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Part 1 - This assignment is designed to give you a very in depth understanding of the different

methods used by the howstuffworks web site to teach a topic. In part one of the assignment
you are to do your best answering the following questions using the information provided by the
howstuffworks articles linked below. Please submit your final answers to your English
Freshgrade. Remember! Include your question in your answer!

How does refrigeration work

Give some background information on how people would keep food cold before the invention of
the modern day refrigerator.

● Different ways people would keep food cold before the invention of a refrigerator were by
burying food in the snow during winter and preserving the food with salt.

Explain in a simple manner how refrigeration preserves food.

● A refrigerator preserves food by cooling down the food. Cooling the food keeps the
bacteria from spoiling the food so fast.

What parts are inside a modern day refrigerator and explain how they work together to keep
your food chilled.

● The parts to the fridge are a Compressor, Heat-exchanging pipes, Expansion valve, and
the Refrigerant. These components work together through a process of ammonia gas
moving throughout these components and changing its state of matter until the cycle

Do your best to explain the complicated science behind the refrigeration cycle.

● Compressor - heats up ammonia gas and compresses it.

● Heat-exchanging pipes - lets the hot gas evaporate its heat, then condenses the gas
into ammonia liquid.

● Expansion valve - Lets the ammonia liquid flow through a hole. On one side is the liquid
on the other the compressor sucks out the gas making the area have a low pressure.

● Refrigerant - boils and evaporates the liquid ammonia, the gas is sucked up by the
compressor, then the cycle continues.
Explain how other types of coolers work. (examples may include cold packs,solar coolers and
propane refrigerators)

● Cool packs are filled with water and ammonium-nitrate fertilizer, when you break the
tubes inside the two mix together and the temperature of the cold pack drops.

How do Alternating Current/Direct Current Motors work?


Which parts are in a modern Electric motor?

● Armature or Rotor
● Commutator
● Brushes
● Axle
● Field Magnet
● DC Power Supply

How do electromagnets work?

● Electromagnets create a magnetic force through electricity. Electromagnets use a

copper wire wrapped around a piece of metal to introduce a current from a electricity
source. The current flows through the wire and magnetizes it.

How do the parts of an electric motor work together to turn electrical current into motion?
(axle,armature,commutator and brushes)

● If you hook up the motor leads to a battery the axle will spin. The brushes inside the
motor transfer power to the commutator.

How does a brushless motor work?

● A brushless motor creates a magnetic field in the armature that attracts and repels in the

How does a heating element work?

What is resistance and how does a heating element use it to create heat?

● A element makes it difficult for electricity to pass through, when the electricity is passing
through the element it uses most of its energy. Some of that energy turns into heat.

What is the difference between a heating element and the filament in a incandescent light bulb?

● The heating element is specifically used to make heat while the filament is used to
produce light.

Name at least 10 common household items that all use a heating element.

● Toasters, toaster ovens, coffee makers, clothing irons, deep fryers, slow cookers,
popcorn poppers, ovens, stove, and microwave.

How does a Microwave oven work?


What are the different types of energy waves and where do microwaves fit into this spectrum?

● Microwaves have a frequency between radio waves and infrared radiation.

Explain the process by which microwaves excite food molecules and what what is the result?

● Microwaves are absorbed by water, fats and sugars. When they are absorbed they are
directly converted to heat.

Explain why microwaves are good at reheating some sorts of food and poor at reheating others.
What is your favorite microwave recipe?

● Microwaves are not absorbed by certain types of materials like plastics and metals, this
is why some foods aren’t reheated well.
Part 2 - In the second part of this assignment you will explore how to develop effective

1. After answering the questions in part one, I expect that you are relatively knowledgeable
about each topic, but not expert enough to explain in detail how each system works.
2. It is your job to pick one of four systems above and develop your own teaching diagram
explaining step by step how the system works.
3. When you are through, anyone should be able to follow your instructions to build the
system themselves.
4. Finally, you will present your diagram to the rest of the class in a five minute
presentation explaining every detail of the process.