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Chapter 1
Introduction: Basic Principles

1.1.(a) Air flows adiabatically through a long straight circular section duct, 0.25 m diameter at
a measured mass flow rate of 40 kg/s. At a particular section along the duct the values of static
temperature T = 150 0 C and static pressure p = 550 kPa. Determine the average velocity of the
airflow and its stagnation temperature.

(b) At another station further along the duct, measurements reveal that the static temperature
has dropped to 147 0C as a consequence of wall friction. Determine the average velocity and the
static pressure of the airflow at this station.

Also determine the change in entropy per unit of mass flow between the two stations.

For air assume that R = 287J/(kgK) and γ = 1.4

Solution
(a) From the gas law

p1 550 × 103
ρ1 = = = 4.53 kg/m 3
RT1 287 × 423

From the conservation of mass law

mɺ 40
c1 = = = 180 m/s Ans
ρ A 4.53 × 0.04908

π 
where A =   d 2 = 0.04908 m 2
4

From the conservation of energy equation the stagnation temperature is

c12 179.92
T01 = T1 + = 423 + = 439.1 K Ans
2C p 2 × 1004.5

(b) T2 = 147 + 273 = 420 K

As the flow is adiabatic, the energy of the air is conserved along the pipe, and h02 = h01
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c22 c2
∴ C pT2 + = C pT1 + 1 ∴ c22 = c12 + 2C p ( −3) = 26373
2 2

∴ c2 = 162.4 m/s ANS

From the continuity equation


mɺ = ρ1c1 A = ρ 2 c2 A and the gas law ρ = p / ( RT ) we arrive at the
following useful expression:

p2 c1T2 180 × 420


= = = 0.9635
p1 c2T1 185.5 × 423
∴ p2 = 530 kPa
(c) The change in entropy between the two stations i:

T2 p  γ T p 
∆s = C p ln − R ln 2 = R  ln 2 − ln 2 
T1 p1  γ − 1 T1 p1 

= 3.81 J/(kg K) Ans

N.B.In this type of flow (called a FANNO FLOW) the entropy will always increase.
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1.2. Nitrogen gas at a stagnation temperature of 300 K and a static pressure of 2 bar flows
through a pipe duct of 0.3 m diameter. At a particular station along the duct length the Mach
number is 0.6. Assuming the flow is frictionless, determine

(1) the static temperature and stagnation pressure of the flow,


(2) the mass flow of gas if the duct diameter is 0.3 m.

For nitrogen gas take

R = 297 J/ ( kgK ) and γ = 1.4


.

Solution

(1) From eqn. (1.35)

γ
p0  γ − 1 2  γ −1
= 1 + M  = 1.2755 ∴ p0 = 2.551 bar Ans.
p  2 

T0 γ −1 2 T
and = 1+ M = 1.072 ∴ T = 0 = 279.9 K Ans.
T 2 1.072

(2) From eqn. (1.38)


 γ +1 
− 1 
mɺ C pT0 γ  γ −1 2  2  γ −1 
= M 1 + M 
An p0 γ −1  2 

π γR
and we have An = d 2 = 0.07069 m 2 and C p = = 1040 J/(kg K)
4 γ −1

Substituting values (and part evaluating) we have, for the LHS of the above equation

mɺ 1040 × 300 ÷ ( 0.07069 × 2.551× 105 ) = 0.03097 mɺ

and for the RHS of the equation

1  γ +1 
− 
γ M  γ −1 2  
2  γ −1  1.4 × 0.6 −3
1 + M  = (1.072 ) = 1.0782
γ −1  2  0.4

∴ mɺ = 27.16 kg/s ANS.


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1.3. Air flows adiabatically through a horizontal duct and at a section numbered
(1) the static pressure p1 = 150 kPa, the static temperature T1 = 200 0C and the
velocity c 1 = 100 m/s. At a station further downstream the static pressure p 2 = 50
kPa and the static temperature T 2 =150 0 C. Determine the velocity c 2 and the
change in entropy per unit mass of air.
γ = 1.4 and R = 287 J/ ( kgK )
For air take

Solution
From eqn. (1.12)

h01 = h02 ∴ h1 + 12 c12 = h2 + 12 c22


γR
∴ c22 = 2C p (T1 − T2 ) + c12 where C p = = 3.5 × 287 = 1004.5 J/kgK
γ −1

∴ c22 = 2 ×1004.5 ( 200 − 150 ) + 1002 = 100450

c2 = 316.9 m/s Ans

From eqn.(1.28a)

T2 p 150  50 
∆s = C p ln − R ln 2 = 1.0045ln − 0.287 ln  
T1 p1 200  150 
∴∆s = −0.289 + 0.315 = 0.0263 kJ/kg ANS
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4
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1.5
g
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1.7
gg
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