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May 27, 2019

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Elect/electronics class note

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Elect/electronics class note

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- Network Analysis – Kirchhoff’s Law, Three Phase Circuits, Star-Delta Connections

- Measurements – S.I Units D.C and Indicating Instruments

ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY

The key idea behind electromagnetism is that an electric current should produce a magnetic

field. This phenomenon was discovered in 1820, when Hans Christian Oersted observed that

a compass needle was deflected by an electric current through a neighbouring wire.

field. Electromagnetism is involved in the operation of some basic electric devices which

have played a key role in the civilisation of our modern society. For instance, in operation of

generators, motors, measuring instruments, and transformers. Understanding the

fundamental principles of magnetism is key to understanding the operation of electrical

machinery.

- MAGNETIC FIELDS

A magnet is a material that has the ability of attracting iron or steel. They are found in a natural

state in the form of the mineral called magnetite. But, natural magnets have no practical value

and commercial magnets are made artificially from iron and steel or alloy materials. In general,

materials that are repelled and attracted by magnets are called magnetic materials.

Depending on their ability to retain magnetism, magnets may be classified as being permanent

(when the magnet has the ability to retain its magnetism indefinitely, e.g. a magnetized

hardened steel) or temporary (magnetic material only retains a small part of its magnetism after

the magnetizing force is removed e.g. a magnetized soft iron).

Permanent magnets are used widely in electric instruments, meters, telephone receivers, etc. In

electric generators and motors where it is desirable to control the amount of magnetism present

in the magnet, soft-iron temporary magnets are useful.

A straight bar of steel when magnetized is called a bar magnet. When a bar magnet is dipped

into iron filings, it is noticed that the filings arrange themselves in definite paths or lines

between the poles and most are attracted to the ends of the bar while very few are attracted to

the center of the magnet. The areas at the end of the magnet where the attractive force is the

greatest are called the poles of the magnet. Opposite poles attract while like poles repel, similar

to the electric charge, opposite charges attract while like charges repel. Main difference being

that the north and south pole of a magnet are aligned in such a manner that they cannot travel

individually, unlike the electric charges that move towards one terminal or the other. The north

and south pole rotate and align themselves with the direction of the field lines. That is to say,

if you cut a magnet in half, you get two smaller magnets that still each have a north and a south

pole (north cannot exist without south). Another key difference is that the flow of current in an

electric circuit involves continuous expenditure of energy, but in a magnetic circuit, energy is

needed only to create the initial flux, but not to maintain it.

Generally, a magnet will tilt/position itself in a north and south direction when freely

suspended. The end of the magnet pointing north is called the north pole of the magnet, while

the end pointing south is called the south pole [4, 5]. Furthermore, if a compass (which is

simply a freely suspended magnetized steel needle) is placed in a magnetic ﬁeld at various

positions, the direction of the lines of ﬂux may be determined by noting the direction of the

compass pointer. The pole toward which the needle points is called the south pole of the

magnet, and the other pole is called the north pole.

The area around a magnet is called the magnetic ﬁeld or circuit (The flow of magnetic flux

induced in the ferromagnetic core can be made analogous to an electrical circuit hence the

name magnetic circuit) and it is in this area that the effects of the magnetic force produced by

the magnet can be detected. Magnetic fields are the key mechanism by which energy is

converted from one form to another in electric machinery. Note, the magnetic ﬁeld is a vector

ﬁeld. That is to say that at every point in space, the ﬁeld has a magnitude and a direction [10].

The magnetic field or entire quantity of magnetic lines surrounding a magnet taken as a whole

is called magnetic flux (ɸ) with its units called weber, (Wb). The number of lines of force per

unit area is called the magnetic flux density (B) with its units in telsa (T) or gauss (G) ;

T = 1 Wb/m2

𝑚𝑎𝑔𝑛𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑥 ɸ

Magnetic flux density = ; B = 𝐴 Telsa or Wb/m2….. Where Area (A) is m2

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎

Magnetomotive force (MMF) is the cause of the existence of a magnetic ﬂux in a magnetic

circuit. It drives or tends to drive the flux through a magnetic circuit, similar to the EMF in

electric circuits.

MMF, Fm = NI; N is the number of conductors (or turns) and I is the current in amperes.

The unit of MMF is sometimes expressed as N/Wb or ‘ampere-turns’. However since ‘turns’

have no dimensions, the SI unit of MMF is the ampere.

𝑁𝐼

H= , where l is the length of flux path in meters; Thus Fm = NI = Hl amperes

𝑙

The opposition offered to the establishment of magnetic lines of force in a magnetic circuit is

called the reluctance of the circuit. In other words, Reluctance (S or RM) is the ‘magnetic

resistance’ of a magnetic circuit to the presence of magnetic ﬂux.

𝐹𝑚 𝑁𝐼 𝐻𝑙 𝑙 𝑙

Reluctance (S) = = = 𝐵𝐴 = 𝐵 =μ

ɸ ɸ ( )𝐴 0 μ𝑟 𝐴

𝐻

μ0 is the permeability of free space (or the magnetic space constant) and is equal to 4π X 10-7

H/m or Newton/Ampere2, i.e., for air, or any non-magnetic medium, (B/H) = μ0 ; But for all

other media other than free space, B/H = μ0 μ𝑟 .

The unit of reluctance is 1/H (or H-1) or A/Wb. “H” here stands for henry. [5, 8]

Air has a much higher reluctance than does iron or steel. For this reason, magnetic circuits

such as are used in generators and motors are designed with very small air gaps, the greater

part of the path followed by the lines of force being iron.

A summary of the comparison between electrical and magnetic quantities is shown below in

table 1.

- ELECTROMAGNETISM

As mentioned earlier, magnetic fields can be created not just by permanent magnets, but by

electric currents. To demonstrate this, put a piece of wire, arranged to pass vertically through a

horizontal sheet of cardboard, on which is placed some iron ﬁlings, as shown in Figure 2(a). If

a current is now passed through the wire, then the iron ﬁlings will form a deﬁnite circular ﬁeld

pattern with the wire at the centre, when the cardboard is gently tapped. By placing a compass

in different positions the lines of ﬂux are seen to have a deﬁnite direction (see figure 2b). If the

current direction is reversed, the direction of the lines of ﬂux is also reversed. When the current

supply is switched off, the effect on the iron fillings disappear, thus, we may conclude that the

magnetic field is produced by the electric current. The magnetic ﬂux produced has similar

properties as the ﬂux produced by a permanent magnet. If the current is increased the strength

of the ﬁeld increases and, as for the permanent magnet, the ﬁeld strength decreases as we move

away from the current carrying conductor [5].

Figure 2. Demonstration of magnetic field induced by electric flow. (a) Cardboard sheet

showing iron fillings with a wire passed through it and (b) Alignment of iron fillings due to

electric current [5].

To show this in another way, if we took two parallel wires close to each other and ran a current

through them in same direction, the wires would attract each other and also repel each other

when you ran the current through the two wires in opposite directions. This attraction and

repulsion is due to the presence of a magnetic field induced by the flow of current.

To understand this better, we may apply the Fleming's first right hand rule. The basic idea is

that if you put your right thumb in the direction of the current, and then curl your fingers, the

magnetic field would be in the direction of your fingers.

Figure 3. Fleming's first right hand rule.

Also, when a current carrying conductor comes in contact with a magnetic field like the one

that would be induced by one of the two wires on the other, there would be a force acting on

the conductor. Fleming’s second rule suggest that if your index finger points in the direction of

a magnetic field, and your middle finger, at a 90o a to your index, points in the direction of the

current flow, then your extended thumb points in the direction of the force exerted upon that

conductor.

Andre-Marie Ampere conducted some experiments in the 1820s involving wires to learn more

about the connection between currents and the magnetic field they create. His research led to

one of the basic laws of electromagnetism.

- AMPERE’S LAW

This is the basic law governing the production of a magnetic field by a current. It states that

the integral around a closed path of the component of a magnetic field tangent to the direction

of the path equals the magnetic constant (μ0 ) times the current intercepted by the area within

the path.

Cos θ is the angle between the enclosed current and the magnetic field

Amperes law helps us calculate the strengths of the currents and magnetic field between

loops of current carrying conductors. Generally, the magnetic field developed by typical

currents is not very strong for single piece of wire, hence they are usually wrapped together

to form a coil of wire called a solenoid. When a solenoid has current running through it, it

produces a magnetic field which passes through inside of the coil and the magnetic field is

similar to that of a bar magnet. If the solenoid is wound on a ferromagnetic material, an even

stronger magnetic ﬁeld is produced, the iron becoming magnetized and behaving like a

permanent magnet. In general, most electromagnets are often confined in a ferromagnetic

core to reduce the “losses” (leakage flux) in the circuit. The solenoid, provides the basis of

many items of electrical equipment, like electric bells, relays, lifting magnets and telephone

receivers.

Figure 5. (a) magnetic field of solenoid and (b), magnetic field of a solenoid wrapped around

an iron core [5].

The equation for ampere’s law applies to any kind of loop of wires, not just a circle surrounding

current, no matter how arranged or shaped. The law is valid as long as the current is constant.

The algebraic signs of the current are observed (i.e. those going “out” of the surface are

positive, while those going “in” are negative).

In equation 1 above, the idea behind the summation symbol is that we are adding up every little

bits of magnetic field around the loop and ds because every tiny infinite section of the loop is

added. Recall that integral is used when infinite small values are added.

Also, if we consider a current carrying conductor, we notice that the magnetic field coming

from the wire is parallel to the wire at every point, therefore, the angle θ is 0 and cos 0 =1.

Additionally, every point of the circle is the exact same distance from the wire, thus, B would

be same at every point (B is constant throughout). Knowing this, we may re-write the LHS of

equation 1 as

𝛍𝟎 •𝑰

B= …………… (3)

𝟐𝛑𝐫

Recall that the magnetic field produced by neighboring wires produce a force in each other.

The force direction of the force can always be determine by applying Flemings rule. The

magnitude of the force created by the magnetic field is given as

F = I LB sinθ

However, since θ is 90o and sin 90o is 1, the force (F) is given as

F = I LB……… (4)

A motor is the basic device used to convert electrical energy to mechanical energy. It is

employed in almost all facets of our daily lives, in fans and washing machines as well as

being employed in many industrial applications. If you stick a loop of current carrying wires

in the magnetic field, which is free to rotate about its own axis, the loop of wire turns. This is

because the magnetic field would create a torque on the coil of wire.

Figure 6. Principle of Simple DC Motor [5].

When current ﬂows in the coil (The DC is fed to the coil through carbon brushes bearing on a

commutator), a magnetic ﬁeld is set up around the coil which interacts with the magnetic ﬁeld

produced by the magnets. This causes a force F to be exerted on the current-carrying

conductor which, by Fleming’s left-hand rule, is downwards between points A and B and

upward between C and D for the current direction shown. This causes a torque and the coil

rotates anticlockwise. When the coil has turned through 90° from the position shown in

Figure 6 the brushes connected to the positive and negative terminals of the supply make

contact with different halves of the commutator ring, thus reversing the direction of the

current ﬂow in the conductor. This current reversal is crucial, otherwise, if the coil rotates

past this position, the forces acting on it change direction and it rotates in the opposite

direction thus never making more than half a revolution. The current direction is reversed

every time the coil swings through the vertical position and thus the coil rotates anti-

clockwise for as long as the current ﬂows. This is the principle of operation of a DC motor.

An AC motor operates in a similar way, just that the power reversal is made possible by the

alternating nature of the current.

Example 1

A conductor 350 mm long carries a current of 10A and is at right-angles to a magnetic ﬁeld

lying between two circular pole faces each of radius 60 mm. If the total ﬂux between the pole

faces is 0.5mWb, calculate the magnitude of the force exerted on the conductor.

Solution

L = 350 mm = 0.35 m; I = 10 A;

Area of pole face A = πr2 = π(0.06)2;

ɸ

F = IBL, and B = 𝐴

ɸ 0.5 𝑋 10−3

F = (𝐴)IL = (10)(0.35)𝑁

π(0.06)2

F = 0.155N

Example 2

A current of 50A flows east on a stationary wire. A second wire is 1cm below it. How much

current must be flowing in the second wire so that it doesn’t fall due to gravity? What is the

direction of the flow of current? The mass per unit length of the second wire is 5g/m.

Solution

Since the current in the first wire is flowing east and we want the second wire below it not to

fall due to gravity, it then follows that an upward force, pulling the second wire towards the

first would be required. Since there is an attraction when a current is run between two wires

in same direction, the current in the second wire would also need to flow in the direction of

the first (i.e flowing east)

Thus, in the second wire, there would be a gravitational force (mg) downwards and a force in

the direction of the magnetic field, towards the first wire. It then follows that the total forces

acting on the second wire is

ΣF2 = +FB – mg (+ve and –ve signs used to indicate direction of force)

If the second wire is required not to fall due to mg, the force acting in opposite direction

should be same to keep the wire in same position. i.e ΣF2 = 0; +FB = mg.

The mass of the wire is not given but the mass per unit length is given, if we divide the both

side of the equation by l (forces acting on wire 2)

FB/l = (m/l)g ; m/l is mass per unit length which is 5g/m = 0.005kg/m

𝛍𝟎 •𝑰𝟏 𝑰𝟐 𝑳 𝑭 𝟐𝛑𝐫

F= ; I2 = 𝑳 • 𝛍

𝟐𝛑𝐫 𝟎 •𝑰𝟏

(𝟎.𝟎𝟒𝟗)(𝟐𝝅)(𝟎.𝟎𝟏𝒎)

I2 = = 49A

𝟒𝝅 𝑿 𝟏𝟎−𝟕 (𝟓𝟎)

Example 3

Determine the current required in a 400 mm length of conductor of an electric motor, when

the conductor is situated at right-angles to a magnetic ﬁeld of ﬂux density 1.2T, if a force of

1.92 N is to be exerted on the conductor. If the conductor is vertical, the current ﬂowing

downwards and the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is from left to right, what is the direction

of the force?

Solution

F = IBL, I = F/(BL)

1.92

Thus, Current, I = (0.4)(1.2) = 4A

Applying Fleming’s left-hand rule, the force on the conductor will be from back to front (i.e.

toward the viewer).

- FARADAY’S LAW

Faraday found that it is possible to induce a current through a magnetic field but under certain

conditions; when the magnetic field is changing with time. This application is used in many

electrical machines/appliances. E.g. Generators, transformers, etc.

He achieved this by setting up an experiment with an electric current flowing through a coil

of wire and watched if the magnetic field would induce a current in a nearby second coil of

wire. But there was NO current induced. However, he noticed that when he turned the current

on and off in the first coil, there was a brief spike of current induced in the second coil. This

means that a constant magnetic field did not induce a current in a nearby wire, only a

changing magnetic field.

Faraday discovered this 1831, that a changing magnetic field would induce an EMF (which is

what causes electrons to move, forming a current or sometimes called “induced current”) in a

loop of wire. Faraday also noticed that a magnetic field is not only altered by switching as

mentioned above, it may also be altered by changing the area of the coil as well as changing

the angle between the coil and the magnetic field (i.e. moving the coil through the magnetic

field).

Consequently, the amount of EMF induced also depends on the number of coils. Each coil has

an EMF induced in it and since the turns are in series, the total EMF of the coil is the sum of

the EMFs of each of the turns. This concept is applied to production of step up and step down

transformers. The amount of EMF induced increases directly with the number of turns on the

coil.

Also, when the speed at which a given coil is moved into the field is increased, the induced

EMF is greater, the EMF being directly proportional to the speed at which the lines of force

are cut. Furthermore, the strength of the field is also a factor affecting the induced EMF since,

at a given speed, more lines of force are cut per second in a strong field than in a weak field.

The magnetic flux is simply a measure of the magnetic field running through the loop of wire.

The magnetic flux (ɸ) is given by

ɸ = B•A

Furthermore, the magnitude of the induced EMF in any circuit is proportional to the rate of

change of the magnetic ﬂux linking the circuit. Thus, the EMF (V) induced by the changing

magnetic field is given by the expression

𝜟ɸ

V= 𝜟𝒕

𝒅ɸ

OR V = -N 𝒅𝒕

Also, the –ve sign signify the fact that the induced EMF sets up a current in such a direction

that the magnetic effect produced by it opposes the very cause producing it. This effect was

investigated by Emil Lenz in 1834. Lenz’s law says that “The direction of an induced EMF is

always such that it tends to set up a current opposing the motion or the change of ﬂux

responsible for inducing that EMF”

From the equation above, we see that the magnitude of the EMF induced is a function of the

magnetic field strength as well as time.

Consequently, if the flux linking the coil does not change, such as when the coil simply sits

still in a magnetic field of fixed strength, dφ/dt = 0, and the induced voltage (EMF)

V = N(dφ/dt) = N(O) = O.

As mentioned above, the concept of Faraday’s law is used in construction of basic electrical

machines like the transformer and the generator. In the case of a transformer, they are static

machines that are used to transfer power from one circuit to another without changing its

frequency. They can also be used to alter voltage levels between the two circuits. In electrical

engineering, the need arises to change voltage levels for different reasons. For example, when

transporting electrical energy over long distances, it is economical to do so at high voltages to

reduce the losses. The voltages produced by conventional generators are not high enough for

effective transmission over long distances. The energy produced at “nominal” voltage level is

then fed to a step up transformer, where the voltage is stepped up and then transmitted over

long distances. A step down transformer is usually at the receiving end, to step the voltage

down to a level acceptable by the appliances they are required to power.

A transformer is made up of two sets of windings, wound in a ferromagnetic core (to confine

the magnetic field to the core). The primary winding is connected to the power supply which

induces a magnetic field. Due to the nature of AC currents (going from a maximum positive

value to a maximum negative value in) the magnetic field is altered and asuch an EMF is

induced in the secondary winding within the vicinity of the primary winding. The voltage

induced is in the secondary winding is same as the voltage of the primary winding. However,

the number of turns in the secondary winding dictates if the voltage is increased or reduced. If

there are more number of turns in the secondary winding, a greater voltage is induced, while a

smaller voltage is induced if the number of turns in the secondary winding is smaller compared

to the number of turns in the primary winding. The induced EMF in the secondary winding

enables it to deliver current to an external load connected across it.

In the case of a generator, conductors forming an electric circuit are made to move through a

magnetic ﬁeld. Thus the magnetic field is altered and an EMF is induced in the conductors,

thus, a source of EMF is created. The conductor is connected to an external load. Therefore, a

generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

- INDUCTANCE

Inductance is the property of a circuit whereby an EMF is induced into the circuit by the change

of ﬂux linkages produced by a change in current change.

When the EMF is induced in the same circuit as that in which the current is changing, the

property is called self-inductance (L). For brevity, the prefix self is usually dropped. Inductance

is measured in Henries (H), after the American physicist Joseph Henry.

When the EMF produced by the changing magnetic field is induced in an adjacent circuit, the

property is called mutual inductance (M).

A circuit has an inductance of one henry when an EMF of one volt is induced in it by a current

changing at the rate of one ampere per second.

inductance into a circuit. The inductance of a coil varies directly with the magnetic properties

of the coil. Ferromagnetic materials, therefore, are often employed to increase the inductance

by increasing the flux linking the coil.

Earlier, the expression for induced EMF (in terms of N turns) due to the change in a magnetic

field was given. However, induced EMF in a coil of inductance L in Henry is

𝒅𝐈

V = -L 𝒅𝒕

dt is the time taken for the current to change in seconds(i.e., dI/dt is the rate of change of

current).

Again, the minus sign in the equation is to remind the reader of EMF direction (given by Lenz’s

law).

If a current changing from 0 to I amperes, produces a ﬂux change from 0 to ɸ Webers, then dI

= I and dɸ = ɸ. Thus from the above equations on inductance, induced EMF,

V = Nɸ/t = LI/t,

𝑵ɸ

Thus, L= 𝑰

Equations for the inductance of coils different from those shown above can be found in

reference texts. Most of the equations are more complex than those just described.

Also, an ideal inductor has the ability to store energy (with no loss associated with it) like a

capacitor. The energy stored, W, in the magnetic ﬁeld of an inductor is given by:

W = ½ LI2 Joules

The resistance offered by an inductor is called inductive reactance (X) and is given by

X = 2πFL

allow a DC signal to pass through while also blocking an AC signal. Based on the equation

for inductor resistance above, inductors are often employed for this purpose.

Recall that a DC signal has its frequency = 0. Thus X is 0 (offers very low resistance to DC).

But in AC, the value of F is never 0, Thus, X ≠ 0 (offers maximum resistance to AC).

This is the reason why an inductor passes a DC signal and blocks an AC signal.

Inductors are classified according to core type. The core is the center of the inductor just as the

core of an apple is the center of an apple. The inductor is made by forming a coil of wire around

a core. The core material is normally one of two basic types: soft-iron or air. The schematic

symbol of an iron-core inductor is shown in figure 7a below (which is represented with lines

across the top of it to indicate the presence of an iron core). An iron-cored inductor is often

called a choke since, when used in AC circuits, it has a choking effect, limiting the current

ﬂowing through it. The air-core inductor (schematic symbol shown in figure 7(a) below) may

be nothing more than a coil of wire, but it is usually a coil formed around a hollow form of

some nonmagnetic material such as cardboard. This material serves no purpose other than to

hold the shape of the coil.

Inductance is often undesirable in a circuit. To reduce inductance to a minimum the wire may

be bent back on itself, as shown in Figure 7(b), so that the magnetizing effect of one

conductor is neutralized by that of the adjacent conductor. The wire may be coiled around an

insulator, as shown, without increasing the inductance.

Figure 7.(a) Inductor symbols and (b) Inductor designed in such a way to reduce inductance

[5].

Example 4

A ﬂux of 25 mWb links with a 1500 turn coil when a current of 3A passes through the coil.

Calculate (a) the inductance of the coil, (b) the energy stored in the magnetic ﬁeld, and (c) the

average EMF induced if the current falls to zero in 150ms.

Solution

𝑁ɸ (𝟏𝟓𝟎𝟎)(𝟎.𝟎𝟐𝟓)

(a) Inductance L = = = 12.5H

𝐼 𝟑

𝑑I 3−0

(c) Induced EMF, V = -L 𝑑𝑡 = (-12.5) (0.15) = -250V

OR we may use the other expression for induced EMF because if the current falls o

zero, so does the magnetic flux.

𝑑ɸ 0.025

V = -N = -(1500) = -250V

𝑑𝑡 0.15

Example 5

A 750 turn coil of inductance 3H carries a current of 2 A. Calculate the ﬂux linking the coil

and the EMF induced in the coil when the current collapses to zero in 20ms.

Solution

𝑵ɸ

Coil inductance, L = ;

𝑰

𝐿𝐼 3•2

Flux ɸ = = 750 = 0.008 = 8mWb

𝑁

𝑑I 2−0

Induced EMF, V = -L 𝑑𝑡 = (-3) (0.02) = -300V

𝑑ɸ 0.008

(OR using V = -N = -(750) = -300V)

𝑑𝑡 0.02

- NETWORK ANALYSIS

- Kirchhoff’s Law

Putting aside ohm’s law and the laws of resistors connected in series and parallel, Kirchhoff’s

laws are one of the vital laws in determining the currents and voltage drops in an electrical

circuit/network.

commonly used in electric circuit analysis.

- Electric Network; this is a connection of several elements. The circuit diagram in figure

8 below is an electric network.

a closed path. This closed path is often called loop or mesh. In figure 8, meshes BDEB,

ABCA and BCDB are electric circuits because they form a closed path.

- Node; also called a junction, is a connection point of several circuit elements. For

example, A, B, C, D and E are five nodes in the electric network of figure 8.

- Branch; this is the path in an electric network between two nodes. AB, BE, BD, BC,

CD and DE are branches in the network of figure 8.

Figure 8. An electric network showing nodes, branches, elements and loops/meshes [9].

Kirchhoff’s laws are the basic laws that must be satisfied among the currents and voltages in

a circuit. These laws are known as Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL) and Kirchhoff’s voltage

law (KVL).

Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL) states that, at any node of any circuit and at any instant of

time, the sum of all currents entering the node is equal to the sum of all currents leaving the

node. That is, the algebraic sum of all currents (entering or leaving) at any node is zero, or no

node can accumulate or store charge.

I1 + I4 = I2 + I3

Example 6

Consider the circuit shown in Figure 9 and determine the unknown currents using KCL [7].

Figure 9.

Solution

Let us assign a +ve sign for currents entering the node and a –ve sign for currents leaving the

node. Applying KCL at node a,

10 – 5 – 3 – i5 = 0

I5 = 2A

5 - 4 – i3 = 0

I3 = 1A

Note: Try assigning a –ve sign for currents entering the node and a +ve sign for currents

leaving the node; and apply the statement that the sum of the currents entering a node is equal

to the sum of the currents leaving that node. You find that the solution is same.

Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL), states that the algebraic sum of the voltages (drops or rises)

encountered in traversing any loop (which is a closed path through a circuit in which no

electric element or node is encountered more than once) of a circuit in a speciﬁed direction

must be zero.

V3 = V4 + V5

(If current ﬂows away from the positive terminal of a source, that source is considered by

convention to be positive. Thus moving anticlockwise around the loop of Figure 8, V3 is +ve

just like V4 and V5 are –ve)

Example 7

For the circuit shown in Figure 10, use KCL and KVL to determine i1, i2, Vbd and Vx. Also,

ﬁnd Veb [7].

Figure 10

Solution

i1 =8 + (−3) =5A

10= i2 +ibf = i2 +8

i2 =2A

Using KVL around the loop “abdea” in the clockwise direction, we have

5 + Vbd + 8 – 20 = 0

Vbd = 20 − 8− 5

Vbd = 7V

Note that in writing KVL equations with +ve and –ve polarity symbols, we write the voltage

with a +ve sign if the + is encountered before the – and with a -ve sign if the – is encountered

ﬁrst as we move around the loop.

Applying KVL around the loop “abfcea” in the clockwise direction, we get

5 + 0 + 3 + Vx + (−20) = 0

Vx = 20 – 3 – 5

Vx = 12V

Note: Note that a direct connection between b and f infers an ideal connection, and thus,

negligible voltage between these points. The reader is encouraged to rewrite the loop

equations by traversing the closed path in the anticlockwise direction.

The reader should note that Vbe = − Veb = 15 V and node “b” is at a higher potential than node

“e”.

Example 8

Use Kirchhoff’s laws to determine the currents ﬂowing in each branch of the network shown

in Figure 11.

Figure 11.

Solution

Apply KCL and label current directions on the original circuit diagram. The directions chosen

are arbitrary, but it is usual, as a starting point, to assume that current ﬂows from the positive

terminals of the batteries. This is shown in Figure 12 where the three branch currents are

expressed in terms of I1 and I2 only, since the current through R is I1 + I2.

Also, divide the circuit into two loops and apply KVL to each. From loop 1 of Figure 12, and

moving in a clockwise direction as indicated (the direction chosen does not matter), gives

Figure 12

From loop 2 of Figure 12, and moving in an anticlockwise direction as indicated (once again,

the choice of direction does not matter; it does not have to be in the same direction as that

chosen for the ﬁrst loop), gives

2 = I2 + 4(I1 + I2)

From equation 5,

I2 = (4-6I1)/4………… (7)

(4−6𝐼1 )

2 = 4I1 + 5 4

I1 = 12/14 = 0.857 A

4−(6•0.857) 4−5.142

I2 = = = -0.286 A

4 4

Thus, current ﬂowing through resistance R is I1 + I2 = 0.857 + (-0.286) = 0.571 A

Note that a third loop is possible, as shown in Figure 13 below, giving a third equation which

can be used as a check:

Figure 13

E1 - E2 = I1•r1 - I2•r2

4 - 2 = 2I1 - I2

2 = 2I1 - I2

Other laws/theorems used in circuit analysis are Superposition theorem, Thevenin’s theorem,

Norton’s theorem, etc. However, these circuit theories are beyond the scope of this module.

But the reader may refer to reference texts for understanding of these circuit theories.

Earlier, when describing transformer, generation and circuit operation, single phase AC

systems was used. Recall that the conventional electric power used to do work is in the form

of AC. Even though AC power cannot be stored, require some level of insulation for safe

delivery to load and produce more heat when compared to DC, AC power is highly efficiency

in production and distribution (resistance to AC decreases at HV) as well as being considerably

cheaper to generate. A generator, which is the basic source of AC electricity, could be classified

by the number of phases (i.e. windings or circuit) it possesses. A generator with one phase is

called a single phase generator, two phases called two phase generator, three phases called three

phase generator and so on. In general, generators with more than one phase are called polyphase

generators and they produce as many independent voltage waves as the number of phases they

possess.

At the point of utilization, single phase voltage is used (for residential and smaller

commercial loads) while three phases voltage is often distributed to industrial/large

commercial buildings. But in general, most of all electric power used in modern day power

system (Generation, transmission, and distribution) uses three-phase systems. One major

drawback of the single-phase circuit is the oscillatory nature of the instantaneous power ﬂow

(the consequent shaft vibration and noise in single-phase machinery are rather undesirable).

Three-phase operation makes more efficient use of generator copper and iron. Also, for a

given capacity, three phase systems uses less materials, cost less than single phase apparatus

and consequently, three-phase power is used almost exclusively for power distribution

because it is an efficient method of transporting electrical energy. Furthermore, three-phase

motors start more conveniently and, having constant torque, run more satisfactorily than

single-phase motors. Knowing that increase in the number of phases would increase

efficiency, why not add more number of phases? This is because the complications of

additional phases are not compensated for by the slight increase of operating efficiency when

polyphase systems other than three-phase are used.

In a three-phase generator, the three phases are generally identified as R, Y, B (Red, yellow

and Blue). Although it is also common practice to name them phases A, B and C OR 1, 2 and

3. If we identify the three phases as phases A, B, and C, as the magnetic field piece (The

rotor, carries a ﬁeld winding excited by the dc supply through brushes and slip rings) rotates

in an anticlockwise direction, it passes first by phase coil A, then by phase coil B, and then by

phase coil C. Because of this action, the voltage is generated in coil A first, then in coil B, and

finally in coil C (see figure 14). The generator thus has a phase sequence of A-B-C. But if the

rotor spins in a clockwise direction, the phase sequence is reversed, giving an A-C-B

sequence. The phase sequence helps in determining the direction of rotation.

Each of the phase windings is separated by 120°, therefore the output voltage of the generator

also is offset for each phase by 120°.

Since the three coils in figure 14 rotate at the same velocity (ω = 2πf), the generated voltages

have the same frequency. Also, since the coils are identical, the generated voltages have the

same magnitudes, but there is a phase difference of 120° between these voltages. The

generated voltages in the coils are given by

VAA' = Vm sin ωt

Since a voltage is generated in each coil, it may be considered as a source of voltage. The three

coils together constitute a three-phase system and each coil is a phase. If a load is connected

across each phase as shown in figure 16, each phase or circuit would require two conductors,

which implies that a total of six conductors would be needed to connect the three loads. This

implies that transmission and distribution cables would require six conductors which would

lead to a rather complicated and expensive the power system.

Figure 16. Three phase, six wire system [8]

The number of connecting wires may be reduced by the interconnection of the phases to form

a single three-phase AC source. There are two methods of interconnecting the three phases.

These are called star or wye and delta or mesh connections.

In this type of connection, one of the ends of each phases (e.g. finishing ends in figure 16) are

connected together to a common point at shown in figure 17. Noting that the three vectors

seem to form a semblance of the letter Y, it is apparent that all three of these voltage vectors

begin at a “zero” or common point. This common point is called the neutral point, N (or star

point). The other ends (e.g. start ends in figure 16) are connected to external circuit through

three conductors called lines [6,8].

Under normal operating conditions, the three phase voltage system is connected across a

balanced symmetrical load (equal in magnitude and are 120o apart, i.e. angles between them

are equal), the neutral conductor would carry three currents which are the same in magnitude

but 120o out of phase from each other. Thus the three vectors, IR, IY and IB sum up to zero.

Since there is no current in the neutral wire the term neutral is used.

i.e. IR + IY + IB = 0

The neutral wire is unnecessary in a balanced system and therefore it may be omitted without

affecting the system. This gives a three-phase, three

In some cases, the wye/star connection is connected such that there is no neutral conductor,

thus forming a three phases three wire connected system (The neutral wire is not mandatory

in a balanced system and therefore it may be omitted without affecting the system). The other

ends of the three phases are connected together. One phase acts as a return path for another.

Remember that the three phases are 120o apart therefore the current flowing outward in one

or two conductors is equal to the current flowing inwards in the remaining conductor(s).

However, the majority of three-phase systems are four-wire, wye-connected systems, in

which the neutral conductor is grounded. Because the neutral current is nearly zero under

normal operating conditions, neutral conductors for transmission lines are typically smaller in

size and current-carrying capacity than the phase conductors. Thus, the cost of a neutral

conductor is substantially less than that of a phase conductor. The capital and operating costs

of three-phase transmission and distribution systems, with or without neutral conductors, are

comparatively much less than those of separate single-phase systems [7, 11].

The voltage across each coil is called the phase voltage. This is also the voltage between each

line and neutral. Therefore the phase voltage in star connection is also called the line-to-

neutral voltage. The voltage between any two lines is called the lie-to-line voltage or simply

the line voltage. Similarly, the current in each phase is called the phase current while the

current flowing from each line is called the phase current.

The line-to-line voltage is equal to phase voltage (line to neutral) voltage multiplied by √3.

If we consider the currents in a star connection, it is always true that the phase current is

equal to the line current

ILL = IPH

The total active power in the circuit is the sum of all the individual phase powers.

𝑉 𝐿𝐿

Thus, in terms of line values, P = 3• √3 • ILL cos θ OR P = √3• VLL •ILL cos θ

The angle θ is the angle between each phases. cos θ is called the power factor (P.F)

In this type of connection, the three phases are connected such that the start of one coil is

connected to the finish of the next coil, resulting in a delta connection as shown in figure 18.

As can the seen, the circuit resembles the greek letter delta (Δ).

Although it might appear that this sort of connection would lead to a short circuit, but under

normal operating conditions (a balanced system), then the sum of the three voltages across

the closed mesh is zero, thus, there will be no circulating current in the mesh in the absence

of an external load. Not that at all times, the voltage in one phase is equal and opposite to the

resultant of the two other phases.

Again, the voltage between any two lines is the line voltage VLL and phase voltage VPH. Since

the phase coils are now connected between lines, the phase voltage is equal to the line

voltage.

If we consider the currents flowing (and assume a “parallel” connection), we find that the the

line-to-line current is equal to √3 multiplied by the phase current.

i.e. IL = √3 IPH

If we consider the power of produced by such an arrangement, the total power would be a sum

of the individual power in each phase,

𝐼𝐿𝐿

In this case, VLL = VPH and IPH = √3

𝐼𝐿𝐿

P = 3 • VLL √3 • cos θ = √3•VLL•ILL cos θ

REFERENCES

[1] Stephen W. Fardo Dale R. Patrick, “Electrical Power Systems Technology” Third Edition,

2009.

[2] Debapriya Das, “Electrical Power Systems”, 2006

[3] Stephen J. Chapman, “Electric Machinery Fundamentals”, fourth edition

[4] Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara, “Electrical Power System Analysis; Basics of

Electric Power System theory”

[5] John Bird, “Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology”, Revised second edition, 2003

[6] John M. Paschal, Jr., P.E., “EC&M’s Electrical Calculations Handbook”, 2001.

[7] Mulukutla S. Sarma, “Introduction to Electrical Engineering”, 2001.

[8] B. I. Theraja and A. K. Theraja, “A textbook of Electrical Technology”,

[9] Dr. Wasif Naeem, “Concepts in electric circuits”, 2009.

[10] Ralph Morrison, “Grounding and Shielding; Circuits and Interference”, fifth edition,

2007.

[11] Omoicgui, M, “Shell Nigeria Graduate Training Programme, Electrical power &

Devices: Three Phase Systems”

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