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CQ10

merry-go-round undergoes fixed axis rotation about its center with a constant

angular velocity ω counterclockwise.When the child is at the center of A, as

shown, what is the direction of his acceleration when viewed from above.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d )

(e) The acceleration is zero.

SOLUTION

Polar coordinates are most natural for this problem, that is,

a = (r − rθ 2 )er + (rθ + 2rθ)eθ

(1)

From the information given, we know r = 0, θ = 0, r = 0, θ = ω, r = -u. When we substitute

these values into (1), we will only have a term in the −θ direction.

Answer: (d )

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed,

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201

PROBLEM 11.133

if the normal component of the acceleration of a car traveling at

72 km/h is not to exceed 0.8 m/s 2 .

SOLUTION

v2

an = an = 0.8 m/s 2

ρ

v = 72 km/h = 20 m/s

(20 m/s) 2

0.8 m/s 2 = ρ = 500 m

ρ

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed,

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202

PROBLEM 11.134

can reach along the circular portion AB of the track if ρ is 25 m

and the normal component of their acceleration cannot exceed 3 g.

SOLUTION

v2

We have an =

ρ

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed,

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203

PROBLEM 11.135

A bull-roarer is a piece of wood that produces a roaring sound when attached to the

end of a string and whirled around in a circle. Determine the magnitude of the

normal acceleration of a bull-roarer when it is spun in a circle of radius 0.9 m at

a speed of 20 m/s.

SOLUTION

v2 (20 m/s) 2

an = = = 444.4 m/s 2

ρ 0.9 m

an = 444 m/s 2

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204

PROBLEM 11.136

To test its performance, an automobile is driven around a circular test track of diameter d. Determine (a) the

value of d if when the speed of the automobile is 45 mi/h, the normal component of the acceleration

is 11 ft/s 2 , (b) the speed of the automobile if d = 600 ft and the normal component of the acceleration is

measured to be 0.6 g.

SOLUTION

v2

Now an =

ρ

(66 ft/s) 2

ρ= = 396 ft

11 ft/s 2

d = 2ρ d = 792 ft

v2

(b) We have an =

ρ

1

Then v 2 = (0.6 × 32.2 ft/s 2 ) × 600 ft

2

v = 76.131 ft/s

v = 51.9 mi/h

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205

PROBLEM 11.137

rate from 14 to 24 ft/s over a distance of 95 ft. Determine the magnitude of the total

acceleration of the runner 2 s after she begins to increase her speed.

SOLUTION

We have uniformly accelerated motion

or at = 2 ft/s 2

Also v = v1 + at t

v2

Now an =

ρ

(18 ft/s) 2

At t = 2 s: an = = 1.54286 ft/s 2

210 ft

At t = 2 s: a 2 = 22 + 1.542862

or a = 2.53 ft/s 2

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206

PROBLEM 11.138

A robot arm moves so that P travels in a circle about Point B, which is not

moving. Knowing that P starts from rest, and its speed increases at a constant

rate of 10 mm/s2, determine (a) the magnitude of the acceleration when t = 4 s,

(b) the time for the magnitude of the acceleration to be 80 mm/s2.

SOLUTION

Speed: v = at t

v2 at2 t 2

Normal acceleration: an = =

ρ ρ

where ρ = 0.8 m = 800 mm

(a) When t = 4 s v = (10)(4) = 40 mm/s

(40)2

an = = 2 mm/s 2

800

a = 10.20 mm/s 2

a 2 = an2 + at2

2

2 (10) 2 t 2 2

(80) = + 10 t 4 = 403200 s 4

800

t = 25.2 s

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207

PROBLEM 11.139

A monorail train starts from rest on a curve of radius 400 m and accelerates at the constant rate at . If the

maximum total acceleration of the train must not exceed 1.5 m/s 2 , determine (a) the shortest distance in

which the train can reach a speed of 72 km/h, (b) the corresponding constant rate of acceleration at .

SOLUTION

v2 (20)2

an = = = 1.000 m/s 2

ρ 400

(a) Distance to reach the speed.

v0 = 0

Let x0 = 0

v12 (20) 2

x1 = = x1 = 178.9 m

2at (2)(1.11803)

at = 1.118 m/s 2

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208

PROBLEM 11.140

A motorist starts from rest at Point A on a circular entrance ramp when

t = 0, increases the speed of her automobile at a constant rate and

enters the highway at Point B. Knowing that her speed continues to

increase at the same rate until it reaches 100 km/h at Point C,

determine (a) the speed at Point B, (b) the magnitude of the total

acceleration when t = 20 s.

SOLUTION

π

Distance: s = (150) + 100 = 335.6 m

2

at = = = 1.1495 m/s 2

2s (2)(335.6)

π

At Point B, vB2 = v02 + 2at sB where sB = (150) = 235.6 m

2

v2 (22.99)2

Normal component of acceleration: an = = = 3.524 m/s 2

ρ 150

(b) Magnitude of total acceleration: |a| = at2 + an2 = (1.1495) 2 + (3.524) 2 | a | = 3.71 m/s 2

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209

PROBLEM 11.141

traveling on a circular portion of the track. At the instant shown, the

speed of A is increasing at the rate of 10 m/s2, and the speed of B is

decreasing at the rate of 6 m/s2. For the position shown, determine (a) the

velocity of B relative to A, (b) the acceleration of B relative to A.

SOLUTION

vB = 200 km/h = 55.56 m/s

vB = 55.56 m/s 50°

= 30.96 → + 42.56

= 52.63 m/s 53.96°

vB /A = 189.5 km/h 54.0°

(aB )t = 6 m/s 2 50°

v2

Normal accelerations: an =

ρ

Car A: ( ρ = ∞) (aA ) n = 0

Car B: ( ρ = 300 m)

(55.56)2

(aB ) n = = 10.288 (aB ) n = 10.288 m/s 2 40°

300

(b) Acceleration of B relative to A: aB/A = aB − aA

a B/A = (a B )t + (a B ) n − (a A )t − (a A ) n

=6 50° + 10.288 40° + 10 → + 0

= (6cos 50° + 10.288cos 40° + 10)

+ (6sin 50° − 10.288sin 40°)

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210

PROBLEM 11.142

horizontally in a straight line, and its speed is being increased

at the rate of 8 m/s 2 . Airplane B is flying at the same altitude

as airplane A and, as it rounds a pylon, is following a circular

path of 300-m radius. Knowing that at the given instant the

speed of B is being decreased at the rate of 3 m/s 2 , determine,

for the positions shown, (a) the velocity of B relative to A,

(b) the acceleration of B relative to A.

SOLUTION

The graphical representation of this equation is then as shown.

540 501.10

and =

sin α sin 60°

α = 68.9°

v B/A = 501 km/h 68.9°

v 2B (150 m/s) 2

Now ( aB ) n = =

ρB 300 m

(a B ) n = 75 m/s 2 30°

Then a B = (a B )t + (a B )n

= 3(− cos 60° i + sin 60° j) + 75(−cos 30° i − sin 30° j)

= −(66.452 m/s 2 )i − (34.902 m/s 2 ) j

Finally a B = a A + a B/A

= −(74.452 m/s 2 )i − (34.902 m/s 2 ) j

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211

PROBLEM 11.143

is determined that the radius of curvature of the trajectory of

the snow was 30 ft as the snow left the discharge chute at A.

Determine (a) the discharge velocity v A of the snow, (b) the

radius of curvature of the trajectory at its maximum height.

SOLUTION

At Point A, tangential and normal components of a are as shown

in the sketch.

v A2 = ρ A (a A ) n = (30)(24.67) = 740.0 ft 2 /s 2

an = g = 32.2 ft/s 2 ,

v2 (20.84) 2

ρ = = ρ = 13.48 ft

an 32.2

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212

PROBLEM 11.144

magnitude 2.5 m/s as shown. Determine the radius of curvature of the trajectory

described by the ball (a) at Point A, (b) at the highest point of the trajectory.

SOLUTION

v 2A

(a) We have (a A ) n =

ρA

(2.5 m/s) 2

or ρA =

(9.81 m/s 2 ) sin 15°

or ρ A = 2.46 m

vB2

(b) We have ( aB ) n =

ρB

where Point B is the highest point of the trajectory, so that

vB = (v A ) x = v A sin 15°

[(2.5 m/s) sin 15°]2

Then ρB = = 0.0427 m

9.81 m/s 2

or ρ B = 42.7 mm

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213

PROBLEM 11.145

A golfer hits a golf ball from Point A with an initial velocity of 50 m/s

at an angle of 25° with the horizontal. Determine the radius of curvature

of the trajectory described by the ball (a) at Point A, (b) at the highest

point of the trajectory.

SOLUTION

v 2A

(a) We have (a A ) n =

ρA

(50 m/s)2

or ρA =

(9.81 m/s 2 ) cos 25°

or ρ A = 281 m

vB2

(b) We have ( aB ) n =

ρB

where Point B is the highest point of the trajectory, so that

vB = (v A ) x = v A cos 25°

Then ρB =

9.81 m/s 2

or ρ B = 209 m

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214

PROBLEM 11.146

throws a snowball with a horizontal velocity v0. If the snowball

just passes over the head of child B and hits child C, determine

the radius of curvature of the trajectory described by the snowball

(a) at Point B, (b) at Point C.

SOLUTION

Horizontal motion: v x = v0 x = v0 t

Vertical motion: y0 = 0, (v y ) = 0

1

v y = − gt y = − gt 2

2

2h

t= , where h is the vertical distance fallen.

g

| v y| = 2 gh

Direction of velocity.

v0

cos θ =

v

Direction of normal acceleration.

gv0 v 2

an = g cos θ = =

v ρ

v3

Radius of curvature: ρ=

gv0

At Point B, hB = 1 m; xB = 7 m

(2)(1 m)

tB = = 0.45152 s

9.81 m/s 2

xB 7m

xB = v0t B v0 = = = 15.504 m/s

t B 0.45152 s

vB2 = (15.504) 2 + (2)(9.81)(1) = 259.97 m 2 /s 2

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215

PROBLEM 11.146 (Continued)

(259.97 m 2 /s 2 )3/ 2

ρB = ρ B = 27.6 m

(9.81 m/s 2 )(15.504 m/s)

At Point C hC = 1 m + 2 m = 3 m

(b) Radius of curvature at Point C.

(299.23 m 2 /s 2 )3/2

ρC = ρC = 34.0 m

(9.81 m/s 2 )(15.504 m/s)

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216

PROBLEM 11.147

initial velocity v A = 2 m/s 50° . Determine the radius of

curvature of the trajectory described by the coal (a) at Point A,

(b) at the point of the trajectory 1 m below Point A.

SOLUTION

(a A ) n = g cos 50°

vA2 (2) 2

ρA = = ρ A = 0.634 m

(a A ) n 9.81cos 50°

= 21.97 m 2 /s 2

(vB ) y 4.687

tan θ = = , or θ = 74.6°

(vB ) x 1.286

aB = g cos 74.6°

vB 2 (vB ) 2x + (vB ) 2y

ρB = =

(aB )n g cos 74.6°

(1.286) 2 + 21.97

= ρ B = 9.07 m

9.81cos 74.6°

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217

PROBLEM 11.148

that as the stream of water shown left the nozzle at A,

it had a radius of curvature of 25 m. Determine (a) the

initial velocity vA of the stream, (b) the radius of

curvature of the stream as it reaches its maximum

height at B.

SOLUTION

v 2A

(a) We have (a A ) n =

ρA

4

or v A2 = (9.81 m/s 2 ) (25 m)

5

or v A = 14.0071 m/s

vB2

(b) We have ( aB ) n =

ρB

4

Where vB = ( v A ) x = vA

5

( 4 × 14.0071 m/s )

2

Then ρB = 5

9.81 m/s 2

or ρ B = 12.80 m

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218

PROBLEM 11.149

20 m/s at an angle of 25° with the horizontal. Determine the

velocity of the ball at the points of the trajectory described by the

ball where the radius of curvature is equal to three-quarters of its

value at A.

SOLUTION

Assume that Points B and C are the points of interest, where yB = yC and vB = vC .

v 2A

Now (a A ) n =

ρA

v 2A

or ρA =

g cos 25°

3 3 v A2

Then ρB = ρA =

4 4 g cos 25°

vB2

We have ( aB ) n =

ρB

where (aB ) n = g cos θ

3 v A2 vB2

so that =

4 g cos 25° g cos θ

3 cos θ 2

or vB2 = vA (1)

4 cos 25°

Noting that the horizontal motion is uniform, we have

( v A ) x = ( vB ) x

vA

or cos θ = cos 25°

vB

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219

PROBLEM 11.149 (Continued)

3 vA v A2

vB2 = cos 25°

4 vB cos 25°

3 3

or vB3 = vA

4

3

vB = 3 v A = 18.17 m/s

4

4

cos θ = 3 cos 25°

3

θ = ± 4.04° v B = 18.17 m/s 4.04°

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220

PROBLEM 11.150

initial velocity v 0 . (a) Show that the radius

of curvature of the trajectory of the

projectile reaches its minimum value at

the highest Point B of the trajectory.

(b) Denoting by θ the angle formed by

the trajectory and the horizontal at a given

Point C, show that the radius of curvature

of the trajectory at C is ρ = ρ min /cos3 θ .

SOLUTION

For the arbitrary Point C, we have

vC2

(aC ) n =

ρC

vC2

or ρC =

g cos θ

Noting that the horizontal motion is uniform, we have

(v A ) x = (vC ) x

cos α

or vC = v0

cos θ

2

1 cos α v 2 cos 2 α

so that ρC = v0 = 0

g cos θ cos θ g cos3 θ

(a) In the expression for ρC , v0 , α , and g are constants, so that ρC is minimum where cos θ is

maximum. By observation, this occurs at Point B where θ = 0.

v02 cos 2 α

ρ min = ρ B = Q.E.D.

g

1 v02 cos 2 α

(b) ρC =

cos3 θ g

ρ min

ρC = Q.E.D.

cos3 θ

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221

PROBLEM 11.151*

Determine the radius of curvature of the path described by the particle of Problem 11.95 when t = 0.

PROBLEM 11.95 The three-dimensional motion of a particle is defined by the position vector

r = (Rt cos ωnt)i + ctj + (Rt sin ωnt)k. Determine the magnitudes of the velocity and acceleration of the

particle. (The space curve described by the particle is a conic helix.)

SOLUTION

dr

We have v= = R(cos ωn t − ωn t sin ωn t )i + cj + R (sin ωn t + ωn t cos ωn t )k

dt

dv

and a=

dt

(

= R − ωn sin ωn t − ωn sin ωn t − ωn2t cos ωn t i )

(

+ R ωn cos ωn t + ωn cos ωn t − ωn2 t sin ωn t k )

or a = ωn R [−(2 sin ωn t + ωn t cos ωn t )i + (2 cos ωn t − ωn t sin ωn t ) k ]

(

= R 2 1 + ωn2 t 2 + c 2 )

( )

1/2

Then v = R 2 1 + ωn2 t 2 + c 2

dv R 2ωn2 t

and =

( )

1/ 2

dt 2

R 1 + ωn2 t 2 + c 2

2 2

dv v

2

2

Now a = at2 + an2 = +

dt ρ

dv

At t = 0: =0

dt

a = ωn R(2 k ) or a = 2ωn R

v2 = R2 + c2

dv

Then, with = 0,

dt

v2

we have a=

ρ

R 2 + c2 R 2 + c2

or 2ωn R = ρ=

ρ 2ωn R

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222

PROBLEM 11.152*

Determine the radius of curvature of the path described by the particle of Problem 11.96 when t = 0, A = 3,

and B = 1.

SOLUTION

With A = 3, B =1

we have ( )

r = (3t cos t )i + 3 t 2 + 1 j + (t sin t )k

dr 3t

v= = 3(cos t − t sin t )i + 2 j + (sin t + t cos t )k

t + 1

Now

dt

t

dv t 2

+ 1 − t j

and a= = 3(− sin t − sin t − t cos t )i + 3 t2 + 1

dt 2

t + 1

+ (cos t + cos t − t sin t )k

1

= − 3(2sin t + t cos t )i + 3 2

j

(t + 1)1/2

+ (2 cos t − t sin t )k

t2

Then v 2 = 9 (cos t − t sin t )2 + 9 + (sin t + t cos t )2

t2 + 1

Expanding and simplifying yields

dv 4t 3 + 38t + 8(−2 cos t sin t + 4t 3sin 2 t + 2t 4 sin t cos t ) − 8[(3t 2 + 1)sin 2t + 2(t 3 + t ) cos 2t ]

and =

dt 2[t 4 + 19t 2 + 1 + 8(cos 2 t + t 4 sin 2 t ) − 8(t 3 + t ) sin 2t ]1/ 2

2 2

dv v

2

Now a 2 = at2 + an2 = +

dt ρ

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223

PROBLEM 11.152* (Continued)

At t = 0: a = 3j + 2k

or a = 13 ft/s 2

dv

=0

dt

v 2 = 9 (ft/s) 2

dv

Then, with = 0,

dt

v2

we have a=

ρ

9 ft 2 /s 2

or ρ= ρ = 2.50 ft

13 ft/s 2

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224

PROBLEM 11.153

A satellite will travel indefinitely in a circular orbit around a planet if the normal component of the

acceleration of the satellite is equal to g ( R /r ) 2 , where g is the acceleration of gravity at the surface of the

planet, R is the radius of the planet, and r is the distance from the center of the planet to the satellite. Knowing

that the diameter of the sun is 1.39 Gm and that the acceleration of gravity at its surface is 274 m/s 2 ,

determine the radius of the orbit of the indicated planet around the sun assuming that the orbit is circular.

SOLUTION

1 1

and R= D = (1.39 × 109 ) = 0.695 × 109 m

2 2

gR 2 v2

Given that an = and that for a circular orbit a n =

r2 r

gR 2

Eliminating an and solving for r, r =

v2

For the planet Earth, v = 107 × 106 m/h = 29.72 × 103 m/s

(274)(0.695 × 109 ) 2

Then r = = 149.8 × 109 m r = 149.8 Gm

(29.72 × 103 ) 2

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225

PROBLEM 11.154

A satellite will travel indefinitely in a circular orbit around a planet if the normal component of the

acceleration of the satellite is equal to g ( R /r ) 2 , where g is the acceleration of gravity at the surface of the

planet, R is the radius of the planet, and r is the distance from the center of the planet to the satellite. Knowing

that the diameter of the sun is 1.39 Gm and that the acceleration of gravity at its surface is 274 m/s 2 ,

determine the radius of the orbit of the indicated planet around the sun assuming that the orbit is circular.

SOLUTION

1 1

and R= D = (1.39 × 109 ) = 0.695 × 109 m

2 2

gR 2 v2

Given that an = .and that for a circular orbit: a n =

r2 r

gR 2

Eliminating an and solving for r, r =

v2

For the planet Saturn, v = 34.7 × 106 m/h = 9.639 × 103 m/s

(274)(0.695 × 109 ) 2

Then, r = = 1.425 × 1012 m r = 1425 Gm

(9.639 × 103 )2

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226

PROBLEM 11.155

Determine the speed of a satellite relative to the indicated planet if the satellite is to travel indefinitely in a

circular orbit 100 mi above the surface of the planet. (See information given in Problems 11.153–11.154).

SOLUTION

gR 2

From Problems 11.153 and 11.154, an =

r2

v2

For a circular orbit, an =

r

g

Eliminating an and solving for v, v= R

r

29.20

Then, v = 19.858 × 106 = 23.766 × 103 ft/s

20.386 × 106

v = 16200 mi/h

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227

PROBLEM 11.156

Determine the speed of a satellite relative to the indicated planet if the satellite is to travel indefinitely in a

circular orbit 100 mi above the surface of the planet. (See information given in Problems 11.153–11.154).

SOLUTION

gR 2

From Problems 11.153 and 11.154, an =

r2

v2

For a circular orbit, an =

r

g

Eliminating an and solving for v, v= R

r

12.17

Then, v = 11.0986 × 106 = 11.35 × 103 ft/s

11.6266 × 106

v = 7740 mi/h

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228

PROBLEM 11.157

Determine the speed of a satellite relative to the indicated planet if the satellite is to travel indefinitely in a

circular orbit 100 mi above the surface of the planet. (See information given in Problems 11.153–11.154).

SOLUTION

gR 2

From Problems 11.153 and 11.154, an =

r2

v2

For a circular orbit, an =

r

g

Eliminating an and solving for v, v= R

r

75.35

Then, v = (234.60 × 106 ) 6

= 132.8 × 103 ft/s

235.13 × 10

v = 90600 mi/h

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229

PROBLEM 11.158

A satellite is traveling in a circular orbit around Mars at an altitude of 300 km. After the altitude of the satellite

is adjusted, it is found that the time of one orbit has increased by 10 percent. Knowing that the radius of Mars

is 3382 km, determine the new altitude of the satellite. (See information given in Problems 11.153–11.155.)

SOLUTION

R2 v2

We have an = g and an =

r2 r

R2 v2

Then g =

r2 r

g

v=R where r =R+h

r

The circumference s of a circular orbit is equal to

s = 2π r

Assuming that the speed of the satellite in each orbit is constant, we have

s = vtorbit

Substituting for s and v

g

2π r = R torbit

r

2π r 3/2

torbit =

R g

2π ( R + h)3/2

=

R g

2π ( R + h2 )3/2 2π ( R + h1 )3/2

= 1.1

R g R g

h2 = (1.1)2/3 ( R + h1 ) − R

= (1.1)2/3 (3382 + 300) km − (3382 km)

h2 = 542 km

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230

PROBLEM 11.159

Knowing that the radius of the earth is 6370 km, determine the time of one orbit of the Hubble Space

Telescope, knowing that the telescope travels in a circular orbit 590 km above the surface of the earth.

(See information given in Problems 11.153–11.155.)

SOLUTION

R2 v2

We have an = g and an =

r2 r

R2 v2

Then g =

r2 r

g

or v=R where r =R+h

r

The circumference s of the circular orbit is equal to

s = 2π r

Assuming that the speed of the telescope is constant, we have

s = vtorbit

Substituting for s and v

g

2π r = R torbit

r

2π r 3/2

or torbit =

R g

2π [(6370 + 590) km]3/2 1h

= −3 2 1/2

×

6370 km [9.81 × 10 km/s ] 3600 s

or torbit = 1.606 h

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231

PROBLEM 11.160

Satellites A and B are traveling in the same plane in circular orbits around

the earth at altitudes of 120 and 200 mi, respectively. If at t = 0 the

satellites are aligned as shown and knowing that the radius of the earth is

R = 3960 mi, determine when the satellites will next be radially aligned.

(See information given in Problems 11.153–11.155.)

SOLUTION

R2 v2

We have an = g and an =

r2 r

R2 v2 g

Then g = or v=R

r2 r r

where r =R+h

equal to s = 2π r

s = vT

g

2π r = R T

r

2π r 3/ 2 2π ( R + h)3/2

or T= =

R g R g

Next let time TC be the time at which the satellites are next radially aligned. Then, if in time TC satellite B

completes N orbits, satellite A must complete ( N + 1) orbits.

Thus,

TC = N (T ) B = ( N + 1)(T ) A

2π ( R + hB )3/2 2π ( R + hA )3/2

or N = ( N + 1)

R g R g

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232

PROBLEM 11.160 (Continued)

( R + hA )3/2 1

or N= =

( )

3/ 2 3/2 3/2

( R + hB ) − ( R + hA ) R + hB

−1

R + hA

1

= = 33.835 orbits

( )

3/2

3960 + 200

3960 +120

−1

2π ( R + hB )3/2

Then TC = N (T ) B = N

R g

= 33.835

2π [(3960 + 200) mi] × 1 h 3/2

(

3960 mi 32.2 ft/s 2 × 1 mi 1/2 3600s

5280 ft )

or TC = 51.2 h

Alternative solution

From above, we have (T ) B > (T ) A . Thus, when the satellites are next radially aligned, the angles θ A and θ B

swept out by radial lines drawn to the satellites must differ by 2π . That is,

θ A = θ B + 2π

For a circular orbit s = rθ

g

From above s = vt and v = R

r

s vt 1 g R g R g

Then θ= = = R

t = 3/2 t = t

r r r r r ( R + h)3/2

R g R g

At time TC : 3/2

TC = TC + 2π

( R + hA ) ( R + hB )3/ 2

2π

or TC =

R g 1 − 1

( R + hA )3/ 2 ( R + hB )3/ 2

2π

=

( )

1/2

(3960 mi) 32.2 ft/s 2 × 5280

1 mi

ft

1

× 1

− 1

[(3960 + 120) mi ]3/ 2 [(3960 + 200) mi ]3/ 2

1h

×

3600 s

or TC = 51.2 h

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233

PROBLEM 11.161

where θ and t are expressed in radians and seconds, respectively. Collar B slides

along the rod so that its distance from O is r = 6(1 − e−2t ) where r and t

are expressed in inches and seconds, respectively. When t = 1 s, determine (a) the

velocity of the collar, (b) the acceleration of the collar, (c) the acceleration of the

collar relative to the rod.

SOLUTION

Calculate the derivatives with respect to time.

3

r = 6 − 6e −2t in. θ= sin π t rad

π

r = 12e −2t in/s θ = 3cosπ t rad/s

r = −24e−2t in/s 2 θ = −3π sin π t rad/s2

At t = 1 s,

3

r = 6 − 6e −2 = 5.1880 in. θ= sin π = 0

π

r = 12e −2 = 1.6240 in/s θ = 3cos π = −3 rad/s

r = −24e−2 = −3.2480 in/s 2

θ = −3π sin π = 0

(a) Velocity of the collar.

v = rer + rθeθ = 1.6240 e r + (5.1880)(−3)eθ

(b) Acceleration of the collar.

= [ −3.2480 − (5.1880)( −3) 2 ]er + (5.1880)(0) + (2)(1.6240)(−3)]eθ

(c) Acceleration of the collar relative to the rod.

a B /OA =

re r a B /OA = (−3.25 in/s 2 )er

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234

PROBLEM 11.162

θ and t are expressed in radians and seconds, respectively. Collar B slides along

the rod so that its distance from O is r = 2.5t 3 − 5t 2 , where r and t are expressed

in inches and seconds, respectively. When t = 1 s, determine (a) the velocity of the

collar, (b) the acceleration of the collar, (c) the radius of curvature of the path of

the collar.

SOLUTION

Calculate the derivatives with respect to time.

r = 2.5t 3 − 5t 2 θ = t 3 − 4t

r = 7.5t 2 − 10t θ = 3t 2 − 4

r = 15t − 10 θ = 6t

At t = 1 s,

r = 2.5 − 5 = −2.5 in. θ = 1 − 4 = −3 rad

r = 7.5 − 10 = −2.5 in./s θ = 3 − 4 = −1 rad/s

r = 15 − 10 = 5 in./s 2 θ = 6 rad/s 2

(a) Velocity of the collar.

v = rer + rθeθ = −2.5er + (−2.5)( −1)eθ

v

et = = −0.70711e r + 0.70711eθ

v

(b) Acceleration of the collar.

= [5 − (−2.5)(−1)2 ]er + [(−2.5)(6) + (2)(−2.5)(−1)]eθ

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235

PROBLEM 11.162 (Continued)

v2

an =

ρ

v 2 (3.5355 in./s) 2

ρ= = ρ = 7.07 in.

an 1.7674 in./s 2

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236

PROBLEM 11.163

r = 2/(2 − cos π t ) and θ = π t , where r is expressed in meters, t is

in seconds, and θ is in radians. Determine the velocity and the

acceleration of the particle when (a) t = 0, (b) t = 0.5 s.

SOLUTION

2

We have r= θ = πt

2 − cos π t

−2π sin π t

Then r = θ = π

(2 − cos π t )2

and r = −2π θ = 0

(2 − cos π t )3

2cos π t − 1 − sin 2 π t

= −2π 2

(2 − cos π t )3

(a) At t = 0: r=2m θ =0

r = 0 θ = π rad/s

r = −2π 2 m/s 2 θ = 0

Now v = rer + rθeθ = (2)(π )eθ

or v = (2π m/s)eθ

= [ −2π 2 − (2)(π )2 ]er

π

(b) At t = 0.5 s: r =1 m θ= rad

2

−2π π

r = 2

= − m/s θ = π rad/s

(2) 2

−1 − 1 π 2

r = −2π 2 3

= m/s 2 θ = 0

(2) 2

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237

PROBLEM 11.163 (Continued)

π

Now v = rer + rθeθ = − e r + (1)(π )eθ

2

π

or v = − m/s er + (π m/s)eθ

2

π 2 π

= − (1)(π ) 2 e r + 2 − (π ) eθ

2 2

π2

or a = − m/s 2 er − (π 2 m/s 2 )eθ

2

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238

PROBLEM 11.164

The two-dimensional motion of a particle is defined by the relations r = 2a cos θ and θ = bt 2 /2, where a and b

are constants. Determine (a) the magnitudes of the velocity and acceleration at any instant, (b) the radius of

curvature of the path. What conclusion can you draw regarding the path of the particle?

SOLUTION

1

(a) We have r = 2a cos θ θ = bt 2

2

Then r = −2aθ sin θ θ = bt

and r = −2a (θ sin θ + θ 2 cos θ )

θ = b

r = −2abt sin θ

r = −2ab(sin θ + bt 2 cos θ )

or v = 2abt

= −2ab(sin θ + 2bt 2 cos θ )

= −2ab(cos θ − 2bt 2 sin θ )

Then

+ (cos θ − 2bt 2 sin θ ) 2 ]1/2

or a = 2ab 1 + 4b 2 t 4

2 2

dv v

2

2

(b) Now a = at2 + an2 = +

dt ρ

dv d

Then = (2abt ) = 2ab

dt dt

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239

PROBLEM 11.164 (Continued)

( )

2

so that 2ab 1 + 4b 2 t 4 = (2ab) 2 + an2

or 4a 2b 2 (1 + 4b 2t 4 ) = 4a 2 b 2 + an2

or an = 4ab 2 t 2

v2 (2abt ) 2

Finally an = ρ=

ρ 4ab 2 t 2

or ρ =a

Since the radius of curvature is a constant, the path is a circle of radius a.

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240

PROBLEM 11.165

As rod OA rotates, pin P moves along the parabola BCD. Knowing that the

equation of this parabola is r = 2b /(1 + cos θ ) and that θ = kt , determine the

velocity and acceleration of P when (a) θ = 0, (b) θ = 90°.

SOLUTION

2b

r= θ = kt

1 + cos kt

2bk sin kt

r = θ = k θ = 0

(1 + cos kt ) 2

2bk

r = [(1 + cos kt )2 k cos kt + (sin kt )2(1 + cos kt )( k sin kt )]

(1 + cos kt ) 4

(a) When θ = kt = 0:

2bk 1

r =b r = 0

r= 4

[(2)2 k (1) + 0] = bk 2

(2) 2

θ =0 θ = k θ = 0

vr = r = 0 vθ = rθ = bk v = bk eθ

1 1

r − rθ 2 = bk 2 − bk 2 = − bk 2

ar = 1

2 2 a = − bk 2 er

2

aθ = rθ + 2rθ = b(0) + 2(0) = 0

(b) When θ = kt = 90°:

2bk

r = 2b r = 2bk r = [0 + 2k ] = 4bk 2

19

θ = 90° θ = k θ = 0

a = rθ + 2rθ = 2b(0) + 2(2bk )k = 4bk 2

θ a = 2bk 2 e r + 4bk 2 eθ

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241

PROBLEM 11.166

The pin at B is free to slide along the circular slot DE and along the

rotating rod OC. Assuming that the rod OC rotates at a constant rate θ,

(a) show that the acceleration of pin B is of constant magnitude,

(b) determine the direction of the acceleration of pin B.

SOLUTION

From the sketch:

r = 2b cos θ

r = −2b sin θ θ

a = −4b cos θ θ 2

r

a = −4b sin θ θ 2

θ

a = 4bθ 2

Since both b and θ are constant, we find that

a = constant

aθ −4b sin θ θ 2

γ = tan −1 = tan −1

2

ar −4b cos θ θ

γ = tan −1 (tan θ )

γ =θ

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242

PROBLEM 11.167

positioned at Point A. The camera is mounted on a mechanism

which permits it to record the motion of the car as the car

travels on straightway BC. Determine (a) the speed of the car

in terms of b, θ , and θ, (b) the magnitude of the acceleration

in terms of b, θ , θ, and θ.

SOLUTION

b

(a) We have r=

cos θ

bθ sin θ

Then r =

cos 2 θ

2

bθ sin θ bθ 2

= +

cos θ cos θ

2

= 2

+ 1 =

cos θ cos θ 2 4

cos θ

bθ

or v=±

cos 2θ

bθ

For the position of the car shown, θ is decreasing; thus, the negative root is chosen. v=−

cos 2θ

Alternative solution.

From the diagram r = −v sin θ

bθ sin θ

or = −v sin θ

cos 2θ

bθ

or v=−

cos 2θ

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243

PROBLEM 11.167 (Continued)

dv

(b) For rectilinear motion a=

dt

Using the answer from Part a

bθ

v=−

cos 2θ

d bθ

Then a= −

dt cos 2θ

θ cos 2θ − θ(−2θ cos θ sin θ )

= −b

cos 4θ

b

or a=− (θ + 2θ 2 tan θ )

cos 2θ

Alternative solution

b bθ sin θ

From above r= r =

cos θ cos 2 θ

(θ sin θ + θ 2 cos θ )(cos 2θ ) − (θ sin θ )(−2θ cos θ sin θ )

Then r = b

cos 4θ

θ sin θ θ 2 (1 + sin 2 θ )

= b 2

+

cos θ cos3θ

θ sin θ θ 2 (1 + sin 2 θ ) bθ 2

where ar = r − rθ 2 = b + −

cos θ

2

cos θ cos 2θ

b 2θ 2 sin 2 θ

= θ sin θ +

cos 2θ cos θ

b sin θ

ar = 2

(θ + 2θ 2 tan θ )

cos θ

bθ bθ 2 sin θ

and aθ = rθ + 2rθ = +2

cos θ cos 2θ

b cos θ

= (θ + 2θ tan θ )

cos 2θ

b

Then a=± 2

(θ + 2θ 2 tan θ )[(sin θ ) 2 + (cos θ )2 ]1/ 2

cos θ

For the position of the car shown, θ is negative; for a to be positive, the negative root is chosen.

b

a=− (θ + 2θ 2 tan θ )

cos 2 θ

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244

PROBLEM 11.168

a straight line at a constant angle β . Its

flight is tracked by radar from Point A.

Determine the speed of the helicopter

in terms of d, β , θ , and θ.

SOLUTION

From the diagram

r d

=

sin (180° − β ) sin ( β − θ )

or d sin β = r (sin β cos θ − cos β sin θ )

tan β

or r=d

tan β cos θ − sin θ

Then r = d tan β θ

(tan β cos θ − sin θ )2

tan β sin θ + cos θ

= dθ tan β

(tan β cos θ − sin θ ) 2

From the diagram

vr = v cos ( β − θ ) where vr = r

Then

tan β sin θ + cos θ

dθ tan β = v(cos β cos θ + sin β sin θ )

(tan β cos θ − sin θ )2

= v cos β (tan β sin θ + cos θ )

or v=

(tan β cosθ − sin θ )2

Alternative solution.

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245

PROBLEM 11.168 (Continued)

2

tan β sin θ + cos θ

v = dθ tan β

(tan β cos θ − sin θ ) 2

1/ 2

dθ tan β (tan β sin θ + cos θ )2

or v=± + 1

(tan β cos θ − sin θ ) (tan β cos θ − sin θ ) 2

1/ 2

dθ tan β tan 2 β + 1

=± 2

(tan β cos θ − sin θ ) (tan β cos θ − sin θ )

Note that as θ increases, the helicopter moves in the indicated direction. Thus, the positive root is chosen.

dθ tan β sec β

v=

(tan β cos θ − sin θ )2

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246

PROBLEM 11.169

airplane has a horizontal velocity of 315 mi/h

and is speeding up at a rate of 10 ft/s2. The

radius of curvature of the loop is 1 mi. The

plane is being tracked by radar at O. What are

r , θ and θ for this

the recorded values of r,

instant?

SOLUTION

Geometry. The polar coordinates are

1800

r = (2400) 2 + (1800)2 = 3000 ft θ = tan −1 = 36.87°

2400

vr = 462 cos θ = 369.6 ft/s

vθ = −462sin θ = −277.2 ft/s

vr = r r = 370 ft/s

vθ 277.2

vθ = rθ θ = =−

r 3000

θ = −0.0924 rad/s

Acceleration analysis. at = 10 ft/s 2

v2 (462) 2

an = = = 40.425 ft/s 2

ρ 5280

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247

PROBLEM 11.169 (Continued)

aθ = − at sin θ + an cos θ = −10 sin 36.87° + 40.425 cos 36.87° = 26.34 ft/s 2

r − rθ 2

ar = r = ar + rθ 2

r = 32.255 + (3000)( −0.0924) 2

r = 57.9 ft/s 2

aθ = rθ + 2rθ

a 2rθ

θ = θ −

r r

26.34 (2)(369.6)(−0.0924)

= − θ = 0.0315 rad/s 2

3000 3000

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248

PROBLEM 11.170

which rotates at the constant rate ω. At the instant when β = 60°,

determine (a) r and θ, (b)

r and θ. Express your answers in terms

of d and ω.

SOLUTION

Looking at d and β as polar coordinates with d = 0,

vβ = d β = d ω, vd = d = 0

aβ = d β + 2d β = 0, ad = d − d β 2 = −d ω 2

vr = r = v ⋅ er = d ω cos120°

1

r = − d ω

2

3

dω cos 30° dω 2 1

θ = = θ = ω

r d 3 2

3

ar = a ⋅ e r = a cos150° = − dω 2

2

3

r − rθ2 = −

d ω2

2

2

3 3 1

r =− dω 2 + rθ 2 = − dω 2 + d 3 ω

2 2 2

3

r = − dω 2

4

1

aθ = a ⋅ eθ = d ω 2 cos120° = − d ω 2

2

a = rθ + 2rθ

θ

1 1 1 1 1

θ = (aθ − 2rθ) = 2

− d ω − (2) − d ω ω θ = 0

r 3d 2 2 2

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249

PROBLEM 11.171

took 0.5 s for the car to travel from the position θ = 60° to

the position θ = 35°. Knowing that b = 25 m, determine

the average speed of the car during the 0.5-s interval.

a high-speed camera is positioned at Point A. The camera

is mounted on a mechanism which permits it to record the

motion of the car as the car travels on straightway BC.

Determine (a) the speed of the car in terms of b, θ , and

θ, (b) the magnitude of the acceleration in terms of b, θ ,

θ, and θ.

SOLUTION

= 25.796 m

Δr12

Now vave =

Δt12

25.796 m

=

0.5 s

= 51.592 m/s

or vave = 185.7 km/h

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