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Antiproliferative activities of several plant extracts from Turkey on rat brain


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DOI: 10.1080/21553769.2015.1089949

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Antiproliferative activities of several plant extracts


from Turkey on rat brain tumor and human cervix
carcinoma cell lines

Ayse Sahin Yaglıoglu, Ferda Eser, Saban Tekin & Adem Onal

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Antiproliferative activities of several plant extracts from Turkey on rat brain tumor and human
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Frontiers in Life Science, 2015
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21553769.2015.1089949

Antiproliferative activities of several plant extracts from Turkey on rat brain tumor and human
cervix carcinoma cell lines
Ayse Sahin Yaglıoglua∗ , Ferda Eserb , Saban Tekinc and Adem Onalb
a Department of Chemistry, Science Faculty, Cankiri Karatekin University, Cankiri, Turkey; b Department of Chemistry, Science & Art
Faculty, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat, Turkey; c Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Science & Art Faculty,
Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat, Turkey
(Received 14 April 2015; accepted 31 August 2015 )

Turkey has a wide range of flora and fauna due to its climatic diversity. Medicinal plants from Turkey have been used
since ancient times for their primary health care. In this study, we examined antiproliferative activities of the extracts
Downloaded by [Gaziosmanpasa Universitesi] at 22:40 13 December 2015

from Crataegus monogyna, Vitis vinifera, Glycrrhiza glabra, Alnus glutinosa L. gaertn, and Alcea rosea against rat brain
tumor (C6) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines. The results were compared with the standard anticancer drugs 5-
Flurouracil (5-FU) and Cisplatin. C. monogyna, V. vinifera and A. rosea exhibited better antiproliferative activity than 5-FU
and cisplatin at 100-75 μg/mL concentrations, against C6 cell lines. On the other hand, C. monogyna and V. vinifera extracts
showed considerable antiproliferative activity against HeLa cells compared with 5-FU and cisplatin at 100-75 μg/mL. It can
be suggested that, C. monogyna, A. glutinosa L. gaertn, V. vinifera and A. rosea extracts could be developed as an anticancer
drug.

Keywords: HeLa; C6; antiproliferative activity; plant extract

Introduction cancer is the second most common type of cancer among


Cancer is one of the leading causes of death and rapidly women worldwide. There were more than half a mil-
becoming global pandemic (Jemal et al. 2009). Many lion new cases of cervical cancer diagnosed in 2010
factors play an important role in the development of can- (De Sanjose et al. 2010; Forouzanfar et al. 2011). Over
cer, such as lifestyle, environment, and nutrition. Cervical the years, the cancer treatment methods have undergone

*Corresponding author. Email: aysesahin@karatekin.edu.tr

© 2015 Taylor & Francis


2 A. Sahin Yaglıoglu et al.

revolutionary changes. On the other hand, chemotherapy of were cultured in DMEM, Sigma, supplemented with 10%
solid tumors is still limited by the lack of anticancer drugs; (v/v) fetal bovine serum (Sigma, Germany) and PenStrep
therefore, new medicines have yet to be developed to cure solution (Sigma, Germany). Cultured cells were detached
cancer (Ferguson et al. 2004). from the flasks with trypsin-EDTA (Sigma, Germany).
Natural products have attracted considerable attention After centrifugation of the cells, pellets were resuspended
from synthetic community for reasons of wide range of to 3 × 105 cells/mL in DMEM. Cells were plated in 96-
plant diversity along with thousands of natural compounds. well plates (COSTAR, Corning, USA) at a density of
Previous studies have demonstrated the role and impor- 3 × 103 cells/well and incubated at 37°C with 5% CO2
tance of herbs and spices in the prevention of cardiovas- overnight for attachment. All the materials used in exper-
cular diseases, carcinogenesis, inflammation, atheroscle- iment were dissolved in sterile DMSO. Tests were carried
rosis, and so on. (Hossain et al. 2008). It is known that out in triplicate for each experiment. Cells were treated
many medicinal plants contain effective chemopreventive with crude extracts at final concentrations of 5, 10, 20,
and antitumor substances (Borrelli et al. 2004). But less 30, 40, 50, 75 and 100 μg/mL. Controls, negative and
than 1% of known 250,000 plant species are investigated positive control wells were treated with culture medium,
for their secondary metabolites and biological activity sterile DMSO, 5-FU and cisplatin, respectively. Treated
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(Farnsworth 1988). cells were incubated at 37°C with 5% CO2 for 24 h. Cell
In this present work, five medicinal plants from Turkey, proliferation was measured by using BrdU Cell Prolifera-
namely Crataegus monogyna (Rosaceae), Vitis vinifera L. tion ELISA (Roche, Germany), a colorimetric immunoas-
(Vitaceae), Glycrrhiza glabra (Fabaceae), Alnus glutinosa say based on BrdU incorporation into the cellular DNA
L. gaertn (Betulaceae), and Alcea rosea (Malvaceae), were according to manufacturer’s procedure. Briefly, cells were
investigated for their antiproliferative activities against C6 pulsed with BrdU labeling reagent for 4 h followed by
and HeLa cancer cell lines. The inhibition potential of fixation in FixDenat solution for 30 min at room temper-
plant extracts is aimed to be determined in terms of cell ature. Thereafter, cells were incubated with 1:100 dilution
proliferation. of anti-BrdU-POD for 1.30 h at room temperature. Finally,
the immune reaction was detected by adding the substrate
solution and the color developed was read at 450 nm with
Materials and methods
a microplate reader.
Plant materials
A. rosea, C. monogyna, V. vinifera L., G. glabra, and
A. glutinosa L. gaertn were collected from Tokat and Statistical analysis
Amasya at their flowering seasons and authenticated by The results of investigation in vitro are presented as
Dr Bedrettin Selvi (Departmant of Biology, Gaziosman- means ± SD of three independent measurements. Statis-
pasa University, Tokat, Turkey). All species were dried in tical comparisons were tested with one-way ANOVA. The
a dark place, at room temperature, until obtaining a stabile P values of < .01 were considered statistically significant.
weight. All statistical calculations were performed using SPSS
(Version 13.5) software.

Preparation of extracts
Plant extract have been prepared according to literature Results and discussion
method (Chon et al. 2009). 10 g of dried and grounded Herbal medicine plays an important role in the prevention
plant material was soaked in 200 mL methanol for three and treatment of cancer (Xiong et al. 2015). Traditional
days at room temperature. The mixture was filtered and medicinal herbs such as C. monogyna (Ozyurek et al. 2012;
the solvent was evaporated under vacuum. Stock solu- Rodrigues et al. 2012), A. glutinosa L. gaertn, G. glabra,
tion of the samples, 5-florouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin A. rosea and V. vinifera L. (Karaman & Kocabas 2001)
were prepared in sterile dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and have been used in the treatment of different diseases in
were diluted with Dulbecco’s modified eagle’s medium Turkey. In this study, different parts of six plant species
(DMEM; 1:20). The final concentration of DMSO was kept (Table 1) were tested for their antiproliferative activity
below 1% in all tests. The stock solutions were stored at against C6 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The antiproliferative
± 4°C until usage. potential of the plant extracts was compared with positive
control drugs, 5-FU and Cisplatin. In terms of antiprolifer-
ative activity against C6 cell lines, C. monogyna extract
Cell culture and cell proliferation assay exhibited the highest performance with its lowest IC50
Antiproliferative effects of the plants were investigated value (29.8 μg/mL) among other extracts (Table 2). C.
against HeLa and C6 cell lines using proliferation BrdU monogyna (common hawthorn) is widely used in tradi-
enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) (Demirtas tional medicine for its beneficial effects (Carvalho 2010).
et al. 2009; Demirtas & Sahin 2013). HeLa and C6 cells Recent studies revealed that, secondary metabolites are
Frontiers in Life Science 3

Table 1. Selected plants used in the study for screening of antiproliferative activity.

Plants Family Parts used Usage of the plants in folk medicine

A. glutinosa Betulaceae Leaves Treatment of several types of cancer (Hartwell 1967), some of its constituents exhibit
various biological properties, including anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities
(Acero & Muñoz-Mingarro 2012).
C. monogyna Rosaceae Flowers Treatment of ailments including high-blood pressure, heart and digestive disorders (Tadic
et al. 2008)
V. vinifera Vitaceae Leaves The leaves of the plant, which have astringent and hemostatic properties, are used in the
treatment of diarrhea, hemorrhage, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, inflammatory disorder,
pain, hepatitis, and free radical-related diseases and externally for centuries in Anatolia
to heal wounds and drain furuncles (Bombardelli & Morazzonni 1995; Baytop 1999;
Lardos & Kreuter 2000)
G. glabra Fabaceae Roots Treatment of upper respiratory tract ailments including coughs, hoarseness, sore throat,
and bronchitis (Saxena 2005)
A. rosea Malvaceae Flowers A. rosea possesses anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and analgesic effects (Wang et al.
1989; Mert et al. 2010; Seyyednejad et al. 2010). The roots of A. rosea have been
used in Iranian traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments, including bronchitis,
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diuretic, diarrhea, constipation, inflammation, severe coughs, and angina (Aghili


Khosarani & Makhzan-Al-Adviah 1992; Zargari 1992)

Table 2. Antiproliferative activities (IC50 = μgmL−1 ) of the lines was found to be 84.33% and 84.00%, at 100 μg/mL
plant extracts against C6 and HeLa cell lines. concentration, respectively. Not only V. vinifera, but also
C. monogyna and A. glutinosa extract exhibited higher
Antiproliferative activity IC50 (μg/mL)
antiproliferative activity than standard drugs against HeLa
C6 cell line HeLa cell cells at 75 μg/mL concentration (P < .01, Figure 2). Pre-
Plant species HeLa cell line line
vious study showed that A. glutinosa (stem bark) exhibits
A. glutinosa L. gaertn 45.7 53.8 inhibitory activity against the human LoVo colon can-
C. monogyna 29.8 34.0 cer, PC3 prostate cancer, and U373 glioblastoma cell
V. vinifera L. 40.1 48.8 lines (Frederich et al. 2009). Main chemical constituents
G. glabra 30.6 61.1
of A. glutinosa were reported as hirsutanonol, oregonin,
A. rosea 37.63 14.48
genkwanin, rhododendron, and glutinic acid (Guz et al.
Note: Data were presented as mean ± SD (n = 3). IC50 : 50% 2002; O’Rourke et al. 2005) which can be attributed its
inhibition of cell growth. biological activity. Genkwanin, rhododendrin, and glutinic
acid are the main constituents of A. glutinosa L. gaertn
responsible from the bioactivity of the plants and the bio- (O’Rourke et al. 2005). It can be suggested that the main
logical effect is mostly the result of synergy or additive constituents of the plant extracts including anthocyanins
effect of the other types of natural compounds (Ramful and polyphenols play an important role in the inhibition
et al. 2011). Therefore, the higher antiproliferative activ- of C6 and HeLa cancer cell lines.
ity of C. monogyna extract (87.33% at 100 μg/mL) can be Considering the antiproliferative activity described by
attributed to its secondary metabolite content, mainly phe- the popular use of C. monogyna, the results of antiprolif-
nolic compounds. Main phenolics of C. monogyna were erative activity tests against HeLa and C6 cell lines sup-
determined as quercetin derivatives and phenolic acids ported the ethnomedicinal use of this plant. C. monogyna
(Rodrigues et al. 2012). It is known that quercetin has had higher antiproliferative activity against C6 cells than
inhibitory effect on various tumor cells (Kandaswami et al. positive controls, 5-FU and Cisplatin at 50–100 μg/mL
2005). In addition, phenolic acids of C. monogyna extract, concentrations (P < .01, Figure 1).
such as gallic and caffeic acid derivatives, had shown For HeLa cells, the highest inhibition value (89.33%)
antiproliferative effect against several cancer lines includ- was obtained with V. vinifera extract at 75 μg/mL con-
ing HeLa cells (Gomes et al. 2003). Another study reported centration (P < .01, Figure 2). On the other hand, V.
a systematic comparison of four different hawthorn parts vinifera extract effect decreases in lower concentrations (5–
relating their human inhibitory activity on human tumor 50 μg/mL). Different parts of V. vinifera have been widely
cell lines. It was found that the flower buds extract of C. investigated against different types of cancer (Kaliora et al.
monogyna represents GI50 (cell growth inhibition) value of 2008; Amico et al. 2009; Lazze et al. 2009; Sung & Lee
63.55 μg/mL for HeLa cells (Rodrigues et al. 2012). 2010; Nechita et al. 2012; Apostolou et al. 2013; Esfa-
C. monogyna, V. vinifera, A. glutinosa L. gaertn, and hanian et al. 2013; Espino et al. 2013; Kountouri et al.
A. rosea possessed considerable antiproliferative activity 2013; Giovannelli et al. 2014; Liang et al. 2014; Sahpazi-
against C6 cell lines (P < .01, Figure 1). Inhibition of dou et al. 2014) and it has been reported that V. vinifera has
A. glutinosa and V. vinifera plant extracts against C6 cell an antiproliferative effect against many cancer cell lines.
4 A. Sahin Yaglıoglu et al.

Figure 1. The antiproliferative activities of the plant extracts against C6 cell lines. The results were expressed as percentage of cell
proliferation inhibition compared with standard drugs. Data were presented as mean ± SD (n = 3).
Downloaded by [Gaziosmanpasa Universitesi] at 22:40 13 December 2015

Figure 2. The antiproliferative activities of the plant extracts against HeLa cell lines. The results were expressed as percentage of cell
proliferation inhibition compared with standard drugs. Data were presented as mean ± SD (n = 3).

Naturally occurring bioactive component of V. vinifera Conclusions


that is responsible from the cardioprotective and cancer In this study, we report antiproliferative activities of
chemopreventive activities (Jang et al. 1997) is identi- several plant extracts, which are used in Turkish folk
fied as resveratrol (3,4 ,5-trihydroxystilbene) (Frankel et al. medicine, against HeLa and C6 cell lines. According to the
1993). results obtained, it is feasible to speculate that C. monog-
Finally, we investigated the antiproliferative activity of yna, V. vinifera, A. glutinosa L. gaertn, and A. rosea plant
G. glabra extract, which exhibited considerable antiprolif- extracts could be a promising alternative natural source of
erative activity against HeLa cell lines (Figure 2) at the chemotherapy agents.
highest concentration (100 μg/mL). It is reported that G.
glabra showed biological activity similar to that of anti-
microtubule drugs which are widely used for the treatment Acknowledgements
of malignancy (DiPaola et al. 1999; Rafi et al. 2002). The The authors thank Dr Ali Karagoz and Prof. Nazlı Arda from
plant-derived phytochemicals are able to inhibit the prolif- Istanbul University, Department of Molecular Biology, for help
eration and apoptosis in tumor cells and therefore there is in providing C6 (Rat Brain tumor cells) and HeLa (human cervix
an increasing interest in plant secondary metabolites and carcinoma) cells. The authors are also grateful to Dr Nihal
Deligonul for the grammatical revision of the manuscript. This
their antiproliferative activities (Alesiani et al. 2010). work is funded by Gaziosmanpasa University Scientific Research
Previous studies on A. rosea plant were focused on its Projects (BAP-File No.2010/39), Tokat, Turkey.
biological activities such as hepatotoxicity (Hussain et al.
2014), tyrosinase inhibitory activity (Namjooyan et al.
2011), antibacterial activity (Seyyednejad et al. 2010). Disclosure statement
Studies on antiproliferative activity of A. rosea plant are No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
not sufficient.
The finding from our study showed that C. monog-
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