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Employee Testing and Selection specify the human traits and skills you believe are abilities.

lieve are abilities. They measure not a single trait but

required for job performance. rather a range of abilities.
A test is one popular selection tool. A test is basically STEP 2: CHOOSE THE TESTS B. SPECIFIC COGNITIVE ABILITIES
a sample of a person’s behaviour. Using a test (or any Once you know the predictors (such as manual
selection tool) assumes the tool is both reliable and dexterity) the next step is to decide how to test for 2. Tests of Motor and Physical Abilities
valid. them. You might also want to measure motor abilities, such
They usually don’t start with just one test. Instead, as finger dexterity or manual dexterity, and reaction
I. Reliability they choose several tests and combine them into a time.
Reliability is a test’s first requirement and refers to test battery.
its consistency: A reliable test is one that yields 3. Measuring Personality and Interests
consistent scores when a person takes two STEP 3: ADMINISTER THE TEST A person’s cognitive and physical ability alone seldom
alternate forms of the test or when he or she Next, administer the selected test(s).and we have explain his or her job performance. Other factors, like
takes the same test on two or more different two options: motivation and interpersonal skills, are very
occasions. important.
I. concurrent (at the same time) validation.
II. Validity  Its main advantage is that data on A. Some of these tests are projective. The
Reliability is indispensable but only tells you that the performance are readily available. psychologist presents an ambiguous stimulus
test is measuring something consistently. It does not  The disadvantage is that current (like an inkblot or clouded picture) to the
prove that you are measuring what you intend employees may not be representative of new person.
to measure. applicants (who, of course, are really the
ones for whom you are interested in B. Other personality tests are self-reported:
 In employment testing, there are two main developing a screening test). applicants fill them out themselves
ways to demonstrate test’s validity: criterion
validity and content validity. II. Predictive validation is the second and more C. THE BIG FIVE
dependable way to validate a test. Industrial psychologists often focus on the big five
I. CRITERION VALIDITY personality dimensions: extraversion, emotional
Criterion validity involves statistically a relationship STEP 4: RELATE YOUR TEST SCORES AND stability/neuroticism, agreeableness,
between scores on a selection procedure and job CRITERIA conscientiousness, and openness to experience.
performance of a sample of workers. The test has The next step is to as certain if there is a significant
validity to the extent that the people with higher test relationship between test scores (the predictor) and  DO PERSONALITY TESTS PREDICT
scores perform better on the job. performance (the criterion). Which shows the PERFORMANCE?
degree of statistical relationship. In fact, personality traits do often correlate with job
II. CONTENT VALIDITY performance. In one study, extraversion,
Content validity is that the content of a selection STEP 5: CROSS-VALIDATE AND REVALIDATE conscientiousness, and openness to experience were
procedure is representative of important aspects of Before using the test, you may want to check it by strong predictors of leadership. In another study,
performance on the job. cross-validating in other words, by again performing neuroticism was negatively related to motivation,
 The basic procedure here is to identify job steps 3 and 4 on a new sample of employees. At a while conscientiousness was positively related to
tasks that are critical to performance, and minimum, have someone revalidate the test it.
then randomly select a sample of those periodically.
tasks to test. If the content you choose for 4. Achievement Tests
the test is a representative sample of what Achievement tests measure what someone has
the person needs to know for the job, then TYPES OF TESTS learned. Most of the tests you take in school are
the test is probably content valid. 1. Tests of Cognitive Abilities achievement tests. They measure your job knowledge
Cognitive tests include tests of general ability in areas like economics, marketing, or human
Evidence-Based HR: How to Validate a Test (intelligence) and tests of specific mental abilities like resources. Achievement tests are also popular at
STEP 1: ANALYZE THE JOB memory and inductive reasoning such as: work.
The first step is to analyse the job and write job A. INTELLIGENCE TESTS Intelligence (IQ)
descriptions and job specifications. The point is to tests are tests of general intellectual

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Puzzle questions are popular. Recruiters like to use
We can classify selection interviews according to them to see how candidates think under pressure.

I. How structured they are

III. How Should We Administer the Interview?
A. Unstructured or nondirective Employers also administer interviews in various ways:
interview one-on-one or by a panel of interviewers,
An unstructured conversational-style interview in sequentially or all at once, and computerized or
which the interviewer pursues points of interest as personally.
they come up in response to questions

B. Structured or directive  Most selection interviews are one-on-one

interview and sequential. In a one-on-one
An interview following a set sequence of questions interview, two people meet alone, and one
interviews the other by seeking oral responses
II. Interview Content (What Types of Questions to oral inquiries. Employers tend to schedule
these interviews sequentially. In a
to Ask)
We can also classify interviews based on the content sequential (or serial) interview, several
or the types of questions you ask: persons interview the applicant, in sequence,
one-on-one, and then make their hiring
Interviewing Candidates decision.
BASIC FEATURES OF INTERVIEWS In a situational interview, you ask the candidate

An interview is more than a discussion. An

what his or her behavior would be in a given
 A panel interview, also known as a board
interview is a procedure designed to obtain interview, is an interview conducted by a
information from a person through oral responses to team of interviewers (usually two to three),
oral inquiries.  BEHAVIORAL QUESTIONS who together interview each candidate and
then combine their ratings into a final panel
Whereas situational interviews ask applicants to
 Types of interviews describe how they would react to a hypothetical score.

 A selection interview is a selection

situation today or tomorrow, behavioral interviews
ask applicants to describe how they reacted to
 An even more stressful variant is the mass
procedure designed to predict future job actual situations in the past.
performance based on applicants oral interview. Here a panel interviews several
responses to oral inquiries. candidates simultaneously.
 Job-related interview

 An appraisal interview is a discussion,

In a job-related interview, the interviewer asks
applicants questions about relevant past
following a performance appraisal in which experiences.
supervisor and employee discuss the Employers do some interviews entirely by
employees rating and possible remedial telephone. These can actually be more accurate
actions.  Stress interview than face-to-face interviews for judging an
applicant’s conscientiousness, intelligence, and
In a stress interview, the interviewer seeks to make
interpersonal skills.
 When an employee leaves a firm for any
the applicant uncomfortable with occasionally rude
questions. The aim is supposedly to spot sensitive
reason, one often conducts an exit applicants and those with low (or high) stress  In a typical study, interviewers tended to
interview: This interview aims at eliciting tolerance. evaluate applicants more favorably in
information that might give the employer telephone versus face-to-face interviews,
some insight into what’s right or wrong about particularly where the interviewees were
the firm.  Puzzle questions less physically attractive.

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 COMPUTERIZED INTERVIEWS Clever candidates capitalize on that fact. One study
Try to follow the situational, behavioral, and job
A computerized selection interview is one in found that some used ingratiation to persuade knowledge questions you wrote out ahead of time.
which a job candidate’s oral and/or computerized interviewers to like them. You'll find a sampling of other technical questions
replies are obtained in response to computerized (such as What did you most enjoy about your last job?
oral, visual, or written questions and/or ). As a rule,
 Effect of Personal Characteristics:
Attractiveness, Gender, Race  Don't telegraphs the desired answer.


Interviewers also must guard against letting an
applicant’s attractiveness and gender distort their  Don't interrogates the applicant as if the
assessment. person is on trial.

 Don't monopolizes the interview, nor let the

One reason selection interviews are often less than
useful is that managers make predictable,  Interviewer Behavior applicant do so.
Finally, the interviewer s behavior also affects the
avoidable errors. We‘ll look at these next:
interviewee s performance and rating.  Do ask open-ended questions.

 First Impressions (Snap Judgments)

 Do encourage the applicant to express
Perhaps the most consistent finding is that thoughts fully.
interviewers tend to jump to conclusions make snap
judgments about candidates during the first few  Do draw out the applicant s opinions and
minutes of the interview (or even before the interview There are two basic ways to avoid interview errors: feelings by repeating the person s last
starts, based on test scores). First impressions are 1. One is obvious: Keep them in mind and comment as a question (e.g., you didn’t like
especially damaging when the prior information about avoid them (don’t make snap judgments, for your last job?
the candidate is negative. Add to these two more
interviewing facts:
2. The second is not so obvious: Use  Do ask for examples.
 First, interviewers are more influenced by
unfavorable than favorable information
structured interviews.
How to Conduct an Effective Interview  Do ask, If I were to arrange for an interview
about the candidate. with your boss, what's your best
 Second, their impressions are much more
likely to change from favorable to
Any structuring is better than none. If pressed for  Leave time to answer any questions the
unfavorable than from unfavorable to
time, you can do several things to ask more candidate may have and, if appropriate, to
consistent and job-relevant questions, without advocate your firm to the candidate.
developing a full-blown structured interview.
 Misunderstanding the job
2) Prepare for the interview
 Try to end the interview on a positive note.
Tell the applicant whether there is any interest
The interview should take place in a private room and, if so, what the next step will be.
 Candidate-Order (Contrast) Error and where telephone calls are not accepted and you can
minimize interruptions. Prior to the interview, review
Pressure to Hire  Make rejections diplomatically for instance,
the candidate’s application and resume and note any although your background is impressive, there
areas that are vague or that may indicate strength or are other candidates whose experience is closer
 Nonverbal Behavior and Impression weaknesses. to our requirements.
3) ESTABLISH RAPPORT  In rejecting a candidate, one perennial question
The applicant’s nonverbal behavior (smiling, avoiding
The main reason for the interview is to find out about is, should you provide an explanation or not? In
your gaze, and so on) can also have a surprisingly
the applicant. To do this, start by putting the person one study, rejected candidates who received an
large impact on his or her rating.
at ease. Greet the candidate and start the interview explanation detailing why the employer rejected
by asking a no controversial question, perhaps about them felt that the rejection process was fairer.
the weather or the traffic conditions that day.
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Unfortunately, providing detailed explanations
may not be practical. As the researchers put it


After the candidate leaves, review your interview
notes, score the interview guide answers (if you used
one), and make a decision. Reviewing the interview
shortly after the candidate leaves can also help
minimize snap judgments and negative emphasis

Employee engagement guide for Managers

A. Building Engagement: A Total Selection

Many employers create a total selection program
aimed at selecting candidates whose totality of
attributes best fits the employer’s total requirements.
The program Toyota Motor uses to select employees
for auto assembly team jobs illustrate this.

B. The Toyota Way

Toyota’s hiring process aims to identify such
assembler candidates. The process takes about 20
hours and six phases over several days:
Step 1: an in-depth online application (20–30
Step 2: a 2–5-hour computer-based assessment
Step 3: a 6–8-hour work simulation assessment
Step 4: a face-to-face interview
Step 5: a background check, drug screen, and
medical check
Step 6: job offer

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