Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 31

PATHOLOGY PAPER 1 

 
CELL INJURY, ADAPTATION, DEATH 
 
Short notes   
1. Enumerate cell adaptations with examples: Atrophy, Hypertrophy, Hyperplasia, 
Metaplasia 
2. Atrophy
3. Apoptosis – types, examples
2. Necrosis – types, examples
3. Differences between apoptosis and necrosis 
4. Intracellular bacterial killing mechanism
6. Metastatic calcification 
7. Dystrophic calcification
7. Pathogenesis of fatty change
 
ACUTE / CHRONIC INFLAMMATION 
 
Essays 
1. Define acute inflammation. Enumerate the processes involved. Describe in 
detail the chemical mediators involved.
2. Define inflammation. What are the essential macroscopic features (cardinal 
signs) of acute inflammation? Describe the role of chemical mediators in acute 
inflammation.
 
Short Notes 
1. Adhesion molecules
2. Chemotaxis
3. Phagocytosis
4. Sequelae of acute inflammation
4. Chronic inflammation
5. Granulomatous inflammation
 
MCQs 
1. Schilling test
2. Bernard-Soleil syndrome
3. Plummer-Vinson syndrome
 
TISSUE REPAIR: CELL REGENERATION AND FIBROSIS 
 
Essay 
1. What is repair? Name the types of wound healing. Describe healing of a clean 
surgical wound. List two complications of wound healing.
 
Short Notes 
1. Local and systemic factors in wound healing
2. Granulation tissue
3. Fracture healing
 
HAEMODYNAMIC DISORDERS, THROMBOSIS AND SHOCK 
 
Essays 
1. Define the terms thrombosis, embolism and infarction. Discuss the 
aetiopathogenesis of thrombus formation and its fate.
2. Deep vein thrombosis
3. Oedema – classify, discuss the pathogenesis of cardiac and renal oedema.
 
Short Notes 
1. Pathogenesis of oedema
2. Pulmonary thromboembolism
3. Pathogenesis of septic shock
4. Air embolism
5. Exudate
6. Embolism
7. Infarction
8. Systemic oedema pathogenesis
 
DISEASES OF IMMUNITY 
 
Essays 
1. Type 1 hypersensitivity 
2. HIV
 
Short Notes 
1. Type 2 hypersensitivity
2. Type 3 hypersensitivity
3. Type 4 hypersensitivity
4. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
5. Rheumatoid arthritis
6. Amyloidosis
7. Types of amyloidosis
8. Secondary amyloidosis
9. Classification of amyloid Substances
 
NEOPLASIA 
 
Essays 
1. Define carcinogen. Classify chemical carcinogens. Describe in detail chemical 
carcinogenesis.
2. Define neoplasia. Describe the role of genetic mechanisms in carcinogenesis. 
Add a note on premalignant lesions.
3. Define neoplasia. Discuss differences between benign and malignant 
neoplasms. Write in detail about modes of spread of tumours.
 
Short Notes 
1. Tumour Suppression Genes
2. Grading and Staging of Tumours
3. Tumour Markers
4. Oncogenes
5. Metastasis
6. Chromosomal abnormalities in neoplasia
7. Cellular characteristics of malignancy
8. Metastatic cascade
9. Paraneoplastic syndrome
10. Metastatic calcification
11. Carcinogens
12. p53 Gene
 
GENETIC AND PEDIATRIC DISEASES 
 
Essay 
1. Cystic fibrosis
 
Short Notes 
1. Barr body
2. Turner syndrome
3. Down syndrome (trisomy 21)
4. Klinefelter syndrome
5. Phenylketonuria
6. Respiratory diseases of the newborn
7. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
8. Hydrops foetalis
9. Immune hydrops
10. Fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH)
11. Wilms tumour
12. Marfan’s syndrome
13. Principles underlying X-linked inheritance
 
ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASES 
 
Short Notes 
1. Harmful effects of ionising radiation
2. Vitamin K deficiency
3. Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis
4. Asbestosis
5. Oral contraceptives
6. Protein energy malnutrition
7. Vitamin A deficiency
8. Vitamin E deficiency
9. Rickets
10. Obesity
 
INFECTIOUS DISEASES 
 
Essay 
1. Tuberculosis
 
Short Notes 
1. Primary complex
2. Difference between primary and secondary TB
3. Primary TB
4. Tuberculoid leprosy
5. Difference between tuberculoid and lepromatous leprosy
6. Evolution and fate of granulomas in TB
 
HAEMATOLOGY 
 
Essays 
2. Classify anaemia. Describe the pathogenesis, pathology and lab diagnosis of 
iron deficiency anaemia.
3. Megaloblastic anaemia
3. Hereditary spherocytosis
4. Sickle cell anaemia
14. Thalassemia – classification, pathogenesis, manifestations, lab diagnosis
15. Aplastic anaemia
16. Haemophilia A
17. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
18. Define acute leukaemia – classification, investigations
19. Multiple myeloma
7. Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)
8. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL)
9. Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML)
10. Chronic lymphoblastic leukaemia (CLL)
 
Short Notes 
15. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) – stages, applications
16. Haematocrit
16. Packed cell volume (PCV)
17. Absolute indices
18. Indications for bone marrow aspiration
19. Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria
20. Peripheral smear findings – sickle cell, thalassaemia 
21. Reticulocytes
22. Blast crisis
23. Hazards of blood transfusion
24. Classification of bleeding disorders
25. Thrombocytopenia + types
26. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
27. Functional platelet disorders
28. Von Willebrand disease
29. Haemophilia A
30. Haemophilia B
31. Aetiopathogenesis of DIC
32. Screening tests for bleeding disorders
33. Prothrombin time
34. Agranulocytosis
35. AML–M3
36. Classification of acute leukaemia
37. FAB classification for acute leukaemias 
2. CML
3. Leukaemoid reaction
4. Hodgkin’s lymphoma
5. Classification of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
6. Burkett’s lymphoma
7. Reed-Sternberg cells
 
MISCELLANEOUS 
 
Short Notes 
1. Exfoliate cytology
2. Indications for bone marrow examination
3. Screening of blood before transfusion
PATHOLOGY PAPER 2 
 
BLOOD VESSELS 
 
Essays 
1. Atherosclerosis (ATH)
2. Hypertension
 
Short Notes 
1. Different types of aneurysms
2. Coarctation of aorta
3. Syphilitic aneurysms
4. Aortic dissection
5. Wegener granulomatosis
6. Buerger’s disease (thromboangitis obliterans)
7. Kaposi sarcoma
8. Major and minor risk factors for ATH
 
HEART 
 
Essays 
1. Describe the aetiopathogenesis, pathology and complications of ischemic heart 
disease
2. Myocardial infarction - gross and microscopic changes, lab diagnosis
 
Short Notes 
1. Angina pectoris
2. Rheumatic fever and heart disease
3. Calcific aortic stenosis
4. Mitral valve prolapse
5. Libman–Sacks endocarditis
6. Complications of infective endocarditis
7. Atrial septal defects
8. Ventricular septal defects
9. Patent ductus arteriosus
10. Fallot’s tetralogy
11. Rheumatoid carditis
 
LUNG AND URT 
 
Essays 
1. Define and classify emphysema. Describe its aetiopathogenesis and pathology.
2. Asthma
3. Tuberculosis
4. Bronchogenic carcinoma
5. Define chronic bronchitis - aetiopathogenesis
 
Short Notes 
1. Bronchiectasis
2. Acute respiratory distress syndrome
3. Sarcoidosis
4. Pulmonary thromboembolism
5. Wegener granulomatosis
6. Community-acquired acute pneumonias
7. Lung abscess
8. Lobar pneumonia
9. Aetiology of lung cancer
 
KIDNEY 
 
Essays 
1. Nephrotic syndrome
2. Nephritic Syndrome
 
Short Notes 
1. Minimal change nephropathy
2. Kidney lesions in SLE
3. Membranous glomerulonephritis
4. Focal segmental glomerulonephritis
5. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
6. Crescentic glomerulonephritis
7. Acute pyelonephritis
8. Drug induced interstitial nephritis
9. Acute tubular necrosis
10. Malignant hypertension
11. Polycystic kidney disease (Adult)
12. Polycystic kidney disease (Childhood)
13. Renal stones
14. Hydronephrosis
15. Renal cell carcinoma
16. Causes of nephrotic syndrome
17. Acute and chronic pyelonephritis
18. Benign nephrosclerosis
 
ORAL CAVITY AND GIT 
 
Essays 
1. Define peptic ulcer. Describe the pathology and complications. Mention the 
sites of occurrence.
2. Gastric carcinoma
3. Colorectal carcinoma
 
Short Notes 
1. Leukoplakia
2. Hiatal Hernia
3. Achalasia
4. Barrett oesophagus
5. Chronic gastritis
6. Acute gastritis
7. Malabsorption syndrome
8. Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease
9. Crohn’s disease
10. Complications of ulcerative colitis
11. Colonic diverticulosis
12. Adenomas
13. Familial polyposis syndrome
14. Acute appendicitis
15. Amoebic colitis
16. Aetiology of gastric carcinoma
17. Morphology of gastric carcinoma
18. Role of ​H. pylori​ in causation of chronic gastritis
19. Pleomorphic adenoma of salivary gland
 
LIVER AND BILIARY TRACT 
 
Essays 
1. Portal hypertension
2. Cirrhosis - define, classify, features, complications
3. Viral hepatitis - classify, hepatitis B, clinical features, stages 
4. Alcoholic liver disease
5. Primary carcinoma of the liver (hepatocellular)
 
Short Notes 
1. Hepatocellular carcinoma
2. Jaundice
3. Cholestasis
4. Hepatic encephalopathy
5. Liver abscess
6. Haemochromatosis
7. Wilson’s disease
8. α​1​–antitrypsin deficiency
9. Portal vein obstruction
10. Cholelithiasis (gall stones)
11. Cholecystitis
12. Histopathology of liver in acute viral hepatitis
13. Pathology of alcoholic liver disease
14. Risk factors for gall stones 

PANCREAS 
 
Essays 
1. Acute pancreatitis
2. Chronic pancreatitis
3. Carcinoma of the pancreas
4. Diabetes mellitus - classify, pathogenic factors, pathogenesis, complication
 
Short Notes 
1. Zollinger–Ellison syndrome (gastrinomas)
2. Acute pancreatitis
MALE GENITAL SYSTEM 
 
Essays 
1. Testicular neoplasms - classify, important features of germ cell tumours
2. Prostatic carcinoma
 
Short Notes 
1. Nodular hyperplasia of the prostate
2. Seminoma
3. Syphilis
4. Gonorrhoea
5. Non-gonococcal urethritis
 
FEMALE GENITAL SYSTEM AND BREAST 
 
Essays 
1. Carcinoma of the breast
2. Tumours of the cervix – ca. cervix – aetiology, pathology, staging
3. Ovarian Tumours - classify, pathology of germ cell tumours
 
Short Notes 
1. Cervicitis
2. Endometriosis
3. Endometrial hyperplasia
4. Endometrial carcinoma
5. Leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma
6. Hydratidiform mole - partial and complete
7. Serous cystadenoma of the ovary
8. Role of HPV in ca. cervix
9. Phyllodes tumour of the breast
10. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
11. Adenomyosis
 
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM 
 
Essays 
1. Hyperthyroidism
2. Hypothyroidism
3. Carcinoma of thyroid
 
Short Notes 
1. Grave’s disease
2. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
3. Cushing syndrome
4. Compare any two malignant tumours of the thyroid gland (morphology and 
clinical features)
5. Adrenocortical insufficiency
 
 
 
MUSCULOSKELTAL SYSTEM 
 
Essays 
1. Osteoporosis
2. Osteoarthritis
Short Notes 
1. Ricketts
2. Osteomalacia
3. Osteomyelitis - chronic and pyogenic
4. Differences between rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis
5. Myasthenia gravis
6. Paget’s disease of the bone
7. Osteosarcoma
8. Giant cell tumour of the bone
 
SKIN 
 
Essay 
1. Malignant melanoma
 
Short Notes 
1. Psoriasis
2. Lichen planus
3. Squamous cell carcinoma
4. Basal cell carcinoma
5. Nevocellular nevus
 
NERVOUS SYSTEM 
 
Essays 
1. Alzheimer’s disease
2. Parkinsonism
 
Short Notes 
1. Saccular aneurysms
2. Subarachnoid haemorrhage
3. Chronic meningitis
4. CSF in meningitis
5. CSF in tuberculous meningitis
6. Indications and contraindications for lumbar puncture
7. CSF in pyogenic meningitis
Forensic Medicine 
 
Essays 
1. Identity - What are the various features of it? Medicolegal Importance of hair.
2. Death. Types of death. Describe the early and late changes after death.
3. Medical negligence - define and classify, defences available in a case of 
medical negligence, functions of medical council of India
4. Define dactylography and briefly describe poroscopy. How are finger prints 
recorded? Medicolegal importance
5. Professional misconduct
6. Drowning – define, classify, causes of death, pm appearance, lab diagnosis, 
medicolegal importance
2. Strangulation - define, classify, causes of death, pm appearance, lab diagnosis, 
medicolegal importance
3. Abortion - define, classify, complication and causes of death in criminal 
abortion, indication of termination of pregnancy under MTP act
6. Define professional secrecy. What are the exceptions to it? Examples of 
unethical practices a medical practitioner should avoid
8. Insanity - What are various manifestations? How is an insane person restrained? 
Mention laws governing restraint.
9. Poisons - classify. What are modalities of treatment poisoning. Carbolic acid 
poisoning - signs and symptoms and PM findings.
10. Asphyxia - Signs. Causes of asphyxial death. PM findings in a case of 
drowning/hanging.
11. Rape - define. Comment on custodial and marital Rape. Examination of a victim 
in a case of rape.
12. Mechanical injury - classify. Difference between ante- and post-mortem 
injuries. Difference between suicidal and homicidal cut-throat injuries. Age of 
the injury - assessment
13. Drunkenness
14. Suspended animation. Comment on the early signs of cellular death. What are 
the modified methods of decomposition?
15. Clinical effects and medicolegal significance of excessive alcohol consumption. 
How would you examine a person if he is drunk?
16. Contusions - explain how contusions is differentiated from post-mortem 
hypothesis. How is age of contusion determined?
17. Classify pesticide poison. Organophosphorus pesticides. Mention the organs 
preserved for chemical analysis. Add a note on visceral preservation.
 
Short Notes 
1. Dying declaration
2. Documentary evidence
3. Paracetamol overdose
4. Antemortem vs postmortem injuries
5. Professional misconduct
6. Phossy jaw
7. Intersex
8. Tattoo marks
9. Informed consent
10. Doctrine of res ipsa loquitur - under medical law and ethics
11. Corpus delicti - identification
12. Value of blood group examination in determination of paternity
2. Medical importance of air embolism
3. Hallucinations
4. Mechanism of action of organophosphorus poisoning
4. Treatment of organophosphorus compound poisoning
5. Plumbism (chronic lead poisoning)
6. Features of chronic lead poisoning
5. Definition and types of antidote
8. Botulism
9. Mercurialism
10. Xanthoproteic reaction
11. Various manifestations of insanity. How is an insane person restrained? Mention 
laws governing restraint.
13. Filigree burns
14. Aflatoxin
16. Vagal inhibition
17. Cadaveric spasm
18. Abrasion collar
19. Lathyrus sativus
20. Macerated foetus 
21. Rape trauma syndrome
23. Clinical features and management of methanol poisoning
25. Significance of hyoid bone in medicolegal autopsy
26. Treatment of snake bite
27. Lucid interval
28. Cholinesterase reactivators
30. Contributory negligence and its value as a defence in medical litigation
31. Delusions
32. Objectives of medical examination of a victim in an alleged case of rape
33. Causes of impotence in males
34. Methods of recording oral evidence of a witness in a court of law.
35. Fractures of skull
36. Causes of death in burns
37. Artefacts
38. Supravital reaction
40. Chelating agents
41. Treatment of parathion poisoning
42. Toxalbumin
43. Court procedures
44. Medicolegal importance of age
45. Testamentary capacity
46. Paederasty
47. Lochia - pregnancy
48. Carbon monoxide poisoning
49. State medical council
50. Medicolegal importance of hypostasis
51. Coup-contrecoup injury
52. Delusions
53. Medicolegal examination of rape-accused
54. Superimposition
55. Euthanasia
56. Strychnine poisoning
57. Battered baby syndrome
58. Causes of impotence in the male
59. Vicarious responsibility
60. Superfoetation
61. Joule burns
62. Heat hyperpyrexia
63. Drug automatism
64. Surrogate mothers
65. Definitive signs of delivery
66. Impulse
67. Café coronary syndrome
68. Cyanide poisoning
69. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
70. Section 84 IPC
71. Privileged communication
72. Ideal homicidal poison
73. Extradural/subdural haemorrhage
74. Penal erasure
75. Warning notice
76. Malingering
77. Drug dependence
78. Carboluria
79. Hostile witness
80. Partial hanging
81. McNaughten’s rule
82. Respondent superior
83. Locard’s principles
84. Restraint of the insane
85. Precipitate labour
86. Body packer’s syndrome
87. Immersion syndrome
88. Civil responsibilities of the insane
89. MTP 1971
90. Classification of sexual offences
91. Autoerotic asphyxia
92. Defence wounds
93. Shotgun injuries
94. First-aid in snake bites
Microbiology Paper 1 
 
GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY 
 
Essays 
1. Mechanism of gene transfer. Give an account of drug resistance in bacteria.
2. Define sterilisation. Enumerate the methods of sterilisation. Describe moist 
heat sterilisation.
3. Describe the morphology of a bacterial cell wall with a suitable diagram.
4. Disinfectants
5. How will you demonstrate: cell wall, volutin granules, capsule, flagellum, 
nucleus?
 
Short Notes 
1. Bacterial spores
2. Bacterial filters
3. Bacterial capsule
4. Flagella
5. Sporulating anaerobes
6. Bacterial toxins
7. Exotoxin, endotoxin
5. Selective media
6. Transport media
7. Enrichment media
21. Anaerobic cultivation methods
22. Growth curve
8. Antibiogram
9. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing
6. Moist heat sterilization
7. Autoclave
8. Tyndallisation
9. Pasteurization
10. Transduction
11. Conjugation
12. Mutation
8. Transferable drug resistance
9. Plasmids
10. Drug resistance
11. Cell wall deficient bacteria
15. Chemical disinfectant
18. Gaseous disinfectants
24. L-Forms
29. Koch’s postulates + Louis Pasteur’s contribution
 
IMMUNOLOGY 
 
Essays 
1. Define and classify immunity. Describe in detail acquired immunity. 
2. Classify hypersensitivity reactions. Describe Type 1 hypersensitivity.
3. Classify immunoglobulins. Describe the structure, properties and functions of 
IgG.
3. Enumerate Ag-Ab reactions. Describe in detail agglutination reactions. Describe 
gel precipitation reaction.
4. Describe the structure and function of the immune system. Describe the 
theories of immune response.
 
Short Notes 
1. Active immunity
2. Passive immunity
3. Passive acquired immunity
4. Innate immunity
5. Herd immunity
6. immunodeficiency
7. Null cells
8. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
9. B-lymphocytes
10. T-lymphocytes
11. T/B cell maturation
12. Complements
13. Biological effects of complement
14. Classic pathway
15. Alternative pathway
16. Cytokines
5. IgG
6. IgA
7. IgM
8. IgE
9. IgD
10. Antigens
11. Determinants of antigenicity 
12. Superantigens
13. Monoclonal antibodies
14. Humoral response
15. Agglutination reactions
16. Precipitation reaction
17. Heterophile agglutination
18. Histocompatibility antigens
19. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)
20. Tumour antigens
21. Type 2 hypersensitivity
22. Type 3 hypersensitivity
23. Type 4 hypersensitivity
24. Mechanism of autoimmunity
25. Allograft reaction
26. Allograft rejection
27. Graft vs host reaction
28. MALT
29. ELISA
30. Immunofluorescence
31. Adjuvants
32. Immunodeficiency
6. Immunosuppressive agents
24. Mantoux test
25. Coombs test
29. Schwartzman reaction
30. Widal test
31. HLA typing
34. Complement fixation test
35. Radioimmunoassay
36. Immunisation schedule
37. Blood groups (MCQs – read from physiology)
 
SYSTEMIC BACTERIOLOGY 
 
Essays 
1. Clostridia - classify, pathogenesis, lab diagnosis, prophylaxis of tetanus or gas 
gangrene
2. Mycobacteria - classify, describe, pathogenesis, lab diagnosis and prophylaxis 
of pulmonary TB
3. Enteric fever - aetiopathogenesis, lab diagnosis and prophylaxis
4. Enumerate organisms causing STDs. Describe the pathogenesis and lab diagnosis 
of syphilis. Classify spirochetes.
5. Streptococci - classify and mention virulence factors. Write about the 
pathogenesis and lab diagnosis of infections caused by ​S. pyogenes
6. C. perfringens​ - aetiology, pathogenesis, lab diagnosis and treatment. 
Enumerate the toxins of ​C. welchii.​
7. Cholera
8. Diphtheria
 
Short Notes 
1. Nonspecific urethritis
2. Elek’s Test
3. Lab diagnosis of plague
4. Halophilic vibrio
5. Lab diagnosis of Enteric Fever
6. Prophylaxis of Tetanus
7. C. botulinum
8. Quellung Reaction
9. Collection and transport of specimens for cholera
10. Lymphogranuloma venereum
11. Toxin mediated staphylococcus infections
12. Q fever
13. Toxic shock syndrome
14. Lab diagnosis of cholera
15. H. pylori
16. Naegler reaction
17. Lab diagnosis of gonorrhoea
18. Listeria monocytogenes
19. Atypical mycobacteria
20. Weil’s Disease
21. Pertussis
22. Treponema Test
23. Traveller’s diarrhoea
24. Legionella pneumophilia
25. Gas gangrene
26. Leptospirosis
27. Lab diagnosis of leptospirosis
27. Group B streptococci
28. BCG vaccine
29. Non-suppurative complications of ​S. pyogenes
30. Stalactite growth and satellitism
31. Lab diagnosis and prophylaxis of whooping cough
32. Serological diagnosis of brucellosis
33. Lyme disease
34. Weil–Felix Test (rickettsia)
35. TRIC agents
36. UTI
37. Typhoid carriers
38. Coagulase test
39. Anthrax
40. M. leprae
41. C. difficle
42. Coxiella burnettii
43. Relapsing fever
44. Haemophilus ducreyi
45. DPT vaccine
46. Faecal concentration methods
47. Diarrhoea
48. TRIC agents
49. Antibiotics that inhibit nucleic acid synthesis
50. Wool-sorter’s disease
51. Malignant pustule
52. Typhoid carriers
53. Bacterial vaginosis 
Microbiology Paper 2 
 
VIROLOGY 
 
Essays 
1. Enumerate the various viruses causing hepatitis. HBV - aetiology, pathogenesis, 
lab diagnosis and prophylaxis
2. Enumerate rhabdoviruses. Rabies - pathogenesis, lab diagnosis, prophylaxis and 
prevention
3. HIV - morphology, pathogenesis, lab diagnosis and prevention
4. Classify herpes viruses. Describe infections by herpes simplex viruses. Outline 
lab diagnosis
5. Enumerate the picornaviruses of medical importance. Discuss pathogenesis, lab 
diagnosis and prophylaxis of polio
 
Short Notes 
1. Cytomegalovirus
2. Tissue culture
3. Inclusion bodies
4. Viral gastroenteritis
5. Dengue
6. Interferons
7. Herpes simplex virus
8. Polio vaccine
9. Antigenic drift and shift
10. Molluscum contagiosum
11. Epstein-Barr virus
12. Anti–rabies virus antibodies
13. MMR virus
14. Egg inoculation in viral diagnosis
15. Hepatitis B markers
16. Prions
17. Japanese encephalitis
18. Rots virus
19. Infectious mononucleosis
20. Serological diagnosis of HIV
21. Cultivation of viruses
22. Slow virus diseases
23. Hepatitis C
24. Viral haemorrhagic fever
25. Mumps
26. Measles
27. Rubella
28. Coronavirus
29. Rotavirus
30. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)
31. Influenza virus
 
 
PARASITOLOGY 
 
Essays 
1. Falciparum malaria - pathogenesis, complicatios and lab diagnosis. Outline the 
life cycle of ​Plasmodium falciparum
2. Wuchereria bancrofti​ - outline the life cycle. Describe the pathogenesis, 
clinical features and lab diagnosis of filariasis
3. Classify Nematodes. ​Ascaris lumbricoides​ - life cycle, pathogenesis, lab 
diagnosis, prevention
4. Enumerate pathogenic and non-pathogenic amoebae. Amoebiasis - 
pathogenesis and lab diagnosis. Life cycle of ​Entamoeba histolytica
5. Enumerate cestodes. Describe life cycle of ​Taenia solium​. Discuss the clinical 
features and lab diagnosis of ​T. solium​ infection
6. Enumerate species of malarial parasite. Describe the human cycle of ​P. 
falciparum
7. Classify cestodes. Outline formation of hydatid cyst. Describe clinical features 
and lab diagnosis of hydatid disease
8. Outline the life cycle of ​Dracunculus medinensis​. Describe the pathogenesis, 
lab diagnosis and prophylaxis
9. Life Cycle of ​Ankylostoma duodenale.​ Clinical features and lab diagnosis
10. Echinococcus granulosus​ - life cycle, pathogenesis, lab diagnosis
 
Short Notes 
1. Giardia intestinalis
2. Cutaneous larva migrans
3. Lab diagnosis of filariasis
4. Toxoplasma gondii
5. Extraintestinal amoebiasis
6. Trichuris trichiura
7. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis
8. Pathogenic free-living amoeba
9. Cysticercus cellulosae
10. Schistosoma haematobium
11. Trichomonas vaginalis
12. Blackwater fever
13. Enterobius vermicularis
14. Microfilariae
16. Lab diagnosis of malaria
17. Pneumocystis carnii
18. Life cycle of ​Ankylostoma duodenale
20. Hydatid cyst
21. Cryptosporidium parvum
21. Human cycle of ​P. vivax
22. LD bodies
23. Occult filariasis
24. Paragonimiasis
25. Cultivation of protozoan parasites
26. Chagas’ Disease
27. Lab diagnosis of amoebiasis
28. Hymenolepis nana
29. Trichinella spiralis
30. NNN medium
31. Clonorchiasis
32. Enterobiasis
33. Egg counting techniques
 
MYCOLOGY 
 
Essays 
 
1. Opportunistic fungal infections – enumerate. Describe candidiasis
2. Superficial mycotic infections. Details on dermatophytes.
3. Classify fungi and describe dermatophytes
 
Short Notes 
1. Cryptococcal meningitis
2. Oculomycosis
3. Lab diagnosis of fungal infections
4. Mycetoma
5. Reynolds–Braude phenomenon
6. Aspergillosis
7. Mycotoxins
8. Candidiasis
9. Cryptococcus neoformans
10. Dermatophytes
11. Histoplasma capsulatum
12. Rhinosporidium seeberi
13. Superficial mycoticiInfections
16. Opportunistic Infections
17. Classification based on morphology
18. Eijkman’s test
19. Pityriasis versicolor
 
APPLIED MICOBIOLOGY 
 
Short Notes 
1. Concentration methods for examination of Stools
2. Lab diagnosis of Gonorrhoea
3. BCG vaccine
4. Nosocomial infections
5. Urine culture
Pharmacology Paper 1 
 
GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY 
 
Essays 
1. Routes of dry administration – 6 
2. Pharmacokinetics, Absorption – 11 
3. Pharmacodynamics, types of receptors, signal transduction of receptors 
4. Biotransformation – 20 
5. Factors influencing drug action – 52 
6. Excretion of drugs, kinetics of elimination 
 
Short Notes 
1. Transdermal therapeutic systems – 8 
2. Parenteral – 9 
3. Sublingual preparation 
4. Passive diffusion – 12 
5. Bioavailability and bioequivalence – 15 
6. Distribution – 16 
7. Plasma protein binding – 18 
8. Inhibition of drug metabolism – 23 
9. First pass metabolism – 24 
10. Routes of drug excretion 
11. Renal excretion – 26 
12. Kinetics of elimination 
13. Plasma half-life – 28 
14. Loading dose, maintenance dose 
15. Prolongation of drug action – 31 
16. Transducer mechanism – 39 
17. Drug potency and efficiency 47 
18. Genetics 54 
19. Idiosyncrasy 62 
20. Teratogenicity 65 
21. Mechanisms of drug action 33 
22. Inhibition 34 
23. Through receptors 35 
24. Synergism 49 
25. Age 53 
26. Poisoning 62 
27. Advantages and disadvantages of oral and parenteral routes 
28. Newer and targeted drug delivery systems 
29. Factors influencing drug absorption 
30. Factors influencing drug distribution 
31. Redistribution 
32. Enzyme inducers and inhibitors 
33. Receptor regulation 
34. Nuclear receptors 
35. Enzyme-linked receptors 
36. G-protein-coupled receptors 
37. Signal transduction mechanisms 
38. Dose response curve 
39. Combined effect of drugs 
40. Therapeutic index 
41. Drug potency and drug efficacy 
42. Placebo  
43. Drug dependence with examples 
44. Drug tolerance with examples 
45. Pharmacovigilance 
46. Drug allergy 
 
ANS 
 
Essays 
1. Cholinergic drugs 79 
2. Anticholinesterase 81 
3. Glaucoma 85 
4. Anticholinergic drugs 93 
5. Adrenergic drugs and classification 106, 112 
6. α​-adrenergic blockers 119 
7. β​-adrenergic blockers 124 
 
Short Notes 
1. Table 6.3 78 
2. Table 6.4 79 
3. Cholinomimetic alkaloids 81 
4. Table 6.6 84 
5. Open angle glaucoma 85 
6. Timolol 86 
7. Angle closure glaucoma 89 
8. Myasthenia gravis 89 
9. Overtreatment with anticholinesterase 90 
10. Anticholinesterase poisoning 91 
11. Atropine substitutes 96 
12. Mydriatics 98 
13. Table 8.4 109 
14. Dopamine 112 
15. Phenyephrine 113 
16. Nasal decongestants 114 
17. Labetald 131 
 
AUTACOIDS 
 
Essay 
1. NSAIDs 167 
 
Short Notes 
1. Actions of histamine 136 
2. H​1​ antagonists 139 
3. II generation antihistamines 114 
4. Uses and adverse effects of H​1​ antagonists 
5. Compare advantages and disadvantages of 1​st​ gen vs 2​nd​ gen antihistamines 
6. 5-HT antagonists 149 
7. Drug therapy of migraine (Lippincott 151) 
8. Uses and adverse effects of sumatriptan 
9. Uses and adverse effects of prostaglandin analogues 
10. Uses and adverse effects of leukotriene antagonists 
11. MOA of NSAIDs 
12. Uses and adverse effects of NSAIDs 
13. Merits vs demerits of traditional NSAIDs 
14. Platelet activating factor 165 
15. Ibuprofen 177 
16. Nimesulide 179 
17. Diclofenac Sodium 178 
18. Ketorolac 178 
19. Paracetamol 181 
20. Disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs 185 
21. Drugs for gout 188 
22. Uricosuric agents 
23. Sulfinpyrazone 190 
24. Xanthine oxide inhibitors (allopurinol, etc.) 191 
 
IMMUNITY 
 
Essays 
1. Immunosuppressants  
2. Corticosteroids 
 
Short Notes 
1. MOA of corticosteroids 
2. Calcineurin inhibitors 
3. Mycophenolate mofetil 
4. Uses of immunosuppressants 
 
PNS 
 
Essays 
1. Peripherally acting muscle relaxants 309 
2. Local anaesthetics 320 
 
Short Notes 
1. Pancuronium 314 
2. Doxacurium 314 
3. Pipecurionium 314 
4. Dantrolene 316 
5. Centrally acting muscle relaxants 317 
6. Bupirocaine 326 
 
 
 
 
CNS 
 
Essays 
1. General anaesthetics 338 
2. Sedative hypnotics 357 
3. Antiepileptics 369 
4. Antiparkinsonians 381 
5. Antipsychotics 391 
6. Antidepressants 405 
 
Short Notes 
1. Stages of anaesthesia 334 
2. MAC 333 
3. 2​nd​ gas effect & diffusion hypoxia 337 
4. Nitrous oxide 339 
5. Aether 339 
6. Halothane 339 
7. Thiopentone sodium/Inducing agents 342 
8. Ketamine 344 
9. Complications of general anaesthetics 345 
10. Pre-anaesthetic medication 345 
11. Ethyl alcohol 
12. Disulfiram 353 
13. Treatment of methanol 354 
14. Acute barbiturate poisoning 360 
15. Flumezenil 
16. Phenobarbitone 370 
17. Phenytoin 371 
18. Carbemazepine 373 
19. Ethosuximide 374 
20. Valproate 375 
21. Hallucinogens 403 
22. SSRIs 411 
23. Mood stabilizing 414 
24. Morphine 420 
25. Codeine 424 
26. Pethidine 424 
27. Naloxone 432 
28. Peripheral decarboxylase inhibitors 
 
CVS 
 
Essays 
1. Cardiac glycosides 457 
2. Antiarrhythmic drugs 472 
3. Nitrates 488 
4. Antihypertensive drugs 503 
5. Angiotensins & ACE inhibitors 
 
 
Short Notes 
1. ACE inhibitors/captopril 449 
2. Uses and adverse effects of ACE inhibitors 
3. MOA and pharmacological actions of ACE inhibitors 
4. Uses and MOA of angiotensin receptor blockers 
5. Losartan 453 
6. Treatment of CHF 467 
7. Class III 481 
8. Class IV 482 
9. Central sympathetolytics 509 
10. Nitroglycerin 
11. Atenolol 
 
RENAL 
 
Essays 
1. Diuretic 525 
 
Short Notes 
1. Spironolactone 
2. Desmopressin 
 
BLOOD AND BLOOD FORMATION 
 
Essays 
1. Antiplatelet drugs 
 
Short Notes 
1. Oral preparation of iron 
2. Acute iron poisoning 550 
3. Vitamin B12/cobalamin 551 
4. Vitamin B9/folate 554 
5. Vitamin K 558 
6. Thrombolytics 569 
7. Plasma expanders 583 
8. Drug therapy of shock 
9. Adrenaline in shock  
10. Properties and uses of plasma expanders  
11. Heparin 561 
12. LMW heparins 
13. Oral anticoagulants 
14. Iron preparations 
15. Drug therapy of iron deficiency anaemia 
16. Uses and adverse effects of erythropoietin 
17. Mechanism of action of anticoagulants 
18. Uses of fibrinolytics with names  
19. MOA, uses and ADRs of antiplatelet drugs 
20. Merits vs demerits of unfractioned and LMW heparins 
21. Nitric oxide 
22. Vitamin E/α-tocopherol   
Pharmacology Paper 2 
 
RS 
 
Essays 
1. Drugs for bronchial asthma 
 
Short Notes 
1. Drugs for cough 
2. Methylxanthines 201 
3. Leukotriene antagonists 205 
4. Mast cell stabilisers 
 
HORMONES 
 
Essays 
1. Thyroid inhibitors 230 
2. Insulin 236 
3. Oral hypoglycaemic drugs 245 
4. Corticosteroids 254 
5. Calcium 297 
 
Short Notes 
1. Growth hormone 215 
2. Somatostatin 217 
3. Bromocriptine 218 
4. Anti-thyroid drugs 230 
5. Iodine and iodides 232 
6. Radioactive iodine 233 
7. Diabetic ketoacidosis 243 
8. Sulfonylureas 246 
9. Biguanides 248 
10. Prednisolone 261 
11. Dexamethasone 261 
12. Aldosterone 261 
13. Anabolic steroids 270 
14. Finesteride 272 
15. Oestrogens 272 
16. Selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) 278 
17. Progestin 280 
18. Anti-progestin 283 
19. Female contraception 285 
20. Oxytocin 292 
21. Tocolytics 295 
22. Calcitonin 301 
23. Bisphosphonates 304 
 
 
 
 
GIT 
 
Essays 
1. Peptic Ulcer 587 
 
Short Notes 
1. Proton pump inhibitors 591 
2. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome 592 
3. Prostaglandin analogues 593 
4. Anti-​H. Pylori​ drugs 597 
5. Neuroleptics 602 
6. Prokinetics/cisapride 602 
7. Treatment of diarrhoea 
8. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease 605 
9. Ondansetron 606 
10. Gallstone dissolving agents 608 
11. Laxatives 
 
ANTIMICROBIALS 
 
Essays 
1. Classification of antimicrobials 628 
2. Penicillins 653 
3. Tetracyclines 668 
4. Aminoglycosides 678 
5. Anti-TB drugs 698 
6. Anti-leprotic drugs 709 
7. Antimalarial drugs 736 
 
Short Notes 
1. Superinfection 
2. Combined use of antimicrobials 636 
3. Sulphonamide 641 
4. Cotrimoxazole 644 
5. Fluoroquinolones 647 
6. Ciprofloxacin 648 
7. Ampicillin 659 
8. Amoxicillin 660 
9. Pencillamine 814 
10. D​-penicillamine 
11. Clavulanic acid 661 
12. Cephalosporins 662 
13. Cephotaxime 664 
14. Cephtazidine 665 
15. Chloramphenicol 673 
16. Streptomycin 681 
17. Gentamycin 682 
18. Neomycin 684 
19. Macrolide 686 
20. Clarithromycin 689 
21. Azithromycin 689 
22. Vancomycin 691 
23. Treatment of UTI 
24. Amphotericin B 715 
25. Ketoconazole 721 
26. Acyclovir 726 
27. Zidovudine 728 
28. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) 730 
29. Interferon 733 
30. Metronidazole 750 
31. Chloroquine 753 
32. Artemisinins  
33. Diloxanide furoate 753 
34. Mebendazole 759 
35. Albendazole 761 
36. Ivermectin 
37. Radical cure of malaria 
38. Drug therapy for chloroquine-resistance malaria 
39. Chemoprophylaxis of malaria 
40. Drugs for neurocysticercosis 
 
CHEMOTHERAPY 
 
Essays 
1. Methotrexate 772 
2. Cisplatin 777 
3. Toxicity amelioration 780 
 
MISC. DRUGS 
 
Short Notes 
1. Cyclosporine 785 
2. Drugs for psoriasis 798 
3. Retinoic acid 800 
4. Dimercaprol 812 
5. EDTA 813 
6. Desferroxime 814 
7. Neuroleptoanalgesics 
8. Treatment of oedema 
9. HMG CoA reductase inhibitors 
10. Disodium chromoglycolate 
11. Tramadol 
12. Heparin vs warfarin 
13. N​2​O vs halothane 
14. High-ceiling diuretic 
15. Prazosin 
16. Mannitol 
17. Amphetamines 
18. Clopidogrel 
19. Dicyclomine 
20. Alteplase 
21. Retinoids in dermatopharmacology 
22. Gene therapy 
23. Pharmacogenetics 
24. Sparfloxacin 
25. Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) 
26. Anti-D immunoglobulin 
27. Benzoyl peroxide 
28. Mucolytics 
29. Sunscreens 
30. Fenistride 
31. Directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) 
32. Peptic ulcer treatment (with or without ​H. pylori​) 
33. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) 
34. III generation cephalosporins 
35. Acne vulgaris