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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek • Sanghi

Pure Bending
-Part A

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek • Sanghi

Contents
Pure Bending
Other Loading Types
Symmetric Member in Pure Bending
Bending Deformations
Strain Due to Bending
Beam Section Properties
Properties of American Standard Shapes
Deformations in a Transverse Cross Section
Sample Problem 1

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek • Sanghi

Pure Bending
Pure Bending:
Prismatic members
subjected to equal
and opposite
couples acting in
the same
longitudinal plane

Fig. 3.2 (a) Free-body diagram of


the barbell pictured in the chapter
opening photo and (b) Free-body
diagram of the center bar portion
showing pure bending.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek • Sanghi

Other Loading Types

• Eccentric Loading: Axial loading which


does not pass through section centroid
Fig. 3.3 (a) produces internal forces equivalent to an
Free-body
diagram of a axial force and a couple
clamp, (b) free-
body diagram of
the upper
portion of the
• Transverse Loading: Concentrated or
clamp. distributed transverse load produces
internal forces equivalent to a shear
force and a couple

Fig. 3.4 (a)


Cantilevered
• Principle of Superposition: The normal
beam with end stress due to pure bending may be
loading. (b) As
portion AC combined with the normal stress due to
shows, beam is
not in pure
axial loading and shear stress due to
bending. shear loading to find the complete state
of stress.
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek • Sanghi
Symmetric Member in Pure Bending
• Internal forces in any cross section are equivalent
to a couple. The moment of the couple is the
section bending moment.
• From statics, a couple M consists of two equal
and opposite forces.

Fig. 3.5 (a) A member in a state of


• The sum of the components of the forces in any
pure bending. (b) Any intermediate direction is zero.
portion of AB will also be in pure
bending. • The moment is the same about any axis
perpendicular to the plane of the couple and
zero about any axis contained in the plane.
• These requirements may be applied to the sums
of the components and moments of the statically
indeterminate elementary internal forces.
Fx = ∫ σ x dA = 0
M y = ∫ zσ x dA = 0
Fig. 3.6 Summation of the infinitesimal
stress elements must produce the M z = ∫ − yσ x dA = M
equivalent pure-bending moment.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek • Sanghi

Bending Deformations
Beam with a plane of symmetry in pure
bending:
• member remains symmetric
• bends uniformly to form a circular arc
• cross-sectional plane passes through arc center
and remains planar
• length of top decreases and length of bottom
increases
• a neutral surface must exist that is parallel to the
upper and lower surfaces and for which the length
does not change

Fig. 3.9 Member subject to pure


• stresses and strains are negative (compressive)
bending shown in two views. (a) above the neutral plane and positive (tension)
Longitudinal, vertical view (plane of
symmetry) and (b) Longitudinal, below it
horizontal view.
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek • Sanghi

Strain Due to Bending


Consider a beam segment of length L.
After deformation, the length of the neutral
surface remains L. At other sections,
L′ = (ρ − y )θ
δ = L′ − L = (ρ − y )θ − ρθ = − yθ
δ yθ y
εx = =− =− (strain varies linearly)
L ρθ ρ
c c
εm = or ρ=
ρ εm
y
εx = − εm
c
Fig. 3.10 Kinematic definitions for
pure bending. (a) Longitudinal-
vertical view and (b) Transverse
section at origin.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek • Sanghi

Stress Due to Bending


• For a linearly elastic and
homogeneous material,
y
σ x = Eε x = − Eε m
c
y
= − σ m (stress varies linearly)
c Fig. 3.11 Bending stresses vary linearly
with distance from the neutral axis.
• For static equilibrium,
y • For static equilibrium,
Fx = 0 = ∫ σ x dA = ∫ − σ m dA
c  y 
M = ∫ (− yσ x dA) = ∫ (− y ) − σ m  dA
σ  c 
0 = − m ∫ y dA
c σ σ I
M = m ∫ y 2 dA = m
c c
First moment with respect to neutral Mc M
axis is zero. Therefore, the neutral σm = =
I S
axis must pass through the section y
Substituting σ x = − σ m
centroid. c
My
σx = −
I
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek • Sanghi

Beam Section Properties


• The maximum normal stress due to bending,
Mc M
σm = =
I S
I = section moment of inertia
I
S = = section modulus
c
A beam section with a larger section modulus
will have a lower maximum stress
Fig. 3.12 Wood beam cross sections.
• Consider a rectangular beam cross section,
1 3
I 12 bh
S= = = 16 bh3 = 16 Ah
c h2

Between two beams with the same cross


sectional area, the beam with the larger depth
h will be more effective in resisting bending.
Fig. 3.13 Two type of steel beam • Structural steel beams are designed to have a
cross sections. (a) S-beam and (b)
W-beam large section modulus.
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek • Sanghi
Properties of American Standard Shapes

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek • Sanghi
Deformations in a Transverse Cross Section
• Deformation due to bending moment M is
quantified by the curvature of the neutral surface
1 ε σ 1 Mc
= m = m =
ρ c Ec Ec I
M
=
EI

• Although transverse cross sectional planes remain


planar when subjected to bending moments, in-
plane deformations are nonzero,
νy νy
ε y = −νε x = ε z = −νε x =
ρ ρ

• Expansion above the neutral surface and


contraction below it cause an in-plane curvature,
1 ν
= = anticlastic curvature
Fig. 3.16 Deformation of a

ρ ρ
transverse cross section.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek • Sanghi

Sample Problem 4.2


SOLUTION:
• Based on the cross section geometry,
calculate the location of the section
centroid and moment of inertia.
Y =
∑ yA
∑A
(
I x′ = ∑ I + A d 2 )
• Apply the elastic flexural formula to
find the maximum tensile and
compressive stresses.
Mc
σm =
I
A cast-iron machine part is acted upon
by a 3 kN-m couple. Knowing E = 165 • Calculate the curvature
GPa and neglecting the effects of 1 M
=
fillets, determine (a) the maximum ρ EI
tensile and compressive stresses, (b)
the radius of curvature.
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek • Sanghi

Sample Problem 1
SOLUTION:
Based on the cross section geometry, calculate
the location of the section centroid and
moment of inertia.
Area, mm 2 y , mm yA, mm3
1 20 × 90 = 1800 50 90 × 103
2 40 × 30 = 1200 20 24 × 103
Fig. 1 Composite areas for 3
calculating centroid. ∑ A = 3000 ∑ yA = 114 × 10

3
∑ yA 114 × 10
Y = = = 38 mm
∑A 3000

( ) (121 bh3 + A d 2 )
I x′ = ∑ I + A d 2 = ∑

Fig. 2 Composite sections for


= (12
1 90 × 203 + 1800 × 12 2 ) + ( 1 30 × 403 + 1200 × 182 )
12
calculating moment of inertia.
I = 868 × 103 mm 4 = 868 × 10-9 m 4

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek • Sanghi

Sample Problem 1
• Apply the elastic flexural formula to find the
maximum tensile and compressive stresses.
Mc
σm =
I
M c A 3 kN ⋅ m × 0.022 m σ A = +76.0 MPa
σA = = −
I 868 × 10 m 9 4

M cB 3 kN ⋅ m × 0.038 m σ = −131.3 MPa


σB = − =− −
B
I 868 × 10 m 9 4

Fig. 3 Deformed radius of curvature


• Calculate the curvature
is measured to the centroid of the 1 M
cross sections. =
ρ EI
3 kN ⋅ m 1
= 20.95 × 10−3 m -1
(165 GPa )(868 ×10-9 m 4 )
=
ρ
ρ = 47.7 m

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek • Sanghi

Sample Problem 2
Knowing that a beam of the cross section shown is bent about a horizontal axis and
that the bending moment is 6 kN.m, determine the total force acting on the shaded
portion of the web
Moment of Inertia of rectangle 1 respect to the axis
that passes through its centroid:

2
Moment of inertia of rectangle 1 respect to the x x
axis:

𝐼𝐼 = 𝐼𝐼𝐶𝐶 + 𝐴𝐴𝑑𝑑 2

Moment of Inertia of rectangle 2 respect to the axis


that passes through its centroid:

Total moment of Inertia respect to x axis:

Moment of inertia of rectangle 2 respect to the x


axis:

𝐼𝐼 = 𝐼𝐼𝐶𝐶 + 𝐴𝐴𝑑𝑑 2

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Normal stress at any distance y from the


neutral axis:

1
3
Normal force at any element dA at any distance y from
the neutral axis: x

then

Total force on the section:

Total force on the rectangle 1:

Total force on the rectangle 3:

Total force on the shaded area above the axis x:

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek • Sanghi

Sample Problem 3
Knowing that for the extruded beam shown the allowable stress is 80 MPa in tension
and 110 MPa in compression, determine the largest couple M that can be applied.

Centroid of the extruded beam respect to the axis x


is calculated using following formula:

3 1
x
The area of rectangle No 1:
2

Distance of the centroid of rectangle 1 from axis x is:

The area of rectangle No 2:


Distance of the centroid of rectangle 3 from axis x is:

Distance of the centroid of rectangle 2 from axis x is:

The area of rectangle No 3:

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek • Sanghi

Sample Problem 3
Total area of the extruded beam:

The first moment of inertia is:

The centroid of the extruded beam is

Moment of inertia of the rectangle 1 respect to its


neutral axis:

Moment of inertia of rectangle 1 respect to the axis that passes of the centroid of the extruded beam (neutral axis):
𝐼𝐼 = 𝐼𝐼𝐶𝐶 + 𝐴𝐴𝑑𝑑 2

Moment of inertia of rectangle 2 is calculated respect to the axis x same as the rectangle 1, then:

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek • Sanghi

Sample Problem 3
Moment of inertia of the rectangle 3 respect to its
neutral axis:

Moment of inertia of rectangle 3 respect to the axis that passes of the centroid of the extruded beam
(neutral axis): x
𝐼𝐼 = 𝐼𝐼𝐶𝐶 + 𝐴𝐴𝑑𝑑 2

Total moment of inertia of the extruded beam respect to its neutral axis:

Normal stress at any distance y from the neutral axis:

Then, the moment is calculated using the following formula:

Maximum moment at the top of the beam because of maximum compressive normal stress at the top of the extruded beam:

Maximum moment at the bottom of the beam because of maximum tensile normal stress at the bottom of the extruded beam:

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek • Sanghi

Sample Problem 4
Knowing that for the extruded beam shown the allowable stress is 120 MPa in tension and
150 MPa in compression, determine the largest couple M that can be applied

Centroid of the extruded beam respect to the axis x


is calculated using following formula:
1 2 3
x

The Area of triangle 1 is

The Area of triangle 3 is


The distance of the centroid of the triangle 1
from axis x is:
The distance of the centroid of the triangle 3 from axis x is:

The Area of rectangle 2 is


Total area is:

The distance of the centroid of the rectangle 2 Then, centroid of the extruded beam is:
from axis x is:

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek • Sanghi

Sample Problem 4
Moment of inertia of triangle 1 respect to the axis that
passes it centroid:

Moment of inertia of triangle 1 respect to the neutral axis of the extruded beam:

𝐼𝐼 = 𝐼𝐼𝐶𝐶 + 𝐴𝐴𝑑𝑑 2

The moment of inertia of the triangle 3 respect to the neutral axis of the extruded beam is
calculated same as the moment of inertia of triangle 1, then:

Moment of inertia of rectangle 2 respect to the axis


that passes its centroid:

Moment of inertia of rectangle 2 respect to the neutral axis of the extruded beam:

Total moment of inertia is:

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Sample Problem 4

Normal stress at any distance y from the neutral axis:

Then, the moment is calculated using the following formula:


x

Maximum moment at the top of the beam because of maximum tensile normal stress
at the top of the extruded beam:

Maximum moment at the bottom of the beam because of maximum compressive normal
stress at the bottom of the extruded beam:

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek • Sanghi

Group assignment
A portion of a square bar is removed by milling, so that its cross section is as shown. The bar then bent
about its horizontal axis by a couple M. Considering the case where h=0.9ℎ0, express the maximum
stress in the bar in the form 𝜎𝜎𝑚𝑚 = 𝑘𝑘𝜎𝜎0 where 𝜎𝜎0 is the maximum stress that would have occurred if the
original square bar had been bent by the same couple M, and determine the value of 𝑘𝑘

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