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PRIME MOVER AND DYNAMOMETER

GROUP MEMBERS:

MUHAMMAD WASIL BABAR (170604)

ABDULLAH SHAHID KHAN (170583)

ALISHBA ZAFFAR ABBASI (170539)

BE MECHATRONICS
(SESSION 2017-2021)

Project Supervisor
Engr. Umar Jamil

DEPARTMENT OF MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING


FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
AIR UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD

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PRIME MOVER AND DYNAMOMETER

END SEMESTER PROJECT REPORT

(4 SEMETER)

BE MECHATRONICS
(SESSION 2017-2021)

DEPARTMENT OF MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING

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PRIME MOVER AND DYNAMOMETER

Submitted By:
MUHAMMAD WASIL BABAR (170604)
ABDULLAH SHAHID KHAN (170583)
ALISHBA ZAFFAR ABBASI (170539)

Project Supervisor
____________________________
Engr. Umar Jamil

Head of Department

____________________________
Dr. Zareena Kausar

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Acknowledgements

We thank Allah Almighty for making us capable. He has provided us guidance, support and
blessings in the form of teachers, friends and most importantly parents. Teachers guide us, friends
motivate us and parents are the utmost blessings for. Just as Allah helps us directly as well as
indirectly, our parents have helped us steer through this research in every possible situation.

We also express our sincerest gratitude to our supervisor, Engr. Umar Farooq, for his continuous
support, enthusiasm and unwavering commitment.

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ABSTRACT

Dynamometers are electro-mechanical instruments used to place a controlled mechanical


load on torque-producing devices such as motors. They are used to characterize motor torque as a
function of speed. A dyno is a controlled, mechanical, rotational load. It controls either speed or
torque and measures both. With a dyno, the torque-speed curves of motors can be plotted, and their
motor-drives can be tested over the intended operating range.

Speed control is done using an H-bridge configuration of the MOSFETs. The speed at
which the motor is running is measured by using an optical encoder attached on the shaft of the
generator and the reference speed is set by the user by using a potentiometer.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION……………………………………………..6

CHAPTER 2: DESCRIPTION…………………………………………..........7

2.1 ENGINE DYNAMOMETER………………………………………...7

2.2 CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER……………………………….............8

2.3 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ENGINE AND CHASSIS DYNO……...9

2.4 INERTIA DYNAMOMETER………………………………………10

2.4.1 BRAKING PERFORMANCE AGAINST THEOTAICAL


PREDICTIONS……………………………………......……..10

CHAPTER 3: MOTOR POWER, LOSSES, AND EFFICIENCY

(EXERCISE 1.3 )…...………………………………………...11

3.1 EFFICIENCY………………………………………………………..11

3.2 ENERGY LOSSES………………………………………………….12

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: Chassis Dynamometer………………………………………………...6

Figure 1.2: Real Dynamometer System…………………………………………...6

Figure 2.1: Engine Dynamometer testing Engine………………………………...8

Figure 2.2: Chassis Dynamometer in Process…………………………………….9

Figure 2.3: Chassis Dynamometer………………………………………………..9

Figure 2.4: Inertia Dynamometer………………………………………………..10

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REFRENCES

i. https://academic.csuohio.edu/embedded/Publications/Thesis/Srujan_thesis.pdf
ii. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283853476_APPLICATION_OF_AN_INERTIA_DYNAM
OMETER_TO_CHECK_BRAKING_PERFORMANCE_AGAINST_THEORETICAL_PREDICTIONS
iii. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamometer#Detailed_dynamometer_description
iv. https://www.autotraining.edu/blog/what-does-an-engine-dynamometer-do/
v. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/motor-efficiency

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
A dynamometer or "dyno" for short, is a device for measuring force, torque, or
power. For example, the power produced by an engine, motor or other rotating prime mover
can be calculated by simultaneously measuring torque and rotational speed (RPM).

In addition to being used to determine the torque or power characteristics of a


machine under test, dynamometers are employed in a number of other roles. In standard
emissions testing cycles such as those defined by the United States Environmental
Protection Agency, dynamometers are used to provide simulated road loading of either the
engine (using an engine dynamometer) or full powertrain (using a chassis dynamometer).

The dynamometer system is intended to be used as a test instrument to test the speed
and torque capabilities of a motor and controller combination. Dynamometers are electro-
mechanical instruments used to place a controlled mechanical load on torque producing
devices such as motors. They can be used to characterize motor torque as a function of
speed. A dynamometer (dyno) is a basic electro-mechanical instrument used in the
development of motors and motor drives. A dyno is a controlled, mechanical, rotational
load. It controls either speed or torque and measures both. With a dyno, the torque-speed
curves of motor can be plotted.

Fig 1.1 (Chassis Dynamometer) Fig 1.2 (Real Dynamometer System)

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CHAPTER 2: DESCRIPTION
A dynamometer consists of an absorption (or absorber/driver) unit, and usually
includes a means for measuring torque and rotational speed. An absorption unit consists of
some type of rotor in a housing. The rotor is coupled to the engine or other equipment
under test and is free to rotate at whatever speed is required for the test. Some means is
provided to develop a braking torque between the rotor and housing of the dynamometer.
The means for developing torque can be frictional, hydraulic, electromagnetic, or
otherwise, according to the type of absorption/driver unit.

2.1 ENGINE DYNAMOMETER

An engine dyno calculates power output directly by measuring the force (torque)
required to hold a spinning engine at a set speed (rpm). The dyno software then calculates
horsepower based on the torque figure and engine rpm (horsepower equals torque times
engine speed, divided by 5,252).

The dyno has a control board that shows readouts of torque, rpm, water temperature, oil
temperature and pressure, exhaust temperature, and air/fuel ratio (from an O2 sensor) via
sensors connected to the engine. The dyno operator can start and run the engine from the
board via a cable-operated lever or electronically, depending on the dyno. The engine itself
is usually stripped of its accessory drive (most dynos use an electric water pump and
perhaps an alternator for testing) and is fitted with headers and, depending on what the
customer wants, a full exhaust system.

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Fig 2.1 (Engine Dynamometer testing Engine)

2.2 CHASSIS DYNAMOMETER


Where an engine dyno measures power directly from the engine, a chassis dyno
measures engine output—or more accurately, drivetrain output—at a vehicle’s drive
wheels. In its basic form, a chassis dyno consists of a platform with a pair of drums or
rollers, a braking or power absorption system, and software to calculate power output.

The test vehicle is positioned on the dyno with its drive wheels on the drums or rollers.
Depending on the dyno type, the software calculates torque output based on how fast the
vehicle accelerates the drum (inertia style dyno, like a Dyno jet) or via a load cell that
measures power absorbed by the rollers (eddy current dyno like a Mustang Dyno unit).
Horsepower is calculated from the torque value. Most chassis dynos have the capability to
monitor air/fuel ratios (via an O2 sensor in the exhaust) and other engine parameters.

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Fig 2.2 (Chassis Dynamometer in Process)

2.3 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ENGINE AND CHASSIS DYNO

Where an engine dyno measures power directly from the engine, a chassis
dyno measures engine output—or more accurately, drivetrain output—at a vehicle's drive
wheels. ... The chassis dynamometer's claim to fame is the ability to measure power at
the drive wheels—the “real world” performance of a vehicle.

Fig 2.3 (Chassis Dynamometer)

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2.4 INERTIA DYNAMOMETER

An inertia dyno operates on the principle of calculating the power required to


accelerate a known mass, which is basically just a 'flywheel' coupled to the engine or
vehicle. Your own homemade dyno is within easy reach!

2.4.1 BRAKING PERFORMANCE AGAINST THEOTAICAL PREDICTIONS

Friction is a typical stochastic process, characterized by a number of random


influences. It is almost impossible to predict performance and reliability of such
mechanisms theoretically or in an analytical form. Evaluation of tribological properties of
friction mechanisms is a rather complex task, and that is why experimental methods are
broadly used. It particularly applies to brakes and braking systems of road vehicles. There
is a general awareness that vehicle brakes have to be thoroughly tested and approved in
accordance to various regulations and road safety requirements, so as to evaluate their
performance confidently.

Pressure and Torque control in Brake Inertia Dynamometer (BID) is necessary to


ensure the testing brake system reliability. The main objective of using the Dynamometer
limits certain aspects such as reduced man power, variable inertia, accurate response,
limited to a small test space, parameters can be store and analyzed. A dynamometer is a
device for measuring force, torque, or power. The power produced by engine, motor can
be calculated simultaneously by sensing of torque and rotational speed.

Fig 2.4 (Inertia Dynamometer)

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CHAPTER 3: MOTOR POWER, LOSSES, AND EFFICIENCY
(EXERCISE 1.3)

Motor efficiency is a measure of the effectiveness with which electrical energy is


converted to mechanical energy. Motor efficiency can be directly expressed as the ratio of
power output to power input. The efficiency computed from this ratio is known as the direct
efficiency. Alternatively, motor efficiency is indirectly determined by using the losses and
the input power.

3.1 EFFICIENCY

Electric motor efficiency is the measure of the ability of an electric motor to convert electrical
energy to mechanical energy; i.e., kilowatts of electric power are supplied to the motor at its
electrical terminals, and the horsepower of mechanical energy is taken out of the motor at the
rotating shaft. Therefore, the only power absorbed by the electric motor is the losses incurred in
making the conversion from electrical to mechanical energy. Thus, the motor efficiency can be
expressed

Therefore, to reduce the electric power consumption for a given mechanical energy out, the motor
losses must be reduced and the electric motor efficiency increased.
To accomplish this, it is necessary to understand the types of losses that occur in an electric motor.

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3.2 ENERGY LOSSES

Motor efficiency is the most important factor to consider in the development of


implantable devices such as ventricular assist devices (VADs) and total artificial hearts
(TAHs). The electric energy that is input into the device is converted to mechanical energy
by the motor. The excess energy is dissipated as heat into the surrounding tissue and blood.
This dissipated energy results in physiological complications, while shortening the
operation time of the system due to excess energy drain on the battery. In Fig. 11.1,
following the conservation of energy law, the relationship between input energy (Ei),
output energy (Eo), and energy losses.

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