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Bharat Earth Movers Limited, Mysuru 2018-2019

CHAPTER 1
COMPANY PROFILE

BEML Limited (formerly Bharat Earth Movers Limited) is public sector undertaking
under ministry of defence (Government of India) with headquarters in Bangalore. BEML’s
products meet the requirement sectors of economy viz. urban transportation, construction and
mining, defence equipment etc.

BEML was incorporated in 11th May 1964 and commenced its operations on 1st January
1965 as the wholly owned company of Government of India under the administrative control
Ministry of Defence. After an initial divestment of 25% in 1992,the company’s holding
progressively reduced and at present stands at 54%.BEML is now Asia’s second largest
manufacturer of earth moving equipment and also a major supplier of state-of-the-art stainless
steel metro cars to cities like Delhi and Bangalore and is ready to take further plunge in this
market.

BEML Limited, a ‘Miniratna – Category-1’ company, plays pivotal role and serves
India’s core sectors like Defence, Rail, Power, Mining and Infrastructure. The company started
with a modest turnover of Rs.5 crore during 1965 and today, thanks to its diverse business
portfolio, the company has been able to achieve a turn over more than Rs.3000 Cr. during the
financial year 2012-13.

BEML’S VISION
To become a market leader, as a diversified company supplying products and services
to Mining and Construction, Railway and Metro and Defence Services and emerge as an
international player.

BEML’S MISSION
 Improve competitiveness through organizational transformation and collaboration/
strategic alliances / joint ventures in technology.
 Grow profitably by pursuing opportunities in national and international markets.

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 Attract and build people in a rewarding and inspiring environment by fostering


creativity and innovation.
OBJECTIVES
 To maintain a dominant position in design, development, manufacture and marketing
of Defence, Earthmoving and Construction and Rail and Metro equipment.
 To diversify and grow.
 To provide total engineering solutions to its customers.
 To internationalize operations by enhancing exports.
 To improve profitability.
 To maintain State-of-the-Art technology for all products.
 Re-orientation of the business operations to match present scenario.
 Continuous building of skills and competencies to bring about Executive Effectiveness
for management successions.

COMMITMENT TO QUALITY
BEML Limited views Quality improvement as a business strategy and hence remains
proactive in the areas of product and service quality. At BEML, a Corporate Quality Policy
emphasizing Total Quality Management ensures that quality system adopted results in
products, services and processes that meet stringent standards and requisite performance
criteria.
All the manufacturing units of the company have been certified for ISO 9001-2008
Quality Management System (QMS).The KGF complex, Bangalore complex and Mysore
complex are certified for ISO 14001-2004 Environmental Management System (EMS).Also,
the Mysore complex is certified for AS9100B Aerospace certification

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CHAPTER 2
ABOUT THE COMPANY

2.1 INTRODUCTION
BEML is one of the few companies capable of designing, manufacturing heavy load
trucks and different series of diesel engine for mining and defence purpose.
BEML manufacturing facilities are located in five plants and are equipped with advanced,
high precision CNC (computerized numerical control) machining centers. The manufacturing
unit is supported by the R&D (resource and development) division that leads the BEML
development program.
Manufacturing capability is further strengthened with the adoption of the world class
manufacturing systems and also an EDP (electronic data processing). The delivery of better
quality products with reduced time-to-market has positively impacted customer satisfaction
levels.
BEML nationwide network of sales offices enables buyers with ready access to its
wide range of products .Also, the full-fledged service centers and parts depots offer total
equipment care, maintenance contracts and rehabilitation services.

The company has manufacturing units spread over the following locations:

1. Kolar Gold Fields (KGF) Complex


 Earth Moving Division.
 Rail Coach Unit II.
 Heavy Fabrication Unit.
 Hydraulic and Power line Division.
2. Mysore Complex
 Truck Division/Equipment division.
 Engine Division.
 Aerospace Division
3. Bangalore Complex
 Rail & Metro Division

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4. Palakkad Complex and Vignyan


 Industries, a subsidiary located at Tarikere (around 300 km from Bangalore) - Steel
Castings.
BEML operates on three major business verticals for associated equipment manufacturing:
 Mining and construction
 Defence
 Rail and Metro

MINING & CONSTRUCTION BUSINESS

BEML Limited offers a comprehensive and diverse range of mining machinery for
both opencast and underground mines. BEML products in this domain are:
Electric Rope Shovels, Hydraulic Excavators, Bulldozers, Wheel Loaders, Wheel
Dozers, Dump Trucks, Motor Graders, Pipe Layers, Tyre Handlers, Water Sprinklers and
Backhoe Loaders.
DEFENCE BUSINESS
Being India’s leading Defence equipment manufacturer, BEML Limited keeps the
Indian Army and other defence forces abreast with state-of-the-art military equipment. The
company manufactures variants of heavy duty Tatra vehicles for all terrain operations
including Bridge Layer, Field Artillery Tractor, Medium and Heavy Recovery Vehicle,
Pontoon Mainstream Bridge Systems, Crash Fire Tenders, Mobile Mast Vehicle etc. BEML
also supplies engineering Mine Ploughs, Tank Transportation Trailers, Weapon Loading
equipment, Armored Recovery Vehicle, Milrail Coaches and Wagons apart from Aircraft
Weapon Loading Trolley and Aircraft Towing Tractor.

RAIL AND METRO BUSINESS

BEML is expanding its infrastructure to meet the greater needs of metro projects
coming up in the country. Also, BEML supplies equipment to Indian Railways which include
Integral Rail Coaches, Overhead Electric Inspection Cars(catenary cars),Postal Vans, AC/DC
Electric multiple units, Diesel EMUs, Utility Track Vehicles, Track Laying Equipment,
Broad-Gauge Rail bus, Treasury Vans, Spoil disposal Units etc.

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CHAPTER 3

TASK PERFORMED
3.1 TASK ASSIGNED
To study about the activity of the whole manufacturing unit by visiting the following divisions in
BEML mysuru.

 EQUIPMENT/TRUCK DIVISION
 Products they manufacture. (In particular electronic dump truck, BH205-E).
 CNC (Computer numerical control) machines in plate shop.
 Main Receiving Station.
 ENGINE DIVISION
 Electronic data processing (EDP).
 Network layers and components used in different layers.

BEML also gave an exposure to learn about the working of organization by allowing us to visit
the following units,

 Marketing
 Research and development unit
 Planning
 Purchase unit
 Progress
 Stores
 shipping

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3.2 WORKING OF ORGANIZATION

Order from customer

Marketing

Product design

Planning

Purchase

Progress

Inspection

Production or
Manufacturing

Finished goods

Inspection

Shipping or
Delivery

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3.2.1 FLOW OF COMPANY ACTIVITY

MARKETING

Mainly marketing division covers three major shops


 Equipment sales
 Service
 Spare parts
Spare parts division has almost 700 crore of business all over India. Around 3000 spare parts will
be kept in stores and is distributed based on customer needs. If parts are under warranty then it is
replaced to customer for free of cost or else done on chargeable basis. Also once spare parts are
delivered to customers it is informed to particular manufacturing shop of that part requesting to
put back the parts in the stores.
PRODUCT DESIGN / RESEARCH AND DEVELOPEMNT
There are two major areas R&D and Product design. This is initial step of designing and
building component. Software for designing 2D drawing auto CAED is used and for 3D proE is
used.
R&D concerns with,
 Designing new product.
 Improving existing product.
 Improving quality and reliability.
 Cost reduction.
The output of this department is called drawing which in turn is input for planning
department.
ECN (Engineering Change Notice) will have any changes or updates to be done on product.
Based on the MPR raised by the concerned project groups and approved by the Competent
Authority, the Purchase group in R&D at Divisions can issue enquiries to the parties
selected/identified by them only for procurement of inputs for new, R&D projects and
indigenization, within the amount sanctioned by CMD/Board.
However, standard items already being procured / produced by division will continue to be
procured by the divisional purchase department. R&D can only go for direct purchase of new
and critical items on single tender basis to expedite R&D projects.

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PLANNING
Planning is important to accomplish work successfully. It covers 8 to 9 wings.
Production Control/Progress- the nerve centre
 Based on roll-out schedules loading material to the shop-floors.
 Moving the finished components between shops as per routing.
 Informing about the storage items to the purchase.
 Material and job accounting through system.
Process/ Method planning- the “do like this” process
 Determining processes for all the parts and installation.
 Determining quality plan for the parts.
 Identifying and projecting important tool requirements.
 Estimating the requirement of consumables.
Industrial engineering & MIS-the “improvement” process
 Based on master production and roll-out schedule determines the load.
 Analyzing shop capacities and projecting capacity gap for taking decision for additional
bought-out and man-power deployment.
 Establishing time for all the processes, as per norms.
 Monitoring utilization of men and machines and informing to the management.
 Monitoring improvement projects.
Tool planning- the “enabling” process
 Provisioning of tools projected by the process planner.
 Maintenance of existing tools.
 Estimation and procurement planning for consumable tools.
Facilities planning- the “asset creating” process
 Provisioning of necessary machinery, welfare equipment, building and pc.
 Looking for up gradation or modernization of existing facilities
Subcontracting/Outsourcing- the “let me help you” process
 Assisting production shops by taking out parts for operations.
 Arranging and executing work contracts.
 Facilitate cost reduction throughout sourcing.

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PURCHASE/OUT SOURCING

 In order to build a product numbers of items are required. These items can be either
manufactured in home environment or purchased from the vendors.
 Items which cannot be manufactured or if done its economically costs high have to be
purchased.
 MRP (Material Resource Planning) is calculated based on Bill of Material. System with
SAP technique will recreate requirements and further planning will generate PR.
 After this step the actual work of purchase department starts.
 Supplier Relationship Management Software (SRM) enquiry is done and bid invitation is
given.
 Preparatory and limited tender are called off. All quotes by different vendors are
compared and Purchase Order (PO) is sent back to approved organization. This PO
contains list of items, delivery schedule etc.
 GR is made once ordered goods are received in the gate as per delivery schedule.
 As soon as GR is generated the stores is updated with arrived items.
 Next quality engineering shop checks for correctness of quality and quantity. Later
distributes for required shops.
 Purchase shop should follow up about materials that are needed, rejected and one which
has to be re-delivered.
 This department co-ordinates with planning (for PR), security (for intake of items) ,
finance (bill issue) , quality (checking of items).

PROGRESS

 This department is responsible for production control.


 First demand is projected by marketing people based on this production planning is
done.
 Some materials are manufactured in home environment or procured. For both purchasing
is required.
 PR i.e. Product requisition is by production planning department.

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 Major, light assembly, major assembly, plate, fabrication shop etc. needs raw materials
which are listed and stored in stores.
 Keeping track of material movement between shops and giving materials to individual
shops is responsibility of progress department.
 Job cards are printed and given to subsequent jobs. This card will have information such
as, time required to complete the job, completed jobs etc.
 This department will deposit back issued items to the stores and also keep track of
availabilities in stores.

STORES

Receiving stores

These receive materials through the gate pass, and are sent to the concerned departments.

Project stores

These receive materials concerned to the production work.


Non project stores
These receive materials which indirectly help in the production work like weld rods etc,.
Stock control department
This department will look after non production materials such as issuing of clothes,
medicines, books etc,
Salvage stores
These collect waste materials from shop side on corner of factory premises and are stored
for the further processing.
Rejected stores
These collect rejected items from the various departments and send it for further action.
The other stores are
 Painting Store
 Cylinder Store
 Oil and Diesel Store

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For identification each product in the stores has a BIN card. The BIN card indicates the date of
arrival and withdrawal of the product from the stores, net quantity and location in the stores.
Every product has a reference number. This system is common for all the factories of BEML.

SHIPPING

The first step is to select the appropriate packaging for the item that is to be shipped.
Once that is done a trucking company arrives at the factory, loads the order into a container,
which is bolted shut and fitted with a security seal.
The container will not be opened until it reaches its destination. Customs official armed with
careful evaluation of each container’s documentation, select those containers for specific
inspection. Once cleared by customs, workers unload the container and the items are now
dispatched and assembled in the destination place.

SERVICE

BEML's nation-wide after-sales service network includes


 12 Regional Offices
 20 District Offices
 5 Service Centers
 2 Activity Centers at Itanagar and Katni

3.3 TRUCK DIVISION


Truck Division at Mysuru, located around 130 Kms from Bangalore, was established in
1986 with a total area of 600 acres. Asia’s biggest Dump Truck Factory in India is located at
Truck Division, Mysuru.
The products manufactured at Truck Division are:
MINING & CONSTRUCTION
 Dump Trucks (Mechanical Drive)
 Dump Trucks (Electrical Drive)
 Water Sprinkler
 Motor Grader

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DEFENCE
 Tatra 6x6 (Euro II)
 Air Craft Weapon Loader

OTHERS
 Air Craft Towing Tractor
 Air Craft Towing Tractor with Ground Power Unit

3.3.1 BH205E-AC REAR DUMP TRUCK

Fig 3.1: BH205E-AC rear dump truck

SALIENT FEATURES

 Performance: High power diesel Cummins / MTU engine and world renowned General
Electric for electric drive provides smooth consistent gradeability and acceleration
performance.
 Productivity: High power to weight ratio gives ample reserve power for increased engine
life. More target area, higher volumetric capacity and low loading height ensures high
productivity.
 Reliability: Diesel-electric power modules with few wearing parts offer more durability
and high availability.
 Serviceability: Low maintainability and repair ability index makes easy serviceability.

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 Maneuverability: Power steering with wide steering angle, results is short turning
radius.
 Comfort: Ideally located spacious deluxe cabin, easy to read and easy to reach
instrument panel and operation switches, large tinted glass windows with excellent
visibility for increased operator's comfort.
 Safety: Features include emergency power steering, electrical dynamic retarding with
continuously rated blown grids and all hydraulic caliper disc brakes meet relevant safety
standard.

WORKING - A diesel engine drives an alternator, the electric power generated by the alternator
is rectified by the rectifier and then, re-covered to AC by an inverter in the control cabinet and
generated AC drives the motors on the left and right wheels which drive the truck.

ADVANTAGES OVER MECHANICAL DRIVE DUMP TRUCK


 AC-drive truck does not waste fuel by revolving the engine at a high speed while the tuck
is decelerating or running with engine idled as is the case with mechanical- drive one.
 The cost of fuel and electricity used is less
 The use of electric drive vehicles can achieve at least 80% reduction in C02 emissions.

BH150E

Fig 3.2: BH150-E

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WATER SPRINKLERS

1. BWS28-2 WATER SPRINKLER

Fig 3.3: BWS28-2 water sprinkler Fig 3.4: BW7O water sprinkler

MOTOR GRADERS

Fig 3.5: motor grader BG405A Fig 3.6:BG825

3.4 CNC CONTROLLED MACHINES

When computers are used to control a Numerical Control (NC) machine tool than the
machine is called CNC machine. In other words the use of computers to control machine tools
like lathe, mills, shaper etc is called CNC machine, wherein a software program is designated to
control an object. The language behind CNC machining is alternately referred to as G-code.

Early in the process, engineers create a computer-aided engineering design


(CAED) drawing of the part to be manufactured, then translate the drawing into G-code. A G-

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code file is a series of instructions that come together to produce different movements and events
on a CNC machine.

3.4.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF CNC MACHINE

Fig 3.7: Block diagram of CNC machine

(i) Input Devices: These are the devices which are used to input the part program in the CNC
machine.

(ii) Machine Control Unit (MCU): It is the heart of the CNC machine. It performs all the
controlling action of the CNC machine, the various functions performed by the MCU are

 It reads the coded instructions fed into it and decodes the coded instruction.
 It implements interpolation (linear, circular and helical) to generate axis motion commands.
 It feeds the axis motion commands to the amplifier circuits for driving the axis mechanisms.
 It receives the feedback signals of position and speed for each drive axis.
 It implements the auxiliary control functions such as coolant or spindle on/off and tool
change.

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(iii) Machine Tool: A CNC machine tool always has a slide table and a spindle to control of the
position and speed. The machine table is controlled in X and Y axis direction and the spindle is
controlled in the Z axis direction.

(iv) Driving System: The driving system of a CNC machine consists of amplifier circuits, drive
motors and ball lead screw. The MCU feeds the signals (i.e. of position and speed) of each axis
to the amplifier circuits. The control signals are than augmented (increased) to actuate the drive
motors. And the actuated drive motors rotate the ball lead screw to position the machine table.

(v) Feedback System: This system consists of transducers that acts like sensors. It is also called
as measuring system. It contains position and speed transducers that continuously monitor the
position and speed of the cutting tool located at any instant. The MCU receives the signals from
these transducers and it uses the difference between the reference signals and feedback signals to
generate the control signals for correcting the position and speed errors.

(vi) Display Unit: A monitor is used to display the programs, commands and other useful data of
CNC machine.

3.4.2 WORKING OF CNC MACHINE

 First the part program is inserted into the MCU of the CNC.
 In MCU all the data process takes place and according to the program prepared, it
prepares all the motion commands and sends it to the driving system.
 The drive system works as the motion commands are sent by MCU. Drive system
controls the motion and velocity of the machine tool.
 Feedback system records the position and velocity measurement of the machine tool and
sends a feedback signal to the MCU.
 In MCU, the feedback signals are compared with the reference signals and if there are
errors, it corrects it and sends new signals to the machine tool for the right operation to
happen.
 A display unit is used to see all the commands, programs and other important data. It acts
as the eye of the machine.

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Fig 3.8: plasma cutting machine CNC controlled.

3.5 MAIN RECEIVING STATION (MRS)


Electric Substations are the part of the power system and used for transferring power from
generating points to load centers. It takes Electricity from a very high voltage and lowers it to the
voltage we use in our homes & business.

Components in the Power Station

 power transformer.
 circuit breaker.
 capacitor banks.
 Potential transformer.
 Current transformer.
 Capacitor voltage transformers.
 Isolator.
 Lightning arrestors.
 Wave traps
 Relays.
 Control room

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3.5.1 MAIN RECEIVING STATION

 The incoming 66KV supply is stepped down to 11KV using 100MVA


transformerr. The outcoming 11KV supply is stepped down to 440V &50Hz Using
100MVA transformer, with there voltage ratio respectively are 66KV/11KV/440V.
 The incoming feeders are connected to bus bar through lightning arrestors,line isolator,
circuit breakers, current-transformers etc…,the bus bars are to have an arrangement of
auxillary bus.
 A substation is an assembly of apparatus, which transformer’s the characteristics of
electrical energy from one to another, from one voltage levelto another level.Hence a
substation is an intermediate link between the generating station and the load units.

Power transformer:
A static electrical machine used for transforming power from one circuit to another circuit
without changing frequency is termed as power transformer.The transformers are generally used
to step down or step up the voltage level of a system for transmission and generation purpose.

Fig 3.9: Power transformer

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Circuit Breaker:

Figure 3.10 Circuit breaker

A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect


an electrical circuit from damage caused by excess current from an overload or short circuit. Its
basic function is to interrupt current flow after a fault is detected.

Capacitor bank:

Capacitor bank accomplishes following operations: Supply reactive power,Increase terminal


voltage and Improve power factor. The load on the power system is varying being high during
morning and evening which increases the magnetization current .this result in the
decreased power factor.

Figure 3.11 Capacitor Bank

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Potential transformer:

Figure 3.12 Potential transformer

Potential transformer is quite similar to the current transformer, but it is used for
taking samples of high voltages of a system for providing low-voltage to the relays of
protection system and also to the low –rating meter for voltage measurement. From this low-
voltage measurement, actual system’s high voltage can be calculated without measuring high
voltage directly to avoid the cost of the measuring system.

Current Tranformer:

Current transformer is used for measurement of the altering current by taking samples of
high current of the system.These reduced samples are in accurate proportions with actual high
current of system. These are used for installation and maintenance of current relay in substation
for protection purpose which are normally have low-current for their operation.

Figure 3.13 Current transformer

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Bus Bar:

Figure 3.14 Bus Bar

When numbers of generation or feeders operating at the same voltage have to be directly
connected electrically, bus bar is used as the common electrical component.bus bars are made up
of copper rods operate at constant voltage. Bus bars arrangements used at substations are:
1.single bus bar system.
2.duplicate bus bar system.

Lightening Arrester:

The substation equipment’s such as conductor,transformer etc…, are always erected


outdoor.Whenever light surges occur then,a high-voltage pass through these electrical
components causing damage to them.Therefore to avoid this difficulty, lightening arrester are
placed to pass entire lightening surge to earth.

Figure 3.15 Lightening arrestors

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Relay:
Relays are used for disconnected the circuit by manual or automatic operation.Relay
consistes of coil which is excited or energized and such that the making the contacts of
relay closed,activates the relay to break or make the connection. There are different types of
relay such as current relay, microprocessor relay, mho relay, buchholz relay etc..,

Figure 3.16 Relay

Isolator:
Isolator is a manually operated mechanical switch that isolates a part of a circuit of
substation meant for repair from a healthy section in order to avoid occurrence of more fault.
Hence it is also called as disconnected. There are different types of isolators such as single-
break isolator, double-break isolator, bus isolator, line isolator etc..,

Figure 3.17 Isolators


Insulator:

The substance which does not allow free movement of electron is called as insulator.
There are different types of insulators such as suspension type, strain type, pin type so on.

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Insulator are used or insulation purpose while erecting electric poles with conductors to
avoid short circuit and for other purpose.

Figure 3.18 Insulator


Wave Trap:

Figure 3.19 Wave Trap

It is used to trap the high frequency communication signals sent on the line from the
remote substation and diverting them to the telecom/tele-protection panel in the substation
control room, line trap also is known as wave trap.

Control Room:

Figure 3.20 Control Room

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Bus voltages and frequencies, line loading, transformer loading, power factor,
temperature etc.., are the basic variables related with substation control and instrumentation. The
various supervision, control and protection function are preformed in substation control room.
The relay, Protection and control panels are installed in the controlled room.

3.6 ENGINE DIVISION

3.6.1 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES EDP DEPARTMENT


1. Networking planning / implementation is also the responsibility of EDP Department.
2. Installing new system, up gradation of systems in various departments.
3. Securities like Anti Virus, Internet Security and responsible for firewall etc.
4. Daily backup management of all the data of company. Restore the data for user whenever
required.
5. Solve user’s problem at their sight or by other communication.
6. Managing all server data like new reports creation and other timely reports.
7. Department also looks after payroll work as this is the confidential work.
8. Managing wireless network.
9. Printing of reports on Line Printer through networking.
10. Fill the requirement of stationary, printer cartridge and all consumable.
11.Photocopy machines, scanners, fax machines and PSC printers, laser printer, Dot Matrix
Printer, Line printers all are come under the maintains and services.
12. Repair and reinstall the old systems and if not possible in company then make returnable gate
pass and send them to the vendor for repair.
13. The connection between the BEML company and data provider used a optical fiber cable
(OFC) for the transmission of data
14. With the premises of company used unshelled twisted cables (UTP).

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Figure 3.21 Optical Fiber Cable (OTP)

Figure 3.22 unshelled twisted cables (UTP)


15. Mainly there are two data providers:
1. Reliance Company - The primary data provided is about speed of 75Mbps.
2. BSNL Company - If there is any network error to get a data from primary data provider
then we used secondary data provided by BSNL company is about speed of 50Mbps.
16. The main data recovery centre is situated in Bangalore, Which is four times bigger than a
mysuru centre.
17. The server of data recovery centre is maintained at low temperature of 24 degree Celsius. It
has the memory size of 64Tb.

3.6.2 IMPORTANT DEVICES USED IN OSI MODEL LAYERS

LAYER-1 DEVICES.

a. REPEATERS

A network device used to regenerate or replicate a signal. Repeaters are used in transmission
systems to regenerate analog or digital signals distorted by transmission loss. Analog repeaters

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frequently can only amplify the signal while digital repeaters can reconstruct a signal to near its
original quality.

Figure 3.23 Repeaters.

b. HUB.

Figure 3.24 Hub


A hub, also called a network hub, is a common connection point for devices in a network.
Hubs are devices commonly used to connect segments of a LAN. The hub contains multiple
ports. When a packet arrives at one port, it is copied to the other ports so that all segments of the
LAN can see all packets.

LAYER-2 DEVICES

A bridge is a type of computer network device that provides interconnection with other
bridge networks that use the same protocol. Bridge devices work at the data link layer of the
Open System Interconnect (OSI) model, connecting two different networks together and
providing communication between them.

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Figure 3.25 Layer-2 Devices.

a. NETWORK INTERFACE CONTROLLER (NIC).

A network interface controller (NIC), also known as a network interface card, network
adapter or physical network, and by similar terms is a computer hardware component that
connects a computer network. The NIC contains the electronic circuitry required to communicate
using a wired connection (e.g., Ethernet) or a wireless connection (e.g., wifi).

Figure 3.26 Network Interface Controllers

LAYER-3 DEVICES

a. Switch with UTP cables

Figure 3.27 Switches with UTP Cables.

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A network switch (also called switching hub, bridging hub, officially MAC bridge) is a
computer networking device that connects devices together on a computer network by using
packet switching to receive, process, and forward data to the destination device. Ethernet
interface is used to connect to connect local network to router, PC to switch, switch to switch,
switches to router. Ethernet interfaces uses UTP cable for connection.UTP (unshielded twisted
pair) cable has four pairs of wires twisted inside.

LAYER-4, 5, 6& 7 DEVICES

a. GATEWAY.

A Gateway is anode (router) in a computer network, a key stopping point for data on its
way to or from other networks .we is able to communicate and send data back and forth. The
internet wouldn’t be any use to us without gateways (as well as a lot of other hardware and
software).

Figure 3.28 Gateways.

While forwarding an IP packet to another network, the gateway might or might not perform
network address translation. A gateway is an essential features of most routers, although other
devices (such as any PC or sever) can function as a gateway.
b. MODEM.

Modem stands for modulator or demodulator which converts digital signals generated by the
computer into analog signals which can be transmitted over a telephone or cable lines. A Modem
is a device or program that enables a computer to transmit data over, for example, telephone or
cable lines. Computer information in stored digitally, whereas information is transmitted over

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telephone lines is transmitted in the form of analog waves. A modem converts between these two
forms.

Figure 3.29 Modem.

3.7 PROXY SERVER.

Figure 3.30 Proxy Server

A proxy server, also known as a "proxy" or "application-level gateway", is a computer


that acts as a gateway between a local network (e.g., all the computers at one company or in one
building) and a larger-scale network such as the internet. Proxy servers provide increased
performance and security. A proxy server acts as a gateway between you and the internet. It's an
intermediary server separating end users from the websites they browse. ... Proxy servers act as a
firewall and web filter, provide shared network connections, and cache data to speed up common
requests.

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3.8 FIREWALL.

Figure 3.31 Firewall

A firewall is a system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private


network. You can implement a firewall in either hardware or software form, or a combination of
both. Firewalls prevent unauthorized internet users from accessing private networks connected to
the internet, especially intranets.
A firewall is a term used for a ``barrier'' between a network of machines and users that
operate under a common security policy and generally trust each other, and the outside world. In
recent years, firewalls have become enormously popular on the Internet.

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CHAPTER 4

REFLECTION
Internship at BEML mysuru gave me the exposure to Learn about the working of the
manufacturing organization in particular ‘BEML, mysuru’. In this one month internship training
at BEML mysuru, I learnt the following:

 A brief study about the electrical dump truck (Asia’s biggest dump truck). And how it’s
different from other mechanical dump truck.
 Working of CNC machines and its usage in plate shop for flame cutting.
 An exposure to visit Main Receiving Station (MRS)/ Electrical substation, I learnt about
the various components used in the substation.
 A practical experience in Electronic Data Processing (EDP) unit. I understood the
concept of OSI layers and components used in each layer.
 Learnt about industrial standards, working principles, safety precautions and BEML
quality standards

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CONCLUSION

Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML), mysuru is a great platform to understand real
world knowledge about the manufacturing unit and a good platform for trainers. I am proud to be
associated with this esteemed organization as an intern and I am fortunate to have the exposure
across most of the departments and its industrial functioning.
This interaction gave me an insight and first-hand experience of industrial scenario
outside the institute curriculum. In addition, the exposure gave me the practical knowledge into
the overall functioning of the organization, human behavior in industry and also helped me to co-
relate theoretical concepts of classroom and practical approach to industrial production.
I conclude that while going through the entire internship, the Cooperation is found to be
very well organized developed and most ideal industry in every walk of its production,
administration and management aspects. I gratefully acknowledge the large heartedness of this
institution for giving me an opportunity to complete this internship.

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