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Tema 3: Desarrollo de las destrezas lingüísticas: comprensión y expresión oral,

comprensión y expresión escrita. La competencia comunicativa en inglés.

TOPIC 3. DEVELPOMENT OF LINGUISTIC SKILLS: LISTENING, SPEAKING,


READING AND WRITING. COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE IN ENGLISH.

INDEX

0. INTRODUCTION.

1. DEVELOP OF LINGUISTIC SKILLS.

1.1. LISTENING.
1.2. SPEAKING.
1.3. READING.
1.4. WRITING.

2. COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE IN ENGLISH AND CURRICULAR


IMPLICATIONS.

2.1. COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE IN ENGLISH.

2.2. CURRICULAR IMPLICATIONS.

3. CONCLUSION.

4. BIBLIOGRAPHY.
0. INTRODUCTION.

I would like to start by saying that the main goal in the teaching of a foreing language
in primary education, according to the Corriculum, is the development of the
linguistic skills, specially the communicative competence, including the verbal and
non-verbal communication. It is stated in our legislation, concretely in the Real Decree
126/14 28th of February and in the Order of 17th March, 2015. In others words, we
need students who can use the language like a vehicule to learn and to express their
thinking, emotions, states and to speak in different context using oral laguage and
writing language (listening, writing, speaking and reading).

On the one hand we must know how the students learn: cognitive aspects, social
aspects and physical aspects. On the other hand we must know how the language is
organiced: listening, writing, speaking, reading and how the language is used in
different contexts like a vehicule to develop the hummans relations.

In this line, the language is a mean to transmit knowledge and to integrate in the
society. Learning to express using verbal and nonverbal communication, in a second
language, is probably the most fundamental step in education because is the basis for
future access to the globalised world.

Finally, in this paper, we are going to considerer the main characteristics of the
communicative competence. We are going to define the elemnts in a cummunicative
situation, the funcionality of the language and the importance of the context using
our reality to learn in a globalized world: learn to life vs life to learn.
1. DEVELOP OF LINGUISTIC SKILLS.

Learning a language means to communicative in that langauage using the different


possibilities offers to the four esencial abilities. In this sections, we are going to write
about the characteristics of the four linguistic skills. They are: listening, speaking,
reading and writing.

On the one hand, according with our actual Curriculum structure the contents are
organiced in four blocks: a) listen, speak and talk, b) Read and Write, c) Knowledge
of language and d)Sociol-cultural aspects and intercultural awareness that the
teachers must know to desing the different activities of learning.

On the other hand, according with Cameron (2001) the most effective second
language instruction is the multisensory teaching. For this reason, teachers must
organice different activities including the four abilities and the multisensory activities
to develop the communicative competence.

1.1. LISTENING.

Listening is a receptive oral skill and it can be considered a complex and active
process. It involves the integration and activation of aural perception, linguistic
knowledge and semantic intuition.

The most important thing to develop this ability is the motivation, in other words,
teachers must desig different activities which increase the motivation in ours
students. It is demonstrated that there is a direct relation between motivation and
academic results.

On the one hand, listening cannot be understood as passive process and the students
must have a reason to listen. This reason can be: getting information, entertaining
(songs, stories..) or socializing.

On the other hand, according with Jacoboson (2006), listening task should have in
account different aspects:

 Build the listening activity around a contextualized task.


 Define the activities instructional goal and type of response.
 Check the level of the difficulty of the listening text.
 Use pre-linguistic activities to prepare the students.
 Use while-listening activites to the instructional goal.
 Use pro-listening activities to consolidate the vocabulary learned.
 Give the opportunity to practice oral social interaction.
1.2. SPEAKING.

Speaking is a productive oral skill which implies a complex cognitive process in which
listening plays an important role. It can be considered a complex and active process. It
involves opinions, ideas, knowledge, impression between people: negotiation of
meaning.

In order to develop this skill, the student should go from the initial stage of imitation
to the final stage of free production. In this process is usual to find the silence period,
according with Littlewood (1981) is very important to respect the this period and the
teacher must be a good model for imitation.

Students must have opportunities to speak as soon as it is possible and to develop this
abilitie teachers should organice different activities, concretely two main types:

 Pre-communicative activities in which the students practice the language ítem


already presented in a controlled way. Samples: drills, reading a dialogue,
asking and answering questions, etc. The teacher can correct errors and
explain difficulties.

 Commuincative activities in which the students practice freely what they have
learned: role play, simultions, problema solving, seeking for information, etc.
The teacher takes notes of error to learn..

 Post-communicative activities in which the students practice the language in a


natural context. The teacher takes notes about the integration of the different
skills.

1.3. READING.

Reading is a receptive skill and it is a complex psycolinguistic process which involves a


diversity of procedures or sub-skills, such as identification and interpretation of the
graphic sings, the understanding of their meanings, and finaly a reflection and
personal interpretation of these meanings.

According to Newton, J. (2006), reading is not only the process of converting letters
into sounds. It is a real process of communication between a writer and a reader and it
involves sending and receiving messages in different contexts.
Reading needs motivation and teachers must offer different types of texts and it is
very important to decorate the classroom with functional print: alphabet friezes,
flashcards, posters, lyrics from songs, etc.

The diary eye contact with the texts in the classroom make that the students read
everyday in a non formal context of reading.

To develop the reading skill students should pracice:

 Obtaining the general idea of the text.


 Locating specific information.
 Understanding in detail.
 Inferring what is not explicit from the text.
 Predicting possible information.

1.4. WRITING.

Writing is a complex mechanical process that has to be acquired gradually. This skill
englobes differents abilities such as: handwriting, spelling, punctuation, vocabulary,
cognitive demands of the texts, personal expresions, cultural rules, etc.

Obviously, reading has a notable influence in the writing expresions, “the more we
read the better we write”. For this reason it is very important that teachers must
organice reading activities in differents moments in the class.

As we have said, writing is the most complex skill and in this proces is very important
practice. In order words, if you want to develop the writing abilitie you must practice
to write every time you can. Writing develops writing. Moreover, it is very important
to practice the contextualized writing, using the different types of texts.

Finally, I would like to say that it is very important to practice the writing using the
motivation like as motor to learn. Teachers must organize the activities according the
motivation of the students and teachers must not forget (Donn Boyrne):

 Writing is a complex skill to acquire.


 There must be a reason for writing.
 The topic should focus on the student´s interest.
 All the others skill should be integrated in the writing process.
 The students should be involved in the correction.
2. COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE IN ENGLISH AND CURRICULAR
IMPLICATIONS.

In this section we are going to explain the new concept of Communicative


Competence in English as a new form to teach and to learn english in our century.
This new vision or new perspective considers that grammar is not the most
important, there are other aspects that help to develop the Communicative
Competence, for example the cultural dimension or the sociolinguuistic dimension.
Also, we are going to defend the curricular implications teachers do not must forget
when they design their syllabus.

2.1. COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE.

The final goal in the English teaching process is the Communicative competence.
Acording with our current legislation, the Communicative Competence is the ability to
use the language like a form to express thinkings, emotions, ideas… and the ability to
understand the globalized world. In others words the Communicative Competence is
the ability to use the language to grow.

For Canale and Pecks, S. (2007), Communicative Competence is the ability to


communicate completely, not the ability to use the language exactaly as a native
does. In this sense, For us, according with Canale and Swain, the students are
competence if they use the language to live in a world where the language is a
vehicule to commuincate, to express and to interact with others societies and
cultures.

Nowadays the Communicative Competence concept is the union of others


subcompetences., this idea was stated by Canale. This author said that there are four
dimensions into the Commuincative Competence:

 Grammatical / linguistic Competence: is knowing how the ability to use the


grammar, syntax and vocabulary of a language. In adiction, students must
know the differents elements of the language, rules and features of language.

 Sociolinguistic competence: is knowing how the ability to use and respond to


language appropriately. In others words is to produce and to understand the
language in different social contexts.
 Discourse Competence: is knowing how the ability to relate the information in
a communicative situation with coherence and cohesion.

 Strategic Competence: is knowing how the ability to use the knowledge of the
language to learn language. This sub competence can be defined like the
ability to learn strategies, to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable,
more effective and more transferable to new situations.

 Sociocultuarl Competence: is kenowing how the ability to learn about the


social and cultural context about the language to develop the ability to
commuincate, to understand the situations and the vocabulary.

2.2. CURRICULAR IMPLICATIONS.

According with the different authors, the current educational legislation and the the
differents pedagogical theories to develop the commuincative competence and the
subcomptences teachers must design activities which promove and facilite the
learning into the five sub competeces. In this sense, we must consider the following
recommendations:

 The classroom is a community: colaboration and sharing.


 The role of the teacher must be facilitator and monitor.
 Teaching Englihs must be a holistic process.
 Students should learn about traditions, social conventions and culture.
 The learning must be contextualised.
 The task must motivate students, the teacher and the families.
 Create the need of communication, interaction and negotiation.
 Design role play, theatres, songs and corporal movements to learn.
 Listen your students and connect to student´s life and interest.
 Respect the order: to listen, to speak, to read and to write

3. CONCLUSION

As a conclusión, we can state that the language is a vehicule to grow in a globilized


society. Nowadays school and society need teachers and students who use the
language to facilite the union between countrys. In this sense teachers must design
differents activities which develop the Communicative Competence in English and the
differents sub competences. This sub competences are defined by Canale and
teachers should know developing the linguistic competence. In oders words, students
must have the opportunity to improve the Communicative Competence in English
every day in a natural context according with others authors. On the other hand,
teachers must respect the natural order in the acquisition of a language: listening,
speaking, reading and writing according with the current educational legislation,
concretely the Order of 17th March, 2015

Finally, i would like to said that the class is not the only space to develop the
communication in the foreign language. Teachers must use the different rooms or
spaces to develop the verbal and non-verbal communication using drama, role plays,
songs, videos and the ICT, which can help to develop the communicative competence.

4. BIBLIOGRAFHY

 Cameron, L. “Teaching languages to Young learners” Cambridge University Press


2001.
 Jacobson, M. H. “Fundamentals of language”. California. Mouton and Company.
2006
 Littlewood, W. “Communicative language teaching. An introducction” Cambridge
University Press. 1981
 Newton, J. “Teaching ESL/EFL Listening and speaking” Routledge. Taylor Group.
2009
 Pecks, S. “Developing children´s listening and speaking in ESL” in “Develop
English as a Second or Foreign Language. Celce-Murcia. Heinle and Heinle. 2007

Legislation
 Law for the Improvement of Quality in Education (LOMCE, 8/2013), of
December, 9.
 Royal Decree 126/2014, of February 28, which establishes the basic curriculum of
Primary Educ.
 Law 17 on Education in Andalusia (LEA/2007), of December 10.
 Decree 328/2010, of July 13, which establishes the Basic Norms for early
education centres of the second cycle, Primary schools, early education and
primary schools and public centres for special education.
 Decree 97/2015, of March, 3, which establishes the organization and curriculum
of Primary Education in the Autonomous Region of Andalusia.
 Order of 17th March, 2015, which develops the curriculum of Primary Ed. in
Andalusia.
 Order of 4th November, 2015, which establishes the evaluation for Primary Ed. in
Andalusia.
 Order of the 25th of July, 2008, which regulates attention to diversity of students
in basic education in public schools in Andalusia.

TOPIC 3. DEVELPOMENT OF LINGUISTIC SKILLS: LISTENING, SPEAKING,


READING AND WRITING. COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE IN ENGLISH.

INDEX

0. INTRODUCTION.
- The main goal in the teaching of a foreign language in primary education, according to
the Curriculum is the development of the linguistics skills, especially the
communicative competence.
- It is steated in our current legislation, concretely in the Real Decree 126/2014 of
February and in the Order of 17th of March, 2015.
- We need students who can use the language as a vehicule to learn and to express their
thinking, emotions.
- On the one hand we must know how students learn: cognitives aspects, social aspects
and physical aspects. On the other hand we must know how the language is
organiced: listening, speaking, reading and writing, incluiding how the language is
used in different contexts like a vehicule to develop the humans relations.
- Finally, i would like to finish by saying that…… redefine the title. Learn to life vs life to
learn.

1. DEVELOP OF LINGUISTIC SKILLS.


- In this section we are going to write about the characteristics of the four skills
(listening, speaking, reading and writing)and how we can find the principal ideas
about this abilites in the current legislation.
- In the Order 17th of March, 2015 we can find different instructions about how we must
teach the foreing language in the primary school and we can find four blocks of
contents: a) understanding oral text, b) production, expresión and interactions of oral
text, c) Understanding written texts and d) productions of writen text, expresión and
interaction.
- To finally, according with Cameron (2001) if we want to develop the four basics
language abilities in our students we need use the multisensory teaching method.

1.1. LISTENING.
- Listening is a receptive oral skill and it can be considered a complex process.
- It involves te integration and activation of aural perception, linguistic knowledge and
semantic intuition.
- The most important thing to develop this ability is the motivation. In other words,
teachers must design different activities which increase the level of motivation in ours
students. It is demostrated that there is a direct relation between motivation and
academic results.
- On the one hand listening can not be understood as a passive process and students
must have a reason to listen.
- On the other hand, according with Jabobson (2006), listening task should have in
account diferent aspects: - Build the listening activity around a contextulized task. –
Define the activities and the porpuse. – Check the level of the difficulty of the
listening. – Use pre-linguistic activities to prepare the stuents. –Use while-listenig
activities. –Use pro-listening activities to consolide the vocabulary. –Give the
opportunity to learn in a natural context.

1.2. SPEAKING.
- Speaking is a productive oral skill which implies a complex cognitive process in which
listening plays have an important role.
- It can be considered a complex and active process.
- It involves ideas, knowledge, impression between people.
- In order to develop this skill, the students should go from the initial stage of imitation
to the final stage of free production.
- In this process is usual to find the silent period, according with Littlewood (1981). It is
very important to respect this period and the teacher must be a good model to
imitate.
- Students must have opportunities to speak as soon as it is possible and to develop this
skill teachers must organize different activities, concretely three main types: A) pre-
communicative actiities in which students practice the language in a controlled way.
B) Communicative activites in which students practice freely what they have learned:
role play, drama, problema solving. C) Post-communicative activities in whichs the
student practice the language in a natural context.

1.3. READING.
- Reading is a receptive skill and it is a complex process which involves a diversity of
proceures or sub-skills, such as identification and interpretation of the graphic sigs,
the understanding of their meanings and finally, reading is a reflecion and personal
interprtation of these meanings.
- According with Newton, J. (2006), reading is not only the process of converting letters
into sounds. It is a real process of communication between a writer and a reader.
- Reading needs motivation and teachers must offer different types of texts.
- It is very important to decorate the class with functional print: alphabet, flascards,
posters, lyrics from songs.
- The diary eye contact with the text in the classroom make that students read every
day in a non forma context of reading.
- I is very important to design different reading activities and it is esencial to create our
texts according with our context and students.
- Students should practice: - obtain the general idea of the text. –Locating specific
information. –Inferring what is not explicit from the text. –Predicting possible
information.
1.4. WRITING.
- Writing is a complex process which has to be acquired gradually. This kill englobes
different abilities and sub-abilities such as: hand-writing, -spelling, -punctuacion, -
vocabulary, . cognitive demands, -personal expresions, -cultural rules, etc.
- Reading has a notable influence in the writing process (the more we read, the better
we write).
- It is very important to organice reading activities in differents moments in the class.
- Writing is the most complex skill and in this process is very important to practice
- It is very important to practice the contextualized writing using different types of
texts.
- It is very important to develop the motivation like as a motor of learning.
- Teachers must not forget: - writing is a complex skill, be patient. – the topic should
focus on the students interest. – All the others skill should be integrated in the writing
process. –The students should be involved in te corrction.

2. COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE IN ENGLISH AND CURRICULAR


IMPLICATIONS.
- In this sections, we are going to define the new concept of Communicative
Competence in English as a new form to teach and to learn in our century.
- The new perspective consideres that the grammar is not the most important.
- It is very important to respect the news curricular implications which teachers must
know to design activities to learn and to develop de communicative compentece.

2.1. Communicative competence.


- The final goal in the English teaching process is the develop of the Communicative
Competence.
- According with our current legislation, the Communicative Competence is the ability
to use the language like a form to express thinkings, emotions, ideas… and the ability
to use the language in a globalized world.
- Use the language to grow.
- For Pecks, S. (2007) the Communicative Competence is the ability to communicate
completely, not the ability to use the language as a native does.
- Students are competence if they use the language to live in a world where the
language is a vehicule to communictate and to undestand others cultures.
- Nowadays the Communicative Compentece concep is the union of others sub-
competences. According with Pecks, S (2007), there are five dimensions into the
Communicative Competence:
- Gramatical Competence: students must know the differents elements of the
language, rules and features of language.
- Discourse Competence: is knowing how the ability to relate the information in
a communicative situation.
- Linguistic Competence: is knowin how the ability to use and respond to
language in an appropriately way.
- Strategic Competence: is knowing how the ability to use the knowledge of the
language to learn language.
- Cultural Competence: is knowing how the ability to learn about the culture
context about te language.

2.2. Curricular implications.


- According with the different authors who we have writed, the curent educational
legislation and the differnt pedagogical theories to develop the communicative
competence and te communicative sub-competences teachers must design activities
which promove and facilite the learning. In this sense, we must considerer the
following recommedations:
o The classroom is a community: colaboration and sharing.
o The role of the teacher must be facilitator and monitor.
o Teaching English must be a holistic process.
o Students must learn about traditions, culture, social convections, etc.
o The learning must be contextualized.
o The task must motivate the students, the teachers and the families.
o Create the need of communication, interaction and negotiation.
o Design role play, drama, songs and practice the body movements.
o Listen your students and listen their interests.
o Respect the order: listening, speaking, reading and writing.

3. CONCLUSION.
- As a conclusión, we can state that the language is a vehicule to grow in a globilized
society. Nowadays school and society need teachers and students who use the
language to facilite the union between countrys. In this sense teachers must design
differents activities which develop the Communicative Competence in English and the
differents sub competences. This sub competences are defined by Canale and
teachers should know developing the linguistic competence. In oders words, students
must have the opportunity to improve the Communicative Competence in English
every day in a natural context according with others authors. On the other hand,
teachers must respect the natural order in the acquisition of a language: listening,
speaking, reading and writing according with the current educational legislation,
concretely the Order of 17th March, 2015
- Finally, i would like to said that the class is not the only space to develop the
communication in the foreign language. Teachers must use the different rooms or
spaces to develop the verbal and non-verbal communication using drama, role plays,
songs, videos and the ICT, which can help to develop the communicative competence.
-
4. BIBLIOGRAPHY.
 Cameron, L. “Teaching languages to Young learners” Cambridge University Press
2001.
 Jacobson, M. H. “Fundamentals of language”. California. Mouton and Company.
2006
 Littlewood, W. “Communicative language teaching. An introducction” Cambridge
University Press. 1981
 Newton, J. “Teaching ESL/EFL Listening and speaking” Routledge. Taylor Group.
2009
 Pecks, S. “Developing children´s listening and speaking in ESL” in “Develop
English as a Second or Foreign Language. Celce-Murcia. Heinle and Heinle. 2007

Legislation
 Law for the Improvement of Quality in Education (LOMCE, 8/2013), of
December, 9.
 Royal Decree 126/2014, of February 28, which establishes the basic curriculum of
Primary Educ.
 Law 17 on Education in Andalusia (LEA/2007), of December 10.
 Decree 328/2010, of July 13, which establishes the Basic Norms for early
education centres of the second cycle, Primary schools, early education and
primary schools and public centres for special education.
 Decree 97/2015, of March, 3, which establishes the organization and curriculum
of Primary Education in the Autonomous Region of Andalusia.
 Order of 17th March, 2015, which develops the curriculum of Primary Ed. in
Andalusia.
 Order of 4th November, 2015, which establishes the evaluation for Primary Ed. in
Andalusia.
 Order of the 25th of July, 2008, which regulates attention to diversity of stu