

or a = 2ab 1 + 4b 2 t 4 
2 2
 dv   v 
2
2
(b) Now a = at2 + an2 =   +  
 dt   ρ 

dv d
Then = (2abt ) = 2ab
dt dt

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239
PROBLEM 11.164 (Continued)

( )
2
so that 2ab 1 + 4b 2 t 4 = (2ab) 2 + an2

or 4a 2b 2 (1 + 4b 2t 4 ) = 4a 2 b 2 + an2

or an = 4ab 2 t 2

v2 (2abt ) 2
Finally an = ρ=
ρ 4ab 2 t 2
or ρ =a 
Since the radius of curvature is a constant, the path is a circle of radius a. 

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240
PROBLEM 11.165

As rod OA rotates, pin P moves along the parabola BCD. Knowing that the
equation of this parabola is r = 2b /(1 + cos θ ) and that θ = kt , determine the
velocity and acceleration of P when (a) θ = 0, (b) θ = 90°.

SOLUTION

2b
r= θ = kt
1 + cos kt
2bk sin kt
r = θ = k θ = 0
(1 + cos kt ) 2
2bk
r = [(1 + cos kt )2 k cos kt + (sin kt )2(1 + cos kt )( k sin kt )]
(1 + cos kt ) 4

(a) When θ = kt = 0:
2bk 1
r =b r = 0 
r= 4
[(2)2 k (1) + 0] = bk 2
(2) 2
θ =0 θ = k θ = 0

vr = r = 0 vθ = rθ = bk v = bk eθ 

1 1 
r − rθ 2 = bk 2 − bk 2 = − bk 2 
ar =  1
2 2  a = − bk 2 er 
 2
aθ = rθ + 2rθ = b(0) + 2(0) = 0 
(b) When θ = kt = 90°:
2bk
r = 2b r = 2bk r = [0 + 2k ] = 4bk 2
19
θ = 90° θ = k θ = 0

## ar = r − rθ 2 = 4bk 2 − 2bk 2 = 2bk 2

a = rθ + 2rθ = 2b(0) + 2(2bk )k = 4bk 2
θ a = 2bk 2 e r + 4bk 2 eθ 

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241
PROBLEM 11.166

The pin at B is free to slide along the circular slot DE and along the
rotating rod OC. Assuming that the rod OC rotates at a constant rate θ,
(a) show that the acceleration of pin B is of constant magnitude,
(b) determine the direction of the acceleration of pin B.

SOLUTION
From the sketch:
r = 2b cos θ
r = −2b sin θ θ

## ar = r − rθ 2 = −2b cos θ θ 2 − (2b cos θ )θ 2

a = −4b cos θ θ 2
r

## aθ = rθ + 2rθ = (2b cos θ )(0) + 2(−2b sin θ )θ 2

a = −4b sin θ θ 2
θ

## a = ar2 + aθ2 = 4bθ 2 (− cos θ ) 2 + (− sin θ )2

a = 4bθ 2
Since both b and θ are constant, we find that
a = constant 

aθ  −4b sin θ θ 2 
γ = tan −1 = tan −1  
2
ar  −4b cos θ θ 
γ = tan −1 (tan θ )
γ =θ

## Thus, a is directed toward A 

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242
PROBLEM 11.167

## To study the performance of a racecar, a high-speed camera is

positioned at Point A. The camera is mounted on a mechanism
which permits it to record the motion of the car as the car
travels on straightway BC. Determine (a) the speed of the car
in terms of b, θ , and θ, (b) the magnitude of the acceleration
in terms of b, θ , θ, and θ.

SOLUTION
b
(a) We have r=
cos θ

bθ sin θ
Then r =
cos 2 θ

## We have v 2 = vr2 + vθ2 = (r)2 + (rθ) 2

2
 bθ sin θ   bθ 2
=   +  
 cos θ   cos θ 
2

## b2θ 2  sin 2θ  b2θ 2

= 2 
+ 1  =
cos θ  cos θ 2 4
 cos θ
bθ
or v=±
cos 2θ
bθ
For the position of the car shown, θ is decreasing; thus, the negative root is chosen. v=− 
cos 2θ
Alternative solution.
From the diagram r = −v sin θ

bθ sin θ
or = −v sin θ
cos 2θ
bθ
or v=− 
cos 2θ

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243
PROBLEM 11.167 (Continued)

dv
(b) For rectilinear motion a=
dt
Using the answer from Part a
bθ
v=−
cos 2θ
d  bθ 
Then a=  − 
dt  cos 2θ 
θ cos 2θ − θ(−2θ cos θ sin θ )
= −b
cos 4θ
b
or a=− (θ + 2θ 2 tan θ ) 
cos 2θ
Alternative solution
b bθ sin θ
From above r= r =
cos θ cos 2 θ
(θ sin θ + θ 2 cos θ )(cos 2θ ) − (θ sin θ )(−2θ cos θ sin θ )
Then r = b
cos 4θ
 θ sin θ θ 2 (1 + sin 2 θ ) 
= b 2
+ 
 cos θ cos3θ 

## Now a 2 = ar2 + aθ2

 θ sin θ θ 2 (1 + sin 2 θ )  bθ 2
where ar = r − rθ 2 = b  + −
 cos θ
2
 cos θ cos 2θ
b   2θ 2 sin 2 θ 
=  θ sin θ + 
cos 2θ  cos θ 
b sin θ 
ar = 2
(θ + 2θ 2 tan θ )
cos θ
bθ bθ 2 sin θ
and aθ = rθ + 2rθ = +2
cos θ cos 2θ
b cos θ 
= (θ + 2θ tan θ )
cos 2θ
b
Then a=± 2
(θ + 2θ 2 tan θ )[(sin θ ) 2 + (cos θ )2 ]1/ 2
cos θ

For the position of the car shown, θ is negative; for a to be positive, the negative root is chosen.
b
a=− (θ + 2θ 2 tan θ ) 
cos 2 θ

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244
PROBLEM 11.168

## After taking off, a helicopter climbs in

a straight line at a constant angle β . Its
flight is tracked by radar from Point A.
Determine the speed of the helicopter
in terms of d, β , θ , and θ.

SOLUTION
From the diagram
r d
=
sin (180° − β ) sin ( β − θ )
or d sin β = r (sin β cos θ − cos β sin θ )

tan β
or r=d
tan β cos θ − sin θ

## −(− tan β sin θ − cos θ ) 

Then r = d tan β θ
(tan β cos θ − sin θ )2
tan β sin θ + cos θ
= dθ tan β
(tan β cos θ − sin θ ) 2
From the diagram
vr = v cos ( β − θ ) where vr = r
Then
tan β sin θ + cos θ
dθ tan β = v(cos β cos θ + sin β sin θ )
(tan β cos θ − sin θ )2
= v cos β (tan β sin θ + cos θ )

## dθ tan β sec β

or v= 
(tan β cosθ − sin θ )2
Alternative solution.

## We have v 2 = vr2 + vθ2 = (r) 2 + ( rθ) 2

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245
PROBLEM 11.168 (Continued)

## Using the expressions for r and r from above

2
 tan β sin θ + cos θ 
v =  dθ tan β 
 (tan β cos θ − sin θ ) 2 
1/ 2
dθ tan β  (tan β sin θ + cos θ )2 
or v=±  + 1
(tan β cos θ − sin θ )  (tan β cos θ − sin θ ) 2

1/ 2
dθ tan β  tan 2 β + 1 
=±  2
(tan β cos θ − sin θ )  (tan β cos θ − sin θ ) 

Note that as θ increases, the helicopter moves in the indicated direction. Thus, the positive root is chosen.
dθ tan β sec β
v= 
(tan β cos θ − sin θ )2

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246
PROBLEM 11.169

## At the bottom of a loop in the vertical plane, an

airplane has a horizontal velocity of 315 mi/h
and is speeding up at a rate of 10 ft/s2. The
radius of curvature of the loop is 1 mi. The
plane is being tracked by radar at O. What are
r , θ and θ for this
the recorded values of r, 
instant?

SOLUTION
Geometry. The polar coordinates are
 1800 
r = (2400) 2 + (1800)2 = 3000 ft θ = tan −1   = 36.87°
 2400 

## Velocity Analysis. v = 315 mi/h = 462 ft/s

vr = 462 cos θ = 369.6 ft/s
vθ = −462sin θ = −277.2 ft/s
vr = r r = 370 ft/s 

vθ 277.2
vθ = rθ θ = =−
r 3000
Acceleration analysis. at = 10 ft/s 2
v2 (462) 2
an = = = 40.425 ft/s 2
ρ 5280

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247
PROBLEM 11.169 (Continued)

## ar = at cos θ + an sin θ = 10 cos 36.87° + 40.425 sin 36.87° = 32.255 ft/s 2

aθ = − at sin θ + an cos θ = −10 sin 36.87° + 40.425 cos 36.87° = 26.34 ft/s 2
r − rθ 2 
ar =  r = ar + rθ 2
r = 32.255 + (3000)( −0.0924) 2
 r = 57.9 ft/s 2 


aθ = rθ + 2rθ
a 2rθ
θ = θ −
r r
26.34 (2)(369.6)(−0.0924)
= − θ = 0.0315 rad/s 2 
3000 3000

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248
PROBLEM 11.170

## Pin C is attached to rod BC and slides freely in the slot of rod OA

which rotates at the constant rate ω. At the instant when β = 60°,
determine (a) r and θ, (b) 
of d and ω.

SOLUTION
Looking at d and β as polar coordinates with d = 0,
vβ = d β = d ω, vd = d = 0
aβ = d β + 2d β = 0, ad = d − d β 2 = −d ω 2

## (a) Velocity analysis: Sketch the directions of v, er and eθ.

vr = r = v ⋅ er = d ω cos120°
1
r = − d ω 
2

## vθ = rθ = v ⋅ eθ = d ω cos 30°

3
dω cos 30° dω 2 1
θ = = θ = ω
r d 3 2

## (b) Acceleration analysis: Sketch the directions of a, er and eθ.

3
ar = a ⋅ e r = a cos150° = − dω 2
2
3
r − rθ2 = −
 d ω2
2
2
3 3 1 

r =− dω 2 + rθ 2 = − dω 2 + d 3  ω 
2 2 2 
3
r = − dω 2 
4
1
aθ = a ⋅ eθ = d ω 2 cos120° = − d ω 2
2
a = rθ + 2rθ
θ

1 1  1  1  1  
θ = (aθ − 2rθ) = 2
 − d ω − (2)  − d ω  ω   θ = 0 
r 3d  2  2  2  

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249
PROBLEM 11.171

## For the racecar of Problem 11.167, it was found that it

took 0.5 s for the car to travel from the position θ = 60° to
the position θ = 35°. Knowing that b = 25 m, determine
the average speed of the car during the 0.5-s interval.

## PROBLEM 11.167 To study the performance of a racecar,

a high-speed camera is positioned at Point A. The camera
is mounted on a mechanism which permits it to record the
motion of the car as the car travels on straightway BC.
Determine (a) the speed of the car in terms of b, θ , and
θ, (b) the magnitude of the acceleration in terms of b, θ ,
θ, and θ.

SOLUTION

## Δr12 = 25 tan 60° − 25 tan 35°

= 25.796 m

Δr12
Now vave =
Δt12
25.796 m
=
0.5 s
= 51.592 m/s
or vave = 185.7 km/h 