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POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE

NGUYEN MANH CUONG – DESIGN ENGINEER


DEFINITION

Pre-stressed concrete is a form of


concrete used in construction which is
“pre-stressed” by being placed under
compression prior to supporting any load
beyond its own self-weight.
Prestress concrete can be archived either
by pre-tensioning or post-tensioning.
CLASIFICATION
Bonded system Unbonded system
CLASIFICATION
Bonded system Unbonded system
 Full strength of tendon can be  Lesser strength of tendon contributes
utilities in ULS in ULS compared to Bonded system
 Contribute to concrete shear  Contribute to concrete shear
capacity capacity (*)
 Damaged tendon results force loss  Damaged tendon results force loss for
in a local segment of that tendon the full length of that tendon
 High frictional losses  Lesser frictional losses and easier to
be curved in horizontal than bonded
system
 Can be prefabricated off site
Material
1. CONCRETE
• High concrete grades of C25/30, C28/35, C30/37 are
commonly used for PT floor.
• Strength at transfer of prestress is required of typically
80% fck

Bi-linear stress-strain relationship Parabola stress-strain relationship Rectangle stress distribution


Material
2. TENDON
 Strand:
• Normally 7-wire strand for PT concrete floor
• Strand type of 0.5”, 0.6” and 0.62”
Material
2. TENDON
 Strand:

Typical stress-strain diagram Idealised and design stress-strain diagram


Material
2. TENDON
 Duct:
• Round duct
• Flat duct
Material
3. REINFORCEMENT

Hot rolled steel Idealised and design stress-strain diagram


Load cases and load combinations
1. LOAD CASES

 Self-weight – SW
 Super dead load – SDL
 Live load – LL
 Wind load – W
 Seimic load – EQ
 Pre-stress load at transfer stage – PT transfer
 Pre-stress load after all losses – PT final
 Secondary affect of pre-stress – PT final-HP
Load cases and load combinations
2. LOAD COMBINATION

 Serviceability limit state:


• Transfer combination: 1.0 SW + 1.0 PTtransfer
• Characteristic combination: 1.0 SW + 1.0 SDL + 1.0 LL + 1.0 PTfinal
• Frequent combination: 1.0 SW + 1.0 SDL + 1 LL + 1.0 PTfinal
• Quasi – permenant combination: 1.0 SW + 1.0 SDL + 2 LL + 1.0 Ptfinal
 Ultimate limit state:
1.35 SW + 1.35 SDL + 1.5 LL + 1.0 PTfinal (*)
1.35 SW + 1.35 SDL + 1.5 LL + 0.9 W + 1.0 PTfinal (*)
1.35 SW + 1.35 SDL + 1.5 W + 1.5 1 LL + 1.0 PTfinal (*)
1.0 SW + 1.0 SDL + 0.3 LL + 1.0 EQ + 1.0 PTfinal (*)
(*) – Change PTfinal to PTfinal-HP when designing flexural strength
Tendon layout
1. JACKING FORCE

𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝐴𝑝 𝜎𝑝,𝑚𝑎𝑥 where 𝜎𝑝,𝑚𝑎𝑥 = min{𝑘1 𝑓𝑝𝑘 , 𝑘2 𝑓𝑝0,1𝑘 }


Recommeneded values are k1 = 0.8, k2 = 0.9 according to EC2.
Tendon layout
2. PRESTRESS LOSSES

 Short – term losses


• Frictional losses:

The losses are due to friction resulting from the change in angle of the tendon and
unintentional “wobble” in tendon:

(Expression 5.45) – EC2

• Drawn – in:

The inward movement of live anchorage reduces the pre-stress and the amount of
movement depends on the particular pre-stressing system employed, a typical value is 6mm.

• Elastic shortening of concrete


Tendon layout
2. PRESTRESS LOSSES

 Short – term losses

Short – term stress losses configuration


Tendon layout
2. PRESTRESS LOSSES

 Long – term losses


• Shrinkage of concrete
• Creep of the concrete including the effect of the pre – stress
• Relaxation of the tendon

(Expression 5.46) – EC2


Tendon layout
3. TENDON PROFILE
Tendon layout
3. TENDON ARRANGEMENT

 Equivalent load
- Sagging angle (L’=0.1L):
4( a1  a2 )
k
L
- Hogging profile (L’=0.1L):
20( a1  a2 )
k
L
a1  4a2
Tendon layout
3. TENDON ARRANGEMENT

 Method of equivalent load


W  (0.8  0.9)  G
(Based on slab ultilities)
 Pre-compression factor P/A
For each strip:
P n  Ap   p

A bh
Recommended value of P/A 0.7 MPa
Structural plan
1. PLAN LAYOUT

In planning the structure of a building, the factors to be considered include:

 Column spacing

 Column size

 Shape and position of shear wall

 One or two – way spanning

 Floor depth requirement

 Construction joint

 Economy
Structural plan
1. PLAN LAYOUT
Structural plan
2. RESTRAINT FROM VERTICAL ELEMENT

Ps = Pt – Pv Where:
Pv  Ps / K r
- Ps : Axial prestress force in concrete Pv  Pt / (1  K r )
- Pt : Axial jacking force K r  k  H 3 Ac / ( I v L)

- Pv : Force resisted by vertical element


Structural plan
2. RESTRAINT FROM VERTICAL ELEMENT

Favourable layout of retraining walls

Unfavourable layout of retraining walls


Structural plan
3. POUR BREAK

 Reduce axial losses absorbed by vertical element


 Control unexpected crack from elastic concrete shortening
 Stressing position

Unfavourable layout of retraining walls


Serviceability limit state
1. DESIGN CONCEPT

Euro Code 2 Technical Report 43 2nd ed


Compress.
𝜎𝑐 < 0.6𝑓𝑐𝑘 (𝑡) 𝜎𝑐 < 𝑘 × 𝑓𝑐𝑘 𝑡 (*)
Stress of Conc.
𝜎𝑡 < 𝑘 × 𝑓𝑐𝑡𝑚 (𝑡) (*)
Not required.
Tensile stress of Stress limitation maybe increased in
However, crack width must be control
Concrete proportion to the percentage of added
at every stage
reinforcement, up to 0.3𝑓𝑐𝑘 (**)
Stress of Reinf. 𝜎𝑠 < 0.8𝑓𝑦𝑘 , 𝜎𝑝 < 0.75𝑓𝑝𝑘 (under
and Tendon characteristic combination)
Crack width May be omitted If tensile stress of
𝑤𝑘 = 𝑠𝑟 × (𝜀𝑠𝑚 − 𝜀𝑐𝑚 )
control concrete is under the limits.
Deflection < L/250 for the appearance and general utility of the structure
control < L/500 for the limitation of incremental deflection after construction
(*): the v alue of k is based on both type of slab (flat, beam slab…) and serv ice stage (at transfer or after all losses)
(**): This thumb is only apply for beam, one or two-way (not flat slabs) spanning floors
Serviceability limit state
2. STRESS CALCULATION

 Case 1: Concrete behaves in an elastic manner if t,t fct,eff,t (= fctm,t ) (7.1 (2) – EC2)

 Case 2: If t,i > fctm,i, assume no tensile stress in concrete

Method of section balancingc


Serviceability limit state
2. STRESS CALCULATION

Method of section balancing


x c
C  (Ts  Tp )  N Where: C     cd
c 0
Tp  ( d p  x  g )  Ts  ( d s  x  g )  N  (h / 2  x  g )  M Ts  Es   s
Tp  E p   p
Serviceability limit state
2. STRESS CALCULATION

Method of section balancing

In accordance with the stress limitation in EC2, stress in concrete, tendon, and
reinforcement at characteristic combination shoulde be smaller than those values:

𝜎𝑐 < 0.6𝑓𝑐𝑘 (𝑡) 𝜎𝑠 < 0.8𝑓𝑦𝑠 𝜎𝑝 < 0.75𝑓𝑦𝑝


Serviceability limit state
3. CRACK WIDTH

Crack width should be controlled at frequent combination

Where:

If reinf. spacing exceeds 5(c+ /2)


Serviceability limit state
4. DEFLECTION

 Deflection at construction stage:


 instant   SW   SDL   PT transfer   SW   SDL   PT transfer
 Gross deflection subjected to Quasi-permanent load combination with effect of creep:
  , gross  n  ( SW   SDL   2 LL   PT  final )  L / 250 (*)

 Incremental deflection after construction:

 net    , gross   instant  2.0 SW  2.0 SDL  3 2 LL  3.0 PT  final   PT transfer  L / 500

(*) – Modification factor of n represents the change in modulus of elasticity of concrete


due to long-term effect according to Expression 7.20 – EC2
Ultimate limit state
1. FLEXURAL SECTION DESIGN

 The design procedure is based on the stress-strain relationship in the design section:

Parabola stress-strain relationship Idealised and design stress-strain diagram of tendon and reinf.
of concrete
Ultimate limit state
1. FLEXURAL SECTION DESIGN

 The design procedure is based on the stress-strain relationship in the design section
 The stress-strain relationship of concrete follows
Parabola-rectangle diagram (figure 3.3 EC2):

  c  
n
  c  
2

 c  f cd  1   1     f ck / 1.5  1   1    0   c   c2
   c 2     0.002  

 c  f cd  c 2   c   cu 2

Parabola stress-strain relationship


of concrete
Ultimate limit state
1. FLEXURAL SECTION DESIGN

 The design procedure is based on the stress-strain relationship in the design section:

C and T are force couple (C=T) which will generate the moment capacity, M, of design section.


x c f yp
C     cd T  Ts  Tp  As  f ys  Ap  min( , p  E p )
c 0 M
Ultimate limit state
1. FLEXURAL SECTION DESIGN

 The design procedure is based on the stress-strain relationship in the design section:

The problem of stress – strain relations method is to find out the neutral axis of
design section, which will be solved by method of trial and error as follow:

Step 1: Find out the limitation of x – depth of


compressive stress block
f ys 390
 s ,min    0.195%
Es 200000

 cu 2
xmax  d s 
 cu 2   s ,min
Ultimate limit state
1. FLEXURAL SECTION DESIGN

 The design procedure is based on the stress-strain relationship in the design section:

The problem of stress – strain relations method is to find out the neutral axis of
design section, which will be solved by method of trial and error as follow:

Step 1: Find out the limitation of x – depth of


compressive stress block
f sy
T  Tp  Ts  Ap  f pb  As 
M
xmax  c 2  
f ck   
2

Cmax      1   1    d    cu 2   c 2 
 c  M  0    c2   
  
f
C  0.81  xmax  ck
1.5
Ultimate limit state
1. FLEXURAL SECTION DESIGN

 The design procedure is based on the stress-strain relationship in the design section:

The problem of stress – strain relations method is to find out the neutral axis of
design section, which will be solved by method of trial and error as follow:

Step 1: Find out the limitation of x – depth of


compressive stress block
 If Cmax > T, the strain of reinforcement reach to
the minimum value (=0.195%) first.
=> x < xmax - Under reinforced section design
 If Cmax < T, the strain of reinforcement cannot
reach to the minimum value (=0.195%) first.
=> Over reinforced section design
(doubly reinforcement)
Ultimate limit state
1. FLEXURAL SECTION DESIGN

 The design procedure is based on the stress-strain relationship in the design section:

The problem of stress – strain relations method is to find out the neutral axis of
design section, which will be solved by method of trial and error as follow:

Step 2: Find out the transition point, where both strains


of concrete in extreme fiber and reinforcement reach
to ultimate value
 cu 2  0.0035

 s ,max  0.02
 cu 2
xtransition  d s 
 cu 2   s ,max
Ultimate limit state
1. FLEXURAL SECTION DESIGN

 The design procedure is based on the stress-strain relationship in the design section:

The problem of stress – strain relations method is to find out the neutral axis of
design section, which will be solved by method of trial and error as follow:

Step 2: Find out the transition point, where both strains


of concrete in extreme fiber and reinforcement reach
to ultimate value
If C > T, the strain of reinforcement reach to the
ultimate value (=0.02) first.
 x  xtransition
If C < T, the strain of concrete reach to the ultimate
value (=0.0035) first.
 xtransition  x  xmax
Ultimate limit state
1. FLEXURAL SECTION DESIGN

Step 3: Trial and error


 If x  xtransition
- At this case, strain in rebar is
fixed at s,max = 2% (optional)
- Strain in concrete and tendon is
determined using thalet theorem:
x
 c   s ,max 
ds  x
dp  x
 p  c    inst
x
Ultimate limit state
1. FLEXURAL SECTION DESIGN

Step 3: Trial and error


 If xtransition  x  xmax
- At this case, strain in concrete is
fixed at cu2 = 3.5%
- Strain in tendon is determined
using thalet theorem:

dp  x
 p  c    inst
x
Ultimate limit state
1. FLEXURAL SECTION DESIGN

Step 3: Trial and error


 If Cmax < T (Over – reinforced section)
Case 1: If doubly reinforcement is not preferred in section design
▪ Total tensile force of tendon and rebar should be limited by the value of Cmax

f sy f py
T '  Tp  Ts'  Ap  f pb  As'   Cmax f
where pb  min( , p  E p )
M  M

▪ Effective tensile reinforcement of cross section is:

As'   Cmax  Ap  f pb  /
f sy Question: At this case, can the
M actual rebar area be remained
greater than the effective rebar
▪ Moment capacity of section: area, As’, or it must be reduced
to be smaller?
M  Tp  (d p  x  g )  Ts'  (ds  x  g )
Ultimate limit state
1. FLEXURAL SECTION DESIGN

Step 3: Trial and error


 If Cmax < T (Over – reinforced section)
Case 2: If doubly reinforcement is preferred in section design
▪ Area of compressive reinforcement is required to balance to total tensile force T:
f sy
Asc  T  Cmax  /
M

▪ Moment capacity of section:


f sy
M  M  Tp  (d p  x  g )  Ts  (d s  x  g )  Asc   (x  g)
M
Ultimate limit state
2. SHEAR

 Shear resistance without  Shear resistance with


shear reinforcement shear reinforcement

VRd  min(VRd ,s ,VRd ,max )


Ultimate limit state
2. SHEAR

 Shear resistance with shear reinforcement

Where: 1  cot   2.5 Question: In PT – beam, can the approximate value of z = 0.9d
applied or it need to be calculated exactly or be multiplied to a
reduction factor?
Ultimate limit state
2. SHEAR

 Additional tensile force:

Ftd  0.5VEd  cot 

NOTE: The additional tensile force is only required if M Ed and VEd are at the same sign.
Ultimate limit state
3. TORSION  Principle:

 Closed stirrup for torsion:

(Expression 6.27)

; Check: VEd,i < VRd.s

 Longitudinal reinforcement for torsion:

(Expression 6.28)

 Concrete strut capacity for shear and torsion:


(Expression 6.29)
Ultimate limit state
3. TORSION

Question: According to  Closed stirrup for torsion:


torsion design in EC2, the
design torsional resistance (Expression 6.27)
moment TRd,max , limited by
crushing of the compressive
struts. Does this means the ; Check: VEd,i < VRd.s
method of variable strut
inclination is applied and it  Longitudinal reinforcement for torsion:
is always needed provide
reinforcement for torsion? (Expression 6.28)

 Concrete strut capacity for shear and torsion:


(Expression 6.29)
Ultimate limit state
4. PUNCHING SHEAR

 Control perimeters:

Basic control perimeter Reduced basic control perimeter


Ultimate limit state
4. PUNCHING SHEAR

 Control perimeters:
VEd,red
v Ed = ×
ud
VEd,red = VEd -  VEd
Where:
VEd is the reduced load within the basic control perimeter
is coefficient accounted the eccentricity of Punching force
Ultimate limit state
4. PUNCHING SHEAR

W1 is total level arm of shear stress at


basic control perimeter

Rule applies for structures where the adjacent spans do


not differ in length more than 25% and where the lateral
stability do not depend on frame action between slab
and column
Ultimate limit state
4. PUNCHING SHEAR

 For internal circular column:

 For rectangular column where eccentricity of the load parallel to one column
dimension (c1):

 For rectangular column where the loading is eccentric to both axes:


Ultimate limit state
4. PUNCHING SHEAR
 Control section cases for enlarged column head.

• Column face • Column face

• Drop face • 1st perimeter

• 1st perimeter • Drop face

• Outermost perimeter (if necessary) • 2nd perimeter


• Outermost perimeter (if necessary)
Ultimate limit state
4. PUNCHING SHEAR
 Reduced load within the basic control perimeter - VEd
consist of dead load and live load within
che control perimeter:
VEd = (1.35DL + 1.5LL)ui

And vertical force of tendon passing within


A distance of 0.5d from column surface:
VEd = n18a1P1/s1 + n28a2P2/s2
Ultimate limit state
4. PUNCHING SHEAR

 Column face, Drop face:

v Rd ,max  0.5vf cd

 Basic control perimeter:


• Without shear reinforcement

• With shear reinforcement


Ultimate limit state
4. PUNCHING SHEAR

 Stirrup arrangement:

Recommended arrangement in EC2 Practical arrangement (same as BS8110)

Control perimeter at which shear reinforcement is not required:


Ultimate limit state
4. PUNCHING SHEAR

Question: Why punching shear resistance is provided by shear


links capacity with the contribution from the shear capacity of
concrete whereas shear resistance is provided by only shear links
capacity without any direct contribution of concrete?