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IMPLEMENTING CULTURAL-MODEL APPROACH IN TEACHING

READING SHORT STORY:

A CASE STUDY IN A JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN BANDUNG

By:

Deasy Eka Fitriani

1103505

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION AND LITERATURE

INDONESIA UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION

2017

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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research is to find the significance of implementation of


cultural approach in teaching reading short story. The research was conducted in
two eighth grade classes at SMP N 12 Bandung. The research employed the
pretest and post test as the main data and questionnaire given to the experiment
group as the secondary data. The research finds that there is a significance effect
on implementing the cultural approach in teaching reading short story.

Keywords: teaching, short story, EFL, culture.

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TABLE OF CONTENT

ABSTRACT............................................................................................................ ii
TABLE OF CONTENT ......................................................................................... iii
LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................. v
LIST OF GRAPHS ................................................................................................ vi
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Background .............................................................................................. 1
1.2 Statement of Problems.............................................................................. 3
1.3 Hypotheses ............................................................................................... 3
1.4 Significance of the Study ......................................................................... 4
1.5 Clarification of Terms .............................................................................. 4
THEORETICAL REVIEW..................................................................................... 6
2.1. Literature .................................................................................................. 6
2.2. Culture ...................................................................................................... 7
2.3. Reading..................................................................................................... 9
2.4. Teaching Reading................................................................................... 10
2.5. Teaching Literature through Culture ...................................................... 11
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ...................................................................... 16
3.1. Research Design ..................................................................................... 16
3.1.1. Method ............................................................................................ 16
3.2. Data Collection....................................................................................... 17
3.3. Research Procedure ................................................................................ 17
3.4. Learning Design ..................................................................................... 18
3.4.1. Planning Phase ................................................................................ 18
3.5.2. Research Site................................................................................... 19
3.6. Samples and population.......................................................................... 19
3.6.1. Populations...................................................................................... 19
3.6.2. Samples ........................................................................................... 20
3.7. Research Variables ................................................................................. 20

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3.8. Data Collection....................................................................................... 20
3.8.1. Data Collection Techniques ............................................................ 21
3.9. Data Analysis Technique........................................................................ 22
3.9.1. Pre-requirement Test....................................................................... 22
3.9.2. Hypothesis Testing.......................................................................... 23
3.10. Statistical Hypothesis.......................................................................... 23
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS........................................................................ 25
4.1. The Class Sessions ................................................................................. 25
4.2. Descriptive Statistic Result .................................................................... 26
4.3. Hypothesis Testing ................................................................................. 29
4.4. Discussion .............................................................................................. 33
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION ................................................................. 36
REFERENCES.................................................................................................... 38
APPENDICES ...................................................................................................... 42

iv
LIST OF TABLES

v
LIST OF GRAPHS

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INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background

Human is a special creature created by god to reach purpose in this life.


Human lives on earth with one another, this is why communication is needed.
Communication by its sense function is a tool to express ideas, values, and way of
life.

Many creatures produce sounds that are used as a communication tool,


including human. Language is used by human to express ideas and to
communicate with other ones. This is why the very meaning of language is sounds
that have meanings. Later on, as the human civilization grew, the writing system
is developed. This helps human to communicate, express ideas and feeling trans-
geographical, and generation. That is one of the reasons reading is a key to open
up and learn from other people. Every day, people convey their thoughts and
feelings using language oral and written including stories that reflect their way of
living.

Literature has been in the life of the human. Poets, short stories, novel and
its kinds cannot be separated from human and humanity at large. People use
stories for centuries in a purpose of entertainment, education and as preservation
to ideas and values. Short stories are one piece of fiction that is can be read in one
sitting. It emerges in the 17th century from the story telling, even though there is
no limitation of number of words used. The difference is stories are told in written
form and reading it is the way to feel the experience.

Learners are mostly in need of developing cultural awareness and cultural


sensitiveness. Teacher’s task is to make students aware of cultural differences, not
giving false judgment by learning it.

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Reading has been a part of human life. Reading is acquiring information
and knowledge regarding certain things through written words. Reading can be
functions both as instrumental and for pleasurable purpose (Harmer; 1991).

Short story as a form of literatures has its own characteristics and


uniqueness. It requires the reader’s understanding to grasp the experience and
learning from the text. Many experts interpret short stories in their own
understanding. Short story can be a form of short narrative. In a literature point of
view, it can be defined as “a work of fiction that is categorized by its length.
Despite their brevity, short stories are complete works of fiction generally
exhibiting the common literary devices of character, setting, plot, conflict, and
theme” (Hansen, 2015)

Teaching reading especially short story requires effort from both teacher
and students to maximize the learning experience. Short story is an authentic
learning material which would give students real experience with the language.

McNamara (2009) stated that there are many reasons why students cannot
afford to understand text; lack of language comprehension, failed to relate the
each sentence with the other, and within the real life situation.

Strategy and approaches in teaching reading is crucial as it can affect the


way students’ learning experience. McNamara (2009) believed that there are
many students’ that counters the roadblock in reading, thus strategy and choosing
the appropriate and maximize the students’ learning potential is a must.

In the classroom, teaching literary text is best conducted in integrated way


meaning that the purpose of using literary text; as language model, a cultural
source and personal growth model proposed by Carter and Long can be
implemented.

Many research findings show the positive outcome in using culture model
approach in teaching English. Sun (2013) stated “One of the basic purposes of
learning a language is able to communicate in the target language, to learn the

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customs and tradition of the speech community, and to promote one’s study and
work”. Intercultural communicative competence needs to be the focus of foreign
language teachers to help the learner. However, the culture learning is always a
question by the teachers around the world.

There are several research conducted before that accounts the importance
of using culture in teaching and learning. Rezaee and Farahian’s research in 2011
conducted the research titled “Teaching Culture Explicitly through Literature to
EFL Learners” resulted in positive improvement on understanding of culture and
its context in the fiction literatures. Stavik’s research in 2015 titled “Reading
Literature in the EFL Classroom” accounts the importance of literature effect on
teaching the language. The subject is the EFL Teachers. The result is the teachers
believe that blending the culture can improve the learning aims as a whole.
Another research conducted by Erten and Razin in 2009 titled “The Effects of
Cultural Familiarity on Reading Comprehension” resulted in the positive attitude
in improving the reading comprehension. The difference here is the researchers
nativize the literary text to make the students easier to understand.

Those previous researches give significance positive contribution to


learning literature and its role in classrooms. This present study wishes to give
another contribution in learning the literature especially short stories in the
Indonesian context.

1.2 Statement of Problems


This study wishes to find out:
Does implementation of cultural approach gives significance improvement on
students’ comprehension in reading short stories?

1.3 Hypotheses
Related to some problems within this study, the hypotheses are made to
answer the question. It functions as temporary answer to the question.

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Ho : There is no significance in experiment group students’ comprehension
score in reading short story after using cultural approach treatment between
control class and experimental class.

Ha : There is significance in experiment group students’ comprehension score


in reading short story after using cultural approach treatment between control
class and experimental class.

Ho : µ1= µ2
Ha : µ1 ≠ µ2

1.4 Significance of the Study


The study is believed to give some significance for the theoretical, practical
and professional benefit.
1. Theoretical Benefit
The findings from this research can be used as contributions towards the
future researches in related topics.
2. Practical Benefit
The research findings will be useful for teachers, students and those who
interested in literary text teaching.
3. Professional Benefit
The research finding can help the teacher to improve the quality of
teaching and learning.

1.5 Clarification of Terms


1. Literature : Written artistic works, especially those with a high
lasting artistic value (Cambridge Advanced
Learner’s Dictionary).
2. Cultural Model : An approach requires the students to explore the
social, political, literary and social context of the
text. It encourages students to learn other cultures
(Savvidou, 2004).
3. Short Story : A brief fictional prose narrative text that is shorter

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than a novel and that usually deals with only a few
characters. It is usually concerned with a single
effect conveyed in only one or few significant
episodes or scenes (Encyclopedia of Britannica).

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THEORETICAL REVIEW

2.1.Literature
Literature lives in our life. Schwarz (2008) stated literature is by humans,
for humans, and about humans. Reading a literature text the readers ought to
consider the motive on “always historicize” meaning understanding an artist
within its historical and cultural context as well as being aware of the evolving
responses. Several interpretations on why literature matters in life have shaped it
till now.
Literature is a window onto who we were and we are (Schwarz, 2008). In
reading and teaching, one must strike the balance between addressing the ethical
and political issues raised by artistic works and forms by which those issues are
presented. Culturally, one should focus on the historical and social context in
which humans function.
Eagleton (2007) believes that literature is not merely the fiction text in
implying the truth factors both in fiction and non-fiction text. Russian’ formalist
linguists such as Shlovsky, Jakobson, Brik, Tynyanov, Eichenbaum and
Tomashevsky believed in different ideas on literature, meaning that from a
linguistic point of view the literature text uses creative and more imaginative
language features. It transforms and intensifies language from everyday’s
language. Here they believe literature is no different from non-fiction as they
possess its own rules, structures, and specific learning tools. Literature is not a
vehicle for ideas and social reality reflection. Literature text can be counted as
fact. Essentially formalist view put the concern on the language features on
language in forming the content.
Eagleton (2007) also stated that there is another meaning of literature, that
is called self-referential or a language that talks to itself. His view is based on
non-pragmatic where one is focused more on how a text is delivered rather than
the content of the text. This put the literature’s definition on how the readers

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perceived it. Here the readers may think of literature as a quality set to connect
them to the text.
There are several cases where a text can be perceived as a literature
because of various reasons. In this condition, Eagleton (2007) believed it is safe
to say that literature is a text that considered high and helpful.
Various interpretation of literature above, essentially resulted in literature
is not a stable entity. It is heavily on readers’ choice based on their consideration.
Still, those views may complete each other and can be used in interpreting the use
of literature in language learning.
In a report of Singapore Education Policy Meeting in 2009, How &
Samsudin (2016) believe that literature goes beyond on whom did what on
whence. It has a deeper meaning than as it functions to build society. Aczona
(2009) believed that literature transmits the one generation through another.
Literature allows human to define the meaning of culture and social building.
There are many kinds of literature, as the human civilization developed.
One of them is short stories. Hansen (2015) in his statement said that “short story
is brief fictional prose narrative text that is shorter than a novel and that usually
deals with only a few characters. It is usually concerned with a single effect
conveyed in only one or few significant episodes or scenes.”

2.2.Culture
Culture may be interpreted differently by different people. Several
definitions arise as culture is something that cannot be defined statically. In an
anthropological sense culture can be defined as the way we live (Chastain, 1988).
Quinn and Holland (1989) stated people extent the meaning of culture in their
own comprehension of particular encountered experiences. Nostrand (1989, in
Kramsch, 1996) define culture from two perspectives; “(a) in humanities, as it
focuses in the way a social group represents itself and others through its material
reproduction and preservation towards history, and (b) in social sciences, it refers
to what educators called it as “a ground meaning”, i.e the attitudes and beliefs,
ways of thinking, behaving and remembering shared by that community”.

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Brown (1994) relates his view of culture with language with stating “culture is
deeply ingrained part of our being, but language, the means for communication
among members of a culture is the most visible and available expression of that
culture. And so a person’s world view, self-identity, and system of thinking,
acting, and feeling can be disrupted by a change from one culture to another.”

However, we cannot neglect on what can be enhanced from literature. A


central aims in learning foreign languages is to introducing the students into the
experience of otherness. Stavik (2015) believe that the students learning how to
speak with the TL speakers to be able to mediate the TL speakers and non TL
speakers. In this respective areas the enhancement of intercultural competence is
needed. Byram (1997) proposed the model of intercultural competence framework
as it can be observe below.

Table 1.1. Byram’s Intercultural Competence

In the first category the education it implies on the declarative knowledge


between the speakers brings included the cultures and interaction process between
individual and societal level.

The second category, the attitude serves in developing the attitude towards
the other culture. In other words, the learners need to reconsider and analyzing the

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TL from their perspective point of view. This is important, as the development of
critical culture does not happen without openness and curiosity.

The third category, Byram(1997) emphasizes on the critical cultural


awareness of the learners. It pushes the students to evaluate critically of the
practice of their cultures and other cultures.

The last category is the skill that serves wider purpose than the other four
aspects. Byram (1997) notes that the learning aspects may be required inside and
outside of the school. However, when this is implemented in schools in teaching
and learning, surely it will be responsibility of the institution that not merely
served as functional or utilitarian purposes.

In relation of using this model in the teaching language, surely it will give
the ground driver to enhance the language skills as it will support the aims of
education as a whole which will be explained further in the section later below.

2.3.Reading

Reading can be defined in many ways. Generally, it can be defined as “a


process of identifying written or printed text to understand its meaning (Setiadi,
2013). Many experts contribute their understanding in this matter. Reading is a
unique activity and inquiry process. Schoenbach, et. al (1999) outlined reading as
more than just a basic skill as it is a complex process to get the experience from
the text. It is also stated that reading requires readers to solve the problem as
people need to make sense of the ideas of the text, thus, reading is not merely a
decoding process.

Singha (1998; cited in Setiadi, 2013) believed that “reading is a complex


process which depends upon the individual’s language development, experiential
background, cognitive ability and attitude towards reading”. This is explained
reading is a complex process that interconnects the personal experience with the
content delivered within a text.

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Reading is also an interactive process. Carrell and Eisterhold (1983; as
cited in Setiadi, 2013) propose the term “interactive” that may refer to the
existence of giving and taking process between readers and the writer through the
text. It is an active attempt on how the readers perceived the writer’s message
(Robinson & Smith, 1980; cited in Astuti, 2016).

Reading literature is a travel process. Schwarz (2008) stated reading is


much like a travel. He believes “It is an experience through text is always journey
we share with authors, but it is also a journey we take alone. We need to think of
our readings as odysseys with their own beginnings and endings. When we begin
the book, we seal ourselves off from other worlds, just as when we take the trip to
a different society and culture”. It is a dialogue between reader and writer;
readers bring their imagination, memories, and thinking process, moral and social
values, historical knowledge (Klinkenborg, 2004).

2.4.Teaching Reading

Some people undertake reading as a challenging process. Therefore,


learning and teaching on how to read is not an easy task. Harmer (1998) stated
there are six principles on teaching reading, such as:

1. Reading is not a passive skill


Reading is an active occupation that requires the read the combination of
written words but also to understand the arguments.
2. Students need to be engaged with what they are reading
Reading lesson should be engaging for students. Interest in a text is crucial
to invite students’ attention to reading activities.
3. Students should be encouraged to respond to the content of a reading text
Giving response towards the reading is expected from the students.
4. Prediction is a major factor in meaning
Teachers should give the students any “hints”. Encouraging students to
predict what they are going to read.

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5. Match the tasks to the topic
Teachers should provide related tasks to the topic that they read. Choosing
appropriate tasks and the right kind of questions would excite the students
in learning.
6. Good teachers exploit reading to the full
Good teachers integrated reading text into an interesting class sequence.
2.5.Teaching Literature through Culture

Teaching short story as literature often neglected especially in ESL/EFL


classroom. Short (1996) classifies the discourse into literary and non-literary.
This affects the historic distinction that differs literary text teaching from non
literary text (Carter and McRae, 1996). However Carter and Nash (as cited in
Savvidou) believes “rather than separating literary teaching and non literary
teaching, teachers need to consider the variety text types along a continuum with
some being more literary than others. This view is part of the idea that separation
of literature from language is false dualism since literature is language and
language can indeed be literary”.

Naturally, a short story as one kind of literature is after all an authentic


text. Nunan in McGrath (2006) stated authentic materials are those which have
been produced for purposes other than teach language. McGrath (2006) added
“authenticity is felt so be important because it gives learners a taste of real world,
an opportunity to rehearse in a sheltered environment”.

Mainly, teachers use lecturing as a main technique in teaching including


teaching literature. In this technique, the teachers explain and the students listen
to the teacher. It is heavily based on eastern view and conventional view of
education, where the teachers are the source of knowledge and students are
expected to accept the knowledge solely from the teacher (Kuzu, 2008 as cited in
Astuti, 2016).

For years experts had developed methodological approaches towards


teaching literature. Maley’s (1989) had developed a critical literary approach and

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stylistic approach, whereas Amer (2003; as cited in Astuti, 2016) have introduced
story grammar approach and reader response approach. Van (2009) concluded
there are six approaches in teaching literary towards history; new criticism,
structuralism, stylistics, reader-response, language based and critical literacy.

Carter and Long (1991; as cited in Savvidou, 2004) believes that the
teaching literature in language class can be modeled as: (a) language model, (b)
cultural model, and (c) personal growth model

Language and culture cannot be separated as they are interactive and


connected to each other (Damen, 1986 and Kaplan, 1986; as cited in Divsar and
Tahriri, 2007). It is one of traditional approach towards literature in classrooms.
It requires the students to explore the social, political, literary and social context
of the text. It encourages students to learn other cultures (Savvidou, 2004).
However, this model often rejected by the teacher as it provides little
opportunities for students for extended language works.

Teaching using culture is basically not merely focused on how things are
and how has been, but how they could have been or how else they could be. Here
lies the responsibility of language teacher of culture. Sin (1996) stated that “One
of the major ways in which culture manifest itself is through language. Material
culture is constantly mediated, interpreted and recorded to another thing using the
language”. Brown (2007) stated “one cannot separate the language and culture
without losing the significance of either language or culture. The acquisition of
the second language is also the acquisition of the second culture”. Therefore,
culture plays a crucial role in cultural change.

The teaching of culture as a component of language teaching has always


caught between striving for universality and maintain for cultural uniqueness. In
this landscape, there are two characters which are “intercultural” and
“multicultural” characteristics. Each character delivered educational means,
where characterizing the acquisition of information about the customs, institution,
and history of society other than one’s own, is the intercultural function. The

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notion of multi cultural education attempts to expand certain traditional values to
incorporate and reaching the same understanding that shaped a certain joint-
society (Muller & Thomas, 1991; Mullen, 1992; Taylor, 1992).

In EFL/ESL classroom when teachers teach the target language


automatically they teach the culture. The teaching of target culture is served as
cross-cultural communication development. The goal can be achieved with well
prepared of organized teaching and learning that include both linguistic and extra
linguistic aspects of the target culture.

Language roughly described as “patterned behavior” that is evident that


language is a vital constituent of culture. Learning foreign language will mean
injecting a new way of life and values of life into learners’ already set behavior
pattern (Lado, 1963; as cited in Cakir, 2006).

The issue of culture as a part of classroom setting has been pointed out by
Tavares and Cavalcanti (1966; as cited in Ritlyova, 1995). It is stated that
“culture is not only present in the classroom but also in the language that we
thought. Ritlyova (1995) stated “bringing the cultural aspect of English speaking
countries closer to the students to accept a foreign culture and also their own
culture”.

Cakir (2006) conveyed reasons on familiarizing learners with the cultural


component in teaching language in classrooms, such as:

a. developing the communicative skill,


b. understanding the linguistic and behavioral patterns both of the target and
native culture at a more conscious level,
c. developing intercultural and international understanding,
d. adopting a wider perspective in the perception of reality,
e. make learning sessions more enjoyable.

Many frameworks have been developed and implemented. Experts (Hall,


1976; Hofstede, 1980; Trompenaars, 1994) have developed and proposed several

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cultural categories in some way can operationalise and measure the culture, but
somehow the categories is maintained merely based on the value representation.
Singh (2002) have proposed a conceptual framework based on previously
developed categories. It derives the culture on the basis of the perceptual,
behavioral, and symbolic levels of cultural information. It gives wider and broader
insight in analyzing the culture value.

In summary, the three conceptual frameworks proposed by Singh (2002)


are explained below;

a. The perceptual level


On this level, the culture object would focuses on the forms and the
propositions of the society. According to Goodenough (1981) “the forms
help individuals in society to discern directly with the senses. It ranges
from color, shape, taste, and another perceptual form”.
b. The behavioral level
On this level, cultural values proposed as an operational measure. It
means cultural knowledge and beliefs become a part of inner sense of
being. They become a force and goal driver. Quinn and Holland (1987;
as cited in Singh, 2002) stated “higher-level cultural models may carry
motivational force, which in turn influences an individual’s behavior.
c. The symbolic level
Singh (2002) believe “on this level, it focuses on how a culture function
as an extra-personal world of objects, events, and structures acquire
meaning in a cultural context because they serve as a conduit of cultural
information from one generation to another.” Thus, on the symbolic level,
the phenomenon occurred in society is recorded, represented in form of
sign and symbols. The symbolic variables that can be studied include;
society codes, metonyms, myth, color symbolism, and other socio-
culturally determined symbols, mores, taboos, rules, rituals, ceremonies,
and etc.

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According to the explanation above, the researcher concludes that teaching
literary text using cultural approach is crucial in language learning. Approaches
and frameworks explained above function as a guideline in this study. Therefore,
appropriate implementation is crucial in the order to achieve the maximum result
of this research.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1. Research Design


3.1.1. Method

This research undertook as a classroom experimental research to


find out students’ understanding in reading short story using cultural-
model approach. Therefore, this research categorized as quantitative
research. Creswell (2012) stated that the use of experimental research is
when one wishes to establish cause and effect between independent and
dependent variables. The design that will be employed is a study case
which means there are control group and experimental group. Students in
experimental group will be given treatment for a given period of time
(Hatch & Farhady, 1982).

Group Pretest Treatment Posttest

Experiment PreControlGroup Cultural PostControlGroup


Approach
Control PreExpGroup Without PostExpGroup
cultural
approach
Tabel 3.1 Research’s Group

Note:

PreControlGroup : The pretest score of control class that will not be


given the treatment

PostControlGroup : The posttest score of control class that was not


given the treatment.

PreExpGroup : The score of pretest from experiment class that


will be given the treatment.

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PostExpGroup : The score of posttest from experiment class that
were given treatment.

Hatch and Lazaraton (1991; as cited in Oktafiani, 2014) stated


variable is defined as an attribute of a person or an object which differs from
person to person, text to text, object to object, or time to time. There are two
variables investigated in this research. First, independent variables which
influenced the dependent variables, while dependent variable is the one that
affected by independent variables (Coolidge, 2005)

3.2. Data Collection

Researcher collected the data through documents. The types of data that
will be collected by individual performance data which the types of tests
instrument would be achievement test: norm-referenced test. The consideration is
because the test wishes to see how well the participants did with a large group of
test takers (Vogt, 2005; as cited in Creswell, 2012).

Achievement test was taken in the form of reading comprehension text.


The reading comprehension test was used as pre-test and post-test given to the
both groups. Pre-test was aimed to discover the student’s previous understanding
in reading short story and post-test was done to examine the student’s
understanding after having a treatment.

3.3. Research Procedure

The procedures would be as follows:

Step 1 : At the beginning the students will be given the pre-test to measure
their initial reading abilities. Students will be given a short story text and
will be asked to answer the questions provided. The questions item consist
of multiple choice and short essay.

Step 2 : Conducting the experiment by teaching reading short story using


cultural approach. In this step, the teacher would use the same text they use

17
in the pre-test. The efficiency of time and economy is the consideration. The
treatment would be conducted to analyze and do in-depth reading using the
framework from Singh (2000).

Step 3 : Conducting post-test to acquire the result of the treatment. In this


step, the students would be given different short story to be analised at home
and would be collected on the next meeting.

Step 4 : Analyze the collected data by using PSPP Statistical Software.


The researcher conducted the validity, reliability, and difficultness of the
test

Step 5 : Concluding the answer from the collected data.

3.4. Learning Design


3.4.1. Planning Phase
a. Made the lesson plans to be used in the control class and
experimental class.
b. Made the pretest and posttest
c. Made the questionnaires to be assigned to the experimental class at
the last end.
3.4.2. Teaching Phase
a. Held the pretest in both control and experimental class.
b. Using the cultural approach to teach reading the short story in the
experiment class and using the conventional approach such as
lecturing in the control class.
3.5. Research Site and Participant
3.5.1. Research Time Allocation

The research was conducted in adjusting the academic calendar of


SMP N 12 Bandung, on the March 21st -31st 2017.

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3.5.2. Research Site

The research is conducted at SMP N 12 Bandung, Jalan Dr.


Setiabudhi No 195. Telephone number 022-2013947, Bandung 40153.

3.6. Samples and population


3.6.1. Populations

Sugiyono (2014) defined population as the generalization areas that


consist of subjects and objects with certain characteristics of what
researcher implied to be observed and to find the answer of the research.

The population in this research is the two classes (8E and 8F) of
eighth graders’ students of SMP N 12 Bandung in 2016/2017 academic
year that each class consist 36 students
The subject of the research is the eighth graders. This based on
several considerations by the researcher, such as
a. The eighth graders relatively have more time than ninth
graders to let the research conduct the study.
b. The researcher used to have teaching internship program in the
7th semester in SMP N 12 Bandung.
c. While having the internship program, the researcher is under
the supervision of the same teacher that teaches class 8E and
8F.
d. The learning focus is in line with the researcher’s study which
is reading the narrative text

Below is the table of research population

No Class Assigned Role Number of Students

1 8E Experiment 36
Group

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2 8F Control Group 36

.Table 3.2 Table of Resarch’s Population

3.6.2. Samples

Samples are choosing a numbers of data in a population (Nasution,


2008). The samples for this research are consist of two classes. The
research used purposive sampling technique. This technique can be
applied when the research have a certain consideration that will fulfill the
research needs (Sudjana and Rivai, 2010).

In choosing the samples the researcher paid attention to the relative


characteristics such as both population have the same curriculum, learning
material, and learning circumstances.

3.7. Research Variables

Sugiyono (2010) defined variables as an attribute, a characteristic, or value


of research object or activity that has a certain variation that already applied by
the researcher in the research.

There are two variables in this research, independent variable and


dependent variable. Independent variable is a free variable that may cause an
effect to the dependent variable. Dependent variable can be defined as output
variable. It is affected and caused by the independent variable (Sugiyono, 2010).
Based on the definition, in this research the independent variable is the cultural
approach and the dependent variable is the reading comprehension that evaluated
by the scores in the pretest and post test.

3.8. Data Collection

The collected data in this research would be analised though several steps
including scoring technique, data analysis on the pretest and data analysis on the
posttest.

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3.8.1. Data Collection Techniques
3.8.1.1.Documentation

Researcher used documentation to observe the score in the


pretest and post test of English Class in both control and experiment
group.

3.8.1.2.Pretest and Posttest

Test method is used to evaluate the learning outcomes of


students before and after they received the treatment. The test were
given to both control and experiment group. The test will be the
primary data for this research

The test consisted of 34 questions with score of 100 for all


right answers. Below is the table of pretest and post test composition.

No Category Number of Score


questions

1 Vocabulary 10 10

2 True/False 10 10

3 Multiple Choice 4 5

4 Short Answer 5 10

5 Short Essay 5 15

Total 34 50

Table 3.3 Table of pretest and post test composition


3.8.1.3.Questionnaire

The research also gave a questionnaires consist of 14 questions


to the experiment group to observe their perception towards using the
cultural approach in learning reading short story.

21
The students from experiment group will be provided five
options of answer in the sheet. Likert’s scale is used for this
questionnaires. It composed five options of answer; strongly disagree,
disagree, neither agree or disagree, agree, strongly agree.

3.9.Data Analysis Technique

The analysis was conducted after the samples are given the treatment to
observe the significance of cultural approach to the experiment group. The score
of final test will be used to test the hypothesis.

The researcher conducted pre requirement test towards the result such as
normality test and variance analysis test. Both test will carried in the PSPP
Statistical Software.

3.9.1. Pre-requirement Test


3.9.1.1. Normality test

Normality test is the first pre-requirement test before testing


the hypothesis. The test is conducted to observe the normality of data
distribution.

3.9.1.2. Validity and Reliability test

Validity is a measurement that shows the degree of validity or


the appropriateness of an instrument (Arikunto, 2007). A test can be
identified valid if the test can measure what it wishes to be measured.
Below is the result of validity test for the result of pretest and posttest
score and questionnaires.

The test is conducted to observe whether the data can be used


in the research or not. The researcher compared the content of the
pretest and posttest with the learning material. The composition of the
pretest and the posttest already explained in the previous section.
(Look table no.)

22
After the validity test on the pretest, posttest and questionnaire,
the researcher used them to the subject.

3.9.2. Hypothesis Testing

The collected data is analyzed though several steps in accordance to


the purpose of the research. The researcher had prepared the two possible
ways to test the hypothesis. They are paired t-test and Wilcoxon Matched
Paired Signed Rank Test. The t test is used when the data is normally
distributed, and Wilcoxon test will be used when the data is not normally
distributed.

3.10.Statistical Hypothesis

The researcher used the statistical hypothesis because the research was
using samples’ data from the population. Statistical hypothesis that will be tested
in this research is as below;

Ho : There is no significance in experiment group students’


comprehension score in reading short story after using cultural
approach treatment between control class and experimental class.

Ha : There is significance in experiment group students’


comprehension score in reading short story after using cultural
approach treatment between control class and experimental class.

Ho : µ1= µ2
Ha : µ1 ≠ µ2

The hypothesis could be tested through two possible ways; paired t-test or
Wilcoxon. The criterions would be as below.

By paired t-test:

If the t score > t table the Ho will be rejected with the 95% level of
confidence (alpha = 0,05), and if t score < t table, the Ho will be
accepted.

23
By Wilcoxon test

If the z score >z table the Ho will be rejected with the 95% level of
confidence (z score = 1,96), and if z score < z table, the Ho will be
accepted.

24
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

The purpose of this chapter is to report the analysis and the interpretation
of the data collected throughout the research in the order to answer the question
“Does cultural approach increase the students’ comprehension in reading the short
story?” Data were collected through several ways such as pretest, post test and
questionnaires given to the experimental group for perception test.

4.1. The Class Sessions

The research conducted in both control and experimental class in three


meetings started from March 21st – 31st 2017. In total, it is 8 x 40 minutes time
allocation in each group.

Below is the table of activities both in control and experiment class. Further
details of the sessions can be observed in the lesson plans on the appendix section.

No Meeting Control Class Experiment Class

1 First - Class was given the - Class was given the basic
Meeting basic information on information on what is
what is story and what is story and what is short
short story. story.
- Students were having - Students were having
small short group small short group
discussion to observe discussion to observe
their understanding. their understanding.
- Students were given the - The students were given
pretest for 40 minutes. pretest for 40 minutes.

25
2 Second - The students are given - The students are given the
Meeting conventional materials. material about plot, setting
They learn about plot, and character.
setting, and character. - Students were given the
- Students were having cultural framework in
small group discussions reading and analyzing the
to answer the questions content of the short story
using the same text in text.
the pretest. - Students were having
small group discussions to
answer the questions using
the same text in the
pretest.

3 Third - The students were - The students were


Meeting recalling the previous recalling the previous
lesson. lesson.
- The students were given - The students were given
posttest for 40 minutes. posttest for 40 minutes.

Table 4.1. Research’s Class Sessions

4.2. Descriptive Statistic Result

The researcher conducted the normality test towards the result of both
pretest and the posttest of control and experimental group, also the recapitulation
of questionnaire given to the experiment group students. The results can be
observed below.

Experiment
Control Group
Group
No
Sample Pretest Post test Pretest Posttest
1 92,00 96,00 91,50 94,00
2 92,00 76,00 45,50 87,50
3 96,00 98,00 53,50 94,00
4 100,00 96,00 45,50 84,00
5 72,00 68,00 60,00 92,00
6 90,00 98,00 63,50 93,50
7 96,00 98,00 55,50 85,00
8 73,50 57,00 54,50 82,00

26
9 48,00 46,00 15,00 29,50
10 96,00 90,00 85,50 100,00
11 71,50 94,00 86,00 98,00
12 98,00 94,00 82,50 93,50
13 100,00 96,00 85,50 96,00
14 72,00 94,00 89,50 100,00
15 93,00 82,00 89,50 100,00
16 77,50 96,00 89,50 100,00
17 67,00 65,00 86,00 96,00
18 38,00 96,00 81,50 91,00
19 46,00 36,00 91,50 100,00
20 94,00 80,00 91,50 100,00
21 63,50 81,00 89,50 98,00
22 78,00 98,00 91,50 100,00
23 89,50 96,00 81,50 90,00
24 94,00 96,00 93,50 100,00
25 65,50 96,00 93,50 100,00
26 79,00 92,00 95,50 100,00
27 48,00 98,00 91,50 96,00
28 81,50 96,00 94,00 97,50
TOTAL 2211,50 2409,00 2173,50 2597,50
Table 4.2 Table of Samples Used

Neither
Strongly Strongly
No Question Disagree Agree or Agree TOTAL
Disagree Agree
Disagree
1 Q1 0 1 3 13 11 28
2 Q2 0 2 5 16 5 28
3 Q3 0 0 5 15 8 28
4 Q4 2 4 12 9 1 28
5 Q5 1 0 11 13 3 28
6 Q6 0 4 9 12 3 28
7 Q7 1 3 10 7 7 28
8 Q8 1 1 4 18 4 28
9 Q9 0 8 5 13 2 28
10 Q10 2 5 8 12 1 28
11 Q11 2 1 11 8 6 28
12 Q12 0 1 7 13 7 28
13 Q13 0 0 9 15 4 28
14 Q14 0 0 7 17 4 28
Table 4.3. Questionnaires Result

27
The normality test is conducted by using the PSPP Statistical Software.
The result is on the table.
S.E. Std S.E. S.E.
Variable N Mean Var Kurt Skew Min Max Sum
Mean Dev Kurt Skew
PreControlGroup 28 80.18 3.21 16.98 288.30 .27 .86 -.94 .44 38.00 100.00 2245.00
PostControlGroup 28 86.04 3.20 16.94 286.92 2.29 .86 -1.73 .44 36.00 98.00 2409.00
PreExpGroup 28 77.63 3.82 20.22 408.84 1.92 .86 -1.53 .44 15.00 95.50 2173.50
PostExpGroup 28 92.77 2.55 13.51 182.62 18.94 .86 -4.07 .44 29.50 100.00 2597.50
Table 4.4 Descriptive Statisitic of Research Variables

Table above stated the value of statistical description of the data includes
the value of kurtosis and skew. From the result it can be concluded that the data is
not normally distributed as the value of both kurtosis and skewness of all
variables with the exception of variable pretest control group, all shown the
abnormal distribution. Therefore when the plot is drawn from the data will be
resulted as in the graphs below

Graph 4.1. Histogram of Pre Control Group Graph 4.2. Histogram of Post Control

Group

28
Graph 4.3. Histogram of Pre Experiment Group Graph 4.4. Histogram of Post Experiment Group

Based on the result the researcher decided to analyzed the data by using
non parametric method. The Wilcoxon Mathched Pair Signed Test was employed
to conduct hypothesis testing by using confidence level 95%.

4.3.Hypothesis Testing

The test is conducted by using Wilcoxon Matched Pair Signed-Rank Test


because the data is not normally distributed. Below is the result of the Wilcoxon
Test with 95% level of confidence.

The researcher took the result of both pretest and post test to be analyzed
using PSPP Statistical Software. The researcher decided to analyze 28 samples
from both groups for the sake of efficiency and effectiveness of data analysis. The
samples from experiment group are chosen by implementing the purposive
sampling.

Mean Sum of
N
Rank Ranks

Negative Ranks 12 11.21 134.50


PostControlGroup -
PreControlGroup Positive Ranks 16 16.97 271.50
Ties 0
Total 28
Table 4.5 Rank of Control Group

29
PostControlGroup
- PreControlGroup
Z -1.56
Asymp. Sig. (2-
tailed) .118
Table 4.6 Statistic of Control Group

Result above shows that in the control class there are 16 students that have
higher score than the pretest and 12 students that have lower score than pretest.
Even so, based on the result of Wilcoxon statistical test, the z score is -1,56 which
is lower than critical z score for 95% level of confidence (-1,96). Also, the p value
is 0,118 which is above the p value determined (0,05). The result can be written
down as z score -1,56 < -1,96, p value 0,118 > 0,05. Therefore it can be said that
in the control class there are no significance score difference.

Mean Sum of
N
Rank Ranks
Negative Ranks 0 NaN .00
PostExpGroup –
PreExpGroup Positive Ranks 28 14.50 406.00
Ties 0
Total 28
Table 4.7 Rank of Experiment Group

PostControlGroup
– PreControlGroup
Z -4.63
Asymp. Sig. (2-
tailed) .000
Table 4.8. Statistic of Experiment Group

Result above shows that in the experiment class, all students have higher
score than the pretest. Based on the result of Wilcoxon statistical test, the z score
is -4,63 which is higher than critical z score for 95% level of confidence (-1,96).
Also, the p value is 0,000 which is lower the p value determined (0,05). The result
can be written down as z score -4,63 > -1,96, p value 0,000 < 0,05. Therefore it

30
can be said that in the experiment class there are significance score difference.
This is indicated that Ho is rejected and Ha is accepted.

Besides pretest and posttest, researcher used questionnaire as a secondary


instrument to observe the students’ perception in using the cultural approach in
reading short story. The questionnaires used Likert scale providing options of
answer from strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree and strongly agree. The
result of the questionnaires can be observed on chart below, alongside with the
further interpretation on after.

Below is the list of statement in the questionnaire.

Question
No
1 Reading short stories can add knowledge.
2 People should learn form short stories
3 People can learn culture with short stories.
4 People should read short stories everyday.
5 I find my reading skill is good.
6 I find myself easier in reading short stories by knowing the cultural context.
7 I find myself easier inknowing the content through cultural approach
8 I find reading short stories by using cultural approach is very enjoyable.
9 I think it is not necessary to read short story using cultural approach.
10 I feel my reading comprehension is better because of the cultural approach.
11 I think people should use cultural approach in reading short stories
12 I am satisfied with the content of the learning
13 I am satisfied with the format of the learning.
14 Overall, I am satisfied with the learning using the cultural approach.
Table 4.9 List of Questions in the Questionnaires

The result of the questionnaires is analyzed by scoring the values of


answer. Based on Likert scale, the value of each option as below

Strongly Agree :5 Disagree :2


Agree :4 Strongly Disagree :1
Neutral :3
Based on above value, the result of the questionnaires can be observed in
the table below.

31
Neither
Strongly Agree Strongly
No Question Disagree Agree TOTAL % Result
Disagree or Agree
Disagree
Strongly
118
1 Q1 0 2 9 52 55 84,29 Agree
2 Q2 0 4 15 64 25 108 77,14 Agree
Strongly
115
3 Q3 0 0 15 60 40 82,14 Agree
4 Q4 2 8 36 36 5 87 62,14 Agree
5 Q5 1 0 33 52 15 101 72,14 Agree
6 Q6 0 8 27 48 15 98 70,00 Agree
7 Q7 1 6 30 28 35 100 71,43 Agree
8 Q8 1 2 12 72 20 107 76,43 Agree
9 Q9 0 16 15 52 10 93 66,43 Agree
10 Q10 2 10 24 48 5 89 63,57 Agree
11 Q11 2 2 33 32 30 99 70,71 Agree
12 Q12 0 2 21 52 35 110 78,57 Agree
13 Q13 0 0 27 60 20 107 76,43 Agree
14 Q14 0 0 21 68 20 109 77,86 Agree
Table 4.10 Result of The Questionnaires

The above table indicates the students believe the treatment were needed
and successful. The following are the further explanation of the questionnaires
result.

Based on the questionnaires it can be implied that mostly the students in


the experiment group have positive attitude and outcomes towards the treatment.
The result indicates that the students aware of the power of culture and how it can
shape the thoughts and meaning in reading short story.

The students in the experimental group strongly agree that reading is an


important activity, to nourish the knowledge. Therefore it gives the students’
motivation to do the reading activity. They believe people should learn from the
stories. The students in experiment class strongly believe that a culture can be
learned through the works of fiction in this case is the short stories. It indicated
the students aware enough of the power of short story that transcend the
entertainment purpose.

32
Reading activities has been the attention of the students in the experiment
group because based in the questionnaires result they believe reading short stories
should be done every day which again indicates the function of readings that
extent to be a learning activity.

Many students believe they have an adequate skill to read the short story.
It indicates the students have confidence in their ability. It is important to have
self-confident in reading skills alongside with the willingness to learn.

Based on the questionnaire’s result, the students read easier when it


associated with cultural context. The students find themselves easier when they
read the text with engaging the context with the culture. It shows that the power of
culture plays an important part in reading. The sense of enjoyment is also felt by
the students that leads them believe that reading using cultural approach will be
beneficial rather than burden.

Overall, the students felt the whole teaching process gave positive attitude
and satisfaction of how the teaching and learning went.

4.4.Discussion

The research conducted is aimed to observe the significance of cultural


approach in teaching reading. The researched is driven by the need to blend the
function of literature and learning language. The subject of the research is the
eighth grade students of SMP N 12 Bandung. This research was conducted in
three meetings.

The result explained in above sections indicates that the Ha is accepted. It


means there is a significance effect of using cultural approach in teaching reading
short story to the students.

In the planning phase of this research, there are expectations that


researcher had such as the students’ cooperation in class and the positive result of
the implementation. However, while class sessions were held some factors
intervenes. The students both in control and experiment class were not as

33
proactive as what the researcher had hoped. It resulted the teaching needed to use
activities that drives the students to cooperate in their learning such as small
group discussion and presentation. The researcher expected the result of both
pretest and posttest would be positive in terms of technical and the score result.
There are several students both in control group and experiment group did not
submit the pretest and posttest. Also, when the scoring of pretest and posttest is
done, it shows that the data distribution is not normal meaning that the
achievement of students roughly divided into the very high achiever and very low
achiever. However, these situations did not cause a major problem in the research.

There are several research conducted before that accounts the importance
of using culture in teaching and learning. Rezaee and Farahian’s research in 2011
conducted the research titled “Teaching Culture Explicitly through Literature to
EFL Learners” resulted in positive improvement on understanding of culture and
its context in the fiction literatures. The present research was more focused on the
teaching reading skill.

Stavik’s research in 2015 titled “Reading Literature in the EFL Classroom”


accounts the importance of literature effect on teaching the language. The subject
is the EFL Teachers. The result is the teachers believe that blending the culture
can improve the learning aims as a whole. The research however took accounts on
how the teachers feedback on using literature and culture in teaching. The present
research took the result as the guidance to the teacher to use the cultural approach
in teaching reading short story.

Another research conducted by Erten and Razin in 2009 titled “The


Effects of Cultural Familiarity on Reading Comprehension” resulted in the
positive attitude in improving the reading comprehension. The difference here is
the researchers nativize the literary text to make the students easier to understand.
Even though Erten and Razin’s research have positive outcome, the present
research did not find the urgency to nativize the story into Indonesian context.

34
As it stated above, that the score of the pretest and post test score is not
normally distributed, it accounts on the nature of the classroom situation. The
high achiever students mostly have the drives to learn more and exploring the
language class whereas the low achiever tends to be not proactive in the learning
process. The researcher who was also being the teacher in this research employed
the activities that push every member to participate such as small group
discussion and presentation but the result in both control and experimental group
not normally distributed. Furthermore, after the posttest the questionnaires were
given to the experimental group’s students and it resulted in positive attitude
towards the cultural approach in reading the short story.

Even though there are unexpected things happened in the teaching and
learning process in the classroom, this present research shows a positive attitude.
The cultural approach does give significance impact on the students’ short story
reading comprehension. This however in a bigger picture supported the previous
researches mentioned above in the importance of literature and culture in EFL
classroom.

The researcher hopes that this research can give contributions to the
development of teaching EFL in the reading and culture emphasize. There are
things that can be covered in the future research such as the teaching method, the
culture approach implementation in other language skills to observe more
comprehensive contribution to EFL teaching. The researcher realize there are
things that may intervene the nature of the research as in the selection of subject
and the time allocation. Therefore, an observation of subject prior the research
can be beneficial, also the longer time allocated in the treatment would be better
as it will give more comprehensive result.

35
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

This research titled “Implementing Cultural-Model Approach in Teaching

Reading Short Story: A Case Study in a Junior High School in Bandung” aims to

observe the significance of the cultural approach in students’ comprehension in

reading short story. The research participant is the eighth graders of SMP N 12

Bandung.

The result of the research shows that there is a significance of students’

comprehension in reading short story after the treatment of using the cultural

approach in reading the literary text. The data is collected though pretest and

posttest as the main data and the questionnaire as the secondary data.

The result of z score is -4,63 > -1,96, p value 0,000 < 0,05. Therefore it

can be said that in the experiment class there are significance score difference.

This is indicated that Ho is rejected and Ha is accepted. The result of the

questionnaires indicated that the students have positive attitude towards the

implementation of the cultural approach in reading short story.

The researcher hopes that this research can give positive contribution in

EFL teaching and learning. Even so, there are several things that the future

researcher in this field can explore as in the teaching method, the time allocation,

the object of the research and the other language skills or types of literature.

Therefore, last but not least, after all the teaching and learning of EFL

really relies on the cooperation and willingness of all parties involved in

36
improving and fulfilling the core function of humanity, to prepare the future

generations building the humanity.

37
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APPENDICES

42
43
44
45
Appendix 1. Lesson Plan

LESSON PLAN

Level : Junior High School


Subject : English
Grade/ Semester : 8th/second semester
Skill Focus : Reading
Topic : Short story
Theme : Narrative Text
Time Allocation : 3 meetings (6 x 40 mins)

1. Learning Objectives:
At the end of the lesson, it is expected that students can identify the content, answer the questions and give opinion
towards the short stories appropriately.

2. Indicators :
1. Students can identify the short stories (time, setting, and theme).
2. Students will be able to answer the questions related to the short story
3. Students will be able to give opinion towards the story

3. Characters Focus: Independency, hard work and respect.

1
4. Learning material:
Narrative Texts

“Wang Jie Meets a New Friend” and “A Baker’s Story” by Hal Ames

5. Media : Board, projector, video and worksheet.


6. Learning Method : Three phase technique
7. Approach : Singh’s (2002)Cultural framework

8. Steps

First Meeting

Phase Activities Time

Opening a. Greeting 5 mins


b. Self-introducing and explain the research purpose
c. Eliciting the learning objective
While Activity a. Explaining the research procedure 5 mins
b. Do the pretest 40 mins
2
c. Brief explanation on what is short story
- What is story? 20 mins
- What is short story?
- Why people do tell stories?
- What can we learn from stories?
- How can we learn stories?
Closing a. Recalling the today’s lesson
b. Eliciting the next meeting’s agenda 10 Mins
c. Pray

Second Meeting

Phase Experimental Group Activities Control Group Activities Allocation

Opening a. Greeting a. Greeting 5 mins


b. Eliciting today’s lesson b. Eliciting today’s lesson
While-Activity a. Recalling the previous lesson on what a. Recalling the previous lesson on 5 mins
is short story what is short story
b. Introducing the framework that can b. Discuss the elements of short 30 mins
be used in analising the short story stories in-depth
using cultural approach - Characters
- Perceptual Level - Setting
- Behavioral Level - Plot (conflict, complications,
- Symbol Level climax, resolution)
- Sub-plot
3
- Point of view
- Language, tone, and style
- Theme
c. Group discussions c. Group discussions 50 mins
Students are asked to answer question Students are asked to answer
related to the short story “The Baker’s questions related to the short story
Story” based on Singh’s cultural “Wang Jie’s Meets A New Friend”
framework
d. Brief group presentation d. Brief group presentation 20 mins
Closing a. Review in brief on today’s lesson a. Review in brief on today’s lesson
b. Eliciting the next lesson objective b. Eliciting the next lesson objective 10 Menit
c. Praying c. Praying

4
Appendix 2. Pretest

A BAKER’S STORY
by
Hal Ames

A long time ago, a happy family lived in the big city on the shore of the great sea.
They had four children. The oldest was Rommel, then Jeralynn, followed by Marisu and
finally David.
The family owned a bakery on the corner of the two main streets in the city. They had
a very good business. All of the customers gave them their orders the day before, so when
Joseffe and his wife Marissa started early in the morning they knew exactly what to bake. It
was hard work. They worked seven days a week.
Rommel was learning the lessons of a baker. He worked with his father every day.
Since she was six years old Jeralynn had helped her mother in the store taking orders
and helping people get exactly what they wanted. She enjoyed her work and was very
friendly. Everyone loved her smile.
Marisu went to school. Her goal was to become a nurse someday.
David was the wild one. He did not want to do much work. He just wanted to play all
the time. David’s favorite game was to hide from his father. When his father needed him to
carry supplies, he would hide. This made his father angry at him. Then David would come
out of hiding to help.
One day, Joseffe was going down the stairs to his bakery when he slipped and fell. He
was in great pain. He told his family to help him go to his oven so he could make the day’s
food.
He said, “After the food is prepared for the day, I’ll go to see the doctor.”
The family got scared. They did everything to help their father prepare the baked
goods for sale that day.
As the day passed, Joseffe got slower and slower. Even though he was in great pain,
he refused to go to the hospital until all the work was finished.
Finally, he agreed to go to the doctor. The children begged a taxi driver to take their
father to the hospital. In exchange for a few loaves of bread, the driver took Joseffe to the
nearest hospital.
The doctor examined Joseffe. He told him he had broken his ankle. He was surprised
that Joseffe had been able to work so hard that morning. He told Rommel that his father
needed to have surgery. He would not be able to work for several weeks until the one healed.
Joseffe was shocked. He did not want to rest. He wanted to work!
Joseffe had surgery to repair his broken bone. The family came to visit him that night.
He told them that it might be a good idea to hire extra help to work in the bakery until he
came home.
Rommel told his father, “The family has voted, and we agreed to run the business
during your time in the hospital. We will do the work, no matter how long it takes. The cost
of the hospital bills will be high, and we need to save money.”
Joseffe cried when he heard this. He loved his family so much.
The next day the family started two hours earlier. Rommel got David out of bed and
told him that the whole family had to work together while their father was in the hospital.
David thought his brother was joking. He just laughed and rolled over to go back to
sleep.

5
Rommel said to his brother, “If you don’t help our business it’ll fail, and then we
won’t have anything to eat.” David got up and began to do what his brother asked. His
mother checked to see what he was doing, and he was busy, busy, busy!
Marisu stayed home from school to help. She said she could make up the classes later.
Joseffe was a very hard worker, and he had very high standards for his food. His
father had been a baker and his grandfather had been a baker as well. He learned all about
baking from them.
It was going to be difficult for Rommel to be as good as his father He had helped his
father so he knew exactly what to do. Many of their customers heard about the accident.
Marisu put a jar on the counter for people to put their small coins into to help. The jar was
full every day!
After six days in the hospital, it was time for Joseffe to come home. After the family
finished the day’s business, they hired a driver to bring their father home.
Outside of the shop was a big sign that said “WELCOME HOME FATHER!”
Many of their customers came to welcome him home also. When Joseffe saw the sign
and the people outside of his house, he cried with happiness. In his heart he had the love of
his family. He knew whatever might happen to him or his family they would survive.

6
PRETEST

Name : ______________________ Class : ______________________

Date : ______________________

After you read the story, please give answers to questions below.

A. Vocabulary
Match the word to its definition
1. Bakery ___ a. sweet baked things
2. Submit ___ b. place to get well
3. Counter ___ c. choose, elect
4. Begged ___ d. verify, confirm
5. Hospital ___ e. company
6. Suggest ___ f. give in
7. Vote ___ g. workspace, station
8. Business ___ h. place to bake bread
9. Check ___ i. pleaded
10. Pastries ___ j. propose, recommend
B. True/False
1. Marisu wanted to be a nurse. T/F
2. Joseffe fell and broke his hip. T/F
3. The family closed the business after the accident T/F
4. The city was in valley. T/F
5. David was the youngest child. T/F
6. The customers gave money to help Joseffe. T/F
7. Joseffe/s father was a carpenter. T/F
8. Joseffe had surgery to fix his arm. T/F
9. Jeralynn helped her mother in the store. T/F
10. Joseffe died in the hospital. T/F
C. Multiple Choice
Choose one the options that answers the question
1. Where was the bakery located? 3. Who took over baking the food
a. In the city by the seashore in the bakery for Joseffe?
b. The outside of town a. David
c. On an island b. Marisu
d. Next to the church c. Rommel
2. When Joseffe fell down, what d. The family
did he break? 4. Where did the customers put the
a. His back money to help Joseffe?
b. His arm a. In the jar
c. His knee b. On the counter
c. In a book
d. His ankle
d. Under his bed
7
D. Comprehension A
Write a complete sentence to answer the question
1. What happened to Joseffe?
________________________________________________________________
2. How long was Joseffe in the hospital?
________________________________________________________________
3. What kind of business did they own?
________________________________________________________________
4. Who baked the food when Joseffe was in hospital?
________________________________________________________________
5. How did Rommel take his father to the doctor?
________________________________________________________________

E. Comprehension B
Write down the answers to the questions
1. Why Joseffe loved his family very much?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
2. What did Rommel do when his father was in the hospital?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
3. Who is your favorite character and why?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
4. In your opinion, what is hard work?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
5. What did you learn from the story?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

8
Appendix 3. Post Test

WANG JIE MEETS A NEW FRIEND


by
Hal Ames

Wang Jie lived in the mountains of China. He was a simple boy whose parents were
rice farmers. It was a hard life, but they loved each other very much.
Every morning Wang Jie got up very early to help his grandfather milk the goat and
feed the chickens. He enjoyed doing this very much. He had many chores to do before he left
for school. He had a long walk to school every day. He usually walked with his friends and
sometimes they played games. The weather in their place was good for growing bamboo and
rice.
When he returned from school in the afternoon, he had many more chores to do. He
had to do them before he did his homework. Usually Wang Jie would go to bed very late. His
parents wanted him to do well in school. They wanted him to get a good job when he would
become older.
Wang Jie always looked forward to Sunday. Although he still got up early to do his
chores, he did not have to go to school. After doing his chores, he would spend all day
playing and finding new things to see and do.
Wang Jie was an explorer. He knew all of the places in the mountains where he lived.
He found streams and caves. He had a favorite climbing tree. He even had a special rock
where he would sit for many hours looking across the big valley.
One day, as Wang Jie was walking through the forest, he heard a noise in the trees
above him. He thought he saw something. It was very big. It was moving slowly from branch
to branch. He could not see what it was.
Just then, the animal saw Wang Jie and became frightened. As the animal climbed up
the tree, Wang Jie was able to get a better look at it. It was big like a bear. It had long claws.
It was black and white. It was a wild panda! Wang Jie had heard about pandas, but he had
never seen one before.
Wang Jie moved down the path to get a better look. Wang Jie and the panda looked at
each other eye to eye. The panda did not seem to be afraid anymore. They just stared at each
other for the longest time.
It was getting late so Wang Jie said good-bye to his new friend in the forest. He went
home to eat his dinner.
At the table, he told his parents all about his discovery in the forest. He told his
mother and father about the giant panda. He told how at first the panda was frightened but
later they became friends.
His father stood up from the table, and asked in a stern voice, “Where is the panda?”
Wang Jie was surprised at his father’s actions. He became afraid.
Wang Jie responded, “I saw him in the forest near the big rock that I sit on to look at
the valley.”
His father ran out of the house very quickly. Wang Jie turned to his mother and asked,
“Why is father angry, and why did he run out of the house?”
His mother told him that some men had come to the house earlier in the day. They
had told his father that a giant panda had escaped from the research center in the village.
They told him there was a reward for its capture.

9
Wang Jie was upset. He had made a new friend. Now his new friend was going to be
returned to the center where they took care of pandas. He thought about what he could do to
save his new friend.
Wang Jie left the table quickly and ran out of the house. He ran to the forest and ran
toward his rock. He stopped at the place where he had seen the panda, but he could not find
him. Wang Jie began to cry. He thought the caretakers had already found his friend. He
thought he was on his way back to the research center.
Suddenly he saw something move. Wang Jie went a little farther down the path and
there he saw the panda eating bamboo leaves.
Wang Jie yelled out, “Go away! There are bad men coming to get you. They want to
take you back to the research center!”
Wang Jie heard voices. The men from the research center were coming toward him.
They had followed him. His father had told them that Wang Jie knew where the panda was in
the forest. One of the men aimed his gun at the panda.
Wang Jie shouted, “NO!”
BOOM! The gun went off, and the panda slowly began to fall through the branches
to the ground. The gun had shot a dart with medicine to make the panda go slowly to sleep.
Once he was on the ground, the caretakers put him into a net. Then five men carried him to a
truck that was waiting on the edge of the forest. Wang Jie was angry and sad. It was his fault
that they had found the giant panda, and now they were returning him to the research center
in the town.
Wang Jie went home. He went to his bed and turned to the wall. He was angry at his
father for telling the men about the giant panda.
He was still angry when he went to school on Monday. The teacher knew about the
panda.
She explained to Wang Jie, “The panda’s parents had abandoned him, and he had
been raised at the research center. Because of this he did not know how to live in the forest. If
the panda had stayed in the forest, he would have died. So it was best that he was returned to
the research center.”
She told Wang Jie that he was a hero. He had saved the giant panda, and everyone
was happy that the panda was safe in the research center again.
Wang Jie was confused. He had made a new friend, and he wanted the panda to
always be there in the forest when he went to visit. Now the panda was back at the research
center, and he would not be able to see the panda again because they were so poor.
When Wang Jie returned home, there were two men at his house. They were talking
to his father.
The men asked, “Is this the boy who found our panda?”
Wang Jie’s father replied, “Yes, this is my son Wang Jie. He found the panda.”
The men shook his hand and thanked him for helping them to find Ming- Ming, the
most popular animal in the panda research center. They handed him an envelope, and then
said good-bye.
After the men left, Wang Jie opened the envelope, and inside he found three lifetime
membership cards to the research center to visit anytime he wanted. Wang Jie jumped into
the air. He was so excited. Now he could go anytime he wanted to see his new friend Ming-
Ming at the research center in the valley.

10
Name : ______________________ Class : ______________________

Date : ______________________

After you read the story, please give answers to questions below.

A. Vocabulary
Match the word to its definition
1. Farmer ___ a. between two mountains
2. Explorer ___ b. mad, furious
3. Stream ___ c. sharp nails
4. Valley ___ d. grower of crops
5. Claws ___ e. prize, gift
6. Stern ___ f. small river
7. Reward ___ g. pioneer, traveler
8. Angry ___ h. serious, harsh
9. Hero ___ i. star, champion
10. Lifetime ___ j. within one’s life, lifespan
B. True/False
1. Wang Jie lived in a big city. T/F
2. The giant panda was very dangerous. T/F
3. The giant panda was eating eucalyptus leaves. T/F
4. The men from the research center killed Ming-Ming. T/F
5. Wang Jie had many chores before school. T/F
6. Wang jie was given a one-day pass to the research center. T/F
7. The caretakers put Ming-Ming into a net. T/F
8. Wang Jie was mad at his mother. T/F
9. Wang jie liked Sundays. T/F
10. Wang jie’s teacher told him he was a hero. T/F
C. Multiple Choice
Choose one the options that answers the question

1. What did Wang Jie find in the 3, Why did the animal need to go back to
forest? theresearch center?
a. A big bear a. He did not know how to survive in
b. A wild panda the forest.
c. A wild boar b. He was going to be killed.
d. A big valley c. He was afraid.
2. Who told the caretakers that Wang d. He was hungry
jie had found the animal?
a. His mother 4, What did Wang Jie do with his grandfather
b. His brother before school?
c. His teacher a. His homework
d. His father b. He milked the goat
c. He helped his mother
d. He went for a long walk
11
D. Comprehension A
Write a complete sentence to answer the question
1. Where was the panda when Wang Jie first saw him?
_________________________________________________________
2. Where did Ming-Ming live before he escaped?
_________________________________________________________
3. How many people carried Ming-Ming to the truck?
_________________________________________________________
4. What did Wang Jie’s father grow on their farm?
_________________________________________________________
5. What did wang Jie’s father do after Wang Jie talked about the panda?
_________________________________________________________

E. Comprehension B
Write down the answers to the questions
1. Why was Wang Jie upset?
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
2. What were some of Wang Jie’s chores?
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
3. Who is your favorite character and why?
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
4. In your opinion, is curiosity important?
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
5. What did you learn from the story?
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

1
Appendix 4. Questionnaire

Learning Satisfaction Questionnaires

Please tick (√) on the box that best describe your opinion.

No Question Strongly Disagree Neither Agree Strongly


Disagree Agree or Agree
Disagree
1 Reading short stories can add
knowledge.
2. People should learn form short stories
3 People can learn culture with short
stories.
4 People should read short stories
everyday.
5 I find my reading skill is good.
6 I find myself easier in reading short
stories by knowing the cultural
context.
7 I find myself easier inknowing the
content through cultural approach
8 I find reading short stories by using
cultural approach is very enjoyable.
9 I think it is not necessary to read short
story using cultural approach.
10 I feel my reading comprehension is
better because of the cultural
approach.
11 I think people should use cultural
approach in reading short stories
12 I am satisfied with the content of the
learning
13 I am satisfied with the content of
the learning.
14 Overall, I am satisfied with this
learning experience.

2
Appendix 4. Experiment Group Test Result
DAFTAR NILAI KELAS 8E
POST
NAMA PRETEST TUGAS 1 TUGAS 2
NO TEST
1 ADHITYA MAFHILINDO SURYA H. 91,5 B+ 95 94
2 AINI NUR INSANI 16 95 14
3 AKBAR MULYASANTANA I. 91,5 B 46 100
4 ALBYALITA SAPUTRI 60 A- 93 92
5 AMELIA NURFAJRAH 91,5 A+ 95 100
6 ANDIKA AGNIYAWAN 91,5 84
7 ARVITA RHINKA LUTPHITASARI 45,5 A- 95 87,5
8 CARMELITA SAPAAT 86 A 68 98
9 DEVIANTI RIZQI SAHARA 85,5 A 100 96
10 DWI PUTRA PANGESTU 45,5 100 84
11 EVELIN FRISKA 89,5 A 100 100
12 FARREL WAYENDRA KUMARA 15 68 29,5
13 FLOKA NASYWA FATHYA 89,5 A 100 100
14 HAFID SYEHALUDIN 85,5 B+ 93 88
15 JANUAR HILMI RABBANI 97,5 B 100 100
16 JERISHA STEFIA 89,5 A+ 100 98
17 LAVINA AGUSTINA A 100 88
18 MAYRAHMAULINA DWI A. P. 93,5 A+ 100 100
19 MIKAIL HARITS SULAEMAN 95,5 100 100
20 MUHHAMAD FAHRIL P. 91,5 B 46 100
21 MUHAMAD SULTAN NAZHIR 94 B- 95 97,5
22 MUHAMMAD FAKHRI F. 93,5 95 100
23 MUHAMMAD RIZQI NASRULLAH 85,5 B- 95 100
24 NABILA YUMNA ZHAFIRA 82,5 A 68 93,5
25 NENCY OKTAVIA SRI MULYANI 81,5 91
26 R. HARTONO REZKY SELAPAIF 81,5 B- 46 90
27 RADEN RORO RAISSA NADIRA M. 55,5 85
28 RAMADHAN NUGRAHA AL R. 54,5 93 82
29 RESVINA NENDA SYAHARANI 53,5 93 94
30 RIZAL PADILAH 91,5 B 46 96
31 RIZKY SEPTIANI HAMIDAH 89,5 A 100 100
32 SHERLI FITRI AULIA 63,5 A 68 93,5
33 SYAHREN FAZA PUTRI YUSTIAN 53,5 A 95
34 VERA PRADITA 86 A 100 96
35 ANANTA BAYU NUGROHO 51
36 MUHAMMAD RIZKY FAUZAN 100 B 100 100

3
Appendix 5. Experiment Group Test Result
DAFTAR NILAI KELAS 8F
POST
NAMA PRETEST TUGAS 1 TUGAS 2
NO TEST
1 ADITYA MUHAMMAD F 92 100 96
2 AKMAL KAUTSAR BOULEVARD 92 50 76
3 ALISA WINARNI 96 A+ 98
4 ANDIKA TRIPUTRA TRESNASENA 100 A++ 50 96
5 ANGGIA ALIPIAH 72 B- 100 68
6 AZKA KURNIA PERMANA 68
7 CIKA CANTIKA PERTIWI 90 A+ 100 98
8 DEVINA MAHARANI 96 98
9 DZAKY RAIHAN ZAILANI 73,5 50 57
10 FAHMI FEBBRYANTY 48 B- 46
11 FAUZAN MAJID HADI YUNUS 95,5
12 GHEFIRA DEBYANA APRILIA PUTRI 96 B- 100 90
13 HAFIDZ FAUZAN MUSLIM Z 71,5 94
14 JESSICA CAROLINE MAGDALENA 98 94
15 JIVAN ANDHIKA ZAYYAN 83
16 LIANA RIZKI LESTARI 50
17 MELANI PUTRI ROSA 100 A+ 96
18 MOCHAMAD RAFLI CHANDRA 72 50 94
19 MUCHAMMAD RIEFQI G. O. 93 50 82
20 MUHAMMAD ABDURRASYIID F. 77,5 96
21 MUHAMMAD FARRAS NAUFAL 82 100
22 MUHAMMAD SATRIO AGUNG H. 67 65
23 NABILLA ZAVIRANSYAH 96 B- 100
24 NIA KURNIAWATI 38 B- 50 96
25 NURUL RANI MARYANI 46 B- 36
26 RAENA LESTARI PUTRI 94 B- 100 80
27 RAFFI MAULANA 64
28 REHAN ALIF ALBANI 63,5 81
29 RESYA AZZARA 78 98
30 RIZAL PUTRA SETYA 89,5 50 96
31 RIZKYA ADINI NURKARIMAH 94 A 100 96
32 SHIFA ELDITA AZZALEA 65,5 96
33 SHOFA ANNAUFAL SILVIA PUTRI O. 79 50 92
34 SILVIA PUTRI OKTAVIANI 48 B- 98
35 SYAHDAN RIZKI GUSTIARA 98 50
36 SYERIL PUTRI BADRHEINA 81,5 50 96

4
5