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Engineering Encyclopedia

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

REQUIREMENTS FOR PERFORMING


NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING

Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional
Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services.
Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi
Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramco’s employees.
Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public
domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third
parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission
of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.

Chapter : Corrosion For additional information on this subject, contact


File Reference: COE-109.01 PEDD Coordinator on 874-6556
Engineering Encyclopedia Nondestructive Testing and Equipment
Requirements for
Performing Nondestructive Testing

Section Page

INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................ 5
Purpose ............................................................................................................... 5
Advantages.......................................................................................................... 6
Importance .......................................................................................................... 7
Scope .................................................................................................................. 7

IDENTIFYING SIGNIFICANT BASE METAL


AND WELD METAL DISCONTINUITIES ....................................................................... 8
Base Metal Discontinuities................................................................................... 8
Inherent Discontinuities............................................................................. 8
Primary Process Discontinuities ............................................................... 9
Secondary Process Discontinuities......................................................... 10
Weld Metal Discontinuities................................................................................. 11
Cracks in Welds...................................................................................... 11
Slag Inclusions........................................................................................ 12
Lack of Fusion ........................................................................................ 12
Incomplete Root Penetration .................................................................. 13
Weld Undercut ........................................................................................ 14
Cold Lap ................................................................................................. 15
Root Concavity ....................................................................................... 15
Crater Pit................................................................................................. 16
Arc Strike ................................................................................................ 16
Weld Porosity.......................................................................................... 17
Nonrelevant Indications .......................................................................... 18
Defects.................................................................................................... 18

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CODES, STANDARDS, PROCEDURES, AND INSTRUCTIONS


ASSOCIATED WITH NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING AT SAUDI ARAMCO ............... 19
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)................................................... 19
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) ......................................... 19
ASME Code B31.1.................................................................................. 20
ASME Code B31.3.................................................................................. 20
ASME Code B31.4.................................................................................. 20
ASME Code B31.8.................................................................................. 20
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section I ................................ 21
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IV.............................. 21
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V............................... 21
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII............................ 22
American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) ....................................... 22
ASNT SNT-TC-1A................................................................................... 22
American Welding Society (AWS) ..................................................................... 22
American Petroleum Institute (API) ................................................................... 23
API 510 ................................................................................................... 23
API 620 ................................................................................................... 23
API 650 ................................................................................................... 24
API RP-2A .............................................................................................. 24
Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedures (SAEPs) .............................................. 24
SAEP-1145 ............................................................................................. 24
SAEP-1144 ............................................................................................. 25
SAEP-1140 ............................................................................................. 25
SAEP-1142 ............................................................................................. 25
SAEP-1147 ............................................................................................. 25

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Engineering Encyclopedia Nondestructive Testing and Equipment
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LOCATING NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING REQUIREMENTS


AND ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR WELDMENTS .................................................. 26
Power Piping ..................................................................................................... 26
Chemical Piping................................................................................................. 27
Liquid Petroleum and Anhydrous Ammonia Piping............................................ 27
Gas Transmission Piping................................................................................... 27
Power Boilers .................................................................................................... 27
Heating Boilers .................................................................................................. 28
Pressure Vessels............................................................................................... 28
Buildings and Structures.................................................................................... 28
Large Low Pressure Storage Tanks .................................................................. 29
Above Ground Atmospheric Storage Tanks ...................................................... 30
Drilling Platforms ............................................................................................... 31

GLOSSARY ................................................................................................................. 32

WORK AID 1: LIST AND DESCRIPTION/DEFINITION OF DISCONTINUITIES......... 33

WORK AID 2: LIST OF APPLICABLE CODES, STANDARDS,


PROCEDURES, AND INSTRUCTIONS............................................... 35

WORK AID 3: EXCERPTS FROM APPLICABLE NDT CODES.................................. 37

BIBLIOGRAPHY........................................................................................................... 38

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Engineering Encyclopedia Nondestructive Testing and Equipment
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List of Figures

Figure 1. Cracks in Welds ........................................................................................... 11

Figure 2. Slag Inclusions ............................................................................................. 12

Figure 3. Lack of Fusion............................................................................................... 13

Figure 4. Incomplete Root Penetration........................................................................ 13

Figure 5. Weld Undercut ............................................................................................. 14

Figure 6. Cold Lap....................................................................................................... 15

Figure 7. Root Concavity.............................................................................................. 15

Figure 8. Crater Pit ....................................................................................................... 16

Figure 9. Arc Strike....................................................................................................... 17

Figure 10. Porosity ....................................................................................................... 17

List of Tables

Table 1. Inherent Discontinuities ................................................................................... 9

Table 2. Primary Process Discontinuities ...................................................................... 9

Table 3. Secondary Process Discontinuities ............................................................... 10

Table 4. Weld Acceptance Criteria for Buildings and Structures ................................. 28

Table 5. Weld Acceptance Criteria for Large Low Pressure Storage Tanks................. 29

Table 6. Weld Acceptance Criteria for Large Low Pressure Storage Tanks................ 30

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INTRODUCTION
This Module provides information on the requirements for
performance of nondestructive testing (NDT) on various Saudi
Aramco systems. The emphasis of the information is placed on
why NDT is performed and on how to locate the NDT
requirements that are in the various codes and standards.

The material is presented in the following sections:

• Identifying significant base metal and weld metal


discontinuities.
• Identifying the Codes, Standards, Procedures, and
Instructions associated with Nondestructive Testing at Saudi
Aramco.
• Locating Nondestructive Testing requirements and
Acceptance Criteria for weldments.

Purpose
The purpose of nondestructive testing (NDT) is to prevent the
premature failure of components or weldments. The purpose is
also to improve the reliability and the safety of production and
maintenance operations at Saudi Aramco. NDT is used to
check and monitor the condition of equipment used in all
aspects of oil extraction and refining. NDT is used during
fabrication, construction, and maintenance repair activities.

The role of the Engineer is to recognize when NDT can be and


should be used to ensure the safety, quality, and reliability of
Saudi Aramco facilities and equipment. Performance of this role
requires Engineers to have knowledge of the benefits of NDT
and of the requirements for NDT. The requirements for NDT
have been established for specific components and systems,
and these requirements are based on years of experience and
empirical data. Engineers should use this past experience and
the new developments in NDT technology to eliminate material
conditions that have caused problems in the past.

You should already be familiar with the terms NDT, NDE, VT,
PT, MT, UT, RT, and ET. The Instructor will review these terms
briefly.

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Advantages
NDT improves reliability through the detection of potential
problems that could result in premature system or component
failures. Nondestructive tests are performed before the first
installation, after repairs, and at regularly scheduled intervals
throughout the life of critical components. The continuous
performance of NDT at regularly scheduled intervals provides
an added level of confidence in the continued reliability of the
component or system on which the NDT is performed.

Because NDT tested components are not destroyed and can


still be used after they are tested, NDT is more cost effective
than any type of destructive testing. Defects that are identified
through use of NDT during the fabrication of a system cost less
to repair than defects that must be repaired in the field after the
system is operational.

The capability of NDT to identify discontinuities has also led to


an increase in the initial quality of fabrications and repairs.
When a person who fabricates or repairs a component is aware
that the work will be subjected to NDT, that person is more likely
to correctly perform the fabrication or repair. The person knows
that the NDT will identify any discontinuities that he may have
caused.

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Importance
Nondestructive Testing (NDT) is an important tool that allows
the user to find potential problems that could result in an
unexpected failure of piping, vessels, or other components
during normal operation. When a problem is found, it can be
fixed before a situation develops that results in personnel injury,
equipment or production loss, or damage to the environment.

A solid understanding of the principles of the various NDT


methods is required to properly use NDT. By understanding the
basic principles of the various NDT methods, an Engineer will
be able to determine the most appropriate NDT method for a
given test scenario. Not all of the NDT methods are equally
effective. Some NDT methods are only capable of surface
examinations; other NDT methods can examine the entire
volume of welds or components. Some NDT methods cannot
be used on nonferrous materials, and still other methods are not
conducive to extremely corroded or rough surfaces. Module
COE 109.02 will provide more information on the capabilities
and the limitations of the various NDT methods.

Scope
It is not in the context of this module nor is it stated in the
objectives that you will be able to perform or practice NDT
activities either during this course or upon its completion. This
is a basic course on identification of procedures and
discontinuities, identifying the standards required, and locating
the requirements and criteria for NDT. Application of techniques
and performance of NDT is outside the scope of this module.

For the purpose of this course, the Supplemental Text, “ASNT


Manual.” will simply be referred to as the ASTN Manual. If the
standard is an ASTN standard other than this manual, the
specific number will be given.

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IDENTIFYING SIGNIFICANT BASE METAL AND WELD METAL


DISCONTINUITIES

Refer to the Introduction for Lesson 14 in the Supplemental


Text, “ASNT Manual.” These two paragraphs describe the
relationship between discontinuity and a defect in reference to
NDT.

Discontinuities can be further classified as either base metal or


weld metal discontinuities. The geometry of the indication
determines whether the discontinuity is described as a linear
indication or a rounded indication.

Base Metal Discontinuities


A discontinuity is an interruption of the typical structure of a
material such as a lack of homogeneity in the mechanical,
metallurgical, or physical characteristics of the material or
weldment. Base metal discontinuities are classified in accord
with the point in the manufacturing process in which such
discontinuities occur. These discontinuities are classified as
follows:

• Inherent
• Primary Process
• Secondary Process

Inherent
Discontinuities
Inherent discontinuities result from the original melt, casting, or
solidification of the ingot of primary metal or alloy and are given
names, such as stringer, seam, lamination, etc. Table 1 lists
the location of examples in of inherent discontinuities found in
the ASNT Manual on the pages indicated.

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Table 1. Inherent Discontinuities

TYPE OF DISCONTINUITY FIGURE NUMBER PAGE NUMBER IN ASNT

Stinger Figure 14.2 Page 14.4

Seam Figure 14.3 Page 14.5

Lamination Figure 14.4 Page 14.5

Pipe Figure 14.5 Page 14.5

Primary Process
Discontinuities
Primary process discontinuities are formed during the rough
shaping and forming of metals during primary processing such
as forging, casting, rolling and drawing. Table 2 lists the
location of examples of primary process discontinuity found in
the ASNT Manual on the pages indicated.

Table 2. Primary Process Discontinuities

TYPE OF DISCONTINUITY FIGURE NUMBER PAGE NUMBER IN ASNT

Forging Lap Figure 14.6 Page 14.6

Forging Burst Figure 14:7 Page 14:6

Flaking Figure 14:8 Page 14:7

Cold Shut Figure 14:9 Page 14:7

Shrinkage Crack Figure 14:10 Page 14:8

Seam Figure 14:11 Page 14:8

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Secondary
Process
Discontinuities
Secondary process discontinuities are associated with final
finishing operations such as machining and heat treatments.
Table 3 lists the location of examples of secondary process
discontinuities found in the ASNT Manual on the pages
indicated.

Table 3. Secondary Process Discontinuities

TYPE OF DISCONTINUITY FIGURE NUMBER PAGE NUMBER IN ASNT

Heat Crack Figure 14:12 Page 14:8

Quench Crack Figure 14:13 Page 14:9

Grinding Crack Figure 14:14 Page 14:9

Note: For more information on each class of base metal discontinuity, refer to pages
14:4 through 14:9 of the supplemental text, “ASNT Manual.”

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Weld Metal Discontinuities


This section describes the typical weld metal discontinuities that
are encountered in Saudi Aramco systems and components.
For more information on welding discontinuities, refer to pages
14-10 through 14-12 of ASNT. For definitions for discontinuities
refer to Work Aid 1.

Cracks in Welds
Cracks in welds is usually caused by shrinkage due to rapid
cooling or severe restraint of parts while welding or heat
treating.

Figure 1 shows this discontinuity. Cracks can be either


longitudinal (aligned with the weld bead) or transverse
(perpendicular to the weld bead). Cracks can occur from
stresses that are developed during the welding process. Cracks
can be surface or subsurface. Cracks severely reduce the
strength of a weld. Welds with cracks are not reliable. Only
very small cracks are acceptable, and such cracks are only
acceptable in non-critical applications.

Cracks in welds are best detected by RT, UT, MT, PT, or VT.

SUBSURFACE
LONGITUDINAL

Figure 1. Cracks in Welds

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Slag Inclusions
Slag inclusion is usually caused by poor welding technique,
welding with inadequate heat input, or improper bead placement

Figure 2 shows this discontinuity. Slag inclusions are located


within a weld and they occur when gases, impurities, or flux
contaminate a slag weld. Slag inclusions do not always present
a serious problem unless they are very large or if there are
many small inclusions in a given area. Slag inclusions weaken
the welds.

Slag inclusions are best detected by RT and UT.

Figure 2. Slag Inclusions

Lack of Fusion
Lack of fusion is usually caused by welding with inadequate
heat or poor technique in which all metal surfaces are not
melted.

Figure 3 shows this discontinuity. Lack of fusion is usually


located at the weld metal and base metal interface. It occurs
when the molten weld metal does not completely fuse with an
adjacent weld bead or with the base material..

Lack of fusion will almost always be classified as a defect


because the weld is not reliable.

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Lack of fusion is best detected by RT or UT.

Figure 3. Lack of Fusion

Incomplete Root
Penetration
Incomplete root penetration is usually caused by inadequate
heat or improper weld joint fit-up.

Figure 4 shows this discontinuity. Incomplete root penetration


occurs when the weld metal does not completely penetrate into
the root area and consume both base materials. It is usually
located on the root surface.

Incomplete root penetration creates a weak area in the


weldment and is unacceptable in critical applications.

This defect is best detected by RT or UT.

Figure 4. Incomplete Root Penetration

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Weld Undercut
Weld undercut is caused by poor welding technique, excessive
heat, or traveling too fast. This discontinuity is located on the
surface at the weld toe.

Figure 5 shows this discontinuity. Weld undercut is an area in


which the actual weld is less than the specific contour.
Undercutting results in a depression on the surface at the point
at which the weld metal contacts the base metal. As the size of
the undercut increases, the effective cross-sectional area of the
base metal is reduced and causes a decrease in the strength of
the base metal.

This discontinuity is best detected by VT, PT or MT.

Figure 5. Weld Undercut

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Cold Lap
Figure 6 shows a discontinuity called cold lap. Cold lap occurs
when the weld metal freezes too quickly and does not fuse with
the surface of the base metal. Cold lap is most typically found
on the cover pass at the toe of the weld.

TOE
COLD LAP TOE
(GAP)

Figure 6. Cold Lap

Root Concavity
Figure 7 shows a discontinuity called root concavity. Root
concavity occurs in weld joints that are welded from one side
only, an example of which would be pipe. The following are
typical causes of root concavity:

• Too much heat, which causes shrinkage


• A root opening that is too wide
• Insufficient deposits of weld metal

This discontinuity is located on the root surface. It is best


detected by RT or UT.

CONCAVITY

Figure 7. Root Concavity

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Crater Pit
Crater pits result from the rapid breaking of the electric arc so
that the weld puddle freezes too quickly and shrinks, which
leaves a small void.

Figure 8 shows this discontinuity called crater pit. Crater pits


are located on the weld bead surface and are generally
associated with Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW).

This discontinuity is best detected by VT, PT or MT.

Figure 8. Crater Pit

Arc Strike
Arc strikes are caused by dragging the electrode over the
surface of the base metal in an effort to initiate an arc for
welding. It is located on the surface of the weld or base metal

Figure 9 shows a discontinuity called an arc strike. Arc strikes


are caused by dragging the electrode over the surface of the
base metal in an effort to initiate an arc for welding. Such
strikes that are within the weld groove are generally acceptable
as long as the arc is properly prepared and is fully consumed in
the weld.

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This discontinuity is best detected by VT, PT or MT.

Figure 9. Arc Strike

Weld Porosity
Weld porosity is caused by inadequate flux or shielding gas
coverage, which allows oxygen to contaminate the molten weld
metal prior to solidification.

Figure 10 shows this discontinuity. The porosity can be located


on the weld surface but is typically located within the weld.
Moisture or other contaminants, such as oil, that are on the
base metal also can vaporize during welding and can result in
gas bubbles being trapped in the weld metal.

This discontinuity is best detected with RT or UT.

Figure 10. Porosity

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Nonrelevant
Indications
NDT can produce or reveal indications that are not caused by
actual discontinuities and these indications are known as
nonrelevant indications. Examples of nonrelevant indications
include scratches or water spots on radiographic film and liquid
penetrant indications that result from the inability to adequately
remove all of the surface penetrant. Such indications can be
determined to be nonrelevant by the NDT technician based on
the method of NDT, the configuration of the component being
examined, and the appearance of the indication. For more
information on nonrelevant indications, refer to pages 14-2 and
14-3 of ASNT.

Defects
A defect in a component or a weld is a discontinuity or flaw that
would probably result in an early failure of the component or
weld. Because all discontinuities are not defects, acceptance
criteria must be established to identify which discontinuities are
acceptable. Past experience has helped to establish the criteria
for an acceptable discontinuity. These criteria are known as
acceptance criteria. They can be found in the applicable
fabrication and construction codes and standards. The
discontinuities must be compared to the acceptance criteria to
determine whether they actually are defects.

For example, 1/16" of weld undercut in material that is 1" thick


would not be acceptable in piping that is covered by ASME
B31.1 (reference paragraph 136.4.2), but such an undercut
would be acceptable in structural materials that are covered by
AWS D1.1 (reference paragraph 8.15.1.5).

Also, 1/8" of weld reinforcement on a piping girth weld with a


3/8" wall thickness would be acceptable on an ASME B31.3
piping system; however, such a weld reinforcement would not
be acceptable on an ASME B31.1 piping system with a
maximum design temperature that is above 75oF.

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CODES, STANDARDS, PROCEDURES, AND INSTRUCTIONS


ASSOCIATED WITH NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING AT SAUDI ARAMCO
The purpose of the welding standards is to establish the
minimum requirements for design, materials, fabrication,
inspection, and testing of welds to ensure a level of quality and
safety that is consistent with the intended service. Engineers
that are involved with NDT must be familiar with the various
Codes, standards, procedures, and instructions that are
associated with NDT. Excerpts from the Codes, standards,
procedures, and instructions are contained in the Addendum.

Following are some of the Organizations and the codes that


they provide.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is the primary


organization that is responsible for coordinating the activities of
all other standard writing organizations. ANSI primarily reviews
and certifies that the standards are correct. ANSI has
established specific guidelines for the formation of other
standard bodies such as ASME and AWS. Recently, several
ANSI piping standards (B31.1, B31.3, B31.4 and B31.8) have
been reclassified as ASME documents.

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes are


among the most widely used in the petrochemical industry and
they govern items such as pressure vessels, boilers, and piping.
The following is a list of the ASME Codes that will be referenced
during this course:

• ASME Code B31.1


• ASME Code B31.3
• ASME Code B31.4
• ASME Code B31.8
• ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section I

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• ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IV


• ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V
• ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII

ASME Code B31.1


ASME Code B31.1, Power Piping, pertains to the design,
materials, fabrication, test, and inspection of power and auxiliary
piping. Typical systems at Saudi Aramco include steam, water,
gas, oil, and air services that support electric power generation.
Refer to Chapter 1, Scope and Definitions for a more detailed
explanation of the scope of ASME Code B31.1.

ASME Code B31.3


ASME Code B31.3, Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery
Piping, pertains to the design, materials, fabrication, test, and
inspection of chemical piping systems. Typical applications
include on-plot stripping steam, crude oil, acid, caustic, sour
water, and cooling systems that are used to refine petroleum
products. Refer to Chapter 1, Scope and Definitions for a more
detailed explanation of the scope of ASME Code B31.3.

ASME Code B31.4


ASME Code B31.4, Liquid Transportation Systems for
Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and
Alcohols, pertains to the design, construction, inspection,
testing, operation, and maintenance of liquid petroleum and
anhydrous ammonia piping systems. Typical applications
include off-shore and off-plot cross-country pipelines, terminals,
and tank farms. Refer to Chapter 1, Scope and Definitions for
a more detailed explanation of the scope of ASME Code B31.4.

ASME Code B31.8


ASME Code B31.8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping
Systems, pertains to the design, fabrication, installation,
inspection, testing, and operation of gas transmission and
distribution systems (including gas pipelines), gas compressor
stations, and gas metering and regulating stations. Refer to
Chapter 1, General Provisions and Definitions for a more
detailed explanation of the scope of ASME Code B31.8.

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ASME Boiler and


Pressure Vessel
Code, Section I
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section I, Power
Boilers pertains to the design, material selection, fabrication,
inspection, testing, and certification of power boilers that exceed
15 psi for steam service and that exceed 160 psi and/or 250°F
for hot water service. Refer to Part PG, Paragraph PG-1, Scope
and Paragraph PG-2, Service Limitations for a more detailed
explanation of the scope and restrictions of ASME Section I.

ASME Boiler and


Pressure Vessel
Code, Section IV
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IV, Heating
Boilers pertains to the design, material selection, fabrication,
inspection, testing, and certification of heating boilers that do not
exceed 15 psi for steam service or that do not exceed 160 psi
and 250oF for hot water service. Refer to Article 1, Scope and
Service Restrictions for a more detailed explanation of the
scope and restrictions of ASME Section IV.

ASME Boiler and


Pressure Vessel
Code, Section V
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V,
Nondestructive Examination, provides requirements and
methods for NDT that include radiographic, ultrasonic, liquid
penetrant, magnetic particle, eddy current, visual examination,
leak testing, and acoustic emission. Refer to Article 1, General
Requirements for a more detailed explanation of the scope of
ASME Section V.

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ASME Boiler and


Pressure Vessel
Code, Section VIII
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Pressure
Vessels, pertains to the design, material selection, fabrication,
inspection, testing, and certification of pressure vessels. The
three classes of pressure vessels that are covered by this code
are welded, forged, and brazed. Typical applications include
steam generators, heat exchangers, hydrocrackers,
fractionation towers, reformer reactors, and other components
that are designed to contain fluids or vapors at high
temperatures and pressures. Refer to the Division 1 section,
Paragraph U-1, Introduction, for a more detailed explanation of
the scope of ASME Section VIII.

American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT)


ASNT is an organization that is dedicated to NDT. ASNT
organizes and distributes technical information that is specific to
NDT. For example, ASNT developed the manual that is used as
the supplemental text for this course.

ASNT SNT-TC-1A
ASNT SNT-TC-1A, Recommended Practice for Personnel
Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing,
provides requirements for the qualification and certification of
NDT personnel.

American Welding Society (AWS)


The American Welding Society (AWS) is an organization that
provides standards for the welded fabrication of structures and
bridges with structural steel and sheet metal. For the purpose
of this course, only AWS D1.1, the Structural Welding Code, will
be referenced.

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AWS D1.1 provides acceptance standards and welding


requirements for buildings, bridges, and tubular structures. The
requirements for the qualification of weld procedures and
welders also are included in this Code. Typical applications
include structural steel for catwalks, landings, and buildings.
Excerpts of this standard are contained in Addendum A9.

American Petroleum Institute (API)


The American Petroleum Institute (API) establishes guidelines
that are specific to the petroleum industry’s equipment and
products. This course will only reference the following API
Codes:

• API 510
• API 620
• API 650
• API RP-2A

API 510
API 510, Pressure Vessel Inspection Code, provides
requirements for the maintenance inspection, repair, alteration,
and rerating procedures for pressure vessels that are used by
the petroleum and chemical process industries. Refer to
Addendum A10 for a more detailed explanation of the scope of
API 510.

API 620
API 620, Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-
Pressure Storage Tanks, pertains to the design and
construction of large, low pressure, above ground storage tanks.
Typical applications include the storage of gases or vapors that
results from refining operations. Refer to Addendum A11 for a
more detailed explanation of the scope of API 620.

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Engineering Encyclopedia Nondestructive Testing and Equipment
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API 650
API 650, Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage, provides material,
design, fabrication, and testing requirements for above ground
atmospheric tanks. Typical applications include the storage of
crude and other liquid petroleum products. Refer to Addendum
A12 for a more detailed explanation of the scope of API 650.

API RP-2A
API RP-2A, Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing,
and Constructing Fixed Off-Shore Platforms, provides a guide
for the design and construction of drilling platforms. Refer to
Addendum 13 for a more detailed explanation of the scope of
API RP-2A.

Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedures (SAEPs)


There are several Saudi Aramco Inspection Procedures
(SAEPs) that are important to the proper performance of NDT.
These SAEPs listed below have been developed in accordance
with industry Codes and Standards.

• SAEP- 1144, Magnetic Particle Examination


• SAEP-1145, Liquid Penetrant Testing
• SAEP-1140 Qualification and Certification of Saudi Aramco
Nondestruct Examination Personnel.
• SAEP-1142 Qualification and Certification of Non-Saudi
Aramco Nondestruct Examination Personnel.

SAEP-1145
SAEP-1145, Liquid Penetrant Examination of Welds and
Components, is used by Saudi Aramco personnel in the
performance of liquid penetrant examinations to define the
minimum requirements and to establish applicable acceptance
criteria. Refer to Addendum A14 for a more detailed
explanation of the scope of SAEP-1145.

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Engineering Encyclopedia Nondestructive Testing and Equipment
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SAEP-1144
SAEP- 1144, Magnetic Particle Examination of Welds and
Components, is used by Saudi Aramco personnel in the
performance of magnetic particle examinations to define the
minimum requirements and to establish applicable acceptance
criteria. Refer to Addendum A15 for a more detailed
explanation of the scope of SAEP- 1144.

SAEP-1140
SAEP-1140, Qualification and Testing of Saudi Aramco
Nondestruct Testing Personnel, specifies the requirements for
personnel assigned to Saudi Aramco to be certified for
nondestructive testing. It specifies both the training and the
testing necessary and the standards against which they are to
be certified, mainly ASNT SNT-TC-1A.. Refer to Addendum
A16 for a more detailed explanation of the scope SAEP-1140.

SAEP-1142
SAEP-1142, Qualification and Testing of Non-Saudi Aramco
Nondestruct Testing Personnel, specifies the requirements for
personnel who are not assigned to Saudi Aramco to be certified
for nondestructive testing. These NDT technicians are
personnel such as contractor NDT personnel. This standard
specifies both the training and the testing necessary and the
standards against which they are to be certified, mainly ASNT
SNT-TC-1A. .. Refer to Addendum A17 for a more detailed
explanation of the scope SAEP-1140

SAEP-1147
SAEP-1147, Ultrasonic Examination will be a new SAEP that is
currently being prepared. It will be based upon the industry
standards and codes with special emphasis on Saudi Aramco
Procedures. When completed, SAEP-1146 will become
Addendum 18.

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Engineering Encyclopedia Nondestructive Testing and Equipment
Requirements for
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LOCATING NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING REQUIREMENTS AND


ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR WELDMENTS

The applicable codes, standards, procedures, and instructions


that contain the NDT requirements and acceptance criteria are
given under each heading for the following equipment and
materials:

• Power Piping
• Chemical Piping
• Liquid Petroleum and Anhydrous Ammonia Piping
• Gas Transmission Piping
• Power Boilers
• Heating Boilers
• Pressure Vessels
• Buildings and Structures
• Large Low Pressure Storage Tanks
• Above Ground Atmospheric Storage Tanks
• Drilling Platforms

Power Piping
The NDT requirements for power piping welds are described in
ASME B31.1, Chapter VI, Table 136.4. The table shows the
various NDT requirements for pressure welds or for welds to
pressure retaining components based on piping service
conditions. The table also shows that the specific requirements
for NDT depend on the design temperature and pressure ratings
of a given system.

The weld acceptance criteria is located in Paragraph 136.4 of


ASME B31.1 of the Addendum.

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Chemical Piping
Table 341.3.2A of ASME B31.3 located on page A26 of the
Addendum A2 shows the acceptance criteria for welds and is
based on the applicable service conditions. An understanding
of the service condition (normal fluid, severe cyclic, or category
D) is critical to determining the appropriate NDT requirements.

The NDT requirements for chemical piping welds are described


in ASME B31.3, Chapter VI, Paragraph 341.4 located on page
A28 of the Addendum A2.

Liquid Petroleum and Anhydrous Ammonia Piping


The NDT requirements for liquid petroleum and anhydrous
ammonia piping welds are described in ASME B31.4, paragraph
434.8.5. Paragraph 434.8.5 is located on page A46 of the
Addendum A3. Additional requirements for inspection and
testing are described in Chapter VI located on pages A47 and
A48 of the same addendum.

Gas Transmission Piping


The NDT requirements for gas transmission piping welds are
described in ASME B31.8, Chapter II, Paragraph 826. located
on page A57 of Addendum A4. Knowledge of the weld location
class is required to properly determine the NDT requirements.

Power Boilers
The NDT requirements for the fabrication of power boilers are
described in ASME Section I, Part PW. Paragraphs PW-11 and
PW-41 address NDT requirements that are based on
component diameter, wall thickness, and component exposure
to radiant heat or furnace gases. Paragraph PW-11 is located
on page A62 of Addendum A5 and Paragraph PW-41 is located
on page A63.

The weld acceptance criteria is provided in Paragraphs PW-51


and PW-52. Paragraph PW-51 is located on page A65 and
paragraph PW-52 is located on page A66.

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Engineering Encyclopedia Nondestructive Testing and Equipment
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Heating Boilers
ASME Section IV does not require specific NDT beyond a visual
examination. The weld acceptance criteria is provided in
Paragraph HW-820 located on page A71 of Addendum A6.

Pressure Vessels
The NDT requirements for pressure vessel welds are described
in ASME Section VIII, Division 1, paragraph UW-11. located on
page A84 of Addendum A8. The NDT requirements may be
based on the type of weld, the weld category, or the diameter or
the thickness of the weld.

The weld acceptance criteria is provided in Paragraph UW-51


located on page A85.

Buildings and Structures


The NDT requirements for structural welds that are in statically
loaded buildings and structures are described in AWS D1.1
Paragraphs 6.7 and 8.15 located on page A113 and A114,
respectively (Addendum A9). The location of the weld
acceptance criteria is as listed in

Table 4.

Table 4. Weld Acceptance Criteria for Buildings and Structures

TYPE OF NDT PARAGRAPH NUMBER PAGE NUMBER


(ADDENDUM A9

VT 8.15.1 A114

RT 8.15.3 A114

PT 8.15.5 A115

HT 8.15.5 A115

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Engineering Encyclopedia Nondestructive Testing and Equipment
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Large Low Pressure Storage Tanks


The NDT requirements for welds that are in large low pressure
storage tanks are described in API 620, Section 5 on pages
A125 through A129 of the Addendum A11. Information that is
related to the type and orientation of the weld, as well as to the
base material thickness, is required to determine the NDT
requirements.

Table 5 gives the location of the acceptance criteria for Large


Low Pressure Storage Tanks

Table 5. Weld Acceptance Criteria for Large Low Pressure Storage Tanks

TYPE OF NDT PARAGRAPH PAGE NUMBER


NUMBER/CODE (ADDENDUM A9

VT 5.21.1 (Note 1) A128

RT 5.15.4 (Note 2) A125

HT 5.20.4 (Note 3) A127

PT 5.22.4 (Note 4) A129

UT 5.19 A126

(1) These requirements must be agreed to by the purchaser and the


manufacturer.

(2) Refer to ASME Section VIII, paragraph UW-51(b), Page A86 in Addendum A8
for the actual acceptance criteria.

(3) Refer to ASME Section VIII, Appendix 6, Page A104 and A105 in Addendum
A8 for the actual acceptance criteria.

(4) Refer to ASME Section VIII, Appendix 8, Page A109 and A110 in Addendum
A8 for the actual acceptance criteria.

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Above Ground Atmospheric Storage Tanks


The NDT requirements for welds in above ground atmospheric
storage tanks are described in API 650, Section 5, Pages A132
through A134 of Addendum A12. Information that is related to
the type and orientation of the weld, as well as to the base
material thickness, is required to determine the NDT
requirements.

Table 6Table 6 gives the location of the acceptance criteria for


Above Ground Atmospheric Storage Tanks.

Table 6. Weld Acceptance Criteria for Large Low Pressure Storage Tanks

TYPE OF NDT PARAGRAPH PAGE NUMBER


NUMBER/CODE (ADDENDUM A9

RT 6.1.5 (Note 2) A137

HT 6.2.4 (Note 3) A138

PT 6.4.4 (Note 4) A138

UT 6.3.4(Note 1 A138

(1) These requirements must be agreed to by the purchaser and the


manufacturer.

(2) References ASME Section VIII, paragraph UW-51(b) on Page A86 of


Addendum A8 for the actual acceptance criteria.

(3) Refer to ASME Section VIII, Appendix 6, Page A104 and A105 in Addendum
A8 for the actual acceptance criteria.

(4) Refer to ASME Section VIII, Appendix 8, Page A109 and A110 in Addendum
A8 for the actual acceptance criteria.

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Engineering Encyclopedia Nondestructive Testing and Equipment
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Drilling Platforms
NDT requirements for drilling platforms are described in
API RP-2A, Section 13 located on pages A141 through A143 of
Addendum A13. The Weld acceptance criteria is located in
paragraph 13.4.3b of API RP-2A, Section 13. This paragraph
references AWS D1.1 for the actual acceptance criteria. AWS
D1.1 is located on pages A113 through A117 of Addendum 9.

Paragraph 13.4.3b of API RP-2A also states that the


acceptance criteria for other NDT methods must be defined in
the specifications.

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Engineering Encyclopedia Nondestructive Testing and Equipment
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GLOSSARY

defect A discontinuity that does not meet the minimum


acceptable standards or that could result in failure of the
component or weld if placed into service.

discontinuity An interruption of the typical structure of a material such


as a lack of homogeneity in the mechanical, metallurgical,
or physical characteristics.

examination The procedure or method that is used to conduct a


nondestructive test.

ingot A solid metal casting that is suitable for remelting or


working.

inherent discontinuity A discontinuity that occurs during the melting, casting, or


solidification of the ingot of primary metal.

inspection The interpretation of the results that are obtained from a


nondestructive examination.

linear indication An indication (discontinuity) that has a length greater than


three times its width.

nonrelevant indication An indication that is obtained during a nondestructive test


and that is a result of a normal or known condition in a
material, not of a discontinuity or defect.

primary process A discontinuity that occurs during the rough shaping and
forming of metals. This refers to processes such as
forging, casting, rolling, and drawing.

rounded indication An indication (discontinuity) that is circular or elliptical and


that has a length that is three times or less than the width.

secondary process A discontinuity that occurs during final finishing


operations. This includes mechanical operations such as
grinding, machining, plating, or heat treatment. Welding is
sometimes considered to be a secondary process.

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Engineering Encyclopedia Nondestructive Testing and Equipment
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WORK AID 1: LIST AND DESCRIPTION/DEFINITION OF


DISCONTINUITIES
Use the definitions and the descriptions that are provided below.

Arc Strike Caused by dragging the electrode over the base metal in
an effort to initiate an arc for welding.

Burst Appears as a pattern of short, irregular, sharp lines that are c


improper temperature.

Cold Lap Occurs when the weld metal freezes too quickly and does no
found on the cover pass at the toe of the weld.

Cold Shuts Caused by localized cooling of one part of the casting to suc
additional molten metal comes in contact with that area.

Cracks in Welds Can be either longitudinal (aligned with the weld bead) or tra
occur from stresses that are developed during the welding p

Crater Pit Is generally associated with Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTA
electric arc so that the weld puddle freezes too quickly and s

Flaking Occurs as an internal rupture that is associated with rapid co


ranges.

Forging Lap Occurs during a forging process when some of the metal is f
part.

Grinding Cracks Are caused by a localized heating of the surface during the g
a cut, or too rapid of a feed rate.

Incomplete Root Occurs when the weld metal does not completely penetrate

Lack of Fusion Occurs when the molten weld metal does not fuse completel

Lamination Is the result of entrapped gas or cavities in the original ingot


made directional by rolling.

Pipe Is formed during solidification of steel and other metals in


ingot molds when the ingot cools more rapidly at the
outside surfaces causing the formation of a central cavity
as the result of shrinkage.

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Engineering Encyclopedia Nondestructive Testing and Equipment
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Porosity Is caused by inadequate flux or shielding gas coverage


that allows oxygen to contaminate the molten weld metal
prior to solidification. Moisture or other contaminants, like
oil, on the base metal also can vaporize during welding
and can result in gas bubbles being trapped in the weld
metal.

Quench Cracks Occur during the cooling cycle and are usually found at
sharp changes of section or points of high stress
concentration.

Root Concavity Occurs in weld joints welded from one side only, like pipe.
Either too much heat resulting in shrinkage, too wide of a
root opening, or insufficient weld metal deposited are
typical causes.

Seam Is found mostly in bar stock and is caused by cracks or


other face defects in the billet.

Slag Inclusions Occur when gases, impurities, or flux contaminate a weld.

Stringers Are caused by oxides, sulphides, or other refractory


materials and impurities that are entrapped in the molten
metal as it solidifies in the ingot mold.

Shrinkage Cracks Develop during cooling of solidified metal as a result of the


great contraction that occurs during the cooling process.

Weld Undercut Is an area where the actual weld is less than the specific
contour. Undercutting results in a depression in the area
where the weld metal contacts the base metal.

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Engineering Encyclopedia Nondestructive Testing and Equipment
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WORK AID 2: LIST OF APPLICABLE CODES, STANDARDS,


PROCEDURES, AND INSTRUCTIONS
This Work Aid is designed to assist the Participants.

ASME Code B31.1 Power Piping, pertains to power and auxiliary piping.

ASME Code B31.3 Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping,


pertains to chemical piping systems.

ASME Code B31.4 Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons,


Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and
Alcohols, pertains to the operation and maintenance of
liquid petroleum and anhydrous ammonia piping systems
including.

ASME Code B31.8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems,


pertains to gas transmission and distribution systems
(including gas pipelines), gas compressor stations, and
gas metering, and regulating stations.

ASME Section I, Power Boilers, pertains to power boilers that exceed 15


psi for steam service and that exceed 160 psi and/or
250oF for hot water service.

ASME Section IV, Heating Boilers, pertains to heating boilers that do not
exceed 15 psi for steam service or do not exceed 160 psi
and 250oF for hot water service.

ASME Section V, Nondestructive Examination, provides requirements


and methods for NDT including radiographic, ultrasonic,
liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, eddy current, visual
examination, leak testing, and acoustic emission.

ASME Sect. VIII, Pressure Vessels, pertains to pressure vessels.

ASNT SNT-TC-1A, Recommended Practice for Personnel Qualification


and Certification in Nondestructive Testing, provides
requirements for the qualification and certification of NDT
personnel.

AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code, provides acceptance


standards and welding requirements for buildings, bridges
and tubular structures.

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Engineering Encyclopedia Nondestructive Testing and Equipment
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API 510 Pressure Vessel Inspection Code, provides


requirements for the maintenance inspection, repair,
alteration, and rerating procedures for pressure vessels
that are used by the petroleum and chemical process
industries.

API 620 Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-


Pressure Storage Tanks, pertains to the design and
construction of large, low pressure, above ground storage
tanks.

API 650 Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage, provides material,
design, fabrication, and testing requirements for above
ground atmospheric tanks.

API RP-2A Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing, and


Constructing Fixed Off-Shore Platforms, provides a
guide for the design and construction of drilling platforms.

SAIP-04-P Liquid Penetrant Examination of Welds and


Components, is used by Saudi Aramco personnel in the
performance of liquid penetrant examinations to define the
minimum requirements and establish applicable
acceptance criteria.

SAIP-05-P Magnetic Particle Examination of Welds and


Components, is used by Saudi Aramco personnel in the
performance of magnetic particle examinations to define
the minimum requirements and establish applicable
acceptance criteria.

GI 448.001 Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive


Examination Personnel, is the instruction that establishes
procedures and defines the requirements for the
qualification and certification of Saudi Aramco NDT
personnel.

GI 448.010 Radiographic Examination, is used by Saudi Aramco


personnel when performing radiographic testing to
determine the minimum requirements and establish
applicable acceptance criteria.

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Engineering Encyclopedia Nondestructive Testing and Equipment
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WORK AID 3: EXCERPTS FROM APPLICABLE NDT CODES


Refer to pages A1 through A244 of the Addendum for the
excerpts from the applicable codes, standards, procedures, and
instructions.

defect A discontinuity that does not meet the minimum


acceptable standards or that could result in failure of the
component or weld if placed into service.

discontinuity An interruption of the typical structure of a material such


as a lack of homogeneity in the mechanical,
metallurgical, or physical characteristics.

examination The procedure or method that is used to conduct a


nondestructive test.

ingot A solid metal casting that is suitable for remelting or


working.

inherent discontinuity A discontinuity that occurs during the melting, casting, or


solidification of the ingot of primary metal.

inspection The interpretation of the results that are obtained from a


nondestructive examination.

linear indication An indication (discontinuity) that has a length greater


than three times its width.

nonrelevant indication An indication that is obtained during a nondestructive test


and that is a result of a normal or known condition in a
material, not of a discontinuity or defect.

primary process A discontinuity that occurs during the rough shaping and
forming of metals. This refers to processes such as
forging, casting, rolling, and drawing.

rounded indication An indication (discontinuity) that is circular or elliptical


and that has a length that is three times or less than the
width.

secondary process A discontinuity that occurs during final finishing


operations. This includes mechanical operations such as
grinding, machining, plating, or heat treatment. Welding
is sometimes considered to be a secondary process.

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Engineering Encyclopedia Nondestructive Testing and Equipment
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Performing Nondestructive Testing

BIBLIOGRAPHY

API 510 (1992), Pressure Vessel Inspection Code.


API 620 (1996), Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage
Tanks.
API 650 (1993, Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage. (ADDENDUM 2, 1995)
API RP-2A (1996), Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing, and Constructing
Fixed Off-Shore Platforms.
ASME Code B31.1 (1995), Power Piping.
ASME Code B31.3 (1996), Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping.
ASME Code B31.4 (1992),Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid
Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohol.
ASME Code B31.8 (1995), Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping System.
ASME Section I (1995), Rules for the Construction of Power Boiler.
ASME Section IV, (1995), Rules for the Construction of Heating Boiler.
ASME Section V, (1995), Nondestructive Examination.
ASME Sect. VIII, (1995), Rules for the Construction of Pressure Vessel.
ASNT Handbook
ASNT SNT-TC-1A, (1986),Recommended Practice for Personnel Qualification and
Certification in Nondestructive Testing.
AWS D1.1, (1996),Structural Welding Code.
SAEP-1140 (15 Jan 1997), Qualification and Certification of Saudi Aramco Nondestruct
Examination Personnel.
SAEP-1142 (12 Dec 1996), Qualification and Certification of Non-Saudi Aramco
Nondestruct Examination Personnel.
SAEP-1144, Magnetic Particle Examination of Welds and Components.
SAEP-1145, Liquid Penetrant Examination of Welds and Components.
NOTE A new SAEP-1147 will be developed for Ultrasonic Examination

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