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TITLE: DENSITY TEST

SCOPE: DETERMINE THE DENSITY OF CEMENT

APPARATUS:

 Two number of density bottle of nominal capacity 50 ml

 Small funnel to fit inside the neck of the density bottle

 Balance capable of weighing up to at least 100g to an accuracy of +/-0.0005 g

 Thermostatically controlled water bath capable of maintained to within +/- 0.2 C at a


selected operating temperature slightly above room temperature.

 Vacuum desiccator and pump

PROCEDURE:

-the density bottles and stopper was cleaned and dried.

-the bottles was filled with de aerated distilled water at room temperature and the stopper was
inserted wit a slight twist and care taken to avoid trapping air bubbles.

-the bottles were immersed nearly to the top of its neck in the water bath and leave for at least
30 min.

-after ensuring that air bubbles were absent and that the bottle was filled to the top of the
capillary bore and any water on the top of the neck of the bottle was removed with dry filter
paper.

-the bottle was removed from the water bath and after allowing it to cool for a few minutes, it
was wiped free of water with the minimum of handling and weighed.

-the mass of water was calculated to fill the bottle at the operating temperature.

-the density bottle and stopper was cleaned and dried.

-the above procedure was repeated for displacement liquid using kerosene and the mass of
kerosene was determined to at the operating temperature.

Determine the Density of cement

-the calibrated density bottles and stoppers were cleaned and dried.

-an 8 g to 10 g cement sample was placed in the bottles using small funnel and the mass of
the cement sample was calculated in the bottle.
-sufficient kerosene was added to cover the cement sample and half filled the bottle ensuring
that the cement was thoroughly wetted.

-air bubbles of the kerosene with sample were removed using vacuum desicator and bottle
was filled with kerosene.

OBSERVATION

Sample no.1 Sample no.2

Weight of the empty density bottle, g 28.0123 27.7083

Weight of the bottle filled with distilled water, g 78.1933 77.5632

Weight of the bottle filled with kerosene, g 67.6922 67.0430

Cement weight added to the bottle, g 8.985 9.1539

Weight of the bottle with cement sample and kerosene, g 74.4534 73.9132

CALCULATION:

ρL = W2/W1 x ρW

ρL = the density of kerosene

ρW = the density of pure water

W1 = the mass of water to fill the bottle

W2 = the mass of kerosene to fill the bottle

Density of kerosene sample no.1, ρL = (67.6922- 28.0123)/ (78.1933- 28.0123) x 0.9968

= 39.6799/ 50.181 x 0.9968

= 0.7882

Density of kerosene sample no.2, ρL = (67.0430- 27.7083)/ (77.5632- 27.7083) x 0.9968

= 0.7865

Average density of kerosene = (0.7882 + 0.7865)

= 0.7874

ρ = (W4 X ρL) / (W3 + W4 – W5) x 1000

ρ = Density of cement
ρL = the density of kerosene

W3 = mass of bottle, stopper and kerosene

W4 = mass of cement sample

W5 = mass of bottle, stopper, cement sample and kerosene

Density of cement sample no.1, ρ = 8.985 x 0.7874/ (67.6922+8.985- 74.4534) x1000

= 3181 kg/m3

Density of cement sample no.2, ρ = 9.1539 x 0.7874/ (67.0430+9.1539- 73.9132) x1000

=3156 kg/m3

Density of sample = (3181 + 3156) kg/m3

= 3168 kg/m3

= 3170 kg/m3

DISCUSSION:

It is essential for this measurement that no air bubbles. If density reduces compaction,
compaction and mixing is unsatisfactory. The cement density is used in the calculation of the
total aggregate content and of the concrete density.

The bulk and absolute densities of cement do not differ greatly in practice, since cement is
usually well-graded and must be kept dry, and in any case the precise cement density is not
critical in mix design. It is therefore reasonable to use the bulk density.

The absolute density of a material is the weight of a given quantity of the material divided by
the sum of the volumes of the particles contained in the same quantity.

Using density test, cement can categorized such as Ordinary Portland cement (OPC),
Sulphate-resisting Portland cement (SRPC) and Rapid hardening Portland cement (RHPC)
The cement properties allows you to load the properties of a cement type into the Mix Design
form and to edit the properties of an existing cement type to create a new cement type. You
should do this if none of the standard cement files match the strengths attained by concrete
made with the cement types you use.