Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 5

4.3 Calibrators and Simulators

H. L. DANEMAN (1995)

S. EDVI, J. E. JAMISON (2003)

Types of Designs : A. Calibrators that use simulators (devices that simulate the output signal of thermom- eters). B. Calibrators that use calibration baths, which provide accurate temperature environments for calibration purposes (systems use hot air, oil, sand, or aluminum blocks for heat storage; some are fluidized beds).

Costs : Simple resistance temperature detector or thermocouple simulator costs start at about $200. A handheld thermocouple simulator with 10 memory locations and 0.1% inaccuracy is about $700; a resistance temperature detector simulator with 6 decades and 0.005% inaccuracy is about $2500; a 4- to 20-mA DC transmitter calibrator with simulation of 11 resistance temperature detectors and 8 thermocouples is about $6000. Calibration bath costs vary with bath volume, heat storage media, and cali- bration accuracy. A microprocessor-controlled, programmable bath with IEEE 488 and RS232C interface and 0.002 ° C stability is about $12,500; other baths range from $3000 to $25,000.

Partial List of Suppliers :

594

© 2003 by Béla Lipták

Altek Industries Corp. Div. of Transmation Products Group (A) (www.altekcalibrators.com) Ametek/Jofra Instruments (B) (www.ametek.com) Automation Service, Test Equipment Div. (B—hot air) (www.automationservice.com) Azonix Co. (www.azonix.com) Beta Products Div. of Hathaway Process Instrumentation Corp. (A) (www.betacalibrators.com) Biddle Instruments (A) (www.avointl.com) Chino Works Div. Chino Corp. (www.chinoamerica.com) Elan Technical Corp. (A) (www.elantechnical.com) Cole-Parmer (B—fluidized bed) (www.coleparmer.com) Davis Instrument Mfg. Co. (B) (www.davisontheweb.com) Druck Inc. (www.druck.com) Ever Ready Thermometer Co. Div. of Apogent Technologies Company (www.ertco.com) Fluke (www.fluke.com) Forma Scientific Co. Div. of Thermo Electron. (B) (www.thermo.com) FTS Kinetics Inc. (B) (www.kineticsgroup.com) Hart Scientific Inc. (A, B) (www.hartscientific.com) Hotpack Corp. (B) (www.hotpack.com) Isothermal Technology Ltd. (B) (www.isotech.co.uk) GE Kaye Instruments Div. of GE Industrial Systems (www.kayeinstruments.com) Love Controls Co. Div. of Dwyer Instruments (A) (www.love-controls.com) Mikron Instrument Co. (A) (www.mikroninst.com) Neslab Instruments Inc. Div. of Thermo Electron. (B) (www.thermo.com) Omega Engineering Co. (www.omega.com) Onicon Inc. (A) (www.onicon.com) Panalarm Div. Ametek Inc. (A) (www.panalarm.com) Prime Technology Inc. (A) (www.primetechnology.com) Procedyne Corp. (B) (www.procedyne.com) Promac Inc. Div. of Hathaway Process Instrumentation Corp. (A) (www.hathawayprocess.com) Rochester Instrument Systems Inc. Div. of Ametek (A) (www.annuciatorstore.com) Rosemount Inc. Div. of Emerson Electric Company (B) (www.rosemount.com)

4.3

Calibrators and Simulators

595

Science/Electronics Inc. (B) (www.se-one.com) S-Products Inc. (A) (www.s-products.com) Techne Inc. (A) (www.techeusa.com) Tenney Environmental Div. of Lunaire LTD. (B) (www.lunaire.com) Thermo Electric Co. Inc. (A) (www.thermoelectric.com) Yokogawa Corp. of America (A) (www.yokogawa.com)

Temperature calibrators range from simple hand-held instru- ments to large permanently installed baths, chambers, and water-proof test cases. Calibrators reproduce temperatures with an accuracy and stability adequate for the range of devices to be checked. The thermometers are normally cali-

brated at one specific temperature at a time, although a series

of baths can be assembled for sequential immersion to enable

a range of temperature points to be checked. Correspond-

ingly, the temperature can be reset in stages or as a ramp function for multipoint checking.

Simulators duplicate the outputs of temperature sensors, enabling measuring instruments to see a simulated but precise temperature value. This output may be a millivoltage to simulate thermocouples (TCs), a resistance to simulate resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), or a light or radi- ant energy level to calibrate instruments based on optical

or infrared (IR) energy. Simulators can usually be connected

locally (at the sensor) and then at the readout instrument

so as to check the operation of transmitters, multiplexers,

and cabling. A fixed resistor connected to a multipoint monitor is an example of a simulator that continuously checks the calibra- tion of indicators, recorders, and alarms. Some calibrators incorporate both temperature environment and sensor output functions.

TEMPERATURE CALIBRATION BATHS

A bath or chamber creates a temperature environment

suitable for the immersion of temperature sensors such

as TCs, RTDs, or bulbs. There are two bath types: fixed

and adjustable. The earliest fixed-temperature calibrator used was the ice bath. This was supplemented by other so-called fixed calibration points, such as the steam and sulfur points, and later by a full range of freezing, boiling, and triple points (see Table 4.1e). These are based on the principle that materials change state (freeze and boil) at certain fixed temperatures (Table 4.3a). Many of these points have become reference values for defining the tem- perature scale and are therefore especially appropriate for calibration. Useful examples of such fixed points are the triple point of water (0.0100 ° C) and the freezing point of zinc (419.53 ° C). The triple point of water is obtained in a sealed container in which the solid, liquid, and vapor states of water are in equilibrium (Figure 4.3b). In contrast to the triple point, the ice point can be more easily obtained and used to an accuracy suitable for industrial calibration. RTDs

in particular are defined in terms of their R 0 value, or resis- tance value at the ice point (e.g., 100 Pt.). Immersion in an ice point bath is a useful way of compensating for cal- ibrating drift even though the thermometer is normally used at higher temperatures. Adjustable temperature baths contain a fluid (liquid or fluidized solid) circulated through a chamber in which the thermometers can be immersed. Controllers maintain a tem- perature at the desired set point. A block establishes temper- ature uniformity among sensors at temperatures below

1472 ° F (800 ° C), or where conduction is the primary means

of heat transfer.

TABLE 4.3a Defining Fixed Points of the International Practical Tempera- ture Scale (ITS-90)

Point

Temperature

Number

T 90 / ° K

 

t 90 / ° C

Substance

State

1

3 to 5

270.15 to

He

VP

 

268.15

2

13.8

259.35

eq. H 2

TP

3

17

≈−

256.15

eq. H 2 (or He)

VP (or GT)

4

20.3

≈−

252.85

eq. H 2 (or He)

VP (or GT)

5

24.6

248.6

Ne

TP

6

54.36

218.8

O 2

TP

7

83.8

189.34

Ar

TP

8

234.32

 

38.83

Hg

TP

9

273.16

 

0.01

H 2 O

TP

10

302.92

29.77

Ga

MP

11

429.75

 

156.60

In

FP

12

505.08

231.93

Sn

FP

13

692.68

419.53

Zn

FP

14

933.47

660.32

Al

FP

15

1234.93

961.78

Ag

FP

16

1337.33

1064.18

Au

FP

17

1357.77

1084.62

Cu

FP

FP = freezing point MP = melting point GT = gas thermometer point TP = triple point VP = vapor pressure point eq. H 2 = hydrogen at the equilibrium concentration of the ortho- and para-molecular forms

© 2003 by Béla Lipták

596 Temperature Measurement

Cell Ice
Cell
Ice

Platinum RTD

Handle

Water Vapor

Borosilicate Glass

Liquid Water

Thermowell

FIG. 4.3b Sealed container used to obtain the triple-point temperature of water used in the calibration of RTDs.

SIMULATORS

Simulators for TCs and RTDs consist of voltage sources and/or resistors having values that correspond to the required temperature readings. TC simulators require provision for reference junction compensation and alloy terminals. Simulators for optical or total radiation pyrometer cali- bration may be as simple as a 25-watt lamp or as sophisticated as a controlled output arc furnace. It is usual to use these simulators with comparison standards. By comparing one optical pyrometer with a standard or with a laboratory-cali- brated optical pyrometer, one can avoid errors that may arise due to their large ambient temperature coefficients. Such calibrations can, for example, be performed in an outdoor shed or pyrometer shop adjacent to a steel mill. A typical handheld calibrator is illustrated in Figure 4.3c. A laboratory-type thermocouple calibrator/simulator is shown in Figure 4.3d. This unit combines both the simulation and calibration functions in one unit. A simulator for optical pyrometry is shown in Figure 4.3e. The unit incorporates a copper fixed point to provide a reference temperature 1985 ° F (1085 ° C) indepen- dent of a standards laboratory. A very high temperature 3002 ° F (1650 ° C) TC and optical/radiation pyrometer cali- bration system incorporating a palladium freezing point, molybdenum block, and standard lamp was built for a steel mill in Brazil where traceability to a national laboratory was unavailable.

© 2003 by Béla Lipták

Thermocouple Calibrator Out In Type Off K Max Hi Read Set Degrees Min F Lo
Thermocouple
Calibrator
Out
In
Type
Off
K Max
Hi
Read
Set
Degrees
Min
F Lo
Reset
Store

FIG. 4.3c Handheld thermocouple calibrator. (Courtesy of Altek Industries Corp.)

Field and laboratory temperature calibrations are best performed with calibrators and simulators that are adapted for the particular application.

CONCLUSIONS

Table 4.3f provides some recommendations for the type of calibration equipment that is best suited for particular tem- perature sensors and industrial or laboratory environments.

Bibliography

Adler, C.B., “Reliability Aspects of Temperature Measurement,” Instrumen- tation, Systems, and Automation Society Conference, 2002. American Society for Testing and Materials, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Section 14, General Methods and Instrumentation, West Conshohocken, PA, 2003. “Calibration Technology Goes Digital,” InTech, September 1989, pp. 86–87. Daneman, H.L., “The Do’s and Don’ts of Temperature Calibration,” NCSL Annual Conference Proceedings, June 1991.

Daneman, H.L., “The Precise Calibration of Industrial Pyrometers to 1,650 ° C,” Measurement Science Conference, Anaheim, CA, January 1986. Gray, W.T., “Calibration of Optical Pyrometers,” ISA Transactions, Vol. 6,

1967.

Hussselbaugh, B., “Temperature Calibration Chamber,” M & C News, Sep- tember 1992. Kaufman, A., “Liquid Cooling of Electronics,” Measurements and Control, September 1979, pp. 120–121. Kaufman, A., “Temperature Transducer Calibration Baths,” Measurements and Control, February 1986, pp. 188–189.

4.3

Calibrators and Simulators

597

Numeric Keypad: Selects Measurement Function or Enter Calibration Values Precision Thermometer/Calibrator CuKo FeKo E R
Numeric Keypad: Selects Measurement Function or Enter Calibration Values
Precision Thermometer/Calibrator
CuKo FeKo E R
S
B
N
T
K
J Pt100
Rate
Diff
Norm
7
8
9
CL
Probe
mV
Min
Max
Reset
int
4
5
6
STO
man
Pt100
1
2
3
RCL
Cl TC
C
/
Mode
Type
T
Tc&mV TCΩ
.
0
+/-
ENT
On
TC /
Off
mv

CJ Mode Key Selects Internal, External, or Manual (keypad entered value) Cold Junction Compensation Large, Easy-to-Read 6-digit LCD Display

Clear Display

Store Displayed

Value in Memory

Recall

Stored Value

TC Type Key to Select Thermocouple Calibration

Measurement/Calibration Switch to Select Operating Mode

Output the Displayed Calibrator Value

Engineering Units of F, C, mV, Ohms, or degress/minute

Up/Down Keys to Increment or Decrease the Calibrator Output

TC/mV Key to Select Thermocouple or Millivolt Output

FIG. 4.3d Thermocouple calibrator/simulator used in the laboratory.

Thermocouple calibrator/simulator used in the laboratory. High Temperature Detector Calibration Accessory Copper

High Temperature

Detector Calibration

Accessory

Copper Point Blackbody Accessory

Optical Bench

Pyrometer Control
Pyrometer Control

Lamp with Water- Cooled Base

Optical Bench Pyrometer Control Lamp with Water- Cooled Base Filter System Pyrometer Pyrometer Mount Optical Bench

Filter System

Pyrometer Control Lamp with Water- Cooled Base Filter System Pyrometer Pyrometer Mount Optical Bench Writing Shelf

Pyrometer

Pyrometer Mount

Optical Bench

Writing Shelf

Control

Panels

FIG. 4.3e Two pyrometer calibration system with copper point, blackbody furnace, and standard lamp.

© 2003 by Béla Lipták

598 Temperature Measurement

TABLE 4.3f Calibration Equipment Recommended as a Function of the Type of Thermometer and of the Operating Environment

Temperature Sensor

Laboratory

Being Calibrated

Environment

Industrial Installation

Thermocouples

Triple point

Automatic ice point

Metal freezing points

Portable calibrator

Fluidized bath

Portable simulator

RTDs

Triple point

Portable calibrator

Freezing points

Portable bath

Laboratory simulator

Portable simulator

Optical pyrometers

Comparison system

Lamp comparator

Radiation detectors

Comparison system

Optical pyrometer

© 2003 by Béla Lipták

Kaufman, A. and Drees, W., How Accurate Are Your Transducer Calibra- tions?,Instruments & Control Systems, November 1959, pp.

16821685.

Kaufman, A. and Mitchell, P., How Accurate Are Your Temperature Ref- erence Baths?,Instruments & Automation, March 1955, pp. 450451. Kerlin, T.W., Practical Thermocouple Thermometry, ISA Press, 1999. Mangum, B.W. and Furukawa, G.T., Guidelines for Realizing the Interna- tional Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90),NIST Tech. Note 1265, August 1990. Michalski, L., Eckersdorf, K., and McGhee, J., Temperature Measurement, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1991. National Bureau of Standards, Thermometer Calibration: A Model for State Calibration Laboratories, NBS Monograph 174.

Standards, Simulators, Calibrators,Measurements and Control, September

1991.

Temperature Calibration Baths,Measurements and Control, September

1991.

Withers, P., Thermocouple Calibration,Measurements and Control, Sep- tember 1990, pp. 144147.