Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8

See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.


Antiproliferative activities of several plant extracts from Turkey on rat brain

tumor and human cervix carcinoma cell lines

Article  in  Frontiers in Life Science · December 2015

DOI: 10.1080/21553769.2015.1089949


3 160

4 authors:

Ayse Sahin yaglioglu Ferda Eser

Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi Amasya University


Saban Tekin Adem Onal

TUBITAK Marmara Research Center Gaziosmanpasa University


Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:

natural products View project

A systematic study on the ticks (Acari: Ixodida) of Corum and Yozgat provinces and determination of the presence of the Rickettsia in these ticks by using PCR View

All content following this page was uploaded by Ferda Eser on 14 December 2015.

The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.

Frontiers in Life Science

ISSN: 2155-3769 (Print) 2155-3777 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tfls20

Antiproliferative activities of several plant extracts

from Turkey on rat brain tumor and human cervix
carcinoma cell lines

Ayse Sahin Yaglıoglu, Ferda Eser, Saban Tekin & Adem Onal

To cite this article: Ayse Sahin Yaglıoglu, Ferda Eser, Saban Tekin & Adem Onal (2015):
Antiproliferative activities of several plant extracts from Turkey on rat brain tumor and human
cervix carcinoma cell lines, Frontiers in Life Science, DOI: 10.1080/21553769.2015.1089949

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21553769.2015.1089949

Published online: 08 Dec 2015.

Submit your article to this journal

Article views: 14

View related articles

View Crossmark data

Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at


Download by: [Gaziosmanpasa Universitesi] Date: 13 December 2015, At: 22:40

Frontiers in Life Science, 2015

Antiproliferative activities of several plant extracts from Turkey on rat brain tumor and human
cervix carcinoma cell lines
Ayse Sahin Yaglıoglua∗ , Ferda Eserb , Saban Tekinc and Adem Onalb
a Department of Chemistry, Science Faculty, Cankiri Karatekin University, Cankiri, Turkey; b Department of Chemistry, Science & Art
Faculty, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat, Turkey; c Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Science & Art Faculty,
Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat, Turkey
(Received 14 April 2015; accepted 31 August 2015 )

Turkey has a wide range of flora and fauna due to its climatic diversity. Medicinal plants from Turkey have been used
since ancient times for their primary health care. In this study, we examined antiproliferative activities of the extracts
Downloaded by [Gaziosmanpasa Universitesi] at 22:40 13 December 2015

from Crataegus monogyna, Vitis vinifera, Glycrrhiza glabra, Alnus glutinosa L. gaertn, and Alcea rosea against rat brain
tumor (C6) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines. The results were compared with the standard anticancer drugs 5-
Flurouracil (5-FU) and Cisplatin. C. monogyna, V. vinifera and A. rosea exhibited better antiproliferative activity than 5-FU
and cisplatin at 100-75 μg/mL concentrations, against C6 cell lines. On the other hand, C. monogyna and V. vinifera extracts
showed considerable antiproliferative activity against HeLa cells compared with 5-FU and cisplatin at 100-75 μg/mL. It can
be suggested that, C. monogyna, A. glutinosa L. gaertn, V. vinifera and A. rosea extracts could be developed as an anticancer

Keywords: HeLa; C6; antiproliferative activity; plant extract

Introduction cancer is the second most common type of cancer among

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death and rapidly women worldwide. There were more than half a mil-
becoming global pandemic (Jemal et al. 2009). Many lion new cases of cervical cancer diagnosed in 2010
factors play an important role in the development of can- (De Sanjose et al. 2010; Forouzanfar et al. 2011). Over
cer, such as lifestyle, environment, and nutrition. Cervical the years, the cancer treatment methods have undergone

*Corresponding author. Email: aysesahin@karatekin.edu.tr

© 2015 Taylor & Francis

2 A. Sahin Yaglıoglu et al.

revolutionary changes. On the other hand, chemotherapy of were cultured in DMEM, Sigma, supplemented with 10%
solid tumors is still limited by the lack of anticancer drugs; (v/v) fetal bovine serum (Sigma, Germany) and PenStrep
therefore, new medicines have yet to be developed to cure solution (Sigma, Germany). Cultured cells were detached
cancer (Ferguson et al. 2004). from the flasks with trypsin-EDTA (Sigma, Germany).
Natural products have attracted considerable attention After centrifugation of the cells, pellets were resuspended
from synthetic community for reasons of wide range of to 3 × 105 cells/mL in DMEM. Cells were plated in 96-
plant diversity along with thousands of natural compounds. well plates (COSTAR, Corning, USA) at a density of
Previous studies have demonstrated the role and impor- 3 × 103 cells/well and incubated at 37°C with 5% CO2
tance of herbs and spices in the prevention of cardiovas- overnight for attachment. All the materials used in exper-
cular diseases, carcinogenesis, inflammation, atheroscle- iment were dissolved in sterile DMSO. Tests were carried
rosis, and so on. (Hossain et al. 2008). It is known that out in triplicate for each experiment. Cells were treated
many medicinal plants contain effective chemopreventive with crude extracts at final concentrations of 5, 10, 20,
and antitumor substances (Borrelli et al. 2004). But less 30, 40, 50, 75 and 100 μg/mL. Controls, negative and
than 1% of known 250,000 plant species are investigated positive control wells were treated with culture medium,
for their secondary metabolites and biological activity sterile DMSO, 5-FU and cisplatin, respectively. Treated
Downloaded by [Gaziosmanpasa Universitesi] at 22:40 13 December 2015

(Farnsworth 1988). cells were incubated at 37°C with 5% CO2 for 24 h. Cell
In this present work, five medicinal plants from Turkey, proliferation was measured by using BrdU Cell Prolifera-
namely Crataegus monogyna (Rosaceae), Vitis vinifera L. tion ELISA (Roche, Germany), a colorimetric immunoas-
(Vitaceae), Glycrrhiza glabra (Fabaceae), Alnus glutinosa say based on BrdU incorporation into the cellular DNA
L. gaertn (Betulaceae), and Alcea rosea (Malvaceae), were according to manufacturer’s procedure. Briefly, cells were
investigated for their antiproliferative activities against C6 pulsed with BrdU labeling reagent for 4 h followed by
and HeLa cancer cell lines. The inhibition potential of fixation in FixDenat solution for 30 min at room temper-
plant extracts is aimed to be determined in terms of cell ature. Thereafter, cells were incubated with 1:100 dilution
proliferation. of anti-BrdU-POD for 1.30 h at room temperature. Finally,
the immune reaction was detected by adding the substrate
solution and the color developed was read at 450 nm with
Materials and methods
a microplate reader.
Plant materials
A. rosea, C. monogyna, V. vinifera L., G. glabra, and
A. glutinosa L. gaertn were collected from Tokat and Statistical analysis
Amasya at their flowering seasons and authenticated by The results of investigation in vitro are presented as
Dr Bedrettin Selvi (Departmant of Biology, Gaziosman- means ± SD of three independent measurements. Statis-
pasa University, Tokat, Turkey). All species were dried in tical comparisons were tested with one-way ANOVA. The
a dark place, at room temperature, until obtaining a stabile P values of < .01 were considered statistically significant.
weight. All statistical calculations were performed using SPSS
(Version 13.5) software.

Preparation of extracts
Plant extract have been prepared according to literature Results and discussion
method (Chon et al. 2009). 10 g of dried and grounded Herbal medicine plays an important role in the prevention
plant material was soaked in 200 mL methanol for three and treatment of cancer (Xiong et al. 2015). Traditional
days at room temperature. The mixture was filtered and medicinal herbs such as C. monogyna (Ozyurek et al. 2012;
the solvent was evaporated under vacuum. Stock solu- Rodrigues et al. 2012), A. glutinosa L. gaertn, G. glabra,
tion of the samples, 5-florouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin A. rosea and V. vinifera L. (Karaman & Kocabas 2001)
were prepared in sterile dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and have been used in the treatment of different diseases in
were diluted with Dulbecco’s modified eagle’s medium Turkey. In this study, different parts of six plant species
(DMEM; 1:20). The final concentration of DMSO was kept (Table 1) were tested for their antiproliferative activity
below 1% in all tests. The stock solutions were stored at against C6 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The antiproliferative
± 4°C until usage. potential of the plant extracts was compared with positive
control drugs, 5-FU and Cisplatin. In terms of antiprolifer-
ative activity against C6 cell lines, C. monogyna extract
Cell culture and cell proliferation assay exhibited the highest performance with its lowest IC50
Antiproliferative effects of the plants were investigated value (29.8 μg/mL) among other extracts (Table 2). C.
against HeLa and C6 cell lines using proliferation BrdU monogyna (common hawthorn) is widely used in tradi-
enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) (Demirtas tional medicine for its beneficial effects (Carvalho 2010).
et al. 2009; Demirtas & Sahin 2013). HeLa and C6 cells Recent studies revealed that, secondary metabolites are
Frontiers in Life Science 3

Table 1. Selected plants used in the study for screening of antiproliferative activity.

Plants Family Parts used Usage of the plants in folk medicine

A. glutinosa Betulaceae Leaves Treatment of several types of cancer (Hartwell 1967), some of its constituents exhibit
various biological properties, including anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities
(Acero & Muñoz-Mingarro 2012).
C. monogyna Rosaceae Flowers Treatment of ailments including high-blood pressure, heart and digestive disorders (Tadic
et al. 2008)
V. vinifera Vitaceae Leaves The leaves of the plant, which have astringent and hemostatic properties, are used in the
treatment of diarrhea, hemorrhage, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, inflammatory disorder,
pain, hepatitis, and free radical-related diseases and externally for centuries in Anatolia
to heal wounds and drain furuncles (Bombardelli & Morazzonni 1995; Baytop 1999;
Lardos & Kreuter 2000)
G. glabra Fabaceae Roots Treatment of upper respiratory tract ailments including coughs, hoarseness, sore throat,
and bronchitis (Saxena 2005)
A. rosea Malvaceae Flowers A. rosea possesses anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and analgesic effects (Wang et al.
1989; Mert et al. 2010; Seyyednejad et al. 2010). The roots of A. rosea have been
used in Iranian traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments, including bronchitis,
Downloaded by [Gaziosmanpasa Universitesi] at 22:40 13 December 2015

diuretic, diarrhea, constipation, inflammation, severe coughs, and angina (Aghili

Khosarani & Makhzan-Al-Adviah 1992; Zargari 1992)

Table 2. Antiproliferative activities (IC50 = μgmL−1 ) of the lines was found to be 84.33% and 84.00%, at 100 μg/mL
plant extracts against C6 and HeLa cell lines. concentration, respectively. Not only V. vinifera, but also
C. monogyna and A. glutinosa extract exhibited higher
Antiproliferative activity IC50 (μg/mL)
antiproliferative activity than standard drugs against HeLa
C6 cell line HeLa cell cells at 75 μg/mL concentration (P < .01, Figure 2). Pre-
Plant species HeLa cell line line
vious study showed that A. glutinosa (stem bark) exhibits
A. glutinosa L. gaertn 45.7 53.8 inhibitory activity against the human LoVo colon can-
C. monogyna 29.8 34.0 cer, PC3 prostate cancer, and U373 glioblastoma cell
V. vinifera L. 40.1 48.8 lines (Frederich et al. 2009). Main chemical constituents
G. glabra 30.6 61.1
of A. glutinosa were reported as hirsutanonol, oregonin,
A. rosea 37.63 14.48
genkwanin, rhododendron, and glutinic acid (Guz et al.
Note: Data were presented as mean ± SD (n = 3). IC50 : 50% 2002; O’Rourke et al. 2005) which can be attributed its
inhibition of cell growth. biological activity. Genkwanin, rhododendrin, and glutinic
acid are the main constituents of A. glutinosa L. gaertn
responsible from the bioactivity of the plants and the bio- (O’Rourke et al. 2005). It can be suggested that the main
logical effect is mostly the result of synergy or additive constituents of the plant extracts including anthocyanins
effect of the other types of natural compounds (Ramful and polyphenols play an important role in the inhibition
et al. 2011). Therefore, the higher antiproliferative activ- of C6 and HeLa cancer cell lines.
ity of C. monogyna extract (87.33% at 100 μg/mL) can be Considering the antiproliferative activity described by
attributed to its secondary metabolite content, mainly phe- the popular use of C. monogyna, the results of antiprolif-
nolic compounds. Main phenolics of C. monogyna were erative activity tests against HeLa and C6 cell lines sup-
determined as quercetin derivatives and phenolic acids ported the ethnomedicinal use of this plant. C. monogyna
(Rodrigues et al. 2012). It is known that quercetin has had higher antiproliferative activity against C6 cells than
inhibitory effect on various tumor cells (Kandaswami et al. positive controls, 5-FU and Cisplatin at 50–100 μg/mL
2005). In addition, phenolic acids of C. monogyna extract, concentrations (P < .01, Figure 1).
such as gallic and caffeic acid derivatives, had shown For HeLa cells, the highest inhibition value (89.33%)
antiproliferative effect against several cancer lines includ- was obtained with V. vinifera extract at 75 μg/mL con-
ing HeLa cells (Gomes et al. 2003). Another study reported centration (P < .01, Figure 2). On the other hand, V.
a systematic comparison of four different hawthorn parts vinifera extract effect decreases in lower concentrations (5–
relating their human inhibitory activity on human tumor 50 μg/mL). Different parts of V. vinifera have been widely
cell lines. It was found that the flower buds extract of C. investigated against different types of cancer (Kaliora et al.
monogyna represents GI50 (cell growth inhibition) value of 2008; Amico et al. 2009; Lazze et al. 2009; Sung & Lee
63.55 μg/mL for HeLa cells (Rodrigues et al. 2012). 2010; Nechita et al. 2012; Apostolou et al. 2013; Esfa-
C. monogyna, V. vinifera, A. glutinosa L. gaertn, and hanian et al. 2013; Espino et al. 2013; Kountouri et al.
A. rosea possessed considerable antiproliferative activity 2013; Giovannelli et al. 2014; Liang et al. 2014; Sahpazi-
against C6 cell lines (P < .01, Figure 1). Inhibition of dou et al. 2014) and it has been reported that V. vinifera has
A. glutinosa and V. vinifera plant extracts against C6 cell an antiproliferative effect against many cancer cell lines.
4 A. Sahin Yaglıoglu et al.

Figure 1. The antiproliferative activities of the plant extracts against C6 cell lines. The results were expressed as percentage of cell
proliferation inhibition compared with standard drugs. Data were presented as mean ± SD (n = 3).
Downloaded by [Gaziosmanpasa Universitesi] at 22:40 13 December 2015

Figure 2. The antiproliferative activities of the plant extracts against HeLa cell lines. The results were expressed as percentage of cell
proliferation inhibition compared with standard drugs. Data were presented as mean ± SD (n = 3).

Naturally occurring bioactive component of V. vinifera Conclusions

that is responsible from the cardioprotective and cancer In this study, we report antiproliferative activities of
chemopreventive activities (Jang et al. 1997) is identi- several plant extracts, which are used in Turkish folk
fied as resveratrol (3,4 ,5-trihydroxystilbene) (Frankel et al. medicine, against HeLa and C6 cell lines. According to the
1993). results obtained, it is feasible to speculate that C. monog-
Finally, we investigated the antiproliferative activity of yna, V. vinifera, A. glutinosa L. gaertn, and A. rosea plant
G. glabra extract, which exhibited considerable antiprolif- extracts could be a promising alternative natural source of
erative activity against HeLa cell lines (Figure 2) at the chemotherapy agents.
highest concentration (100 μg/mL). It is reported that G.
glabra showed biological activity similar to that of anti-
microtubule drugs which are widely used for the treatment Acknowledgements
of malignancy (DiPaola et al. 1999; Rafi et al. 2002). The The authors thank Dr Ali Karagoz and Prof. Nazlı Arda from
plant-derived phytochemicals are able to inhibit the prolif- Istanbul University, Department of Molecular Biology, for help
eration and apoptosis in tumor cells and therefore there is in providing C6 (Rat Brain tumor cells) and HeLa (human cervix
an increasing interest in plant secondary metabolites and carcinoma) cells. The authors are also grateful to Dr Nihal
Deligonul for the grammatical revision of the manuscript. This
their antiproliferative activities (Alesiani et al. 2010). work is funded by Gaziosmanpasa University Scientific Research
Previous studies on A. rosea plant were focused on its Projects (BAP-File No.2010/39), Tokat, Turkey.
biological activities such as hepatotoxicity (Hussain et al.
2014), tyrosinase inhibitory activity (Namjooyan et al.
2011), antibacterial activity (Seyyednejad et al. 2010). Disclosure statement
Studies on antiproliferative activity of A. rosea plant are No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
not sufficient.
The finding from our study showed that C. monog-
yna, V. vinifera, and A. glutinosa L. gaertn exhibited high References
antiproliferative activity against C6 and HeLa cancer cell
Acero N, Muñoz-Mingarro D. 2012. Effect on tumor necrosis
lines at the concentration of 75 and100 μg/mL. This may factor-α production and antioxidant ability of black alder,
indicate that extracts of the plants may have potential as factors related to its anti-inflammatory properties. J Med
antiproliferative activity for different cancer cell lines. Food. 15:542–548.
Frontiers in Life Science 5

Aghili Khorasani MH, Makhzan-Al-Adviah. 1992. Research Frederich M, Marcowycz A, Cieckiewicz E, Megalizzi V,
institute for islamic and complementary medicine. Tehran: Angenot L, Kiss R. 2009. In vitro anticancer potential of
Islamic Publishing and Educational Organization. tree extracts from the walloon region forest. Planta Med.
Alesiani D, Canini A, D’Abrosca B, DellaGreca M, Fiorentino 75:1634–1637.
A, Mastellone C, Monaco P, Pacifico S. 2010. Antioxi- Giovannelli L, Innocenti M, Santamaria AR, Bigagli E, Pasqua
dant and antiproliferative activities of phytochemicals from G, Mulinacci N. 2014. Antitumoural activity of viniferin-
Quince (Cydonia vulgaris) peels. Food Chem. 118:199–207. enriched extracts from Vitis vinifera L. cell cultures. Nat
Amico V, Barresi V, Chillemi R, Condorelli DF, Sciuto S, Prod Res. 28:2006–2016.
Spatafora C, Tringali C. 2009. Bioassay-guided isolation Gomes CA, Cruz TG, Andrade JL, Milhazes N, Borges F, Mar-
and antiproliferative compounds from grape (Vitis vinifera) ques MPM. 2003. Anticancer activity of phenolic acids of
stems. Nat Prod Commun. 4:27–34. natural or synthetic origin: a structure–activity study. J Med
Apostolou A, Stagos D, Galitsiou E, Spyrou A, Haroutounian S, Chem. 46:5395–5401.
Portesis N, Trizoglou I, Hayes AW, Tsatsakis AM, Kouretas Guz NR, Lorenz P, Metraux JP. 2002. Oregonin from the bark of
D. 2013. Assessment of polyphenolic content, antioxidant European alnus species. Biochem Syst Ecol. 30:471–474.
activity, protection against ROS-induced DNA damage and Hartwell JL. 1967. Plants used against cancer. A survey. Lloydia
anticancer activity of Vitis vinifera stem extracts. Food (1967–1971); p. 30–34.
Chem Toxicol. 61:60–68. Hossain MB, Brunton NP, Barry-Ryan C, Martin-Diana AB,
Baytop T. 1999. Bitkiler ile tedavi. İstanbul: Nobel Tıp Wilkinson M. 2008. Antioxidant activity of spice extracts
Downloaded by [Gaziosmanpasa Universitesi] at 22:40 13 December 2015

Kitabevleri. and phenolics comparison to synthetic antioxidants. Rasayan

Bombardelli E, Morazzonni P. 1995. Vitis vinifera. L. J Chem. 1:751–756.
Fitoterapia. 66:291–317. Hussain L, Akash MSH, Tahir M, Rehman K, Ahmed KZ.
Borrelli F, Capasso R, Russo A, Ernst E. 2004. Systematic 2014. Hepatoprotective effects of methanolic extract of
review: green tea and gastrointestinal cancer risk. Aliment Alcea rosea against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity
Pharm Therap. 19:497–510. in mice. Bangl J Pharmacol. 9:322–327.
Carvalho AM. 2010. Plantas y sabiduria popular del Parque Jang M, Cai L, Udeani GO, Slowing KV, Thomas CF, Beecher
Natural de Montesinha. Un estudio etnobotánico en Portu- CW, Fong HH, Farnsworth NR, Kinghorn AD, Mehta RG,
gal. Biblioteca de Ciencias, 35. Madrid: Consejo Superior et al. 1997. Cancer chemopreventive activity of resveratrol, a
de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC). natural product derived from grapes. Science. 275:218–220.
Chon SU, Kim YM, Park YJ, Heo BG, Park YS, Gorinstein S. Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Hao Y, Xu J, Thun MJ. 2009. Cancer
2009. Antioxidant and antiproliferative effects of methanol statistics. CA Cancer J Clin. 59:225–249.
extracts from raw and fermented parts of mulberry plant Kaliora AC, Kountouri AM, Karathanos VT, Koumbi L,
(Morus alba L.). Eur Food Res Technol. 230:231–237. Papadopoulos NG, Andrikopolulos NK. 2008. Effect of
Demirtas I, Sahin A. 2013. Bioactive volatile content of the stem greek raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) from different origins on
and root of Centaurea carduiformis DC. subsp. carduiformis gastric cancer cell growth. Nutr Cancer. 60:792–799.
var. carduiformis. J Chem. 2013:1–6. Kandaswami C, Lee LT, Lee PP, Hwang JJ, Ke FC, Huang YT,
Demirtas I, Sahin A, Ayhan B, Tekin S, Telci I. 2009. Antipro- Lee MT. 2005. The antitumor activities of flavonoids. In
liferative effects of the methanolic extracts of Sideritis Vivo. 19:895–90.
libanotica Labill. subsp. linearis. Rec Nat Prod. 3:104–109. Karaman S, Kocabas YZ. 2001. Traditional medicinal plants of
DiPaola RS, Rafi MM, Vyas V, Toppmeyer D, Rubin E, Patel K. Maras (Turkey). Sci. 1:126–128.
J, Goodin S, Medina M, Medina P, Zamek R, et al. 1999. Kountouri AM, Gioxari A, Karvela E, Kaliora AC, Karvelas M,
Phase I clinical and pharmacologic study of 13-cis-retinoic Karathanos VT. 2013. Chemopreventive properties of raisins
acid, interferon alfa, and paclitaxel in patients with prostate originating from Greece in colon cancer cells. Food Funct.
cancer and other advanced malignancies. J Clin Oncol. 17: 4:366–372.
2213–2218. Lardos A, Kreuter MH. 2000. Red vine leaf. In: Kreuter MH, edi-
Esfahanian Z, Behbahani M, Shanehsaz M, Hessami MJ, Neja- tor. Phytopharm and phytochemproducts. Flachsmann, AG:
ban MA. 2013. Evaluation of anticancer activity of fruit and Zurich; p. 1–7.
leave extracts from virüs infected and healthy cultivars of Lazze MC, Pizzala R, Pecharroman FJG, Garnica PG, Rodriguez
Vitis vinifera. Cell J. 15:116–123. JMA, Fabris N, Bianchi L. 2009. Grape waste extract
Espino J, Gonzales-Gomez D, Moreno D, Fernandez-Leon MF, obtained by supercritical fluid extraction contains bioactive
Rodriguez AB, Pariente JA, Delgado-Adamez J. 2013. antioxidant molecules and induces antiproliferative effects
Tempranillo-derived grape seed extract induces apoptotic in human colon adenocarcinoma cells. J Med Food. 12:
cell death and cell growth arrest in human promyelocytic 561–568.
leukemia HL-60 cells. Food Funct. 4:1759–1766. Liang ZC, Cheng LL, Zhong GY, Liu RH. 2014. Antioxidant
Farnsworth NR. 1988. Screening plants for new medicines. and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four Vitis vinifera
Washington, DC: National Academy Press. grapes. PloS. 9:1–10. e105146.
Ferguson PJ, Kurowska E, Freeman DJ, Chambers AF, Koropat- Mert T, Fatal T, Kıvcak H, Tansel Ozturk H. 2010. Antimicro-
nick DJ. 2004. A flavonoid fraction from cranberry extract bial and cytotoxic activities of the extracts obtained from
inhibits proliferation of human tumor cell lines. Nutr Cancer. the flowers of Alcea rosea L. Hacettepe Univ J Fac Pharm.
134:1529–1535. 30:17–24.
Forouzanfar MH, Foreman KJ, Delossantos AM, Lozano R, Namjooyan F, Moosavi H, Taherian A. 2011. Review of natural
Lopez AD, Murray CJ, Naghavi M. 2011. Breast and cer- and synthetic tyrosinase inhibitors. Planta Med. 77:PL 67.
vical cancer in 187 countries between 1980 and 2010: a Nechita A, Cotea VV, Nechita CB, Pincu RR, Mihai CT, Col-
systematic analysis. The Lancet. 378:1461–1484. ibaba CL. 2012. Study of cytostaic and cytotoxic activity of
Frankel EN, Kanner J, German JB, Parks E, Kinsella JE. several polyphenolic extracts obtained from Vitis vinifera.
1993. Inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipopro- Not Bot Horti Agrobot Cluj-Napoca. 40:216–221.
tein by phenolic substances in red wine. The Lancet. 341: O’Rourke C, Byres M, Delazar A, Kumarasamy Y, Nahar L,
454–457. Stewart F. 2005. Hirsutanonol, oregonin and genkwanin
6 A. Sahin Yaglıoglu et al.

from the seeds of Alnus glutinosa (Betulaceae). Biochem Sanjose DS, Quint WG, Alemany L, Geraets DT, Klauster-
Syst Ecol. 33:749–752. meier JE, Lloveras B, Tous S, Felix A, Bravo LE, Shin
Ozyurek M, Bener M, Guclu K, Donmez AA, Suzgec-Selcuk S, HR, et al. 2010. Human papillomavirus genotype attribution
Pirildar S, Mericli AH, Apak R. 2012. Evaluation of antiox- in invasive cervical canser: a retrospective cross-sectional
idant activity of Crataegus species collected from different worldwide study. Lancet Oncol. 11:1048–1056.
regions of Turkey. Rec Nat Prod. 6:263–277. Saxena S. 2005. Glycyrrhiza glabra: Medicine over the millen-
Rafi MM, Vastano BC, Zhu N, Ho CT, Ghai G, Rosen RT, nium. Nat Prod Radiance. 4:358–367.
Gallo MA, DiPaola RS. 2002. Novel polyphenol molecule Seyyednejad SM, Koochak H, Darabpour E, Motamedi A.
isolated from licorice root (Glycrrhiza glabra) induces apop- 2010. A survey on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Alcea rosea L.,
tosis, G2/M cell cycle arrest, and Bcl-2 phosphorylation in and Malva neglecta Wallr as antibacterial agents. APJTM.
tumor cell lines. J Agric Food Chem. 50:677–684. 3:351–355.
Ramful D, Aumjaud B, Neergheen VS, Soobrattee MA, Goo- Sung J, Lee J. 2010. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities
goolye K, Aruoma OI, Bahotun T. 2011. Polyphenolic con- of grape seeds from different cultivars. Food Sci Biotechnol.
tent and antioxidant activity of Eugenia pollicina leaf extract 19:321–326.
in vitro and in model emulsion systems. Food Res Int. Tadic VM, Dobric S, Markovic GM, Dordevic SM, Arsic IA,
44:1190–1196. Menkovic NR, Stevic T. 2008. Anti-inflammatory, gastro-
Rodrigues S, Calhelha RC, Barreira JCM, Duenas M, Carvalho protective, free-radical-scavenging, and antimicrobial activ-
AM, Abreu RMV, Santos-Buelga C, Ferreira ICFR. 2012. ities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract. J Agric Food Chem.
Downloaded by [Gaziosmanpasa Universitesi] at 22:40 13 December 2015

Crataegus monogyna buds and fruits phenolic extracts: 56:7700–7709.

growth inhibitory activity on human tumor cell lines andd Wang DF, Shang JY, Yu QH. 1989. Analgesic and anti-
chemical characterization by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. Food inflammatory effects of the flower of Althaea rosea (L.) Cav.
Res Int. 49:516–523. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 14:46–48.
Sahpazidou D, Geromichalos GD, Stagos D, Apostolou A, Xiong Y, Wu X, Rao L. 2015. Tetrastigma hemsleyanum (Sanye-
Haroutounian SA, Tsatsakis AM, Tzanakakis GN, Hayes qing) root tuber extracts induces apoptosis in human cervical
AW, Kouretas D. 2014. Anticarcinogenic activity of poly- carcinoma HeLa cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 165:46–53.
phenolic extracts from grape stems against breast, colon, Zargari A. 1992. Alcea rosea L. In: Medicinal plants. Tehran:
renal and thyroid cancer cells. Toxicol Lett. 230:218–224. Tehran University Press; p. 360–363.

View publication stats