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Problem 1.1

The force, F , of the wind blowing against a building is given by

the wind speed,

a constant termed the drag coefficient. Determine the dimensions of the drag coefficient.

Determine the dimensions of the drag coefficient. 2 , where F  C D  V

2 , where

F

C

D

V

2 A

the density of the air, A the cross-sectional area of the building, and

Solution 1.1

F

or

C

D

V

2 A

2

C

D

2 F

V

2

A , where

F

MLT 2 ,
MLT
2
,

Thus,

ML 3 ,
ML
3
,

V

LT 1 ,
LT
1
,

C

D

 -2 MLT    2  -2  -1 2 ML LT 
-2
MLT
2
-2

-1
2
ML
LT
 
L

M

A

L 2
L
2

0

0

L T

0

Hence, CD is dimensionless.

V is

CD

is

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Problem 1.2

The Mach number is a dimensionless ratio of the velocity of an object in a fluid to the speed of

sound in the fluid. For an airplane flying at velocity

V in air at absolute temperature

T , the

Ma Mach number is, V Ma  kRT ,
Ma
Mach number
is,
V
Ma 
kRT
,

where

dimensionless.

k

is a dimensionless constant and

R

is the specific gas constant for air. Show that

Ma

is

Solution 1.2

We denote the dimension of temperature by

Then

 

M

or

 L     T   1  FL   
 L
T

1
 FL  
ML
2
  
M
 
 
T
F

M 1.

 L    T   2 L 2 T
L
 
T
 
2
L
2
T

and use Newton’s second law to get

F

ML

T

2

.

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Problem 1.3

Verify the dimensions, in both the

appear in Table B.1 Physical Properties of Water (BG/EE Units).

FLT

and

MLT

systems, of the following quantities which

(a) Volume, (b) acceleration, (c) mass, (d) moment of inertia (area), and (e) work.

Solution 1.3

a) volume

L 3
L
3

b) acceleration

c) mass

M
M

time rate of change of velocity

LT

1

LT  2
LT
 2

T

or with F mass

MLT  2
MLT
2

1

FL

T

2

d) moment of inertia area

e) work forcedistance

or with F

work

MLT  2
MLT
2

ML 2

T

2

second moment of area

FL
FL
   L 2 L 2 L 4

L
2
L
2
L
4

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Problem 1.4

Verify the dimensions, in both the

appear in Table B.1 Physical Properties of Water (BG/EE Units).

FLT

and

MLT

systems, of the following quantities which

(a) Angular velocity, (b) energy, (c) moment of inertia (area), (d) power, and (e) pressure.

Solution 1.4

a) angular velocity

angular displacement

time

T  1 FL
T
1
FL

b) energy ~ capacity of body to do work

single work forcedistance

energy

or with F

MLT  2
MLT
 2

energy

  MLT  2 L  ML T 2  2

MLT
2
L
ML T
2
 2

c) moment of inertia

area

second moment of area

   L 2 L 2 L 4

L
2
L
2
L
4

d) power

rate of doing work

FL    FLT  1  MLT  2 L T  1
FL
 
FLT
1
 MLT
2
L
T 
1
ML T
2
3
T

e) pressure

force F    FL  2 MLT  2 L  2 ML
force
F

FL
2
MLT
2
L
2
ML
1
T
2
area
L
2

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Problem 1.5

Verify the dimensions, in both the

ties which appear in Table B.1 Physical Properties of Water (BG/EE Units).

FLT

system and the

MLT

system, of the following quanti-

(a) Frequency, (b) stress, (c) strain, (d) torque, and (e) work.

Solution 1.5

cycles a) frequency= T -1 time force F -2 b) stress= FL 2 area L
cycles
a) frequency=
T
-1
time
force
F
-2
b) stress=
FL
2
area
L
-2
Since F
MLT
,
-2
MLT
-1
-2
stress
ML T
2
L
change in length
L
c) strain=
L
0
dimensionless
length
L

d) torque=forcedistance

e) work=forcedistance

  FL MLT -2 L  ML T 2 -2

FL
MLT
-2
L
ML T
2
-2
  FL MLT -2 L  ML T 2 -2

FL
MLT
-2
L
ML T
2
-2

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Problem 1.6

If u is a velocity, / t  2 u / xt x a length,
If
u is a velocity,
/ t
 2 u / xt
x a length, and
(a)u
, (b)
, and (c)
Solution 1.6
 u
LT
 1
LT
 2
a)
 t
T
 u
2
LT
 1
T
 2
b)
 x  t
(
L
)(
T
)

c)

  u LT  1    x (L) L T 2 
 u
LT
1
x
(L)
L T
2
2
 t
T

t a time, what are the dimensions (in the

(

u

/ )

t dx

?

MLT

system) of

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Problem 1.7

Verify the dimensions, in both the

which appear in Table B.1 Physical Properties of Water (BG/EE Units).

FLT system and the

MLT

system, of the following quantities

(a) Acceleration, (b) stress, (c) moment of a force, (d) volume, and (e) work.

Solution 1.7

a) acceleration

velocity L LT  2 time T 2
velocity
L
LT
 2
time
T
2
force F  2 b) stress  FL 2 area L  2 Since F
force
F
2
b) stress 
FL
2
area
L
 2
Since F
MLT
 2
MLT
1
2
stress
ML
T
2
L
c) moment of a force
 force
distance
d) volume  (length)
3
L
3
  FL MLT  2 L ML T 2  2
FL
MLT
2
L
ML T
2
2

e)

work

force

distance

  FL MLT  2 L ML T 2  2
FL
MLT
2
L
ML T
2
2

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Problem 1.8 If p is a pressure,

V a velocity, and

a fluid density, what are the dimensions (in the

MLT

p /  pV  p / V 2 ? system) of (a) , (b)
p
/ 
pV
p /
V
2 ?
system) of (a)
,
(b)
, and (c)
Solution 1.8
FL
2
MLT
2
L
2
ML
1
T
 2
L T
2
 2
a) p
ML
3
ML

3

ML
3
b) pV
ML
1
T
2
LT
1
ML
3
M L
2
3
T
3
p ML  1 T  2 M 0 L T 0 0 c) 2
p
ML
1
T
2
M
0
L T
0
0
c) 2
dimensionless
V
3

2
ML
LT
1

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Problem 1.9 If P is a force and x a length, what are the dimensions (in the

d 3 P / dx  P dx 3 , and (c) Solution 1.9 dP
d
3 P / dx
 P dx
3 , and (c)
Solution 1.9
dP
F
FL
2
a)
dx
L
d
3 P
F
FL
3
b)
dx
3
L
3

c)

 Pdx FL
Pdx
FL

?

FLT

system) of (a)

dP / dx

, (b)

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Problem 1.10 If V is a velocity,

of

, (d)

Problem 1.10 If V is a velocity, of , (d) a length, and  a fluid

a length, and

a fluid property (the kinematic viscosity) having dimensions



V

, (b)



V

, (c)

V 2

2

LT

1

V 
V

, which of the following combinations are dimensionless: (a)

?

Solution 1.10

a)

b)

c)

d)

     LT  1 L L T 2  1 L
 
LT
1
L
L T
2
1
L T
4
2

V

not dimensionless

  1  LT L  V 0 0 L T   dimensionless
1

LT
L
V
0
0
L T
dimensionless
2
1
L T

V

2

  2  LT  1 L T 2  1 L T 4

2
LT
1
L T
2
1
L T
4
3

not dimensionless

LT

1

V  2 L    2  1 L L T
V
2
L
2
 1
L
L T

 

not dimensionless

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Problem 1.11

The momentum flux is given by the product

If mass flow rate is given in units of mass per unit time, show that the momentum flux can be ex- pressed in units of force.

that the momentum flux can be ex- pressed in units of force. mV , where m

mV , where

m
m

is mass flow rate and

V is velocity.

Solution 1.11

 M L FT 2   mV  L   L  
M
L
FT
2
mV
L
 L  
 T 

M
   
 
T
T
2
L
T
2

F

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Problem 1.12 An equation for the frictional pressure loss p (inches H 2 O) in a circular duct of inside diameter

d

in.

and length

Lft

p

0.027

L

V

  V



d

1.22

o

for air flowing with velocity

1.82

,

where

V0

is a reference velocity equal to

1000ft/min.

Solution 1.12

Solving for the constant gives

0.027

p

L

 

L

  

V

D

1.22

V

o

1.82

.

The units give

0.027

in. H

2

O

ft

in.

1.22



ft

min

ft

min

1.82

in. H

2 O

ft

in.

1.22

0.027

V ft/min

is

Find the units of the “constant”

0.027.

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Problem 1.13 The volume rate of flow, equation

Q

R

4

p

8

The volume rate of flow, equation Q   R 4  p 8  Q

Q , through a pipe containing a slowly moving liquid is given by the

where

cosity

you classify this equation as a general homogeneous equation? Explain.

R

is the pipe radius,

T

, and

equation? Explain. R is the pipe radius, T  , and  p the pressure drop

p

the pressure drop along the pipe,

a fluid property called vis-

/8

? Would

FL

2

the length of pipe. What are the dimensions of the constant

Solution 1.13

  T

3

L

  T

3

L

4 2    L FL     1   
4
2

L
FL
1

2
8
 
FL
T
L
1
3
 1
L T
8
 

The constant is

is dimensionless.

8

Yes. This is a general homogeneous equation because it is valid in any consistent units system.

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Problem 1.14

Show that each term in the following equation has units of

length,

lb/ft

x

a length,

p a pressure, and

an absolute viscosity.

0



p

x

2

u

y

2

.

Solution 1.14

and

lb

ft

2

ft

 

 

    x  

p

  p lb    x      ft 
 
p
lb
  x 
   
ft
  

or

3

,

y   

2

u

2

lb

ft

3

.

lb sec  sec

ft

  

ft

2  

y

2

u

2

ft

2

or

3

.

Consider

u

a velocity,

y

a

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Problem 1.15 The pressure difference, mated by the equation

p

, across a partial blockage in an artery (called a stenosis) is approxi-

 

p

where

K

v

V

V

D

K

u

 

A

0

A

1

1

 

2

V 2

is the blood velocity,

the blood viscosity

( FL

2

T )

,

the blood density

3

ML

,

D the artery diameter,

A0 the area of the unobstructed artery, and

A1

the area of the stenosis.

Determine the dimensions of the constants tem of units?

K

and

Ku

. Would this equation be valid in any sys-

Solution 1.15

p

K

v

V 1

D

K

u

0

A

1

A

2

V

2

FL

FL

2

2

2  FT L 1 L  K    K   v
2
FT L
1
L
K
K
v
u
2
2
L
T L
L
2
2
K
FL
K
FL
v
u

1

2

 

 

 

FT

2

 

 

1

L

L

3

L

T

2

K

and

Ku

are dimensionless because each term in the equation must have the same dimensions,.

Yes. The equation would be valid in any consistent system of units.

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Problem 1.16

Assume that the speed of sound,

sions

homogeneous equation, what are the values for a and

c , in a fluid depends on an elastic modulus, E, with dimen-

, in the form

c

E

a

2

FL

, and the fluid density,

b . If this is to be a dimensionally

b ? Is your result consistent with the stand-

ard formula for the speed of sound? (See the equation

c

E  
E

.)

Solution 1.16

Substituting

 

LT

1

 

 

c

FL

2

LT

a



 

1

FL

E

4

T

2

2

b

 

FL

F

a

b

L

2

a

FL

4

T

4

b

T

2

b

2

into the equation provided yields:

Dimensional homogeneity requires that the exponent of each dimension on both sides of the equal sign be the same.

F:

0 =a+b

L:

1 =-2a-4b

T:

-1 =2b

Therefore:

T:

-1

=2b b= -1/2

F:

a =-b a= 1/2

L:

1 =-2a-4b = -2(1/2) -4(-1/2)= 1

a

2 2

1 b 

;

1

Yes, this is consistent with the standard formula for the speed of sound.

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Problem 1.17 A formula to estimate the volume rate of flow, the equation

Q 3.09 BH

3/2

Q , flowing over a dam of length, B , is given by

where

Q in

be valid if units other than feet and seconds were used?

H is the depth of the water above the top of the dam (called the head). This formula gives

ft

3

/s

when

B

and

H are in feet. Is the constant, 3.09, dimensionless? Would this equation

Solution 1.17

Q 3.09 BH

3

2

  

3

L

T

1

 

3.09

L

 

L

3

2

   

3

L

T

1

 

3.09

L

5

2

Since each term in the equation must have the same dimensions the constant

1

3.09 must have dimensions of

Since the constant has dimensions its val ue will c hange with a change in units.

No.

2

L T

1

and is therefore not dimensionless. No .

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Problem 1.18

A commercial advertisement shows a pearl falling in a bottle of shampoo. If the diameter

the pearl is quite small and the shampoo sufficiently viscous, the drag Stokes’s law,

D of

D on the pearl is given by

D 3VD ,

where

side of Stokes’s law has units of force.

V is the speed of the pearl and

is the fluid viscosity. Show that the term on the right

Solution 1.18

 

D

3

 VD

  

M

 L    T  

LT

L

M

L

FT

2

L

T

2

L

T

2

F

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Problem 1.20 Express the following quantities in SI units: (a)10.2

(d) 73.1 ft s 2 Solution 1.20
(d) 73.1 ft
s
2
Solution 1.20

, (e)

SI units: (a) 10.2 (d) 73.1 ft s 2 Solution 1.20 , (e) 0.0234  lb

0.0234lbs

ft

2

.

ft s 2 Solution 1.20 , (e) 0.0234  lb  s ft 2 . in.

in.

min

, (b)

4.81 slugs

a)

10.2

in.

min

 

10.2

in.

min

  

2.540

10

2

m

  1min    60s



in.

4.32

b)

4.81slugs

4.81slugs

  

1.459

c)

3.02 lb

3.02 lb

  

4.448

N

lb

  

10

kg

slug

  

13.4 N

70.2 kg

d)

73.1

ft

s

2

e)

0.0234

 

73.1

lb

s

ft

2

 

ft

s

2

 

3.048 10

1

m

s

2

ft

s

2



0.0234

s

 

lb

ft

2

4.788

10

22.3

m

s

2

N

s

m

2

lb s

ft

2

 1.12

N

s

m

2

10

3

m

s

, (c)3.02 lb

4.32

mm

s

,

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Problem 1.21

Express the following quantities in BG units: (a)14.2

km

(d)0.0320 N m s Solution 1.21 14.2 km   a)
(d)0.0320 N m s
Solution 1.21
14.2 km
a)
km (d)0.0320 N m s Solution 1.21 14.2 km   a) , (e) 5.67mm hr

, (e)5.67mm hr

.

14.2

10

3

m

  

3.281

ft

m

  

4.66

10

4

ft

, (b)

8.14N m 3 1.61kg , (c)
8.14N m
3
1.61kg
, (c)

b)

c)

8.14

1.61

N

m 3

kg

m

3

 

8.14

N

m

3

 

6.366

10

 

1.61

kg

m

3

 

1.940

10

3

3

lb

ft

3

N

m

3

   5.18   

2

lb

ft

3

10

slugs

ft

3

kg

m

3

   3.12   

3

slugs

ft

3

10

d)

0.0320

N

m

s

 

0.0320

 

N

m

s

7.376

10

1

ft

lb

s

s

N

m

2.36

10

2

ft

lb

s

e)

5.67

mm

hr

 

5.67

10

3

m

hr

  

3.281

ft

  

3600s   

1hr

m

5.17

10

6

ft

s

m

3

,