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Delft University of Technology,

Ship Hydromechanics Laboratory,

Reprinted: 13-09-2001 Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft,

Website: www.shipmotions.nl The Netherlands.

J.M.J. Journée

Summary

A computer program has been developed to calculate speed and behaviour of a ship in a

seaway. In this stage the program is suitable for seagoing vessels in head waves. In

determining the speed, two factors are considered: the natural speed reduction due to added

resistance caused by wind and waves and the voluntary speed reduction by the ship's captain,

in order to prevent severe motions.

routing officer needs reliable speed loss

For almost twenty years now, a ship's graphs, to read the ship’s speed as a

captain can make use of routing advises function of wave height and mean wave

from weather routing departments like that direction. Developments in the last decade

from the K.N.M.I. (Royal Netherlands made it possible to calculate with

Meteorological Institute) at De Bilt [1]. sufficient accuracy the speed in still water

With a known rough weather pattern in the and the natural speed reduction due to

ocean an optimum ship’s route can be added resistance caused by wind and

found with a minimum travelling time, waves. At this theoretical speed dangerous

fuel consumption or risk of damage of the motions can arise for the safety of crew,

ship and its cargo. These routing advises, ship or cargo. Then the master will

are based on the momentary and expected voluntarily reduce speed in order to

wind and waves and the ship’s reaction to prevent severe motions. Several criteria for

them. The forecast of wind and waves is a this decision can be found in literature.

meteorological problem. Up to now the At the Ship Hydromechanics Laboratory

prediction of the behaviour of a ship in a of the Delft University of Technology a

seaway - especially the ship’s speed - is method has been developed to calculate

based on routing experience with the ship the natural speed, the voluntary speed

considered or similar ships. reduction and the behaviour of the ship at

1

this speed in a seaway with head waves. where the relation between Va and V is

This method has been worked out into an given by:

Algol’60 computer program, named Va = V ⋅ {1 − w(V )}

ROUTE, which enables a practical use.

At a certain engine setting these two

2 Calculation of Speed equations are solved in the program

ROUTE for every wind and sea condition

as shown in Figure 1.

Apart from wind and sea conditions, the

speed of a ship in a seaway mainly

depends on three aspects:

- dimensions and form of the ship's hull

and superstructure,

- dimensions and characteristics of the

propeller and

- output and characteristics of the

propulsive machinery.

The energy flow of a ship in operation is

given in the following scheme.

as an energy transformer: torque with rpm

will be transformed into thrust with a mean

speed of advance. At a certain steam or

fuel inlet ratio of the engine there will be

equilibrium between the number of

revolutions and the ship’s speed. This Figure 1 Scheme of Speed Calculation

equilibrium is in such a way that two

conditions are fulfilled: the torque needed For a number of ship speeds the relations

by the propeller must be in equilibrium between torque needed by propeller and

with the torque delivered by the engine rpm are calculated from the torque

and the thrust delivered by the propeller characteristics of the propeller behind the

must be in equilibrium with the total ship and an adapted wake fraction. The

resistance of the ship. relation between torque delivered by the

These two conditions of equilibrium are engine to the propeller and rpm is known

shown in two coupled equations as from engine characteristics and shaft

mentioned below: losses. These relations give a relation of

equilibrium for speed and rpm, which

Q(Va , n )

Qm (Q0 , n0 , c, n ) = together with the thrust characteristics of

ηm the propeller behind the ship and a thrust

deduction fraction results in a resistance,

( )

which can be achieved by propeller and

RT V ,VW , α W , H 1 / 3 , T , µ = T (Va , n ) ⋅ engine, as a function of the ship’s speed. If

⋅ {1 − t (V , n )} the total resistance of the ship for a

number of speeds is known by calculation

the actual speed of the ship can be found.

2

Some parts needed for the determination method can be used for most normal

of the speed are discussed in the following and full ships in full load condition.

parts of this chapter. With less accuracy a ship in light load

condition can be considered as a ship

in full load condition with a large

2.1 Resistance breadth - draught ratio.

The total resistance of a ship in a seaway is Both methods are valid for single-screw

divided into three parts: ships with a limited speed range. For too

- still water resistance: RSW (V ) low a speed the resistance is extrapolated

- wind resistance: RW (V , VW , α W ) with a second-degree polynomial and for

too high a speed with a third degree

- added resistance due to waves:

( )

polynomial. No allowances are made for

R AW V , H 1/ 3 , T , µ fouling or a bulbous bow. In the program

however, it is possible to multiply the still

So the relation between resistance and water resistance with a correction factor.

thrust can be written as:

(

+ RAW V , H 1 / 3 ,T , µ =) For containerships and ships in ballast

= T (Va , n ) ⋅ {1 − t (V , n)} condition the wind resistance often is a

part of the total resistance which may not

The determination of these three com- be neglected. Isherwood [5] has analysed

ponents of the resistance is given in more the results of wind resistance experiments

detail in the following paragraphs. carried out at different laboratories with

models covering a wide range of merchant

2.1.1 Still Water Resistance ships. He gives empirical formulas for

determining the two horizontal

In literature several methods have been components of the wind force and the

described to determine the still water wind-induced yawing moment on any

resistance of a ship. These methods have merchant ship form for a wind from any

been based on the results of a large direction. The formula and the

number of model experiments and full- corresponding coefficients for the wind

scale experiments which have been resistance are used in the program.

systematically or statistically transformed

into graphs, tables or empirical formulas.

Up to now in the computer program 2.1.3 Added Resistance due to Waves

ROUTE, one of the next two methods can

be used: To calculate the added resistance of a ship

• The method of the Shipbuilding in a seaway a computer program, named

Research Association of Japan [2]. TRIAL, is available at the Delft Ship

This method has been developed for Hydromechanics Laboratory. An earlier

fast slender ships with a block- version of the program has been described

coefficient between 0.55 and 0.65. It is in [6].

a great advantage of this method that it The ship is considered to travel in

can be used for different loading unidirectional head waves and only pitch

conditions of the ship. and heave motions are determined. Added

• The method of Lap [3] with an mass and damping for the ships cross-

extension of Auf ‘m Keller [4]. This sections are calculated by using a Lewis

3

conformal transformation. The resulting fit frequently used in practice. At present

to the actual cross sectional form is about 120 propeller models of the B-series

satisfactory for the present purpose [7]. have been tested at the Netherlands Ship

The increase of resistance in regular waves Model Basin.

is calculated with the method of Gerritsma The thrust and torque coefficients are

and Beukelman by determining the expressed by Oosterveld and Van

radiated energy of the damping waves as Oossanen [9] as polynomials in the

described in [8]. number of propeller blades, blade area

The calculation in an irregular sea is based ratio, pitch ratio and advance coefficient.

on the superposition principle for the With the aid of a multiple regression

components of the wave, motion and analysis the significant terms of the

resistance spectra as well as on the polynomials and the values of the

assumption of linearity for the ship’s corresponding coefficients are determined.

response. In regular waves the added The polynomials are valid for open-water

resistance varies as the square of the wave propeller models with Reynolds number

amplitude. In a wave spectrum the mean Rn = 2 ⋅ 10 6 .

added resistance would then be calculated Oosterveld and Van Oossanen [10] also

from: give polynomials to correct thrust and

∞

torque coefficients for the actual Reynolds

R AW = 2 ∫ AW2 (ω e ) ⋅ S ζ (ω e ) ⋅ dω e

R

number of the full-size B-series open-

0 ζa

water propeller. These polynomials are

used in the program.

The program TRIAL has been adapted to For the propeller behind a ship the

this special problem in the program calculated torque must be corrected for

ROUTE. For the description of the sea this behind condition:

surface two parameter Pierson-Moskowitz Qopen water

wave spectra are used. For each wave ηR =

spectrum, the mean added resistance is Qbehind ship

calculated as a function of the ship’s

speed. For single-screw ships 1.04 is a good mean

value for this relative rotative efficiency,

while for twin-screw ships 0.97 is advised.

2.2 Propeller Characteristics

propeller are defined by:

T = KT ⋅ ρD n

4 2

In the program, the wake fraction and the

thrust deduction fraction can be estimated

Q = K Q ⋅ ρD 5 n 2

by very simple formulas. If one of these

values is known, for instance from model

The coefficients K T and K Q are tests, it is also possible to make use of this

depending on the number of propeller value.

blades, blade area ratio, pitch ratio and

advance coefficient which is defined by: Wake fraction:

V • Taylor [11]

J = a single-screw ship:

nD

w = −0.05 + 0.50 ⋅ Cb

Propeller characteristics can be obtained twin-screw ship:

from open-water test results of the w = −0.20 + 0.55 ⋅ Cb

Wageningen B-series propellers, which are • Harvald [12]

4

single-screw ship: In this connection two important types of

w = w(C b , L / B, D / L, hull form ) engines for ship's propulsion are

twin-screw ship: distinguished.

w = w(Cb , L / B)

• A given value of the wake fraction. 2.4.1 Turbine

Thrust deduction fraction: Usually it is accepted that at an increasing

• Weingart: engine loading and a constant engine

single-screw ship: setting the power remains constant. This

C means a hyperbolic relation between

t = w ⋅ 1.57 − 2.30 ⋅ b + 1.50 ⋅ Cb

Cwp torque and number of revolutions:

n

twin-screw ship: Q = c ⋅ η m ⋅ Q0 ⋅ 0

n

C

t = w ⋅ 1.67 − 2.30 ⋅ b + 1.50 ⋅ Cb According to some authors like Geisler

Cwp

and Siemer [13] and Goodwin et. al. [14]

• A given value of thrust deduction in practice there is a linear relation

fraction - wake fraction ratio. between torque and number of revolutions:

• n

Q = c ⋅η m ⋅ Q0 ⋅ a − (a − 1) ⋅

A given value of the thrust deduction

fraction. n0

where the coefficient a depends on the

The above mentioned values are valid in type of the turbine:

still water. Model tests in still water

a = 2.0 − 3.0

showed that wake fraction and thrust If one takes into consideration that the

deduction fraction are practically number of revolutions of the propeller of a

independent of speed. It can be shown

ship in a sea-way will not reduce more

from overload tests in still water that at an than 10-15 percent at a constant steam

increasing propeller loading and a constant

inlet ratio, the assumption of a constant

number of revolutions, the wake fraction power is sufficiently accurate for

keeps constant and the thrust deduction calculating the ship’s speed. The relations

fraction is approximately linearly

between torque and rpm mentioned above

decreasing with the model speed. are shown in figure 2.

Experiments at the Delft University of

Technology with a model of a fast cargo

ship showed no difference between still

water and regular waves for both fractions

at the same average loading of the

propeller [28].

needed and delivered torque at the

propeller it is necessary to know the Figure 3 Torque – RPM Relation of

relation between torque and rpm of the a Turbine

engine at a certain steam or fuel inlet ratio.

5

2.4.2 Diesel Engine

that at an increasing engine loading and a

constant engine setting the torque remains

constant. This means that a = 1.0 in the

last equation and so:

Q = c ⋅ η m ⋅ Q0

In practice there is some difference with

this assumption. At a constant engine

setting and an increasing engine loading

the torque will increase first, then obtains a

maximum value and afterwards will Figure 4 Symbols and Definitions

decrease again. This can be approximated

by a linear relation between torque and Let us consider the heave motion as an

number of revolutions, provided that the example for the calculating method. The

number of revolutions will not reduce definitions and symbols are shown in

more than 10-15 per cent. Then the linear Figure 4.

torque-rpm relation can be used with for In a complex notation the heave motion in

instance a = 1.5 . These relations between regular waves can be written as:

torque and number of revolutions are ( )

z (t ) = ζ a ⋅ H zζ (ω e ) ⋅ e

i ω et + ε z ζ

shown in Figure 3.

where

za

H zζ (ω e ) =(ω )

ζa e

defines the response function of the heave

motion. The superposition principle

enables the calculation of the variance of

the heave motion in a known wave

spectrum:

∞

m0 z = ∫ S z (ω e ) ⋅ dω e

0

S z (ω e ) = H zζ (ω e ) ⋅ S ζ (ω e )

2

Diesel Engine

defines the heave spectrum.

3 Calculation of Motions For most practical applications it may be

assumed that motion, velocity and

The program TRIAL, mentioned before, acceleration amplitudes follow the

calculates vertical absolute and relative Rayleigh distribution law. In this example

motions in regular waves for different ship the probability that the heave amplitude

*

speeds. Ship motions in an irregular sea exceeds a certain value z a is given by:

are determined by linear superposition of ( )

− za

* 2

wave components.

{ }

Pr z a > z a * = e 2m0 z

be:

6

{ } {

N z a > z a * = Pr z a > z a* ⋅} 3600 good agreement between the measure-

ments and this empirical formula. For

m0 z

2π ⋅ calculating the probability of deck wetness

m2 z at the forward perpendiculars the

in which the second moment of the heave geometrical freeboard is decreased with

spectrum is given by: the static swell-up obtained from Tasaki's

∞

formula.

m2 z = ∫ S zζ (ω e ) ⋅ ω e ⋅ dω e

2

Generally, the probability of slamming

0

will be calculated at station 17 or 18. It is

The significant amplitude of the heave assumed that the static swell-up at these

motion is given by: stations is zero at the instant of re-entry of

z a1/ 3 = 2 ⋅ m 0z the forefoot in the water in case of

slamming.

In this way the program TRIAL calculates Dynamic phenomena increase the

the significant amplitudes of heave, pitch, amplitude of the relative motion at the

absolute and relative motions and bow; there is a dynamic swell-up. When

accelerations and the probability and the bow immerses, the water surface will

number per hour of exceeding a certain rise and when the bow emerges, the water

value by the relative motion. surface will fall. Tasaki [15] has carried

out forced oscillation tests with a towed

ship model in still water to measure the

3.1 Relative Motions displacement of the water surface relative

to the bow of the model. From the results

Neglecting the wave disturbance by the of these experiments he has obtained an

ship the relative motion at a longitudinal empirical formula to estimate the dynamic

distance x b from the centre of gravity is swell-up at the bow:

given by: ∆sa Cb − 0.45 L

= ⋅ ⋅ωe

s = ζ xb − z + xb ⋅θ sa 3 g

where ζ xb is the vertical wave displace- with the restriction:

0.60 < C b < 0.80

ment at position x b .

So the amplitude of the relative motion at

Significant amplitudes and probabilities of

the bow is:

exceeding a given value are calculated as

showed for the heave motion. Because of ∆s

s a = s a ⋅ 1 + a

*

speed, the effective freeboard f e at the

bow generally differs from the geometric This formula is used in the program for

freeboard f . calculating the probability of shipping

Tasaki [15] gives an empirical formula for water at the forward perpendiculars.

this static swell-up at the bow:

L Van Sluys and Tan have carried out

∆f = f − f e = 0.75 ⋅ B ⋅ ⋅ Fn 2 experiments in regular waves [16] with

Le

compact frigates that have shown that the

with L is the ship length and Le is the wave amplitude along the ship’s hull is

length of entrance of the water line. influenced by a factor between 0 and 2.

Experiments at the Delft Ship The highest dynamic swell-up appeared in

Hydromechanics Laboratory with a model the neighbourhood of station 17 or 18.

of a fast cargo ship in full load and in Also, experiments at the Delft Ship

ballast condition has shown a remarkably Hydromechanics Laboratory have shown

7

here a dynamic swell-up of roughly double 4 Voluntary Speed Reduction

the value of the dynamic swell-up at the

bow. For calculating the probability of When a ship encounters a severe storm the

slamming it is assumed that the dynamic ship’s captain will reduce speed in order to

swell-up at station 17 or 18 is double the ease severe motions.

value of Tasaki at the bow. More

investigations are necessary to estimate a The most important phenomena for this

good mean value. decision are the probability of occurrence

and severity of:

Caused by shipping water, this will

The absolute motion at a longitudinal happen if the relative motion of the

distance x b from the centre of gravity can bow exceeds the effective freeboard

be expressed in heave and pitch motions forward. The probability of deck

by: wetness is expressed by:

− fe 2

v = z − xb ⋅θ

Pr {deck wetne ss} = e 2 m0 s

The response function of the absolute in which m0 s includes the dynamic

motion is: swell-up.

v

H vζ (ω e , xb ) = a (ω e , xb ) 2. Slamming

ζa

Slamming is a phenomenon associated

which also can be used for calculating the with extreme ship motions in waves.

response function of the accelerations at At certain ship speeds in rough seas,

position x b by: the forefoot of the ship emerges from

H &v&ζ (ω e , xb ) = H vζ (ω e , x b ) ⋅ ω e

2

the water as a result of large pitch and

heave motions and violently impacts

the water surface as it re-enters. The

The variance of the accelerations in a wave

ship's forward bottom thereby sustains

spectrum and the Rayleigh distribution

a heavy impulsive pressure from the

gives the probability of exceeding a certain

water and this impulsive force

value by the amplitude of the acceleration:

produces a shudder throughout the

( )

− &v&a *

2

{ }

Pr v&&a > &v&a = e

* 2 m 0 &v&

hull.

According to Ochi [18] the probability

of occurrence of slamming is the joint

It is also possible to determine the probability that the bow emerges and

probability of exceeding a certain value by that the relative velocity exceeds a

the significant amplitude of the certain magnitude at the instant of re-

acceleration. entry. He found a critical relative

As Ochi and Motter have shown in [17], velocity between the bow and waves,

the probability expression: below which slamming does not occur

Pr {&v&a1/ 3 > a} ≤ b and recommends as a good threshold

is the same expression as: value:

1 s&cr = 0.093 ⋅ g ⋅ L

Pr v&&a ≥ ⋅ a ⋅ − 2 ⋅ ln b ≤ b

2 The probability of slamming is

This expression will be used in chapter 4. expressed by:

T2 s& 2

− + cr

Pr {slamming } = e

2 m0 s 2 m0 s&

8

in which mos and m0 s& include the sign. ampl.

dynamic swell-up. deck

wetness of bow

and/or acc. will ≤ 0.07

Pr

at

3. Propeller racing

The time-dependent immersion of the Station 20

exceed

propeller results in a fluctuating torque 0.4 ⋅ g

and thrust of the propeller. Although

the rpm governors greatly reduce

2. Light load condition

possible damage to the propelling

Slamming at station 17 and bow

machinery due to racing, large torque

acceleration are in this condition

and thrust fluctuations are observed in

reasons for voluntary speed reduction.

waves, even at constant rpm.

Aertssen [19] analysed a lot of full-

scale trials and defined for propeller sign. ampl.

slam

racing: there is racing - or the propeller impact of bow

and/or acc. will ≤ 0.03

will be called emergent - on every Pr

occasion when the decrease of torque at

is in excess of 25 per cent. Neglecting Station 17

exceed

0.4 ⋅ g

a static and dynamic swell-up at the

stern, Fukuda [22] has adopted

occurrence of propeller racing when Relative motion and velocity are both

the propeller emergence exceeds one- normal random processes, so they are

third of the diameter of the propeller. treated as statistically independent.

4. Accelerations For two statistical independent events A

Too high accelerations can also be a and B may be written:

reason to reduce speed. The magnitude Pr {A and/or B} =

of the accelerations is strongly

dependent on the ship’s length. = 1.0 − Pr{(not A) and/or (not B )}

Aertssen [20] measured on the trawler = 1.0 − Pr{not A} ⋅ Pr {not A}

“Belgian Lady” even accelerations of

2.75 ⋅ g at the forward perpendiculars. So the probability function:

Gerritsma showed the same in [21]. Pr {A and/or B} ≤ c

the estimation of a limit below which no Pr {not A} ⋅ Pr {not A} ≥ 1.0 − c

voluntary speed reduction is expected, two

loading conditions: As mentioned in Section 3.2, the

probability expression with significant

1. Full load condition acceleration amplitude can be expressed in

In this condition voluntary speed reduction the amplitude of this acceleration and the

is depending on deck wetness and two criteria of Ochi and Motter can be

accelerations at the bow: expressed as follows:

− fe −( 0. 4612⋅ g )

2 2

9

• Light load condition: - from ordinate zero until forward, for

T2

− + cr

s& 2 − (0 .5296⋅ g )

2

every ordinate:

2 m 0 s 2 m 0 &s

≥ 0.97 - ordinate number

1 − e ⋅ 1− e

2 m 0 &v&

section at the waterlines from keel

until load waterline

These two conditions are used in the - array with waterline distances of

program ROUTE the section from keel until load

waterline

- array with positions with respect to

5 Practical Applications ordinate zero of the points for which

relative motions, shipping water,

In the following parts of this Chapter a slamming and acceleration forward

description of the data input in the will be calculated

program is given with a discussion about - array with z -values for calculating the

sea and wind conditions. For six ships, probability of exceeding, shipping

calculation results are compared with full- water and slamming (above load

scale measurements. The time used by an waterline is positive)

IBM 370/158 system, like that of the - array with wave directions (head

Mathematical Centre of the Delft waves is 180 degrees)

University of Technology, for calculating - array with absolute wind directions

speed and motions in a seaway is about (head wind is 180 degrees)

two minutes for one loading condition - array with significant wave heights

with a memory use of about 400 Kbytes. - array with average wave periods

- array with absolute wind speeds

- length overall

5.1 Description of Data Input - lateral projected wind area

- transverse projected wind area

The program needs much information - length of perimeter of lateral projected

about the ship. To show this, the data input wind area excluding waterline and

for a fully loaded ship is given here: slender bodies such as masts and

- text card with 80 symbols including ventilators

spaces - number of distinct groups of masts or

- length at design waterline king posts seen in lateral projection

- length between perpendiculars - type of estimation method of the still

- distance from ordinate zero until APP water resistance:

- ratio between gyradius and length - 1 = method of Lap and Auf 'm

between perpendiculars Keller

- estimated service speed - 2 = method of Shipbuilding

- even number of ordinate intervals Research Association of Japan

- even number of waterline distances - multiplication coefficient for correc-

- number of wave and wind directions ting the calculated still water resistance

- number of points for which relative for a bulbous bow, fouling, etc

motions will be calculated - type of estimation method of the wake

- number of wave spectra and wind fraction:

speeds - 1 = method of Taylor

- number of power inputs - 2 = method of Harvald

- array with ordinate distances from - 3 = a given value of w

ordinate zero until forward - if type = 3 : value of w

10

- type of estimation method of the thrust in which:

deduction fraction: ω wave frequency and

- 1 = method of Weingart A, B coefficients.

- 2 = a given value of t / w

- 3 = a given value of t If statistical information is available on the

- if type = 2: value of t / w characteristic wave period T and the

- if type = 3: value of t significant wave height H 1/ 3 , a two-

- relative rotative efficiency parameter spectral formulation can be used

- number of propellers by defining:

- number of propeller blades

173 ⋅ H 1/ 3

2

691

- diameter of propeller A= 4

and B = 5

- blade area ratio T T

- pitch ratio in which:

- boolean: English horsepower H 1/ 3 = 4 ⋅ m0

(1 hp = 76 kg m/sec)

- for every input of power: m0

T = 2π ⋅

- type of machine: m2

1 = power is constant This period is based on the spectral centre

2 = torque-rpm is linear of gravity and it can be taken as the

- steam or fuel inlet ratio observed period. The spectral formulation,

- mechanical efficiency of the shaft mentioned above, is used in the program.

bearings

- power in design condition If the only information available is the

- rpm in design condition significant wave height, the 12th ITTC re-

- if type = 2 : linear coefficient commends for the coefficients A and B :

of torque-rpm relation 3.11

- boolean: ballast condition A = 0.78 and B =

- if this boolean is true: H 1/ 32

- change of draught at ordinate zero This means in the two-parameter spectral

- change of draught forward formulation a relation between significant

- ratio of gyradius and length wave height and characteristic wave

between perpendiculars. period:

T = 3.86 ⋅ H / 3

The dimensions of the different values are:

length: meter The 12th ITTC also recommends a relation

time: second between wind speed and significant wave

speed: knots height in an open ocean when no data are

power: horsepower available:

angle: degree

VW H 1/ 3

(kn) (m)

5.2 Sea and Wind Conditions

20 3.05

30 5.25

The recommendations of the twelfth

I.T.T.C., Rome, 1969, are used for the 40 8.10

description of sea and wind conditions. 50 11.15

60 14.65

The wave spectra are defined by:

−B

Sζ (ω ) = 5 ⋅ e ω

A 4

11

5.3 Calculations and Full Scale It may be noted that differences between

Measurements predictions and measurements, apart from

possible disagreements between theory

For six ships calculation results of and practice, can be caused by different

program ROUTE are compared with full- reasons. All measurements have a certain

scale measurements: 4 ships with a diesel error depending on measuring techniques

engine and 2 ships with a turbine and accuracy of the measuring equipment.

propulsion plant. The main dimensions of There is always a difference between the

these ships are shown in Table 1. actual wave spectrum and the wave

Only measurements in head waves spectrum derived from a spectral

( 150 0 ≤ µ ≤ 180 0 ) are observed to com- formulation with a measured, estimated or

pare them with calculations of the assumed significant wave height and

behaviour of these ships in head wind and average wave period. The input values in

the program, like engine setting

waves ( 1800 ).

corresponding to a certain torque or power,

In calculating the wave spectra the relation

wave direction, wind direction and wind

between significant wave height and

speed are mean values. Deviations from

average wave period is defined by:

these mean values result in differences

T = 3.86 ⋅ H 1 / 3 between predicted and measured beha-

as mentioned before. The corresponding viour of the ship.

wind speed as recommended by the

twelfth I.T.T.C. is used.

12

Firstly the calculation results for the four maximum rpm belonging to it, the engine

ships with a diesel propulsion plant will be setting is assumed to be 100 per cent.

discussed and after that the results for the The comparison between predictions and

two ships with turbine propulsion plant. measurements are shown in Figures 6, 7, 8

In the last two decades, Aertssen has and 9. The predicted speeds are in

carried out experiments with several ships reasonably good until very good

to study the behaviour of these ships in a agreement with the mean values of the

seaway. The measurement results of 4 measurements. In rough seas however the

ships are used to compare them with the predicted speeds are a little bit too low, but

predictions in head waves: the measurement points scatter more than

m.s. Lukuga [23] two knots. The predicted number of

m.s. Lubumbashi [24, 25] revolutions is somewhat too high; in mild

m.s. Jordaens [19] weather conditions even higher than the

m.s. Dart Europe [26]. maximum value limited by the governor of

The first three ships are conventional the engine. Figure 11 shows that this can

cargo liners and the last one is a partly be caused by the estimated wake

containership, all owned by the and thrust deduction fraction. Another

Compagnie Maritime Belge in Antwerp, reason can be a possible difference

Belgium. between the characteristics of the actual

Aertssen gives in his papers much propeller and the characteristics of the

information and data. The following are Wageningen B-series propeller used in the

used to compare them with the predictions: calculations. The predicted significant

power delivered at the propeller, number amplitudes of pitch and heave motions and

of revolutions per minute of the propeller, vertical bow accelerations are in good

speed, significant wave height and the agreement with the measurements by

significant amplitudes of pitch and heave Aertssen.

motions and vertical bow acceleration. The calculated limits of speed and

For m.s. Lukuga, m.s. Lubumbashi and significant wave height for voluntary

m.s. Jordaens, the increase of power due to speed reduction due to the two criteria of

fouling is assumed to be 8 per cent of the Ochi and Motter are also plotted in the

power in still water at the same speed. In Figures 6, 7, 8 and 9. There was no bad

calculating the still water resistance of m.s. weather in head seas during the

Dart Europe no allowance is made for the experiments of m.s. Lukuga in full 1oad

bulbous bow, so it is assumed that increase condition and m.s. Lubumbashi in both

of power due to fouling will be nullified loading conditions. The criteria could not

by decrease of power due to a bulbous be checked in these cases.

bow. The criterion for full load condition (in the

In order to get a good comparison it is Figures marked by SH) with a maximum

necessary to use the actual torque-rpm probability of shipping water and

relation in the calculations. Figure 5 shows exceeding 0.4 ⋅ g by the significant ampli-

these relations for the torque measured at tude of the bow acceleration of 7 per cent,

the propeller. Those measurements are seems to be too low for m.s. Jordaens and

divided into groups having broadly the m.s. Dart Europe.

same torque. Assuming a constant torque The criterion for light load condition (in

at a constant engine setting, this means the Figures marked by SL) with a

groups of a constant engine setting. For a maximum permitted probability of

torque equal to the torque derived from the slamming and exceeding 0.4 ⋅ g by the

break horsepower of the engine and a significant amplitude of the bow

acceleration of 3 per cent, appears also to

13

be too low. The criterion valid in full load course this is depending on the ship’s

condition seems to be better here. More length.

investigations are necessary to get good In designing a ship, much attention will be

mean values for these percentages used in paid to the still water resistance in relation

the program. to bull form and expensive bulbous bows.

The predictions of this computing method On the North Atlantic however, a sea state

are also compared with measurements on of Beaufort 6 is exceeded in 70 per cent of

turbine ships. In 1972 Beukelman and the time during the winter season. In the

Buitenhek carried out experiments on the summer season this percentage is 45 [21].

containership Atlantic Crown [27]. In the Considering this, it is worth while to pay

calculations it is assumed that the still more attention to added resistance and

water resistance of this twin-screw ship motions in a seaway.

with a bulbous bow, including fouling, is The program ROUTE can be an expedient

equal to the still water resistance for investigating this problem. This

calculated by the method of the program can be made suitable for

Shipbuilding Research Association of calculating the fuel consumption of a ship

Japan for single-screw ships with a in a seaway after which it can be used for

conventional bow, excluding fouling. The routing a ship with a minimum use of fuel,

agreements between predictions and predictions of fuel consumption, etc.

measurements of speed, number of Except for routing purposes, this program

revolutions and pitch and heave motions can be used for the determination of

are very good as is shown in Figure 10. needed machine power at a service speed

The routing office of the Royal in a certain state and choice of a propeller

Netherlands Meteorological Institute made in the regular design procedure of a ship,

speed loss graphs available for a group of in lengthening of ships, etc. In the near

turbine ships. For one of these ships, t.s. future this program will also be made

Kelletia, predictions are made in full load suitable for following waves.

condition. The increase of power due to

fouling is assumed to be 8 per cent of the

power in still water at the same speed. The 7 Acknowledgement

predictions and observations are shown in

Figure 10. Maximum observed speeds are The author wishes to thank Prof. ir. J.

in good agreement with the predicted Gerritsma and Mr. W. Beukelman for their

speeds at 7500 horsepower. The maximum stimulating attention paid to this work and

continuous number of revolutions of the their valuable advises and remarks.

propeller, 100 rpm, is in very good The conversations with Ir. D. Moens of the

agreement with the predicted value. Royal Netherlands Meteorological Insti-

tute about routing problems are very much

appreciated.

6 Final Remarks Last but not least the preparation of the

graphs by Mr. P. de Heer is gratefully

The calculation of the three components of acknowledged.

the total resistance and the speed of a ship,

at a constant engine setting in a seaway,

shows in Figure 12 for m.s. Lubumbashi 8 References

that added resistance due to waves can be

a considerable part of the total resistance. [1] W. D. Moens, Meteorological Route-

At a significant wave height corresponding ing (in Dutch).

with Beaufort 6 the added resistance is

equal to the still water resistance. Of

14

[2] Design Charts for the Propulsive [11] W. J. Luke, Experimental Investi-

Performances of High Speed Cargo gation on Wake and Thrust Deduction

Liners, The Shipbuilding Research Values, Trans. of the Inst. of Naval Arch.,

Association of Japan, 1964. 1910, 1914, 1917.

[3] A. J. W. Lap, Diagrams for Deter- [12] S.A. Harvald, Wake of Merchant

mining the Resistance of Single Screw Ships, Doctor's Thesis, The Danish Tech-

Ships, International Shipbuilding Progress, nical Press, Copenhagen, 1950.

Vol. 1, No. 4, 1954.

[13] 0. Geisler and G. Siemer, Dynamische

[4] W.H. Auf ‘m Keller, Extended Dia- Belastung von Schiffsdampfturbinen-

grams for Determining the Resistance and anlagen bei Umsteuer-Manövern, Schiff

Required Power for Single Screw Ships, und Hafen, Heft 3, 1974.

International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol.

20, No. 225, 1973. [14] A.J.H. Goodwin, et. al., The Practical

Application of Computers in Marine Engi-

[5] W. Beukelman and E.F. Bijlsma, Des- neering.

cription of a Program to Calculate the

Behaviour of a Ship in a Seaway (named [15] Shipment of Water in Waves, The

TRIAL), Report 383, Delft University of Society of Naval Architects of Japan, 60th

Technology, Ship Hydromechanics Labo- Anniversary Series, Vol. 8, Par. 6.4, 1963.

ratory.

[16] M.F. van Sluys and Tan Seng Gie,

[7] J. Gerritsma and W. Beukelman, Behaviour and Performance of Compact

Analysis of the Modified Strip Theory for Frigates in Head Seas, International

the Calculation of Ship Motions and Wave Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 19, No. 210,

Bending Moments, Netherlands Ship February 1972.

Research Centre TNO, Shipbuilding

Department, Report 96-S. [17] M.K. Ochi and E. Motter, Prediction

of Extreme Ship Responses in Rough Seas

[8] J. Gerritsma and W. Beukelman, of the North Atlantic, International

Analysis of the Resistance Increase in Symposium on the Dynamics of Marine

Waves of a Fast Cargo Ship, International Vehicles and Structures in Waves.

Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 19, No. 217, London, 1974, Paper 20.

1972.

[18] M.K. Ochi, Prediction of Occurrence

[9] M.W.C. Oosterveld and P. van Oos- and Severity of Ship Slamming at Sea, 5th

sanen, Recent Developments in Marine Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics,

Propeller Hydrodynamics, International Bergen, Norway, 1964.

Jubilee Meeting 1972, NSMB, Wagen-

ingen. [19] G. Aertssen, Service Performance and

Seakeeping Trials on m.v. Jordaens,

[10] M.W.G. Oosterveld and P. van Oos-

sanen, Representation of Propeller [20] G. Aertssen, Laboring of Ships in

Characteristics Suitable for Preliminary Rough Seas, SNAME, Diamond Jubilee

Ship Design Studies, International Con- International Meeting, New York, 1968.

ference on Computer Applications in the

Automation of Shipyard Operation and [21] J. Gerritsma, Sustained Sea Speed,

Ship Design, Tokyo, 1973. 12th ITTC, Rome, 1969.

15

[22] J. Fukuda, Y. Ono and G. Ogata, P power

Determination of Fore and After Draught Va speed of advance

of Ballasted Bulk Carriers Associated with V ship’s speed

the Criteria of Slamming and Propeller t thrust deduction fraction

Racing, 11th ITTC, Tokyo, 1966. w wake fraction

VW true wind speed

[23] G. Aertssen, Service Performance and

Seakeeping Trials on m.v. Lukuga. αW true wind direction

H 1/ 3 significant wave height

[24] G. Aertssen, Sea Trials on a 9500 Ton T average wave period

Deadweight Motor Cargo Liner. µ wave direction

[25] G. Aertssen, Further Sea Trials on the c steam or fuel inlet ratio

Lubumbashi. ηm mechanical efficiency of the shaft

bearings

[26] G. Aertssen and M.F. van Sluys, Ser- KT thrust coefficient

vice Performance and Seakeeping Trials KQ torque coefficient

on a Large Containership, TRINA, Vol.

ρ density of water

114, 1972.

D diameter of propeller

[27] W. Beukelman and M. Buitenhek, J advance coefficient

Full Scale Measurements and Predicted ηR relative rotative efficiency

Seakeeping Performance of the Container- L length

ship Atlantic Crown, TNO Report 185S. B breadth

T draught

[28] J.M.J. Journée, Motions, Resistance Cb block coefficient

and Propulsion of a Ship in Longitudinal C wp water plane coefficient

Regular Waves, Report 428, Delft Univer-

sity of Technology, Ship Hydromechanics θ pitch motion

Laboratory, February 1976. z heave motion

v absolute vertical motion

&v& vertical acceleration

9 List of Symbols s relative vertical motion

xb longitudinal distance to centre of

RSW still water resistance gravity

RW wind resistance ζa wave amplitude

R AW added resistance due to waves ωe frequency of encounter

RT total resistance S .. spectral value

T trust of the propeller m.. variance or spectral moment

Q torque at the propeller f geometric freeboard

Qm torque at the engine fe effective freeboard

Q0 torque at the engine Pr { } probability

(design maximum) g acceleration of gravity

n number of revolutions ω circular wave frequency

n0 number of revolutions

(design maximum)

a coefficient for the torque-rpm

relation

16

Figure 5 Measured and Assumed Torque-RPM Relation for Diesel Propelled Ships

17

Figure 6 Predicted and Measured Behaviour of m.s. Lukuga in a Seaway (Head Waves)

18

Figure 7 Predicted and Measured Behaviour of m.s. Lubumbashi in a Seaway (Head Waves)

19

Figure 8 Predicted and Measured Behaviour of m.s. Jordaens in a Seaway (Head Waves)

20

Figure 9 Predicted and Measured Behaviour of m.s. Dart Europe in a Seaway (Head Waves)

21

Figure 10 Predicted and Measured Behaviour of 2 Turbine Ships in a Seaway (Head Waves)

22

Figure 11 Influence of Estimated Wake and Thrust Deduction Fraction on Calculated Speed

and RPM

23

Figure 12 Division of the 3 Components of Total Resistance at a Constant Engine Setting of

a Ship in a Seaway (Head Waves)

24

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