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1. To discuss guidelines that should be considered in the selection and use of
instructional materials.
2. To reflect on the use of instructional materials and its effect on the teaching and
learning process.
3. To create a concept map of the different instructional materials used in the T-L

Study the illustration of the Cycle of Producing Instructional Materials below and discuss
it with your partner.

Based on what you have discussed, list down your ideas and/or insights derived from it.

One of the instructional materials used to attain instructional objectives is fieldtrip.
It is not enough to bring the class out for the fieldtrip and make them observe anything or
everything or use their instructional materials for no preparation and clear reason at all.

Perhaps this is what happened to the field trip joined in by Linus, that’s why he seems
not able to cite something specific that he learned from the field trip.
For an effective use of instructional materials such as field trip, there are guidelines
that ought to observe, first of all, in their selection and second, in their use.
Selections of Materials
The following guide questions express standards to consider in the selection of
instructional materials:
 Does the material give a true picture of the ideas they present? To avoid
misconceptions, t is always good to ask when the material was produced.
 Does the material contribute meaningful content to the topic under study? Does
the material help you achieve the instructional objective?
 Is the material aligned to the curriculum standards and competencies?
 Is the material culture – and grades – sensitive?
 Does the material have culture bias?
 Is the material appropriate for the age, Intelligence, and experience of the
 Is the physical condition of the material satisfactory? An example, is a photograph
properly mounted?
 Is there a teacher’s guide to provide a briefing for effective use? The chance that
the instructional material will be use to the maximum and to the optimum is
increased with a teacher’s guide
 Can the material in question help to make a student better thinkers and develop
their critical faculties? With exposure to the mass media, it is highly important that
we maintain and and strengthen our rational powers.
 Does the use of material make the learners collaborate with one another?
 Does the material promote self – study?
 Is the material worth the time, expense and effort involved? A field trip, for
instance, requires much time, effort and money. It is more effective than any
other less expensive and less demanding instructional material that can take its
place? Or is there a better substitute?
The Proper Use of Materials
You may have selected your instructional material well. This is no guarantee that the
instructional material will be effectively utilized. It is one thing to select a good instructional
material, it is another thing to use it well.
P – prepare yourself
P – prepare your student
P – present the material
F – follow – up
To ensure the effective use of instructional material, Hayden Smith and Thomas Nagel, (1972)
book authors on Instructional media, advise us to abide by the acronym PPPF.
Prepare yourself . You know your lesson objective and what you expect from the class after
the session and why you have selected such particular r instructional materials. You have a plan
on how you will proceed, what question to ask, how you will evaluate learning and how you will
tie loose ends before the bell rings.
Prepare your students. Set reasonably high class expectations and learning goals. It is sound
practice to give them guide questions for them to be able to answer during the discussion.
Motivate them and keep them interested and engaged.
Present the material. Under the best possible conditions. Many teachers are guilty of the
R.O.G syndrome. This is means “running out if gas” which usually refers from poor planning.
(Smith, 1972) using media and materials, especially if they are mechanical in nature, often
requires rehearsal and a carefully planned performance. Wise are you if you try the materials
ahead of your class use to avoid a fiasco.
Follow – up. Remember that you use instructional materials to achieve an objective, not to
kill time nor to give yourself a break, neither to merely entertain the class. You use the
instructional for the attainment of a lesson objective. Your use the instructional material is not
the end in itself. It is a means to an end, the attainment of a learning objective. So, there is need
to follow up to find out if objective was attained or not.

Create a concept map of the different types of instructional materials used in your
classroom and give a brief description of how these are utilized.


1. To identify guidelines that should be considered in the selection and use of the
instructional materials
2. To distinguish where should these direct purposeful experience lead the learner for
meaningful learning
3. To write their reflection derived from the lesson.


Reflect on the two basic principles that should be considered when using instructional
1. Teachers, whether poorly trained or highly competent, remain the most influential part
of the learning process. (Materials merely assist in the instructional process; the
teacher provides the primary source of direction in learning.)
2. The amount of information a student retains is directly related to how that material is
presented. This concept can be presented as a series of steps leading to the greatest
retention of knowledge


Before deciding on which types of materials are appropriate for a given lesson, the
teacher must locate which materials, if any, are at his/her disposal. Most often, and for just about
all subjects, the only real materials present in the classroom will be a blackboard and possibly
some chalk. In many cases these too may be unavailable. In each case the needs of the teacher
must be weighed against what is available.

Availability: If the teacher is developing the curriculum, the design should either require
materials which can be easily obtained or allow sufficient time to acquire the special materials
and supplies needed. As acquiring materials from abroad is both time consuming and often too
costly to consider, the teacher should consider using local materials to replicate instructional
materials they might otherwise try to order and/or improvise.

With this, how can you as a teacher improvise if there are no available materials?

Whatever skills or concept we have did not come out of the blue. We spent hours doing
the activity by ourselves in order to acquire the skill. The same thing is through with the
four (4)narrators above. They learned the skills by doing. The Graduate School Professor had to
do the computer task herself to learn the skill. The secretary learns from her mistake and
repeatedly doing the task correctly enabled her to master the skill. The Grade IV pupil got a crystal
clear concepts of the size of the elephant and giraffe. For the Grade VI teacher, the statistical
concepts of positive and negative discrimination indices became fully understood only after the
actual experience of item analysis. All these experiences point to the need to use, whenever we
can, direct, purposeful experiences in the teaching – learning process.

What are referred to as a direct, purposeful experience? These are our concrete and
firsthand experiences that make up the foundation of our learning. These are the rich
experiences that our senses bring from which we construct the ideas, the concepts, the
generalization that gives meaning and order to our lives. (Dale. 1969). They are sensory
These direct activities may be preparing meals, making a piece of furniture, doing power
point presentation, performing a laboratory experiment, delivering a speech, or taking a trip.
In contrast, indirect experiences are experiences of other people that we observe, read
or hear about. They are not our own self – experiences but still experiences in the sense that we
see, read hear about them. They are not firsthand but rather vicarious or indirect experiences.
Climbing a mountain is a firsthand, direct experience. Seeing it done on films or reading
about it is vicarious, substitute experience. It is clear, therefore, that we can approach the world
of reality directly through the senses and indirectly with reduced sensory experience. For
example, we can bake black forest cake or see it done in the TV or read about it.
Why are these direct experiences described to be purposeful? Purposeful because the
experiences are not purely mechanical. They are not a matter of going through the motion.
These are not “mere sensory excitation”. They are experiences that are internalized in the sense
that these experiences involved the asking of questions that have significance in the life of the
person undergoing the direct experience.
They are also described as purposeful because these experiences are undergone in
relation to a purpose, i.e. learning. Why do we want our students to have a direct experience in
conducting an experiment in the laboratory? It is done in the relation to a certain learning
Where should these direct, purposeful experience lead us to? The title of this lesson
“direct, Purposeful Experiences and Beyond” implies that these direct experiences must not be
the period or the dead end. We must be brought to a higher plane. The higher plane referred to
here is the level of generalization and abstraction.
That is why we speak of “hands – on, minds – on, and hearts – on” approach. Out of the
direct experience, thoughts or meanings following reflection must flow or run the risk of a lesson
consisting of activity after another activity enjoyed by the learners who cannot make connection
with the activity themselves.
The Grade IV pupils zoo experience of the elephant and giraffe as given in the ACTIVITY
phase of the lesson enables him to understand clearly and visualize correctly an elephant and a
giraffe upon reading or hearing the words “elephant” and “giraffe.” The Cone of Experience
implies that we move from the concrete to the abstract (and from the abstract to the concrete
as well.) Direct experiences serve as the foundation of concepts formation, generalization and
abstraction. John Dewey (1916) has made this fundamental point succinctly.
An ounce of experience is better a ton of theory because it is only in experience that any
theory has vital and verifiable significance. An experience, a very humble experience, is capable
of generating and carrying any amount of theory (or intellectual content), but a theory apart from
an experience cannot be definitely grasped as a theory. It tends to become a mere verbal formula,
a set of catchwords used to render thinking or genuine theorizing unnecessary and impossible.
If direct, purposeful experiences or firsthand sensory experiences make us learn
concepts and skills.

Write your reflection from this lesson based on the discussions. Include at least three (3)
major points in your reflection.
1. To define contrived experiences
2. To distinguish varied types of contrived experiences
3. To enumerate the advantages of using contrived experiences
4. To evaluate standards that can be used to assess contrived experiences


Look closely at the picture on the left

and tell me what you think about it.

After that, compare with your

seatmate his perception of the same

Do you have any idea about contrived experiences? Why do teachers make use of these
in the T-L process? In the next section you will understand why.

The model of the atom, the globe, the planetarium, the simulated election process and the
preserved specimen fall under contrived experiences, the second band of experiences in Dale’s
Cone of Experiences.
What are contrived experiences? These are “edited” copies of reality and are used as
substitute for real things when it is not practical or not possible to bring or do the real thing in
the classroom. These contrived experiences are designed to stimulate to real – life situation.
The atom and the planetarium are classified as models. A model is a “reproduction of a real –
thing in a small scale, or large scale, or exact size, - but made of synthetic materials. It is a
substitute for a real thing which may or may not be operational” (Brown, et al, 1969).
The planetarium may also be considered a mock – up. A mock – up is “an arrangement of a
real device or associated devises, displayed in such a way that representation of reality is created.
The mock – up may be simplified in order to emphasize certain features. It may be an economical
reproduction of a complicated or costly device, to be observed for learning process. Usually, it is
prepared substitute for a real thing; sometimes it is a giant arrangement” (Brown 1969). The
planetarium is an example of a mock – up, in the sense that the order or the arrangement of the
planet is shown and the real processes of the planet’s rotation on their axis and the revolution
of the planets around the sun are displayed. A mock – up is a special model where the parts of
the model are singled out , heightened and magnified in order to focus on that part of the
process under study. The planetarium involves of model of each of the planet and the sun but it
focuses on the processes of the planet’s rotation and revolution and so is also considered a mock
– up.
The preserved specimen fall under specimens and objects. A specimen is any individual or
item considered typical of a group, class or whole. Objects may also include artifacts displayed in
a museum or objects displayed in exhibits or preserved insects specimen in science.
The school election process describe above is a form of simulation. Simulation is a
“representation of manageable real event in which the learner is an active participant engaged in
a learning behavior or in applying previously acquired skills or knowledge” (Orlich, et al., 1994).
In addition to the election of class and school officers given above, other examples of these are
fire and earthquake drills which schools usually conduct. Organizers of earthquake and fire drills
create a situation highly similar to the real situation when an earthquake happens.
Another instructional material included in contrived experiences is game. Is there a difference
between a game and a simulation? Games are played to win while simulation need not have a
winner. Simulation seems to be more easily applied to the study of issues rather than to
Why do we make use of contrived experiences? We use models, mock – ups,
specimen, and objects to: 1. Overcome limitations of space and time. 2. To “edit” reality for us
to be able to focus on parts or a process of a system that we intend to study, 3. To overcome
difficulty of size. 4. To understand the inaccessible, and 5. Help the learners understand
We use simulations and games to make our class interactive and to develop the decision
– making skills and knowledge construction skills of our students. Orlich, et al. (1994) enumerates
ten (10) general purposes of simulations and games in education:

1. To develop changes in attitudes

2. To change specific behavior
3. To prepare participants for assuming new roles in the future
4. To help individuals understand their current roles
5. To increase the students’ ability to apply principles
6. To reduce complex problems or situations to manageable elements
7. To illustrate roles that may affects one’s life but that one may never assume
8. To motivate learners
9. To develop analytical processes
10. To sensitive individuals to another person’s life role.
In addition to the election processes describe above, what are additional examples of
simulation? A famous example is a “bomb shelter” simulation. “you are under attack. The bomb
shelter can accommodate only five (5) persons. There are eight (8) of you in the group. Decide
who must get in. other famous example of simulation In school are play stores. One Grade II
teacher used play store to teach subtraction of numbers involving amount of money.
Another example is an awareness – raising experience about common disabilities for
secondary students. Mark J. Hallenbeck and Darlene McMaster (1991) had this experience:
students without disabilities simulated the experiences of visual and hearing – impaired people
and those with physical disabilities on “simulation day.” They claimed that students gained a new
perspectives of the needs and feelings of student with disability.
In the English subject, David Sudol (1983) found that literary concepts could be successfully
taught by involving the students by having them develop characters and then develop a plot.
Sudol also suggested that similarly, you could select some classic quote, for example, the
opening paragraph from A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens, “it was the worst of times” and
ask the students to stimulate a plot, a story line, character and location. Use the current year.
How closely do you think the students might parallel dickens? After the simulation, “A Tale of
Two Cities” could be read both for knowledge and for comparison to the students’ outline.

Games are use for any of these purposes: 1. To practice and or to refine knowledge/skills
already acquired. 2. To identify gaps or weaknesses in knowledge or skills. 3. To serve as a
summation or review, and 4. To develop new relationships among concepts and principles.
If you want a class that is fully alive, think of how you can integrate native games in your lesson.
Refer to Science and Mathematics of Toys, a sourcebook for teachers, published and printed by
the Institute for Science and Mathematics Education Development of the University of the
Here is the game that you can play at the beginning of the year, the Human Intelligence
Hunt. Armstrong (1994) suggests that you use this when you are introducing Multiple
Intelligences theory at the beginning of the year. How is it played?
Each student receives a list of tasks like those below. On your signal, students take the task sheet
along with a pen or pencil and find other students in the room who can do the tasks listed. There
are three basic rules:
1. Students must actually perform the tasks listed, not simply say they can do them.
2. Once a student performs a task to the hunter’s satisfaction, he or she should initial the
blank space next to the appropriate task on the hunter tasks sheet.
3. “Hunters” can ask a person to perform only one task; therefore, to complete a hunt, a
student must have nine (9) different sets of initials.

Research on Use of Contrived Experiences in the Teaching and Learning Process
Read one recent research from any journal on education, teaching, or instructional
materials and evaluate the paper in terms of how the contrived experience was used in the
investigation. Likewise, be able to know what the purpose of the paper is, its objectives, method,
result, and conclusions.

1. To contrast what dramatic experiences include
2. To reflect on the value of this method
3. To create their own dramatized experience based on the material given for effective

Watch the 3-minute video on this link:


Based on the video above, how can a teacher make use of dramatized experience in his/er

Something dramatic is something that is stirring or affecting or moving. A dramatic
entrance is something that catches or holds our attention and has an emotional impact. If our
teaching is dramatic, our students get attracted, interested and affected. If they are affected and
move by what we taught, we will most likely have an impact on them. So, why can’t we be
dramatic all the time?
Dramatized experiences can range from the formal plays, pageant lo less formal tableau,
pantomime, puppets and role playing.
Plays depict life, character or culture or a combination of all three. They offer excellent
opportunities to portray vividly important ideas about life. Pageants are usually community
dramas that are based on local history, presented by local actors. An example is a historical
pageant that traces the growth of a school. Play and pantomime require much time for
preparation and so cannot be part of everyday classroom program.
Pantomime and tableaux, when compared to a play and a pageant are less demanding in
terms of labor, time and preparation. These are purely visual experiences. A pantomime is the
“art of conveying a story through bodily movements only “(Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary).
Its effect on the audience depends on the movements of the actor. A tableau )a French word
which means picture) is a picture – like scene composed of a people against a background. A
tableau is often used to celebrate Independence Day, Christmas, and United Day.
Dale (1996) claims the puppets, unlike the regular stage play, can present ideas with extreme
simplicity – without elaborate scenery or costume - yet effectively.
As an instructional device, the puppet show can involve the entire group of students – as
speakers of parts, manipulators of the figures, and makers of the puppet.
Types of Puppets

SHADOW PUPPETS-flat black silhouette made from lightweight cardboard and shown behind a
PUPPETS -flat cut out figures tacked to a stick, with one or more movable parts, and operated
from below the stage level by wire rods or slender sticks.
HAND PUPPETS -the puppet’s head is operated by the forefinger of the puppeteer, the little finger
and thumb being used to animate the puppet.
LOVE-and-FINGER PUPPET-make use of old gloves to which small costumed figures are attached.
MARIONETTES- flexible, jointed puppets operated by strings or wires attached to a cross bar and
maneuvered from directly above the stage.

What principles must be observed in choosing a puppet play for teaching? Dale, (1996)
quoting from the puppeteers of America offers many suggestions, among which are the
 Do not use puppets for plays that can be done just as well or better by other
dramatic means.
 Puppet plays must be based on action rather than on words.
 Keep the plays short.
 Do not omit the possibilities of music and dancing as part of the upper show.
 Adapt the puppet show to the age, background, and tastes of the students.

Another from of dramatized experienced is a roleplaying. Roleplaying is an unrehearsed,

unprepared, and spontaneous dramatization of a “let’s pretend” situation where assigned
participants are absorbed by their own roles in the situation described by the teacher.

This is done by describing a situation which would create various viewpoints on an issue
and then ask students to play the roles of the individuals involved. The teacher then processes
the role play afterwards

Look at the comic illustration below and dramatize it in at least three simple sentences

1. To define what demonstration is all about
2. To reflect on the merit of the strategy
3. To conduct demonstration class using techniques and strategies in making a
demonstration work


What do you need in order to prepare for the teaching demonstration?

Watch this short demonstration video on the link below,

What have you noticed with the way the teacher demonstrated the lesson?
Was the demonstration class done appropriately, If yes, why,

In the demonstration of a new product, the speaker shows the product, tells all the good
thing about the product to promote it in order to convince the audience that the product is
worth buying.
In the activists’ demonstration, the activists air their grievances and publicly denounce
the acts of a person or of an institution, like the government, against whom they are
When a master teacher asked to demonstration in teaching on a teaching strategy, she
shows to the audience how to use a teaching strategy effectively.
In all three instances of demonstration, there is an audience, a process of speaking, and
a process of showing a product or a method or proofs to convince the audience to buy the
product, use the strategy or rally behind their cause.
What then is a demonstration? Webster’s International Dictionary defines it as “a public
showing emphasizing the salient, merits, utility, efficiency, etc., of an article or product.” in
teaching it is showing how a thing is done and emphasizing of the salient merits, utility and
efficiency of a concept, a method or a process or an attitude.
What guiding principles must we observe in using a demonstration as a teaching –
learning experience? Edgar Dale (1969) gives at least three:
1. Establish rapport. Greet your audience. Make them feel at ease by your warmth and
sincerity. Stimulate their interest by making your demonstration and yourself
interesting. Sustain their attention.
2. Avoid COLK fallacy (Clear Only If Known). What is this fallacy? It is the assumption that
what is clear to the expert demonstrator is also clearly known to the person for whom
the message is intended. To avoid the fallacy, it is best for the expert demonstrator to
assume that his audience knows nothing or a little about what he is intending to
demonstrate for him to be very thorough, clear and detailed in his
demonstration even to a point of facing the risk of being repetitive.
3. Watch for key options. What are key options? Dale (1996) says “ they are the ones at
which an error is likely to be made, the places at which many people stumble and
where the knacks and tricks of the trade are especially important”. The good
demonstrator recognizes [possible stumbling blocks to learners and highlights them in
some way. What are usually highlighted are the “dont’s” of a process or a strategy.
To ensure that the demonstration works, we ought to plan and prepare very well before we
conduct the demonstration. In planning and preparing for demonstration, Brown (1969) suggests
methodical procedures by the following questions:
1. What are our objectives? How does your class stand with respect to these
objectives? This is to determine entry knowledge and skills of your students.
2. Is there a better way to achieve your ends?
3. If there is a more effective way to attain your purpose, then replace the
demonstration method the more effective one.
4. Do you have access to all necessary materials and equipment to make the
demonstration? Have a checklist of necessary equipment and material. This may
include written materials.
5. Are you familiar with the sequence and content of the proposed demonstration?
Outline the steps and rehearse your demonstration.
6. Are the limits realistic?

You have planned and rehearsed your demonstration, your materials and
equipment are ready, you have prepared your students, then you can proceed to the
demonstration itself. Dale (1969) gives several points to observe:
1. Set the tone for good communication. Get and keep your audience’s interest.
2. Keep your demonstration simple.
3. Do not wonder from the main ideas.
4. Check to see that your demonstration is being understood. Watch your audience
for signs of bewilderment, boredom or disagreement.
5. Do not hurry your demonstration. Asking questions to check understanding can
serve as a “brake”.
6. Do not drag out the demonstration. Interesting things have never dragged
out. They create their own tempo.
7. Summarize as you go along and provide a concluding summary. Use the
chalkboard, the over head projector, charts, diagram, power point and
whatever other materials are appropriate to synthesize your demonstration.
8. Hand out written materials at the conclusion.

What questions can you ask to evaluate your classroom demonstration? Dale (1969) enumerates:
 Was your demonstration adequately and skillfully prepared? Did you select demonstrable
skills or ideas? Were the desired behavioral outcomes clear?
 Did you follow the step by step plan? Did you make use of additional materials
appropriate to your purpose – chalkboard, felt board, pictures, charts, diagrams, models,
overhead transparencies, or slides?
 Was the demonstration itself correct? Was your explanation simple enough so that most
of the students understood it easily?
 Did you keep checking to see that all your students were concentration on what you were
 Could every person see and hear? If a skill was demonstrated for imitation, was it
presented from the physical point of view of the learner?
 Did you help students do their own generalizing?
 Did you take enough time to demonstrate the key points?
 Did you review and summarize the key points?
 Did your students participate in what you were doing by asking thoughtful questions at
the appropriate time?
 Did your evaluation of a student learning indicate that your demonstration achieved its

Prepare for a 15-minute demonstration class based on your major. Make sure you have a
learning plan clearly stipulating each part and/or activity required.

1. To predict procedures and criteria that must be observed in planning and conducting
field trips
2. To reflect on the educational benefits derived from a field trip
3. To create a travel blog

Watch the video on the link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JEsV5rqbVNQ

What is the virtual tour all about?
What have you learned from it?

The teachers’ comments given above indicate failure of the field trips conducted. This is
definitely the consequence of no planning or if ever there was, planning was done poorly.
What procedures must we follow to avoid the failed study trips described above? Let’s
plan. Planning a field trip includes these steps: 1. Preliminary planning by the teacher, 2. Pre
planning with others going on the trip, and 3. Taking the field trip itself and 4. Post – field trip
follow up activities.

For preliminary by the teacher, Brown (1969) proposes the following:

 Make preliminary contacts, a tour on final agreements with the place to be visited.
 Make final arrangements with the school principal about the details of the trip: time,
schedule, transportation, arrangements, finances and permission slips from parents.
 Make a tentative route plan, subject to later alteration based on class planning and
 Try to work out mutually satisfactory arrangements with other teachers if the trip will
conflict with their classes.
 Prepare preliminary lists of questions or other materials which will be helpful in planning
with the students.
 Preplanning with students joining the trip
 Discuss the objective of the trip and write them down. The main objective should be
included in the permit slip given to parents and should be consulted later when the trip is
 Prepare list of questions to send ahead to the guide of the study trip.
 Define safety and behavior standards for the journey there and for the field trip site
 Discuss and decide on ways to document the trip. Everyone is expected to take notes.
 List specific object to be seen on their way to the site, on the site of the field trip and on
their way home from the site.
 Discuss appropriate dress. Comfortable shoes for walking are important.
 Before the trip, use a variety of learning materials in order to give each student a
background for the trip.

Preplanning with Others Joining the Trip

Other people accompanying the group need to be oriented on the objectives, route, behavior,
standards required of everyone so they can help enforce these standards. These may be parents
who will assist the teachers and/ or school administrator staff.
Taking the Field Trip
· Distribute route map of places to be observed.
· Upon arriving at the destination, teacher should check the group and introduce
the guide.
· Special effort should be made to ensure that:
- The trip keeps to the time schedule
- The students have the opportunity to obtain answers to questions
- The group participates courteously in the entire trip
- The guide sticks closely to the list of questions
Evaluating Field Trip
These are questions we ask ourselves after the field trip to evaluate the field trip we just had.
· Could the same benefits be achieved by other materials? Was it worth the time, effort and
perhaps extra money? Where there any unexpected problems which could be foreseen another
time? Where these due to guides, students, poor planning, or unexpected trip conditions?
Where new interest developed?
Should the trip be recommended to other classes?
Studying similar topics?

Educational Benefits Derived from a Field Trip

Field trips can be fun and educational when they are well executed. They offer us a number of
educational benefits:
1. The acquisition of lasting concepts and change in attitudes are rooted on concrete and rich
experiences. Field trips are opportunities for rich and memorable experiences which are
fundamental to learning that lasts.
2. Field trip bring us the world beyond the classroom. The real – world connection is more work
but the benefits of broadening teaching beyond textbooks far outweigh the little bit of time
it takes from a teacher’s schedule.
3. Field trips have a wide range of application. It is not meant only for children. It is for adults
also. It is not meant for the social sciences subjects. It is for all other subjects as well.
4. It can bring out a lot of realizations which may lead to changes in attitudes and insights. The
field trip “can nurture curiosity; build a zest for new experience, and a sense of
wonder” Dale (1969). Here are some realizations students had after joining a field trip to
the following places.
§ A school for the blind: “I’m glad, I’m not blind. What can we do to prevent blindness?
§ An automobile factory: “ more and more factory work is automated. How soon will we
have three working days and four days of the job? What will people do with their time?”
§ A museum: “ there is so much to be known and I know so little”

Disadvantages of field Trips

These educational benefits are compensate for the drawbacks of field trips, some of which
are: 1. It is costly, 2. It involves logistics, 3. It is extravagant with time, 4. Contains an element of
Community Resources
A field trip may be a visit to a scenic spot or to a historical place. What community resources
can we use for learning?
These can be persons and places in the community. For persons, let us not go too far. Let us
begin with the parents of our students. Many of them can be resource speaker in their fields of
expertise. A dentist may be invited to the children on how they care for their teeth. A journalist
may serve as a resource paper on the part of the newspaper and how to write an editorial. A
dynamic teacher will find a way to have a record of parents’ names, contact number, occupation,
and other pertinent data she needs.
There are other people in the community who can be excellent resource speaker. A senior
citizen and a war veteran in the community maybe invited to the class for an interview on a topic
of which he is expert. Say for example, his memories of World War II. A barangay captain may be
asked on what the barangay intends to do a curb the rampant alcoholism among the youth in the
As to places to visit, popular destinations are museum, zoos, botanical gardens, historical
places, places of exhibit, scenic spots. Performance like a play, a concert, and a dance
presentations also form part of community resources.
Public libraries and private libraries (some private schools, colleges and universities allow
outsiders to research in their libraries on special arrangements) can also be community learning
resources. Maybe classes are not bought to these libraries for a field trip but students can go
there for research and learning.


Create a short travel blog of a place that you have been through to convince others to visit such

1. To discover how powerful the film, video, and TV in the classroom
2. To discuss the educational benefits of the use of films, video, and TV in the classroom
3. To identify the disadvantages or limitations of the use of TV
4. To use TV as a form of lesson enrichment

With the use of the Internet, give at least 5 links on the use of film or video in the classroom.

What are the benefits that can be derived in the use of these technology in the T-L process?

The film, the video and the TV are indeed very powerful. Dale (1969) says, they can:
§ Transmit a wide range of audio – visual materials, including still pictures, films, objects,
specimens and dramas.
§ Bring model of excellence to the viewer – we can see and hear the excellent scientist like John
Glenn, the excellent speakers and Master teacher s who lecture and demonstrate a teaching
method for professional development of teachers.
§ Bring the world of reality to the home and through the classroom through a “live” broadcast
or as mediated through film or videotape. – Not all of us have the opportunity to see life
underneath the sea. But with TV, we are able to see life at the bottom of the sea right there
in our sala or bedroom through Discovery Channel, for example.
§ Make us see and hear for ourselves world events as they happen. With a sense of helplessness,
we witnessed the fire that engulfed homes in San Diego, California in October 2007 as it
happened through TV. When the strong earthquake shook Baguio, Agoo, Dagupan and Nueva
Ecija, Philippines on July 16, 1990, the aftermath of the earthquake was shown live in TV
§ Be the most believable news source
§ Make some programs understandable and appealing to a wide variety of age and educational
levels. Literate and illiterate, young and old – all benefit from the common experiences that
the TV transmits.
§ Become a greater equalizer of educational opportunity because programs can be presented
over national and regional networks.
§ Provide us with sounds and sights not easily available even to the viewer of a real event
through long shots, close ups, zooms shots, magnification and spilt screen made possible by
the t camera – afraid of the mammoth crowd every time Baguio celebrates
the panagbenga (Flower festival), I prefer to stay home and watch it in TV. With the versatile
camera, I can have more close up view than those watching it from session Road.
§ Can give opportunity to teachers to view themselves while they teach for purposes of self –
improvement - teachers can’t view themselves while they teach but with video cam and TV
they can view themselves while they teach after.
§ Can be both instructive and enjoyable – with sights and sounds and motion, TV is much more
While the film, video and TV can do so much, they have their own limitation, too.
§ Television and film are one way communication device. Consequently, they encourage
passivity. Today, however we talk about and work on interactive classrooms for effective
learning. We are convinced that learning is an active process and so the learner must be
actively engaged.
§ The small screen size puts television at a disadvantage when compared with the possible size
of projected motion picture, for example. With new technology, how is this remedied?
§ Excessive TV viewing works against the development of the child’s ability to visualize and to be
creative and imaginative, skills that are needed in problem solving. (http://www.
§ There is much violence in TV . This is the irrefutable conclusion. “viewing violence increases
violence”. (American Psychological Association Youth Commission)

Basic Procedures in the Use of TV as a Supplementary Enrichment

For enrichment of the lesson with the use of TV we have to do the following:
§ Prepare the classroom. (If your school has a permanent viewing room, the classroom
preparatory work will be less for you)
- Darken the room. Remember that complete darkness is not advisable for TV viewing. Your
students may need to take down notes while viewing.
- The students should not be seated too near nor too far from the TV. No student should be
farther from the seat than the number of feet that the picture represents in inches. A 24 – inch
set means no student farther than 24 feet from the set. (Dale, 1969).
§ Pre – viewing activities
- Set goals and expectations. Why are you viewing the TV? What is expected of you students?
State clearly.
- Link the TV lesson with past lesson and / or with your students’ experiences for integration
and relevance.
- Set the rules while viewing. Will you allow them to take down notes? Or are you providing
them with notes afterwards?
- Put the film in context. Give a brief background, if necessary.
- Point out the key points they need to focus on. it helps if you give them guide questions which
become the foci or post – viewing discussions. Omit this, if you are using an interactive video and
the resource speaker himself/herself gives the questions for interactive discussion in the process
of viewing.
§ Viewing
- Don’t interrupt viewing by inserting cautions and announcements you forgot to give during
the previewing stage. It disrupts and dampens interest.
- Just make sure sights and sounds are clear. You were supposed to have checked on these when
you did your pre – viewing.
§ Post – viewing
- To make them feel at ease begin by asking the following questions:
1. What do you like best in the film?
2. What part of the film makes you wonder? doubt?
3. Does the film remind you of something or someone?
4. What questions are you asking about the film? (Write them down. You have not to end the
class without answering them to make your students feel that everyone and everything matter.
Nothing or nobody is taken for granted.)
§ Go to the questions you raised at the pre – viewing stage. Engage the students in the
discussion of answers. Check for understanding.
§ Tackle questions raised by students at the initial stage of the post – viewing discussion. Involve
the rest of the class. If questions cannot be answered, not even you can answer them, motivate
the class to do further reading on the topic and share their answers the next meeting. You will
not be exempted from the assignment.
§ Ask what the students learned. Find out how they can apply what they learned. Several
techniques can be used for this purpose. A simple yet effective technique is the completion of
unfinished sentence. E. g. From this film I learned_________________. I can apply the lesson I
learned in/by _____.
§ Summarize what was learned. You may include whatever transpired in the class discussions in the
summary but don’t forget to base your summary on your lesson objectives.

List down the local TV programs that can be used in the T-L process. Describe the program and
how this works.


1. To identify the instructional materials fall under this category
2. To categorize examples of each visual symbols
3. To construct visual symbols where they can be integrated in the instructional process
4. To modify guidelines that must be followed when reading charts, graphs, and maps

Discuss with your partner common examples of visual symbols.

How are these visual symbols relevant in your classroom?
Your experience of the words and the graphs convinces you that a graph is easier to
understand than the words of a paragraph. A graph is “worth a thousand words.” a graph and
any visual symbol for that matter such as drawings, cartoons, strip drawings, diagrams and maps
are worth a thousand words. They are more clearly understood than mere words. Let us learn
more about each of them and find out where they can be used in our lessons.
A. Drawings
A drawing may not be real thing but better to have a concrete visual aids than nothing.
To avoid confusion, it is good that our drawing correctly represents the real thing. One essential
skills that a teacher ought to possess at order to be understood is drawing. It helps you a lot if
you are capable of doing simple freehand sketching. You will find out that as you lecture, you
need to illustrate on the chalkboard. So, better start learning how to draw. The only way to learn
it is to do the sketching yourself and devote some time to it. There is nothing so difficult that is
not made easy when we spend at least forty hours learning and mastering it.
B. Cartoons
Another useful visual symbols that can bring novelty to our teaching is the cartoon. A first-
rate cartoon tells its story metaphorically. The perfect cartoon needs no caption. The less the
artist depends on words, the more effective the symbolism. The symbolism conveys the message.
Sources of cartoons
You can easily collect cartoons for instruction. They appear often in newspapers and
magazines. In class, you can give it to individual students for individual study or project it by an
opaque projector. Depending on themes for the week of the month, you can display these
cartoons on the bulletin board. One creative teacher arranged for a “cartoon of the month” and
displayed and changed her display every end of the month.
Where to use cartoons in instruction
you can also use this as a springboard for a lesson or a concluding activity. It depends on your
K to 12 curriculum standards and competencies
go back to the K to 12 curriculum guide. Which can be taught with the use of a cartoon? Come
up with a cartoon for a particular lesson.
C. Strip drawing
These are commonly called comics or comic strip. Dale (1969) asserts that a more accurate term
is strip drawings. Make use of strip that are educational and entertaining at the same time.
Where to use strip drawing in instruction
these can serve as motivation and a starter of your lesson. It can also be given as an activity for
students to express insights gained at the conclusion of a lesson.
Source of strip drawing
you can obtain strip drawings from newspapers, magazines and books
K to 12 curriculum standards and competencies
identify a competency where a strip drawing is appropriate. Look for an appropriate strip drawing
or make one.
D. Diagram
What is a diagram? It is “ any line drawing that shows arrangement and relations as of
parts to the whole, relative values, origins and development, chronological fluctuations,
distribution etc.” (Dale, 1969)
If you can draw stick figures, you can easily draw the diagrams that you need as you go along. To
emphasize the key points in your diagram, make use of color whether you use the chalkboard of
the OHP and transparencies.
types of a diagram
Find out what these other diagrams are. You may need them as you teach and as you go about
you other teaching-related tasks.
· Affinity diagram- used to cluster complex apparently unrelated data into natural and
meaningful groups.
· Tree diagram- used to chart out, in increasing detail, the various tasks that must be
accomplished to complete a project or achieve a specific objective.
· Fishbone diagram- it is also called cause and effect diagram.it is a structured form of
brainstorming that graphically shows the relationship of possible cause and sub -causes directly
related to an identified effect / problem. It is most commonly used to analyze work-related
E. Chart
A chart is a diagrammatical representation of relationships among individuals within an
organization. We can have a: 1.) time chart, 2.) tree or stream chart, 3.) flow chart, 4.)
organizational chart, 5.) comparison and contrasts chart, 6.) Pareto chart and 7.) run chart or
trend chart.
Examples of chart
· Time chart- is a tabular time chart that presents data in ordinal sequence.
· Tree or stream chart- depicts development, growth and change by beginning with a single
course (the trunk) which spreads out into many branches; or by beginning with the many
tributaries which then converge into a single channel.
· Flow chart- is a visual way of charting or showing a process from beginning to end. It is a means
of analyzing a process. By outlining every step in a process, you can begin to find inefficiencies or
problems. (Latta, 1994)
· Organizational chart- shows how one part of the organizational relates to other parts of the
· Comparison and contrasts- used to show similarities and differences between two things
(people, places, events, ideas, etc.)·
· Pareto chart- is a type of bar chart, prioritized in descending order of magnitude or importance
from left to right. It shows at a glance which factors are occuring most.
· Gannt chart- is an activity time chart.
K to 12 standards and competencies
Find out which of these charts are appropriate for any lesson in the K to 12 curriculum guide or
for any teaching related tasks.
F. graphs
These are several types of graphs. They are :1.) circle or pie graph, 2.) bar graph, 3.)
pictorial graph and 4.) line graph.
· Pie or circle graph- recommended for showing parts of whole.
· Bar graph- used in comparing the magnitude of similar items at different ties or seeing relative
sizes of the parts of a whole.
· Pictorial graph- makes use of picture symbols.
· Graphic organizers- you met several graphic organizers in your subject, principles of teaching.
K to 12 standards and competencies
In which lessons can you use each of these graphs?
G. Maps
A maps is a “representation of the surface of the earth or some part of it...” (Dale 1969)
Kinds of map
· physical map- combines in a single projection data like altitude, temperature, rainfalll,
precipitation, vegetation, and soil.
· Relief map- has three dimensional representations and shows contours of the physical data of
the earth or part of the earth.
· Commercial or economic map- also called product or industrial map since they show land areas
in relation to the economy.
· Political map- gives detailed information about country, provinces, cities and towns and roads
and highways. Oceans, rivers and lake are the main features of most political maps.
Map language
· Scale- shows how much of the actual earth's surface is presented by a given measurement on
a map. The scale must be shown so that the map reader can use the distances and areas shown
on the map in measuring or figuring out the real distance and areas on the earth's surface. On
some maps, scale is shown graphically. In others the scale is expressed in words and figure. e.g.
1 inch – 15 statute miles. 3
· Symbols- usually a map has a legend that explains what each symbols means. Some symbols
represent highways, railroads, mountains, lake and plains.
· Color- the different colors of the map are parts of the map language.
· Geographic grids- the entire system of these grid lines. These grid lines are called meridians
and parallels. A meridian is a north to south pole line. Parallels are lines drawn around a globe
with all points along each line with an equal distance from the pole. Longitude is the distance in
degree of any place east or west of the prime meridians. Latitude is the distance in degrees of
any place north and south of the equator.
Map reading test
Here is a map reading test. Test your self. Don't you worry, if you don't perform well at
first. After further reading about maps, take the test again. Do it until you get a perfect score. If
you work hard at it, you will not be hard up presenting or teaching your students about maps
A map-reading test
A number of studies have been made of the ability of pupils to read maps and, in general,
the findings are disappointing. Many students have not mastered simple map-reading skills
before they leave junior high school. Further, studies show that geographical errors common to
pupils are also common among teachers. Encircle the T if the statement is correct and F if the
statement is wrong (adapted from audiovisual methods in teaching, by Edgar dale, (1969)
lines of longitude are parallel to each other. T F · on a globe all lines of latitude meet at
the poles. T F · a degree of longitude ranges from 68.4 to 69.4 miles. T F · longitude is usually
measured from Greenwich, England. T F · latitude is measured from the equator. T F · the latitude
of the poles is 90 degrees. T F · the hours of daylight in summer and winter are related to
longitude. T F · places at low latitudes usually have warm climates. T F · time belts are directly
related to longitude. T F · the latitude of a place indicates its distance from the equator. T F · the
highest latitudes are around the poles. T F · a place not on the equator must be either north or
south of it. T F · lines of longitude bisect the earth. T F · latitude means angular distance north or
south of the equator. T F · longitude 0 degree defines an exact place on the earth. T F · lines if
latitude are parallel to the equator. T F · latitude 90 degrees north define an exact place on the
earth. T F · any place not on the Greenwich Meridian is either east or west of it. T F · a place of
40 degree latitudes is about 1,000.3,000,5,0000,8,000 miles from the T F equator · a line of
longitude is also called a meridian. T F · the longitude of a place gives a rough indication of its
climate T F · a line of latitude is referred to as a parallel. T F
understand the maps, graphs and charts
What should you to do be successful in reading maps, charts and graphs? The following steps
will be help of you:
· Read the titles and subtitles. They will often tell you the purpose of the graphic materials and
may provide a clue to its main idea.
· Read the key, and / or the legend, and the scale of miles whenever any of these is present.
(these items ordinarily appear on maps.) ·read the information shown along the side and the
bottom of graphs and chart and tables, if any. This will help you understand what quantities or
qualities are being presented or what comparisons are being made. On maps, notice how the
different parts of the map are related to each other.


Determine your purpose for reading the map, chart, table or graph.

1. To produce techniques which could help maximize the use of the overhead projector and the

Do you think the use of the overhead projector and the chalkboard is relevant up to this
day? Why or why not?

Imagine a classroom without a chalkboard, what do you think will happen?
Except in extremely deprived classrooms, every classroom has a chalkboard. In fact, a
school may have no computer, radio, TV, etc. but it will always have a chalkboard. so why not
make optimum use of what we have, the chalkboard? The following practices of dedicated
professional teachers may help us in the effective use of the chalkboard:
· Write clearly and legibly on the board. Take note that there are children in the last rows.
· It helps if you have a hard copy of your chalkboard diagram or out line. That helps you to
visualize the diagram or outline you like to appear on the chalkboard. That clean diagram and
organized outline must match what you do on the chalkboard.
· Don't crowd your notes on the board. By overcrowding your board work, your students may
fail to see the key ideas. They may not see the trees because of the forest. 3
· Make use of colored chalk to highly the key points. Color will also make your board more
appealing. I witnessed one good teacher who had no other visual aid except herself, the
chalkboard and her colored chalks.
· Do not turn your back to your class while you write on the chalkboard. Write side view as you
talk. Don't lose your eye contact with your class.
· For the sake of order and clarity, start to write from the left side of the board going right.
· If you teach the grades and you think the lines on the chalkboard are needed for writing
exercise, then provide the lines for your board.
· Look at your board work from all corners of the room to test if pupils from all sides of the room
can read your board work.
· If there is glare on the chalkboard at certain times of the day, a curtain on the window may
solve the problem.
· If you need to replace your chalkboard or if you are having a new classroom with new
chalkboard suggest to the carpenter to mount the chalkboard a little concave from left to right
to avoid glare for the pupil's benefit.
· If you need to have a board work in advance or that need to be saved for tomorrow's use (say
a quiz or a sophisticated diagram), write “ place save” and cover the same with a curtain.
· Make full use of the chalkboard. It may be a traditional educational technology but it serves its
purpose very well when used correctly.
Here are some more chalkboard techniques, from James W. Bowen (1969).
A. Sharpen your chalk to get good line quality.
B. Stand with your elbow high. Move along as you write.
C. Use dots as “aiming points.” this keeps writing level.
D. Make all writing or printing between 2 and 4 inches high for legibility.
E. When using colored chalk, use soft chalk so that it can be erased easily.
The over head projector (OHP)
There are other kinds of projectors like opaque projector and slide projector. The
overhead projector seems more available in schools. It has a lot of advantages. Brown (1969)
cites the following:
· The projector itself is simple to operate.
· The overhead projector is used in the front of the room by the instructor, who has complete
control of the sequence, timing and manipulation of his material.
· Facing his class and observing student reactions, the instructor can guide his audience, control
its attention, and regulate the flow of information in the presentation.
· The projected image behind the instructor can be as large as necessary for all in the audience
to see; it is clear and bright, even in fairly well-lighted rooms.
· Since the transparency, as it is placed on the projector, is seen by the instructor exactly as
students see it on the screen, he may point, write, or otherwise make indications upon it to
facilitate communication.
· The stage (projection surface) of the projector is large (10 by 10 inches), thus allowing the
teacher to write information with ease or to show prepared transparencies. His/her work appears
immediately on the screen.
· It is especially easy fro teachers and students to create their own materials for use in the
overhead projector.
· There is an increasing number of high-quality commercial transparencies.
Let's learn how to use it properly so we also maximize its use in the classroom. Brown (1969)
gives us several techniques:
Overhead Projection Techniques
Among the outstanding attributes of overhead projection are the many techniques that
can be used to present information and control the sequence of a presentation. As you plan your
own transparencies, keep in mind these figures of overhead projection:
· You can show pictures and diagram, using a pointer on the transparency to direct attention to
a detail. The silhouette of your pointer will show in motion on the screen.
· You can use felt pen or wax-based pencil to add details or to make points on the transparency
during projection. The marks of water-based pens and pencil can be removed with a soft cloth so
that the transparency can be reused.
· You can control the rate of presenting information by covering a transparency with a sheet of
paper or cardboard (opaque material) and then exposing data as you are ready to discuss each
point. This is known as the progressive disclosure technique.
· You can superimpose additional transparency sheets as overlays on a base transparency so as
to separate processes and complex ideas into elements and present them in step-by-step order.
· You can show three-dimensional objects from the stage of the projector-- in silhouette if the
object is opaque, or in color if an object is made of transparent color plastic.
· You can move overlays back and forth cross the base in order to rearrange elements of
diagrams or problems.
· For special purposes you can stimulate motion on parts of a transparency by using the effects
of polarized light. To do this, set a polaroid glass spinner over the projector lens and attach a
special plastic element of parts of the transparency for which motion is desired.
· You can simultaneously project on an adjacent screen other visual materials, usually slides or
motion pictures, which illustrate or apply the generalizations shown on a transparency.
Other reminders on the effective use of the OHP are:
· Stand off to one side of the OHP while you face the students.
· Don't talk to the screen. Face the students when you talk, no the screen.
· Place the OHP to your right, if you are right handed, and to your left, if you are left handed.
· Place the OHP on a table low enough so that it does not block you or the screen.
· Have the top of the screen titled forward towards the OHP to prevent the “keystone effect”
(where the top of the screen is larger than the bottom).
· Avoid the mistake of including too much detail on each image. A simple layout makes an
effective slide. If an audience needs to be give details, provide handouts to be studied later.
· Avoid large tables of figures. Come up with graphic presentation.
· Don't read the text on your slide. Your audience can read.
· Avoid too much text. Rely sparingly on printed text. Come up with more graphs, charts,
diagrams or pictures.
· Your presentation must be readable from afar. Simple use of color can add effective emphasis.
We can learn from the experiences from other, Brown (1969) enumerates effective practices.
Let's learn from them.
· In primary grades, simple objects like keys, leaves, and cutout paper shapes can be placed
directly on the projector to stimulate children's imagination and encourage discussion.
· In English composition lessons, student themes or writing exercises can be reproduced on film
by means of the heat or photocopy process. The teacher and students can analyze the writing for
style and grammar as each example is projected.
· In arithmetic, blank sheets of acetate and grease pencils can be given to selected students.
Have them prepare solutions to homework problems so the class may evaluate and discuss their
· In geometry and trigonometry, two- and three-dimensional diagrams can be built up gradually
with carefully prepared transparencies involving color and separate overlays. Geometric
theorems and complicated problems can be separated into single components and presented
systematically. In other mathematical and technical subjects, plastics objects like some rulers and
composes can be shown to a group and discussed.
· In physical educational and team training, plays and game procedures may be analyzes through
the use of plastic or opaque moving symbols on a transparency which shows the court or field
· In homeroom activities, the secretary can use a cellophane role (accompanying most
projectors) or blank acetate sheets in write nominations, lists, motion for consideration, and
important discussion points for all to see and react to.
· In primary reading class, a picture-transfer transparency can be made from a magazine picture.
Project this transparency and task t6he class to identify major items shown. Then place a clear
piece of acetate over the picture and, with a felt pen, write the name of each item identified.
Later remove the picture and discuss the words that remain on the screen.
· In art classes, a teacher can sketch on clear plastic with a felt pen. The entire class sees the
results. Similarly, transparent watercolors, colored plastic shapes, finger paint, inks, or grease
pencil may be used.
· In science, iron filings dusted on a clear plastic sheet over a permanent magnet can be
projected clearly to illustrate lines of force. Leaves, with chlorophyll removed, can be projected
to show veins and the general leaf pattern. Clear glass petri dish can be placed on the projection
platform and used to show chemical reactions when changing colors reveal interactions of
translucent fluids.
· In social studies, all types of maps can be enlarged after accurate but easy preparation. Overlays
show key facts about particular regions.
In many classes, testing and evaluation materials can be used with a large group. Test items
written on slides can be projected for the entire class. the “progressive disclosure” technique
mentioned previously can be achieve by (1) placing a sheet of paper over the transparency and
moving it down to expose succeeding lines of type, (2) attaching strips of opaque paper to the
slides of the mask in order to cover potions of the transparency image, and the flipping the strips
back to expose image, (3) placing over the transparency an opaque sheet containing a cutout slit
which exposes lines or copy are in sequential order as it is moved down or across the copy.
The overlaying technique to do progressive disclosure is illustrated below.
· Prepare a master drawing for each separate part.
· ·After making a sketch of the content of the transparency, decide which parts will be the base
and which will be used for each overlay.
· In two corners on each master, make register marks that match marks previously put on the
sketch. This will ensure proper registration of each overlay.
· Prepare the transparency from each master. ·Mount each transparent sheet: base under the
frame, and overlays on the top sides. Use the register marks for proper alignment.