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Dynamics

Kinematics

Geometry of motion Position, Velocity, Acceleration

1-D, Chapter 2 2-D, Chapter 3

Special applications

Constant acceleration Projectile motion

Kinetics

Relation between forces and motion F=ma

Module 2
Chapters 4-6
Energy methods &
impulse-momentum
Module 3
Chapters 7-9

Rectilinear Motion

Motion along a line Need three things:

1. Zero

2. Positive direction

3. Units

This is our coordinate system. Motion variables are vectors since they have magnitude and direction.

Velocity
Δ
s
s
s
2
1
v
=
=
Average velocity
avg
Δ
t
t
− t
2
1
Δ
ds
v
lim s = =& s
Instantaneous velocity
= Δ→ 0
t
Δ
t
dt
Work backwards
Δs = vdt
Slope of position graph = velocity
Area under velocity graph = change in position

Acceleration

Δ
v
v
v
2
1
a
=
=
Average acceleration
avg
Δ
t
t
− t
2
1
Δ
v
dv
a
lim
= =&=&&
v
s
Instantaneous acceleration
= Δ→ 0
t
Δ
t
dt
Work backwards
Slope of velocity graph = acceleration
Area under acceleration graph = change in velocity

Example 1

s(t )= 6 t 2 t 3

where, t is in seconds s is in feet

Qualitatively plot v-t and a-t graphs.

Physically

describe the

motion.

Example 1

s t =−t + 6t

()

3

2

v (t )

2

=− +

3t

12t

a (t ) = −6t + 12

At t = 6sec, where is the particle?

How far has the particle traveled in 6 seconds?

s(t )

v (t )= ds dt

a(t )= dv

t

d

s(t )= s 0 +
∫ t
v
(t )
dt
0
v (t )= v 0 +
∫ t
a
(t )
dt
0
a(t )
Differentiate
Integrate

Example 2

a(t ) = 12 t 2 v 0 = 200 s 0 = −500

where, t is in seconds s is in m

Qualitatively plot v-t and s-t graphs.

Physically

describe the

motion.

Example 2

s(t )= t 4 + 200 t 500 v (t )= 4 t 3 + 200 a(t ) = 12 t 2

At t = 6sec, where is the particle?

How far has the particle traveled in 6 seconds?

Example 3

v (t )= 4 t s 0 = −10

where, t is in seconds s is in feet

Qualitatively plot a-t and s-t graphs.

Physically

describe the

motion.

Example 3

 s () t = 2 t 2 v () t = 4 t a () t = 4

10

At t = 6sec, where is the particle?

How far has the particle traveled in 6 seconds?