Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 644

GARANT MANUAL

MACHINING

DRILLING . THREAD . COUNTERSINKING . REAMING . SAWING . MILLING . TURNING . KNURLING . CLAMPING


HEAVY DUTY CUTTING TOOLS
FROM A TO Z
DRILLING DRILLING
FIXED CUTTERS REMOVABLE CUTTERS

Article groups Advantages Article groups Advantages

GARANT Universal application, SECO 3xD and 5xD


HSS and also for materials that interchangeable (with taper collar)
HSS/E drills are difficult to cut crown drills
Universal
Application
GARANT High-performance
Carbide and drilling by means Hard drilling
PKD drills of special cutter
geometry KOMET Deployment under
drills with difficult drilling
Drilling up to 12 x D
indexable inserts conditions
and IK
For stationary or
Hard-drilling as well
rotating use
as aluminium and
cast materials
KOMET Universal
core drills Application

KOMET Universal
outer spindle heads Application
THREAD COUNTERSINKING
DRILLING/MILLING

Article groups Advantages Article groups Advantages

GARANT Universal GARANT Universal


HSS/E taps Application HSS countersink Application
Simple handling
GARANT Hard-countersinking
Safe selection and HM countersink as well as aluminium
assignment by mean and cast materials
of colour-coding
GARANT Universal
GARANT Hard thread cutting DIN-counterbore Application
VHM thread cutters
Combi counterbore Stepped holes
GARANT Chip-free thread and countersinking
taps cutting outside the standard
Internal coolant supply
GARANT Tapping drill holes,
thread mills thread milling to
create all thread
sizes, also for HSC
machines
CUTTING TOOLS
FROM A TO Z
REAMING SAWING

Article groups Advantages Article groups Advantages

GARANT Universal GARANT HSS Universal


HSS/E reamers Application metal circular saws Application

GARANT Design suitable GARANT High-performance


NC reamers or NC Design carbide toothing for
HSS/E and carbide circular saws high-speed machines
Held in hydro-
for sawing aluminium
expansion chuck
or high-precision
RÖNTGEN Universal Application
milling chuck
HSS and bi-metal Toothing and tooth
Increased saw blades shape according to
concentricity application.
For plastics/nonfer-
GARANT Hard reaming as well rous metals up to
carbide reamers as aluminium and high-alloy steels
cast materials
RÖNTGEN High-performance
carbide sawing
saw band
MILLING TURNING

Article groups Advantages Article groups Advantages

GARANT HSS and Also for materials that GARANT Universal


HSS/E milling cutters are difficult to cut ISO turning Application
GARANT Dry milling and mate- Polished indexable
powdered metal rials difficult to cut inserts for aluminium
milling cutters Hard turning with CBN
GARANT HPC, HSC and hard Hard and cast metals
carbide cutters milling, dry milling, turning with ceramics
copy and die-sinking Finishing cuts
milling
Optimised combination GARANT/SECO Universal
of shaft and insert parting off Application

SECO Universal application SECO A system for bac


Minimaster plunging/facing/corner MDT grooving turning, facing and
milling system milling copy turning, grooving
ISO indexable milling and parting off
inserts
SECO Universal
GARANT Holder tools with ISO milling Application
indexable insert internal cooling Wiper Geometry
cutters
SECO Facing and corner KOMET Finest-finish boring
Indexable insert milling Uni Turn for bore diameters
cutters Finishing cuts from Ø 3 mm
T slot cutting
Side and face milling GARANT
Threading Internal and external
GARANT Universal thread 11, 16 and
adjustable counter- Application 22 size inserts
sinks (indexable)
Angle adjustable from
10°– 80° without steps
CUTTING TOOLS
FROM A TO Z
KNURLING CLAMPING

Article groups Advantages Article groups Advantages

Knurl forming Universal SK holders for conventional


Application and high-speed
cutting
Knurl milling For conventional
turning lathes HSK holders For precision and
high-speed cutting
Adjustable For CNC turning
knurling tools lathes Precision holders Optimised radial
run-out, highest tool
GARANT
service life, for HSC
Precision
machining technology
clamping chucks
Hydro-expansion
chuck
HG high-precision
chucks
Shrink-fit chucks
Contents

Material groups
1. Material group
Ferrous materials, nonferrous metals, plastics

Basic principles
2. Basic principles
Materials, cutting properties, modern manufacturing
technologies, tool materials and coatings

3. Drilling with solid and with indexable drills Drilling

Cutting variables, forces, essential operating time, drilling depths/pilot drilling,


drilling result, HSS, carbide, indexable inserts, application guide data

4. Thread
Thread

Calculation, thread cutting, forming, milling,


Application data

5. Countersinking
Countersinking

Cutting variables, forces, essential cycle time, versions,


Application data

6. Reaming
Reaming

Cutting variables, forces, essential cycle time, versions,


tolerance of surfaces, application data

7. Sawing
Sawing

Calculation, circular sawing, band sawing, application data

8. Milling
Milling

Calculations, HSS, VHM, indexable inserts, application data


Turning/knurling

9. Turning/knurling
Calculation, external turning, internal turning,
Threading, parting off, grooving, application data

10. Clamping
Clamping

Balancing, tool holders, SK and BT holders,


HSK holders, VDI holders

Information
Information

Collection of formulas, index


All the specifications in this machining manual are provided without
any guarantee and are to be viewed as recommendations
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Contents

1 Material groups 10
1.1 Categorisation in GARANT material groups 10
1.2 Designation of materials 43
1.2.1 Designation systems for steels and cast iron 44
1.2.2 Designation systems for nonferrous materials 48
1.2.3 Identification of thermoplastic moulding and extrusion materials 50
Ferrous materials 51
2
2.1 Steels 51
2.1.1 Categorisation of steels 51
2.1.2 Influencing the cutting properties of steels 52
2.1.2.1 Cutting properties depending on the carbon content 52
2.1.2.2 Cutting properties depending on the alloy elements 53
2.1.2.3 Cutting properties depending on heat treatment 55
2.1.3 Cutting properties of different steels 56
2.2 Cast iron materials 60
2.2.1 Categorisation of cast iron materials 60
2.2.2 Cutting properties of cast iron materials 61

3 Nonferrous metals 63
3.1 Aluminium and aluminium alloys 63
3.1.1 Categorisation of aluminium alloys 63
3.1.2 Cutting properties of aluminium alloys 65
3.2 Magnesium and magnesium alloys 68
3.3 Titanium and titanium alloys 70
3.4 Copper and copper alloys 72
3.5 Nickel-based alloys 73
3.6 Cobalt-based alloys 75

4 Plastics 76
4.1 Categorisation of plastics 76
4.2 Thermoplastics 77
4.3 Thermosetting plastics 77
4.4 Elastomers 77
4.5 Thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) 78
4.6 Fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP) 78
4.6.1 Glass-fibre reinforced plastics (GRP) 79
4.6.2 Carbon-fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) 80
4.7 Recognition, properties and designations of plastics 80
4.8 Cutting properties of plastics 83
4.8.1 Cutting properties of thermoplastics and thermo settingplastics 83
4.8.2 Cutting properties of fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP) 85

8
Materials
Materials

5 Assessment of properties by means of material hardness test 87


5.1 Hardness test for metals 87
5.1.1 Static hardness test method 87
5.1.2 Comparison of hardness specifications 88
5.2 Hardness test of plastics 88
5.2.1 Ball impression hardness in the case of hard plastics 88
5.2.2 Shore hardness of soft plastics 90

9
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

1. Material groups

1.1 Categorisation in GARANT material groups


Table 1.1 provides an overview of the categorisation of materials in various material
groups. Table 1.2 below contains the designation of the materials, their chemical compo-
sition and areas of application as well as information to determine the cutting power.

Material Comments Page


group
1.0 General structural steels up to 500 N/mm2 12
1.1 General structural steels up to 500–850 N/mm2 12
2.0 Free cutting steels up to 850 N/mm2 12
2.1 Free cutting steels with 850–1000 N/mm2 13
3.0 Unalloyed heat treatable steels up to 700 N/mm2 13
3.1 Unalloyed heat treatable steels with 700–850 N/mm2 13
3.2 Unalloyed heat treatable steels with 850–1000 N/mm2 14
4.0 Alloyed heat treatable steels with 850–1000 N/mm2 14
4.1 Alloyed heat treatable steels with 1000–1200 N/mm2 14
5.0 Unalloyed case hardening steels up to 750 N/mm2 15
2
6.0 Alloyed case hardening steels up to 1000 N/mm 16
6.1 Alloyed case hardening steels over 1000 N/mm2 16
7.0 Nitride steels up to 1000 N/mm2 16
7.1 Nitride steels over 1000 N/mm2 17
8.0 Tool steels up to 850 N/mm2 17
8.1 Tool steels with 850–1100 N/mm2 17
8.2 Tool steels over 1100 N/mm2 18
9.0 High-speed steels with 850–1200 N/mm2 19
10.0 Hardened steels with 48–55 HRC 20
10.1 Hardened steels with 55–60 HRC 20
10.2 Hardened steels with 60–67 HRC 20

Table 1.1 Categorisation of materials in GARANT material groups

10
Materials

Table 1.1 (Continued) Categorisation of materials in GARANT material groups

Material Comments Page


group
11.0 Wear-resistant structural steel with 1350 N/mm2 20
11.1 Wear-resistant structural steel with 1800 N/mm2 20
12.0 Spring steels up to 1500 N/mm2 20
13.0 Stainless steels – sulphured up to 700 N/mm2 21
13.1 Stainless steels – austenitic up to 700 N/mm2 21
13.2 Stainless steels – austenitic up to 850 N/mm2 23
13.3 Stainless steels – martensitic/ferritic up to 1100 N/mm2 26
14.0 Special alloys up to 1200 N/mm2 27
15.0 Cast iron up to 180 HB (GG) 28
15.1 Cast iron as of 180 HB (GG) 28
15.2 Cast iron (spheroidal graphite, malleable cast iron) as of 180 HB (GGG, GT) 28
15.3 Cast iron (spheroidal graphite, malleable cast iron) as of 260 HB 29
16.0 Titanium, Ti alloys up to 850 N/mm2 29
16.1 Titanium, Ti alloys with 850–1200 N/mm2 30
17.0 Aluminium, Al alloys up to 530 N/mm2 30
17.1 Aluminium, cast aluminium alloys < 10% Si up to 600 N/mm2 30
17.2 Aluminium, cast aluminium alloys > 10% Si up to 600 N/mm2 31
18.0 Magnesium, Mg alloys 31
19.0 Copper, low-alloy up to 400 N/mm2 31
19.1 Brass, short-chipping up to 600 N/mm2 32
19.2 Brass, long-chipping up to 600 N/mm2 32
19.3 Bronze, short-chipping up to 600 N/mm2 32
19.4 Bronze, short-chipping with 600–850 N/mm2 32
19.5 Bronze, long-chipping up to 850 N/mm2 33
19.6 Bronze, long-chipping with 850–1200 N/mm2 33
20.0 Graphite 33
21.0 Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics 34
21.1 Fibre-reinforced plastics 40

11
Table 1.2 Categorisation in GARANT material groups

12
Material Material DIN (German Main Rise of Strength Chemical composition [%] Typical use
group number Industrial value of the tan-
Standard) specif. gent
code cutting (see Fig.
power 2.22 and
Equation
kc1.1 2.6)
[N/mm2] m [N/mm2]
1.0 General structural steels up to 500 N/mm²
1.0037 St 37-2 1780 0.17 340–470 0.17 C; 1.4 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.045 S; 0.009 N General structural steel

GARANT MACHINING MANUAL


1.1 General structural steels with 500–850 N/mm²
1.0050 St 50-2 1990 0.26 470–610 0.17 C; 1.4 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.045 S; General structural steel
0.009 N
1.0060 St 60-2 2110 0.17 570–710 0.17 C; 1.4 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.045 S; General structural steel
0.009 N
2.0 Free cutting steels up to 850 N/mm²
1.0711 9 S 20 1200 0.18 460–710 0.13 C; 0.05 Si; 0.6-1.2 Mn; 0.1 P; 0.18-0.25 S Free cutting steels
1.0718 9 S MnPb 28 1200 0.18 360–570 0.14 C; 0.9-1.3 Mn; 0.27-0.33 S; 0.15-0.35 Pb Free cutting steels

1.0726 35 S 20 1200 0.18 540–740 0.32-0.39 C; 0.1-0.3 Si; 0.7-1.1 Mn; 0.18-0.25 S Free cutting steels
1.0727 45 S 20 1200 0.18 640–840 0.42-0.5 C; 0.1-0.3 Si; 0.7-1.1 Mn; 0.18-0.25 S Free cutting steels
1.0737 9 S MnPb 36 1200 0.18 490–740 0.15 C; 0.1-0.3 Si; 1.1-1.5 Mn; 0.1 P; 0.34-0.4 S; Free cutting steels
0.15-0.35 Pb
Table 1.2 (Continued) Categorisation in GARANT material groups

Material Material DIN (German Main Rise of Strength Chemical composition [%] Typical use
group number Industrial value of the tan-
Standard) specif. gent

Materials
code cutting (see Fig.
power 2.22 and
Equation
kc1.1 2.6)
[N/mm2] m [N/mm2]
2.1 Free cutting steels with 850–1000 N/mm²
1.0728 60 S 20 1200 0.18 670–880 0.57-0.65 C; 0.1-0.3 Si; 0.7-1.1 Mn; 0.06 Pmax, Free cutting steels
0.18-0.25 S
3.0 Unalloyed heat treatable steels up to 700 N/mm²
1.0402 C 22 1800 0.16 470–620 0.17-0.24 C; 0.4 Si; 0.4-0.7 Mn; 0.4 Cr; 0.4 Ni; Low carbon steel
1.0501 C 35 1516 0.27 600–750 0.32-0.39 C; 0.4 Si; 0.5-0.8 Mn; Components subjected to
0.4 Cr; 0.4 Ni slightly higher stress
1.1180 Ck 35 1860 0.20 600–750 0.32-0.39 C; 0.4 Si; 0.5-0.8 Mn; Medium carbon steel
0.4 Cr; 0.4 Ni
3.1 Unalloyed heat treatable steels with 700–850 N/mm²
1.0503 C 45 1680 0.26 650–800 0.42-0.5 C; 0.4 Si; 0.5-0.8 Mn; Medium carbon steel
0.4 Cr; 0.4 Ni
1.1191 Ck 45 2220 0.14 650–800 0.42-0.5 C; 0.5-0.8 Mn,0.1 Mo; 0.4 Ni Medium carbon steel

13
Table 1.2 (Continued) Categorisation in GARANT material groups

14
Material Material DIN (German Main Rise of Strength Chemical composition [%] Typical use
group number Industrial value of the tan-
Standard) specif. gent
code cutting (see Fig.
power 2.22 and
Equation
kc1.1 2.6)
[N/mm2] m [N/mm2]
3.2 Unalloyed heat treatable steels with 850–1000 N/mm²
1.1167 36 Mn 5 1710 0.27 640–1080 0.32-0.4 C, 0.4 Si; 1.2-1.5 Mn; Medium carbon steel
0.035 P; 0.035 S

GARANT MACHINING MANUAL


1.1221 Ck 60 2130 0.18 750–1000 0.57-0.65 C; 0.4 Si; 0.6-0.9 Mn; Medium carbon steel
0.4 Cr; 0.4 Ni
4.0 Alloyed heat treatable steels with 850–1000 N/mm²
1.7003 38 Cr 2 2070 0.25 800–950 0.35-0.42 C; 0.5-0.8 Mn; 0.4-0.6 Cr; 0.4 Simax, Medium carbon steel
0.035 Pmax, 0.035 Smax
1.7030 28 Cr 4 2070 0.25 850–1000 0.24-0.31 C; 0.6-0.9 Mn; 0.9-1.2 Cr; 0.4 Simax, Alloy steel
0.035 Pmax, 0.030 Smax
4.1 Alloyed heat treatable steels with 1000–1200 N/mm²
1.7218 25 CrMo 4 2070 0.25 650–1100 0.22-0.29 C; 0.6-0.9 Mn; 0.9-1.2 Cr; 0.15-0.3 Mo Alloy steel
1.6582 34 CrNiMo 6 1800 0.27 800–1400 0.3-0.38 C; 0.4 Si; 0.5-0.8 Mn; High strength alloy steel
0.035 P; 0.035 S; 1.3-1.7 Cr;
0.15-0.3 Mo; 1.3-1.7 Ni
Table 1.2 (Continued) – Categorisation in GARANT material groups – (Continued) GARANT material group 4.1

Material Material DIN (German Main Rise of Strength Chemical composition [%] Typical use
group number Industrial value of the tan-
Standard) specif. gent

Materials
code cutting (see Fig.
power 2.22 and
Equation
kc1.1 2.6)
[N/mm2] m [N/mm2]
4.1 Alloyed heat treatable steels with 1000–1200 N/mm²
1.7220 34 CrMo 4 2240 0.21 750–1200 0.3-0.37 C; 0.6-0.9 Mn; 0.9-1.2 Cr; 0.15-0.3 Mo Alloy steel
1.7225 42 CrMo 4 2500 0.26 800–1300 0.38-0.45 C; 0.6-0.9 Mn; 0.9-1.2 Cr; 0.15-0.3 Mo Alloy steel
1.7707 30 CrMoV 9 1710 0.27 900–1450 0.26-0.34 C; 0.4 Si; 0.4-0.7 Mn; 0.035 P; 0.035 S; High strength alloy steel
2.3-2.7 Cr; 0.15-0.25 Mo; 0.1-0.2 V
1.8159 50 CrV 4 2220 0.26 850–1300 0.47-0.55 C; 0.7-1.1 Mn; 0.9-1.2 Cr; 0.1-0.25 V Alloy steel
5.0 Unalloyed case hardening steels up to 750 N/mm²
1.0401 C 15 1820 0.22 590–880 0.12-0.18 C; 0.4 Si; 0.3-0.6 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.045 S; Low carbon steel
0.009 N
1.1141 Ck 15 1630 0.17 590–740 0.12-0.18 C; 0.4 Si; 0.3-0.6 Mn; 0.035 P; 0.035 S Low carbon steel

15
Table 1.2 (Continued) Categorisation in GARANT material groups

16
Material Material DIN (German Main Rise of Strength Chemical composition [%] Typical use
group number Industrial value of the tan-
Standard) specif. gent
code cutting (see Fig.
power 2.22 and
Equation
kc1.1 2.6)
[N/mm2] m [N/mm2]
6.0 Alloyed case hardening steels up to 1000 N/mm²
1.5919 15CrNi6 2100 0.26 500–590 0.14-0.19 C; 0.4 Si; 0.4-0.6 Mn; Components in vehicle, engine
0.035 Pmax; 1.4-1.7 Cr, 1.4-1.7 Ni, and apparatus construction

GARANT MACHINING MANUAL


0.035 Smax such as driving pinions, piston
pins, gear shafts
1.7012 13Cr2 2100 0.26 690–930 0.1-0.16 C; 0.15-0.35 Si; 0.4 -0.6 Mn; Smaller components in vehicle
0.035 Pmax; 0.3 -0.5 Cr, construction and mechanical
4.25-4.75 N, 0.035 Smax engineering with required
increased wear resistance such
as camshafts, piston pins, cylin-
ders
1.7131 16MnCr5 2100 0.26 500 0.14-0.19 C; 0.4 Si; 1.0-1.3 Mn; Gears, ring gears and gear-
0.035 P; 0.8-1.1 Cr wheels, shafts, bolts, studs
6.1 Alloyed case hardening steels over 1000 N/mm²
1.7147 20 MnCr 5 2140 0.25 800–1400 0.17-0.22 C; 0.4 Si; 1.1-1.4 Mn; Gearbox and joint parts, gears,
0.035 P; 0.035 S; 1.0-1.3 Cr ring gears and conical gear-
wheels, shafts, bolts, parts for
higher core strength
1.7262 15 CrMo 5 2290 0.17 640–1180 0.15-0.35 C; 0.15-0.35 Si; 0.8-1.1 Mn; 1.0-1.3 Cr; Ring gears and gearwheels,
0.2-0.3 Mo gears, crankshafts, bolts, shims
subjected to severe wear
7.0 Nitride steels up to 1000 N/mm²
1.8507 34 CrAIMo 5 1740 0.26 800–1000 0.3-0.37 C; 0.4 Si; 0.5-0.8 Mn; 1.0-1.3 Cr; Superheated fittings with high
0.8-1.2 Al infinite fatigue strength, parts
up to 80 mm thickness
Table 1.2 (Continued) – Categorisation in GARANT material groups – (Continued) GARANT material group 7.0

Material Material DIN (German Main Rise of Strength Chemical composition [%] Typical use
group number Industrial value of the tan-
Standard) specif. gent

Materials
code cutting (see Fig.
power 2.22 and
Equation
kc1.1 2.6)
[N/mm2] m [N/mm2]
7.0 Nitride steels up to 1000 N/mm²
1.8504 34 Cr Al 6 1740 0.26 < 780 0.3-0.37 C; 0.15-0.35 Si; 0.6-0.9 Mn; 0.035 Superheated fittings,
Pmax; 0.035 Smax, 0.8-1.1 Al, 1.2-1.5 Cr valve spindles, piston rods
1.8506 34 Cr Al S 5 1740 0.26 < 930 0.3-0.37 C; 0.15-0.4 Si; 0.6-0.9 Mn; 0.1 Pmax; Wearing parts with high sur-
0.07-0.11 S, 0.8-1.2 Al, 1.0-1.3 Cr face hardness
7.1 Nitride steels over 1000 N/mm²
1.8519 31 Cr Mo V 9 1740 0.26 1000–1200 0.26-0.34 C; 0.4 Si; 0.4-0.7 Mn; Superheated fittings,
0.025 Pmax; 0.03 Smax, 2.3-2.7 Cr, 0.15-0.25 valve spindle, crankshafts,
Mo, 0.1-0.2 V wearing parts
8.0 Tool steels up to 850 N/mm²
1.1730 C 45 W 1680 0.26 < 190 HB 0.4-0.5 C; 0.15-0.4 Si; 0.6-0.8 Mn; 0.035 P; Unalloyed tool steel, gear-
0.035 S wheels, drive shafts, construc-
tion material for cuts and
presses
1.2067 100 Cr 6 1410 0.39 < 223 HB 0.95-1.1 C; 0.15-0.35 Si; 0.25-0.45 Mn; Cutting tools, cold-roll forming,
0.03 Pmax; 0.03 Smax, 1.35-1.65 Cr mandrels, thread tools
8.1 Tool steels with 850–1100 N/mm²
1.2312 40CrMnMoS 8-6 1800 0.27 1100–1150 0.34-0.45 C; 0.3-0.5 Si; 1.4-1.6 Mn; 0.03 P; Tool steel for cold work, tools for
0.05-0.1 S; 1.8-2.0 Cr; 0.15-0.25 Mo plastics processing, shaped
frames, good cutting properties

17
Table 1.2 (Continued) – Categorisation in GARANT material groups – (Continued) GARANT material group 8.1

18
Material Material DIN (German Main Rise of Strength Chemical composition [%] Typical use
group number Industrial value of the tan-
Standard) specif. gent
code cutting (see Fig.
power 2.22 and
Equation
kc1.1 2.6)
[N/mm2] m [N/mm2]
8.1 Tool steels with 850–1100 N/mm²
1.2316 X 36 CrMo 17 1820 0.26 < 285 HB 0.33-0.43 C; 1.0 Si; 1.0 Mn; 15-17 Cr; 1.0-1.3 Mo; Tool steel for cold work, corro-
1.0 Ni; 1.0 Ti sion-proof special steel for press-

GARANT MACHINING MANUAL


moulding chemically corrosive
masses
1.2363 X100CrMo V51 1820 0.26 < 231 HB 0.95-1.05 C; 0.35-0.65 Mn; 4.5-5.5 Cr; Tool steel for cold work, cutting
0.9-1.4 Mo and pressing tools, thread rolling
dies
1.2851 34CrAl6 1820 0.26 780-980 0.30-0.37 C; 0.15-0.35 Si; 0.6-0.9 Mn; Tool steel for cold work,
0.035 Pmax; 0.035 Smax, 1.2-1.5 Cr, 0.8-1.1 Al plastics press-moulding for sur-
face nitration
8.2 Tool steels over 1100 N/mm²
1.2080 X210Cr12 1820 0.26 < 248 HB 1.9-2.2 C; 0.1-0.4 Si; 0.15-0.45 Mn; 11-12 Cr; Tool steel for cold work, high-
0.1-0.4 Ti performance cutting and press-
ing tools, dies, cutter dies,
broaches, drawing dies and
mandrels
1.2344 X40 CrMo V51 1820 0.26 1130-1960 0.37-0.43 C; 0.9-1.2 Si 0.25-0.55 Mn; 4.5-5.5 Cr; Tool steel for hot work, pressing
1.2-1.7 Mo and mandrel plugs on metal bar
extrusion presses, light metal
diecasting moulds
1.2379 X155Cr VMo12 1 1820 0.26 < 255 HB 1.5-1.6 C; 0.15-0.45 Mn; 11-12 Cr; 0.9-1.1 V Tool steel for cold work, cuts sen-
sitive to breaks, thread rolling
dies and rollers, shearing blades,
broaches, cutters
1.2436 X 210 CrW 12 1820 0.26 < 255 HB 2.0-2.25 C; 0.15-0.45 Mn; 11-12 Cr; 0.6-0.8 W Tool steel for cold work, high-
performance cutting and press-
ing tools, dies, cutter dies,
broaches, mandrels and wood
cutters
Table 1.2 (Continued) – Categorisation in GARANT material groups – (Continued) GARANT material group 8.2

Material Material DIN (German Main Rise of Strength Chemical composition [%] Typical use
group number Industrial value of the tan-
Standard) specif. gent

Materials
code cutting (see Fig.
power 2.22 and
Equation
kc1.1 2.6)
[N/mm2] m [N/mm2]
8.2 Tool steels over 1100 N/mm²
1.2710 45 NiCr 6 1710 0.27 930–1960 0.4-0.5 C; 0.15-0.35 Si; 0.5-0.8 Mn; 0.035 P; 0.035 Tool steel for cold work, durable
S; 1.2-1.5 Cr; 1.5-1.8 Ni cold shearing blades, axles for
back-up rollers
1.2721 50 NiCr 13 1710 0.27 < 250 HB 0.45-0.55 C; 0.15-0.35 Si; 0.4-0.6 Mn; 0.035 P; Tool steel for cold work, upset-
0.035 S, 0.9-1.2 Cr; 3.0-3.5 Ni ting dies of all types, solid
stamping tools, shear blades
1.2767 X 45 NiCrMo 4 1820 0.26 < 262 HB 0.4-0.5 C, 0.1-0.4 Si; 0.15-0.45 Mn; 0.03 P 0.03 Tool steel for cold work, stamp-
S;1.2-1.5 Cr; ing and bending tools, pressure
0.15-0.35 Mo; 3.8-4.3 Ni pads and folding presses, shear
blades for the thickest materials
to be cut
1.2824 70MnMoCr8 1820 0.26 > 58 HRC 0.65-0.75 C; 0.1-0.5 Si, 1.8-2.5 Mn; Alloyed tool steel for cold work
0.03 Pmax; 0.03 Smax, 0.9-1.2 Cr, 0.9-1.4 Mo
9.0 High-speed steels with 850–1200 N/mm²
1.3255 S 18-1-2-5 1820 0.26 240–300 HB 0.75-0.83 C; 0.45 Si; 0.4 Mn; 0.03 P; 0.03 S 3.8-4.5 Lathe, plane and pinion type
Cr; 0.5-0.8 Mo; 17.5-18.5 W; 1.4-1.7 V 4.5-5.0 Co cutters, roughing end mills, out-
standing cutting power and
endurance
1.3265 S 18-1-2-10 1820 0.26 240–300 HB 0.72-0.8 C; 0.45 Si; 0.4 Mn; 0.03 P; 0.03 S; Lathe and plane blades, cutters
3.8-4.5 Cr; 0.5-0.8 Mo; with the best elevated tempera-
17.5-18.5 W; 1.4-1.7 V; 9-10 Co ture hardness for machining
steels
1.3243 S 6-5-2 (DMo 5) 1820 0.26 240–300 HB 0.86-0.94 C; 0.45 Si; 0.4 Mn; 0.03 P; 0.03 S; Reamers, twist drills and taps,
3.8-4.5 Cr; 4.5-7.2 Mo; 6.0-6.7 W; 1.7-2.0 V cutters, broaches, lathe, plane
and gear shaping blades

19
Table 1.2 (Continued) Categorisation in GARANT material groups

20
Material Material DIN (German Main Rise of Strength Chemical composition [%] Typical use
group number Industrial value of the tan-
Standard) specif. gent
code cutting (see Fig.
power 2.22 and
Equation
kc1.1 2.6)
[N/mm2] m [N/mm2]
10.0 Hardened steels with 48–55 HRC
10.1 Hardened steels with 55–60 HRC

GARANT MACHINING MANUAL


10.2 Hardened steels with 60–67 HRC
11.0 Wear-resistant structural steel with 1350 N/mm²
Hardox 400 – – 1350 according to manufacturer's specifications Wearing parts

11.1 Wear-resistant structural steel with 1800 N/mm²


Hardox 500 – – 1800 according to manufacturer's specifications Wearing parts

12.0 Spring steels up to 1500 N/mm²


1.5023 38 Si 7 1800 0.27 1180–1370 0.35-0.42 C; 1.5-1.8 Si; 0.5-0.8 Mn; 0.03 Pmax; Leaf springs, diaphragms, lock
0.03 Smax washers
1.7176 55 Cr 3 1800 0.27 1370–1620 0.52-0.59 C; 0.25-0.5 Si; 0.7-1.1 Mn; 0.03 Pmax; Thermoformed springs, torsion
0.03 Smax bars, helical springs for vehicle
construction
1.8159 50 Cr V 4 2220 0.26 1100–1300 0.47-0.55 C; 0.4 Si; 0.7-1.1 Mn; 0.035 Pmax; Spring and tool steel, parts in
0.03 Smax; 0.9-1.2 Cr; 0.1-0.2 V aircraft and engine construction
and mechanical engineering
subjected to high stress such as
joint and gearbox parts, axles
Table 1.2 (Continued) Categorisation in GARANT material groups

Material Material DIN (German Main Rise of Strength Chemical composition [%] Typical use
group number Industrial value of the tan-
Standard) specif. gent

Materials
code cutting (see Fig.
power 2.22 and
Equation
kc1.1 2.6)
[N/mm2] m [N/mm2]
13.0 Stainless steels - sulphured up to 700 N/mm²
1.4104 X 14 Cr Mo S 17 1820 0.26 650–850 0.1-0.17 C; 1.0 Si; 1.5 Mn; 0.04 P; 0.15-0.35 S; Construction parts for free cut-
15.5-17.5 Cr; 0.2-0.6 Mo ting (screws, axles)
1.4305 X 8 Cr Ni S 18-9 2088 0.29 500–750 0.1C; 1.0 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.15-0.35 S; Non-corroding parts for the
17-19 Cr; 8-10 Ni; 0.11 N; 1.0 Cu food industry, photo,
paint, oil, soap, paper
and textile industry
13.1 Stainless steels - austenitic up to 700 N/mm². (Assessment of cutting properties via PRE factor, page 58)
1.4000 X 6 Cr 13 1820 0.26 400–700 0.08 C, 1.0 Si; 1.0 Mn; 0.04 P; Construction parts in water and
0.03 S; 12-14 Cr steam, hinges, panelling
1.4002 X 6 CrAl 13 1820 0.26 400–700 0.08 C; 1.0 Si; 1.0 Mn; 0.04 P; Apparatus construction in the
0.03 S; 13-15 Cr, 0.1-0.3 Al oil industry (e.g. cracking
plants), welded parts in hydro-
electric power station construc-
tion
1.4016 X 6 Cr 17 1820 0.26 400–630 0.08 C; 1.0 Si; 1.0 Mn; 0.04 P; Screws and moulded parts, in
0.03 S; 16-18 Cr the case of corrosion
1.4113 X 6 Cr Mo 17-1 2600 0.19 440–660 0.08 C; 1.0 Si; 1.0 Mn; 0.04 P; 0.03 S; 16-18 Cr; Hubcaps, bumpers,
0.9-1.3 Mo radiator grille, handles,
1.4510 X 6 Cr Ti 17 1820 0.26 450–600 0.05 C; 1.0 Si; 1.0 Mn; 0.04 P; 0.03 S; 16-18 Cr Chem. apparatus construction,
food industry, dyeing plants and
soap industry
1.4512 X 6 Cr Ti 12 1820 0.26 390–560 0.03 C; 1.0 Si; 1.0 Mn; 0.04 P; 0.015 S; Exhaust silencers
10.5-12.5 Cr
1.4301 X 5 CrNi 18 10 2350 0.21 500–700 0.07 C; 1.0 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.03 S; 17-19 Cr; Apparatus and appliances for
0.5 Mo; 9-11.5 Ni the food industry

21
Table 1.2 (Continued) – Categorisation in GARANT material groups – (Continued) GARANT material group 13.1

22
Material Material DIN (German Main Rise of Strength Chemical composition [%] Typical use
group number Industrial value of the tan-
Standard) code specif. gent
cutting (see Fig.
power 2.22 and
Equa-
kc1.1 tion 2.6)
[N/mm2] m [N/mm2]
13.1 Stainless steels - austenitic up to 700 N/mm². (Assessment of cutting properties via PRE factor, page 58)
1.4303 X 5 CrNi 18 12 2350 0.21 490–690 0.06 C; 1.0 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.03 S; 17-19 Cr; Chemical industry, screws, nuts,
11-13 Ni cold extrusion parts

GARANT MACHINING MANUAL


1.4306 X 2 CrNi 19 11 2350 0.21 460–680 0.03 C; 1.0 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.03 S; 18-20 Cr; Food industry,
10-12.5 Ni soap, synthetic fibre industry
1.4401 X5CrNiMo 17 12 2 2600 0.19 530–680 0.07 C; 1 Si; 2 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.015 S; 0.11 N; Parts and apparatus for chemical
16.5- 18.5 Cr; 2-2.5 Mo; 10-13 Ni and textile industry
1.4404 GX2 CrNiMo 18 10 2600 0.19 530–680 0.03 C; 1 Si; 2 Mn; 0.045 P; Parts for chemical industry,
0.015 S; 16.5-18.5 Cr; 2-2.5 Mo; 10-13 Ni; 0.11 N paint, oil and textile industry
1.4417 X2CrNiMoSi19 5 3 2600 0.19 >650 0.03 C; 1 Si; 1.5 Mn; 0.03 P; Rust and acid resistant steel
0.02 S; 24-26 Cr; 3-4 Mo; 6-8.5 Ni; 0.15-0.25 N;
1 Cu; 1 W
1.4435 X2CrNiMo 18 14 3 2600 0.19 550–700 0.03 C; 1.0 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.015 S; 17-19 Cr; Welded parts with increased
2.5-3 Mo; 12.5-15 Ni; 0.11 N chem. resistance in
cellulose and textile industry
1.4436 X5CrNiMo 17 13 3 2600 0.19 550–700 0.05 C; 1.0 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.015 S; Welded parts with increased
16.5-18.5 Cr; 2.5-3 Mo; 10.5-13 Ni; 0.11 N chem. resistance in
cellulose and textile industry
1.4438 X2CrNiMo 18 16 4 2600 0.19 550–700 0.03 C; 1.0 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.015 S; Apparatus in the chem. industry
17.5-19 Cr; 3-4 Mo; 13-16 Ni; 0.11 N
Table 1.2 (Continued) – Categorisation in GARANT material groups – (Continued) GARANT material group 13.1

Material Material DIN (German Main Rise of Strength Chemical composition [%] Typical use
group number Industrial value of the tan-
Standard) code specif. gent

Materials
cutting (see Fig.
power 2.22 and
Equation
kc1.1 2.6)
[N/mm2] m [N/mm2]
13.1 Stainless steels - austenitic up to 700 N/mm². (Assessment of cutting properties via PRE factor, page 58)
1.4550 X 6 CrNiNb 18 10 2550 0.18 500–700 0.08 C; 1.0 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.015 S; Components for food industry
17-19 Cr; 9-12 Ni
1.4845 X 12 CrNi 25-21 2550 0.18 500–700 0.1 C; 1.5 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.015 S; For parts in industrial furnaces,
24-26 Cr; 19-22 Ni; 0.11 N steam boilers, oil refineries
13.2 Stainless steels - austenitic up to 850 N/mm². (Assessment of cutting properties via PRE factor, page 58)
1.4005 X 12 CrS 13 1820 0.26 650–850 0.08-0.15 C; 1.0 Si, 1.5 Mn; 0.04 P; 0.15-0.35 S; Parts of all types such as screws,
12-14 Cr; 0.6 Mo nuts, bolts, construction parts in
water and steam
1.4006 X 10 Cr 13 1820 0.26 650–850 0.08-0.15 C; 1.0 Si, 1.5 Mn; 0.04 P; 0.03 S; Construction parts in water and
11.5-13.5 Cr; 0.75 Ni steam as well as mild media in
the food industry, mainly
annealed
1.4021 X 20 Cr 13 1820 0.26 700–850 0.16-0.25 C; 1.0 Si; 1.5 Mn; 0.04 P; 0.03 S; Axles, shafts, pump parts, piston
12-14 Cr rods, valve cones, valve needles,
marine screw propellers, surgi-
cal instruments.
1.4031 X 38 Cr 13 1820 0.26 800 0.36-0.42 C; 1.0 Si; 1.0 Mn; 0.04 P; 0.03 S; Cutlery, ball bearings, springs,
12.5-14.5 Cr piston rods
1.4034 X 46 Cr 13 1820 0.26 800 0.43-0.5 C; 1.0 Si; 1.0 Mn; 0.04 P; 0.03 S; Cutlery, ball bearings, springs,
12.5-14.5 Cr piston rods

23
Table 1.2 (Continued) – Categorisation in GARANT material groups – (Continued) GARANT material group 13.2

24
Material Material DIN (German Main Rise of Strength Chemical composition [%] Typical use
group number Industrial value of the tan-
Standard) code specif. gent
cutting (see Fig.
power 2.22 and
Equation
kc1.1 2.6)
[N/mm2] m [N/mm2]
13.2 Stainless steels – austenitic up to 850 N/mm². (Assessment of cutting properties via PRE factor, page 58)
1.4935 X20CrMoWV121 1820 0.26 690–830 0.17- 0.25 C; 0.1- 0.5 Si; 0.3-0.8 Mn; 0.045 P; Parts in thermal power plants, in
0.03 S; 11.0-12.5 Cr; steam boiler and turbine con-

GARANT MACHINING MANUAL


0.8-1.2 Mo; 0.3-0.8 Ni; 0.25-0.35 V; 0.4-0.6 W struction, heat exchangers
1.4311 X 2 CrNiN 18 10 2550 0.18 550–760 0.03 C; 1 Si; 2 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.03 S; 16.5-17 Cr; Pressure vessels for apparatus
8.5-11.5 Ni; construction, food industry
0.12-0.22 N
1.4362 X 2 CrNiN 23 4 2550 0.18 600–850 0.03 C; 1.0 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.035 P; 0.015 S; 22-24 Cr; High-strength material for
0.1-0.6 Mo; chemical apparatus construc-
3.5-5.5 Ni; 0.05- 0.2 N; 0.1-0.6 Cu tion
1.4371 X12CrMnNi18 8 5 2550 0.18 650–850 0.03 C; 1 Si; 6-8 Mn; 0.045P; 0.015 S; 0.15-0.2 N; Rust and acid resistant steel
16-17 Cr; 3.5-5.5 Ni
1.4429 X2CrNiMoN1713 3 2600 0.19 580–780 0.03 C; 1.0 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.015 S; Pressure tanks with increased
16.5-18.5 Cr; 2.5-3 Mo; 11-14 Ni; 0.12-0.22 N chem. resistance
1.4539 X2NiCrMoCu25205 2550 0.18 530–730 0.02 C; 0.7 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.03 P; 0.01 S; 19-21 Cr; Chem. and petrochem. industry,
4-5 Mo; 24-26 Ni; 0.15 N; 1.2-2.0 Cu cellulose and paper industry
1.4541 X 6 CrNiTi 18-10 2550 0.18 520–720 0.08 C; 1.0 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.015 S; 17-19 Cr; Components in aerospace as
(V4A) 9-12 Ni; 0.7 Ti well as food industry
1.4544 X 10 CrNiTi 18 9 2550 0.18 500–750 0.08 C; 1.0 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.035 P; 0.025 S; 17-19 Cr; Components in aerospace
9-11.5 Ni
Table 1.2 (Continued) – Categorisation in GARANT material groups – (Continued) GARANT material group 13.2

Material Material DIN (German Main Rise of Strength Chemical composition [%] Typical use
group number Industrial value of the tan-
Standard) code specif. gent

Materials
cutting (see Fig.
power 2.22 and
Equation
kc1.1 2.6)
[N/mm2] m [N/mm2]
13.2 Stainless steels - austenitic up to 850 N/mm². (Assessment of cutting properties via PRE factor, page 58)
1.4546 X 5 CrNiNb 18-10 2550 0.18 500–750 0.08 C; 1.0 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.03 S; For higher corrosion resistance
17-19 Cr; 9-11.5 Ni; 1.0 Nb requirements and cold forming
properties with low strength
1.4571 X6CrNiMoTi17 12 2 2550 0.18 540–690 0.08 C; 1.0 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.015 S; Apparatus in the chem. industry
16.5-18.5 Cr; 2-2.5 Mo; 10.5-13.5 Ni
1.4573 X 10 CrNiMoTi 2550 0.18 490–740 0.1 C; 1.0 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.03 S; Apparatus in the chem., textile,
18-12 16.5-18.5 Cr; 2.5-3 Mo; 12-14.5 Ni photo, paint, artificial resin and
rubber industries
1.4583 X 10 CrNiMoNb 2550 0.18 490–740 0.1 C; 1.0 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.045 P; Welded parts for the textile,
18-12 0.03 S; 16.5-18.5 Cr; 2.5-3 Mo; paint and fuels industry
12-14.5 Ni
1.4828 X 15 CrNiSi 20-12 2550 0.18 550–750 0.2 C; 1.5-2 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.015 S; For air pre-warmers
19-21 Cr; 11-13 Ni, 0.11 N
1.4841 X 15 CrNiSi 25-20 2550 0.18 550–800 0.2 C; 1.5-2.5 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.03 S; For parts of heat treatment fur-
24-26 Cr; 19-22 Ni naces
1.4864 X 12 NiCrSi 36-16 2550 0.18 550–750 0.15 C; 1-2 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.015 S; 15-17 Cr; For parts in furnace and appara-
33-37 Ni; 0.11 N tus construction for high oper-
ating temperatures
1.4878 X 12 CrNiTi 18-9 2550 0.18 500–750 0.12 C; 1.0 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.03 S; 17-19 Cr; For parts subjected to high
9-11.5 Ni mechanical stress

25
Table 1.2 (Continued) Categorisation in GARANT material groups

26
Material Material DIN (German Main Rise of Strength Chemical composition [%] Typical use
group number Industrial value of the tan-
Standard) code specif. gent
cutting (see Fig.
power 2.22 and
Equation
kc1.1 2.6)
[N/mm2] m [N/mm2]
13.3 Stainless steels - martensitic/ferritic up to 1100 N/mm². (Assessment of cutting properties via PRE factor, page 58)
1.4028 X 30 Cr 13 1820 0.26 800–1000 0.26-0.35 C; 1.0 Si; 1.5 Mn; 0.04 P; 0.03 S; Cutlery, ball bearings, springs,
12-14 Cr piston rods

GARANT MACHINING MANUAL


1.4057 X 17 Cr Ni 16-2 1820 0.26 800–950 0.12-0.22 C; 1.0 Si; 1.5 Mn; 0.04 P; 0.03 S; Machine parts subjected to
15-17 Cr; 1.5-2.5 Ni high stress, screws, nuts in
pump and compressor con-
struction, shipbuilding
1.4923 X22CrMo V 12 1 1820 0.26 800–900 0.17-0.23 C; 0.5 Si; 1.0 Mn; 0.03 P; 0.03 S; Components for reactor tech-
10-12.5 Cr; 0.8-1.2 Mo; 0.3-0.8 Ni; 0.25-0.35 Ti nology, chemical industry, tur-
bine, steam boiler and pipe
construction
1.4310 X 12 CrNi 177 2350 0.21 600–950 0.05-0.15 C; 2 Si; 2 Mn; 0.045 P; 0.015 S; Sheet metal with higher
16-19 Cr; 0.8 Mo; strength for vehicle construc-
6-9.5 Ni; 0.11 N tion, springs
1.4460 X 8 CrNiMo 27 5 2600 0.19 620–880 0.05 C; 1.0 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.035 P; 0.015 S; 25-28 Cr; Parts for high chem. and
1.3-2 Mo; 4.5-6.5 Ni; 0.05-0.2 N mechanical stress, e.g. in ship-
building
1.4462 X 2 CrNiMoN 225 3 2550 0.18 660–950 0.03 C; 1.0 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.035 P; 0.015 S; 21-23 Cr; Chemical and petrochemical
2.5-3.5 Mo; 4.5-6.5 Ni; 0.1-0.22 N industry
1.4980 X 5 NiCrTi 26 15 2600 0.19 <1100 0.08 C; 2.0 Si; 2.0 Mn; 0.03 P; For extruding machine tools
0.03 S; 1.35-16 Cr; 1.0-1.5 Mo; 24-27 Ni;
1.9-2.3 Ti; o,1-0.5 V; 0.35 Al
Table 1.2 (Continued) – Categorisation in GARANT material groups – (Continued) GARANT material group 13.3

Material Material DIN (German Main Rise of Strength Chemical composition [%] Typical use
group number Industrial Stand- value of the tan-
ard) code specif. gent

Materials
cutting (see Fig.
power 2.22 and
Equation
kc1.1 2.6)
[N/mm2] m [N/mm2]
13.3 Stainless steels –* martensitic/ferritic up to 1100 N/mm². (Assessment of cutting properties via PRE factor, page 58)
2.4631 NiCr 20 TiAl 2088 0.29 >=1030 0.04-0.1 C; 1.0 Si; 1.0 Mn; 0.02 P; Use for gas turbine blades, rings
0.015 S; 18-21 Cr; and discs
65 Ni; 1.8-2.7 Ti; 1.0-1.8 Al; 2.0 Co; 0.2 Cu;
1.5 Fe
2.4632 NiCr 20 Co 18 Ti 2088 0.29 >=1080 0.1 C; 1.0 Si; 1.0 Mn; 0.03 P; 0.015 S; 18-21 Cr; For components subjected to
1.0-2.0 Al; 15-21 Co; 0.2 Cu; 2.0 Fe; extreme stress, e.g. gas turbine
Rest Ni blades, hot work tools, pressing
tools, forging hammers, shearing
blades, springs
14.0 Special alloys up to 1200 N/mm²
2.4634 Nimonic 105 2088 0.29 1140 0.12-0.17 C; 1.0 Si; 1.0 Mn; 0.015 S; 4.5-4.9 Al, Aerospace material, in gas turbines
(NiCo20Cr15MoAlTi) 0.003-0.01 B, 18-22 Co; 14-15.7 Cr for blades, discs, shafts
2.4602 Hastelloy C22 2088 0.29 690–950 0.01 C; 0.08 Si; 0.5 Mn, 0.025 P; 0.01 S; 2.0-6.0 Outstanding resistance in oxidis-
(NiCr21Mo14W) Fe, 2.5 Co, 20-22.5 Cr; 12.5-14.5 Mo, 2.5-3.5 ing media, stirring machines, heat
W, 0.35 V, 50 Ni min exchanger,
exhaust systems, chem. industry
for centrifuges
2.4360 Monel 400 2600 0.19 450–700 62 Ni min 1.0 Co; 28-34 Cu, Aerospace material with favoura-
(NiCu30Fe) 1.0-2.5 Fe, 0.15 C, 0.5 Al, 2.0 Mn, 0.02 S, 0.5 Si, ble mechanical and chemical-cor-
0.3 Ti rosion properties, pressure tank
construction, centrifuges, ship's
valves
2.4668 Inconell 718 2088 0.29 960–1240 50-55 Ni, 17-21 Cr, 2.8-3.3 Mo, 0.02-0.08 C, Aerospace material, excellent
(NiCr19NbMo) 0.35 Si, 0.35 Mn, 0.015 P, 0.015 S, 0.2 Cu, properties in the extremely low
4.8-5.5 Nb, 1.0 Co, 0.3-0.7 Al, 0.7-1.15 bTi, temperature range, very good cor-
0.002-0.006 B, 11.3 Fe min rosion resistance, rocket propul-
sion units, gas turbines, pumps

27
Table 1.2 (Continued) Categorisation in GARANT material groups

28
Material Material DIN (German Main Rise of Strength Chemical composition [%] Typical use
group number Industrial value of the tan-
Standard) code specif. gent
cutting (see Fig.
power 2.22 and
Equation
kc1.1 2.6)
[N/mm2] m [N/mm2]
15.0 Cast iron up to 180 HB (GG)
0.6015 GG 15 950 0.21 150-200 3.0-3.5 C; 1.5-2.5 Si; 0.5-1.0 Mn; 0.5-0.7 P; Gearbox casing, tool machine
(80–155 HB) 0.15 S stands, turbine casing, guide rails

GARANT MACHINING MANUAL


0.6020 GG 20 1020 0.25 200–300 3.0-3.5 C; 1.5-2.5 Si; 0.5-1.0 Mn; 0.5-0.7 P; Gearbox casing, tool machine
(115–205 0.15 S stands, turbine casing, guide rails
HB)
15.1 Cast iron as of 180 HB (GG)
0.6025 GG 25 1160 0.26 250–350 3.0-3.5 C; 1.5-2.5 Si; 0.5-1.0 Mn; 0.5-0.7 P; Gearbox casing, tool machine
(155–250 0.15 S stands, turbine casing, guide rails
HB)
0.6030 GG 30 1470 0.26 300–400 3.0-3.5 C; 1.5-2.5 Si; 0.5-1.0 Mn; 0.5-0.7 P; Gearbox casing, tool machine
(195–270 0.15 S stands, turbine casing, guide rails
HB)
0.6035 GG 35 1470 0.26 350–450 3.0-3.5 C; 1.5-2.5 Si; 0.5-1.0 Mn; 0.5-0.7 P; Gearbox casing, tool machine
(275–285 0.15 stands, turbine casing, guide rails
HB)
0.6040 GG 40 1470 0.26 400–500 3.0-3.5 C; 1.5-2.5 Si; 0.5-1.0 Mn; 0.5-0.7 P; Gearbox casing, tool machine
(290–350 0.15 stands, turbine casing, guide rails
HB)
15.2 Cast iron (spheroidal graphite, malleable cast iron) as of 180 HB (GGG, GT)
0.7040 GGG-40 1005 0.25 400 The chem. composition is left largely up to Crankshafts, rollers, gears, parts
(135–185 the manufacturer. subjected to impacts in vehicle
HB) construction
Table 1.2 (Continued) – Categorisation in GARANT material groups – (Continued) GARANT material group 15.2

Material Material DIN (German Main Rise of Strength Chemical composition [%] Typical use
group number Industrial value of the tan-
Standard) code specif. gent

Materials
cutting (see Fig.
power 2.22 and
Equation
kc1.1 2.6)
[N/mm2] m [N/mm2]
15.2 Cast iron (spheroidal graphite, malleable cast iron) as of 180 HB (GGG, GT)
0.7060 GGG-60 1050 0.48 600 3.5-3.8 C; 2-3 Si; 0.4 Mn; 0.1 P; 0.01 S; Crankshafts, rollers, gears, parts
(200–250 0.06-0.12 Mg subjected to impacts in vehicle
HB) construction
0.8040 GTW-40 2060 0.19 360–420 3.0-3.4 C; 0.4-0.8 Si; 0.4-0.6 Mn; 0.12-0.25 S Gearbox casing, brake drums,
(220 HB) crankshafts, conrods,
gearshift forks, levers
15.3 Cast iron (spheroidal graphite, malleable cast iron) as of 260 HB
0.7080 GGG-80 1132 0.44 800 3.5-3.8 C; 2-3 Si; 0.4 Mn; 0.1 P; 0.01 S; Crankshafts, rollers, gears, parts
(270–335 0.06-0.12 Mg subjected to impacts in vehicle
HB) construction
0.8165 GTS-65 1180 0.24 650 2.3-2.6 C; 1.2-1.5 Si; 0.4-0.5 Mn; 0.1 P; Chassis parts such as camshafts,
(210–260 0.1-0.15 S wheel hubs, linkage heads, drag
HB) bearings, lock parts
16.0 Titanium, titanium alloys up to 850 N/mm²
3.7025 Ti 1 1370 0.21 290–410 0.15 Fe; 0.12 O; 0.05 N; 0.06 C; 0.013 H Chemical apparatus construction,
electroplating, aircraft and space-
craft construction
3.7124 Ti Cu 2 1370 0.21 540–650 2.0-3.0 Cu, 0.2 Fe; 0.2 O; 0.1 C; 0.05 N, 0.01 H, Aerospace material, complex
96.4 Ti min components, propulsion unit cas-
ing parts
3.7114 Ti Al 5 Sn 2.5 1370 0.21 790–830 4.5-5.5 Al, 2.0-3.0 Sn, 0.5 Fe, 0.2 O, 0.08 C, Aerospace material
0.05 N, 0.015 H,
90.3 Ti min

29
Table 1.2 (Continued) Categorisation in GARANT material groups

30
Material Material DIN (German Main Rise of Strength Chemical composition [%] Typical use
group number Industrial value of the tan-
Standard) code specif. gent
cutting (see Fig.
power 2.22 and
Equation
kc1.1 2.6)
[N/mm2] m [N/mm2]
16.1 Titanium, titanium alloys with 850–1200 N/mm²
3.7115 Ti Al 5 Sn 2.5 1370 0.21 >=830 4.5.. 55 Al; 2..3 Sn; Rest Ti Aircraft and spacecraft construction,
fittings, mechanical engineering

GARANT MACHINING MANUAL


3.7164 Ti Al 6 V 4 1370 0.21 >=900 5.5..6.75 Al; 3.5..4.5 V; Rest Ti Aircraft and spacecraft construction,
fittings, mechanical engineering
17.0 Aluminium, aluminium alloys up to 530 N/mm²
3.3561 G–Al Mg 5 780 0.23 160–220 4.5-5.5 Mg; 0.001-0.4 Mn; 0.001-0.2 Ti Cast items in the chemical and
food industries
3.3535 Al Mg 3 780 0.23 190–290 2.6-3.6 Mg; (Mn+Cr 0.1-0.6) Food industry, apparatus construc-
tion, vehicle construction, ship-
building
3.3527 Al Mg 2 Mn 0.8 780 0.23 190–290 1.6-2.5 Mg; 0.5-1.1 Mn For higher temperatures, vehicle
construction, shipbuilding, appa-
ratus construction
3.3547 Al Mg 4.5 Mn 780 0.23 275–345 4.0-4.9 Mg; 0.4-1.0 Mn; 0.05-0.25 Cr Vehicle construction, shipbuild-
ing, pressure tanks
17.1 Aluminium, cast aluminium alloys <10% Si up to 600 N/mm²
3.2151 G–Al Si 6 Cu 4 830 0.23 160–200 5.0-7.5 Si; 3.0-5.0 Cu; 0.1-0.6 Mn; 0.1-0.5 Mg Wide variety of uses in mechanical
engineering, cylinder heads
3.2341 G–Al Si 5 Mg 830 0.23 140–180 91.8 Al [according to DIN: Al Rest]; 5- 6 Si; Parts for the food and chemical
0.001-0.4 Mn; 0.001-0.20 Ti; 0.4-0.8 Mg; 0.05 industries, hinges
Cu; 0.5 Fe; 0.10 Zn
3.2381.01 G–Al Si 10 Mg 830 0.23 160–210 9-11 Si; 0.2-0.5 Mg; 0.001-0.4 Mn Thin-walled, pressure- and vibra-
tion-resistant cast items, engine
casing
Table 1.2 (Continued) – Categorisation in GARANT material groups – (Continued) GARANT material group 17.1

Material Material DIN (German Main Rise of Strength Chemical composition [%] Typical use
group number Industrial value of the tan-
Standard) specif. gent

Materials
code cutting (see Fig.
power 2.22 and
Equation
kc1.1 2.6)
[N/mm2] m [N/mm2]
17.1 Aluminium, cast aluminium alloys <10% Si up to 600 N/mm²
3.2371.61 G – Al Si 7 Mg 830 0.23 230–310 6.5-7.5 Si; 0.25-0.45 Mg; 0.001-0.2 Ti, Rest Al Cast items of medium wall thickness,
wa high strength and endurance,
aircraft construction
17.2 Aluminium, cast aluminium alloys >10% Si up to 600 N/mm²
3.2581.01 G – Al Si 12 830 0.23 150–200 10.5-13.5 Si; 0.001-0.4 Mn, Rest Al Thin-walled , pressure and vibration-
resistant cast items
3.2583 G-Al Si 12 Cu 830 0.23 150–200 85.1 Asl min 10.5-13.5 Si, 0.001-0.4 Mn, Difficult shapes, thin-walled, cast
0.05 Cu, 0.5 Fe, 0.05 Mg, 0.15 Ti, 0.1 Zn items subjected to impacts, for appli-
ance and vehicle construction,
mechanical engineering and ship-
building, casing, impeller wheels
18.0 Magnesium, magnesium alloys
3.5314 Mg Al 3 Zn 390 0.19 240–280 2.5-3.5 Al, 0.7-1.3 Zn, 0.28-0.4 Mn, 0.05 Si, Aerospace material for components
0.15 Cu, 94.4 Mg min with complicated design
3.5200 Mg Mn 2 390 0.19 200–220 1.2-2.0 Mn, 0.1 Si, 0.05 Cu, 0.05 Al, 0.03 Zn, Aerospace material, fuel tanks, pan-
97.7 Mg min elling, anodes
3.5812 Mg Al 8 Zn 390 0.19 270–310 7.8-9.2 Al, 0.2-0.8 Zn, 0.12-0.3 Mn, 0.1 Si, Components subjected to high
0.05 Cu, 0.005 Fe, 89.2 Mg min mechanical stress
19.0 Copper, low-alloy up to 400 N/mm²
2.0070 SE-Cu 780 0.23 200–250 99.9 Cu min, 0.003 P Electrical engineering, semi-finished
goods of all types
2.1020 Cu Sn 6 880 0.23 350–410 91.7 Cu min, 5.5-7 Sn, 0.01-0.35 P, 0.1 Fe, Shipbuilding and mechanical engi-
0.3 Ni, 0.05 Pb, 0.3 Zn neering, springs of all types, electri-
cal industry

31
Table 1.2 (Continued) Categorisation in GARANT material groups

32
Material Material DIN (German Main Rise of Strength Chemical composition [%] Typical use
group number Industrial value of the tan-
Standard) code specif. gent
cutting (see Fig.
power 2.22 and
Equation
kc1.1 2.6)
[N/mm2] m [N/mm2]
19.1 Brass, short-chipping up to 600 N/mm²
2.0380 Cu Zn 39 Pb 2 780 0.18 360–490 58.5-60 Cu, 1.5-2.5 Pb, 0.1 Al, 0.4 Fe, 0.3 Ni, Parts for light engineering,
0.2 Sn, 36.3 Zn min mechanical engineering and

GARANT MACHINING MANUAL


apparatus construction
2.0401 Cu Zn 39 Pb 3 980 0.25 360–500 57-59 Cu, 2.5-3.5 Pb, 0.1 Al, 0.5 Fe, 0.5 Ni, Form turned parts for automatic
35.8 Zn min lathes
19.2 Brass, long-chipping up to 600 N/mm²
2.0250 Cu Zn 20 980 0.25 270–320 18.5 Zn min, 79-81 Cu, 0.02 Al, 0.05 Fe, 0.2 Ni, Motor vehicle electrics, pressure
0.05 Pb, 0.05 Sn gauges
2.0280 Cu Zn 33 980 0.25 280–360 31 Zn min, 66-68.5 Cu, 0.02 Al, 0.05 Fe, 0.2 Ni, Deep-drawing parts, metal goods,
0.05 Pb, 0.05 Sn clock/watch parts
2.0332 Cu Zn 37 Pb 0.5 980 0.25 290–370 62-64 Cu, 0.1-0.7 Pb, 34.6 Zn min, 0.5 Al, High-precision extruded sections,
0.2 Fe, 0.3 Ni, 0.1 Sn chronometer industry
19.3 Bronze, short-chipping up to 600 N/mm²
2.1090 G-Cu Sn 7 Zn 640 0.25 120–130 81-85 Cu, 3-5 Zn, 5-7 Pb, 6-8 Sn, 2 Ni, 0.3 Sb, Plain bearing half liners in general
0.25 Fe, 0.05 P mechanical engineering
2.1170 G-Cu Pb 5 Sn 780 0.23 > 240 84-87 Cu, 4-6 Pb, 9-11 Sn, 1.5 Ni, 0.35 Sb, Hot roller bearings, tool and table
2.0 Zn, 0.25 Fe, 0.05 P guides
19.4 Bronze, short-chipping with 600–850 N/mm²
2.0790 Cu Ni18 Zn19 Pb1 880 0.23 430–530 59-63 Cu, 17-19 Ni, 15.1 Zn min, 0.3 Fe, Light engineering and appliance
0.3-1.5 Pb, 0.7 Mn construction, shipbuilding, con-
struction industry
Table 1.2 (Continued) Categorisation in GARANT material groups

Material Material DIN (German Main Rise of Strength Chemical composition [%] Typical use
group number Industrial value of the tan-
Standard) code specif. gent

Materials
cutting (see Fig.
power 2.22 and
Equation
kc1.1 2.6)
[N/mm2] m [N/mm2]
19.5 Bronze, long-chipping up to 850 N/mm²
2.0916 Cu Al 5 780 0.23 420–580 95 Cu, 5 Al Apparatus construction and ship-
building, chemical industry
2.0960 Cu Al 9 Mn 2 780 0.23 440–570 83.9 Cu min, 8-10 Al, 1.5 Fe, 1.5-3 Mn, 0.8 Ni, Bearing parts subjected to high
0.05 Pb, 0.5 Zn stress, gearbox and worm gears,
valve seats, ship's shafts
19.6 Bronze, long-chipping with 850–1200 N/mm²
2.1247 Cu Be 2 780 0.23 410–540 96.8 Cu min, 1.8-2.1 Be Bearing seats, membranes, wear-
resistant worm gears and other
gears, solid parts subjected to high
stress
20.0 Graphite

33
Table 1.2 (Continued) Categorisation in GARANT material groups

34
Mate- Code Desig- Own Density Strength E mod- Impact Coeffi- Appli- Chemical resistance to Special Use
rial nation trade ule value cient of cation properties
group name linear ex- temper- B ... chemical,
pansion ature BB ... conditionally resistant,
U ... non-resistant
[g/cm3] [N/mm2] [N/mm2] [kJ/m2] [10-6/K] [°C]

DIN DIN DIN DIN DIN

Petroleum
Petrol
Trichloro-
ethylene
Dilute
acids
Dilute
alkalis
53479 53455 53457 53453 52328
21.0 Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics
Thermo- PA Polya- Nylon, Du- B B B BB BB Technical
plastics mide rethane, plastics

GARANT MACHINING MANUAL


Vestamide Gears, pulleys,
plain bearings,
PA 6 Ertalon 1.14 781) 3100 25++ 105 -40...70 Universal casing
6SA material for
construction
and mainte-
nance

PA 66 Ertalon 1.14 901) 3300 15++ 95 -30...80 Suitable for


66SA processing
on autolathes
PC Poly- Macrolon, 1.2 602) 2200 30 65 ...115 BB U U B U Extremely Technical
car- Lexan, shock-resist- plastic
bonate Plasto- ant, very machine parts,
carbon solid, very safety glass
temperature-
resistant

1) Yield stress
2) Tensile strength
++ Measured on sample bodies stored up to saturation in normal climate (23°C / 55%RF)
Table 1.2 (Continued) – Categorisation in GARANT material groups – (Continued) GARANT material group 21.0

Material Code Desig- Own Density Strength E mod- Impact Coeffi- Appli- Chemical resistance to Special Use
group nation trade ule value cient of cation properties
name linear ex- temper- B ... chemical,
pansion ature BB ... conditionally resistant,

Materials
U ... non-resistant
[g/cm3] [N/mm2] [N/mm2] [kJ/m2] [10-6/K] [°C]

DIN DIN DIN DIN DIN

Petroleum
Petrol
Trichloro-
ethylene
Dilute
acids
Dilute
alkalis
53479 53455 53457 53453 52328
21.0 Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics
Thermo- PE Poly- Hos- BB B B B B Low spec.
plastics ethyl- talene, weight, recog-
ene Lupo- nised as physi-
lene, Ves- ologically safe,
tolene no water
absorption

PE-HD 0.95 241) 800 10 2*102 -50...80 Can be deep- Chem. appara-
drawn, tus construc-
impact- and tion, electro-
shock-resistant plating, cool-
ing systems
PE- 0.95 281) 900 50 2*102 -100...80 Very high etc.
HMW molecular
weight, very Panelling for
high impact silos and bun-
strength kers, paper
industry, freez-
PE- 0.94 221) 790 4) 2*102 -260...80 Very high ing technol-
UHMW molecular ogy, filling
weight, high- plants, food
est impact industry
strength, very
abrasive-
resistant
PEEK Poly- 1.32 971) 3600 8.2 47 -65...250 B B BB B B Solid, rigid, Bearings, start-
etheret chemical- ing discs,
herke- resistant, very gears, gaskets
tone low flamma-
bility
1) Yield stress

35
4) Sample unbroken
Table 1.2 (Continued) – Categorisation in GARANT material groups – (Continued) GARANT material group 21.0

36
Material Code Desig- Own Density Strength E mod- Impact Coeffi- Appli- Chemical resistance to Special Use
group nation trade ule value cient of cation properties
name linear ex- temper- B ... chemical,
pansion ature BB ... conditionally resistant,
U ... non-resistant
[g/cm3] [N/mm2] [N/mm2] [kJ/m2] [10-6/K] [°C]

DIN DIN DIN DIN DIN

Petroleum
Petrol
Trichloro-
ethylene
Dilute
acids
Dilute
alkalis
53479 53455 53457 53453 52328
21.0 Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics
Thermo- PP Poly- Hast- BB BB BB B B Standard
plastics propyl- alene PP, plastic

GARANT MACHINING MANUAL


ene Novo-
4
PP-H Homo- lene, Ves- 0.903 331) 1450 ) 100...200 0...100 Casing,
poly- tolene P fans
mer
PP-C Copol- 0.91 271) 1350 4)
100...200 -30...90
ymer
PS Poly- Hosty- 1.05 552) 3200 80 ...70 BB U U B B Hard, dimen- Standard plas-
styrene rene N., sionally sta- tic; commodity
Polysty- ble, brittle, goods, house-
rene, Ves- very good hold goods,
tyron dielelectric packaging sec-
values tor
ABS Acrylo- 1.05 501), 372) 2400 23 80...110 -30...80 B B U B B Very impact As with PS,
nitrile (ther- resistant, technical use
buta- mal age- good (semi-finished
diene ing) stiffness, boards), cas-
styrene chemical ing parts
resistance
PMMA Poly- Degulan, 1.19 722) 3300 2 70 ...70 BB U U B B Very rigid, Transparent
me- Deglas, weather- plastic; view-
thyl- Plexiglas, resistant., sen- ing windows,
meth- Resarit, sitive to optical
acrylate Perspex impacts lenses

1) Yield stress
2) Tensile strength
4) Sample unbroken
Table 1.2 (Continued) – Categorisation in GARANT material groups – (Continued) GARANT material group 21.0

Material Code Desig- Own Density Strength E mod- Impact Coeffi- Appli- Chemical resistance to Special Use
group nation trade ule value cient of cation properties
name linear ex- temper- B ... chemical,
pansion ature BB ... conditionally resistant,

Materials
U ... non-resistant
[g/cm3] [N/mm2] [N/mm2] [kJ/m2] [10-6/K] [°C]

DIN DIN DIN DIN DIN

Petroleum
Petrol
Trichloro-
ethylene
Dilute
acids
Dilute
alkalis
53479 53455 53457 53453 52328
21.0 Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics
Thermo- POM - Poly- Hosta- 1.39 651) 2700 210 110 -50...90 B B U B B Low frictional Technical plas-
plastics C oxy- form, thermal resistance, tic; gears, con-
meth- Ultraform ageing abrasive trol cams,
ylene resistant, guide bushes
copoly- good spring
mer properties
PTFE Poly- Hosta- 2.17 28.53) 400...800 16 136 -200 B B B B B Non-injecta- Technical plas-
tetra- flon TF, (drawing) ...260 ble thermo- tic, panelling in
fluor- Teflon plastic, high chemical
oethyl- temp. resist- processing,
ene ance, resistant sheathing,
to light and insulated
weather parts, etc. etc.
PI Polyim- High mech. High-perform-
ide strength ance plastic,
Very high use bearing
temp. bushes, gas-
Very good kets, pistons,
creep resist- valve seats,
ance valve balls,
Good sliding thermal and
properties electrical insu-
lation

1) Yield stress

37
3) Ultimate tensile strength
Table 1.2 (Continued) – Categorisation in GARANT material groups – (Continued) GARANT material group 21.0

38
Material Code Desig- Own Density Strength E mod- Impact Coeffi- Appli- Chemical resistance to Special Use
group nation trade ule value cient of cation properties
name linear ex- temper- B ... chemical,
pansion ature BB ... conditionally resistant,
U ... non-resistant
[g/cm3] [N/mm2] [N/mm2] [kJ/m2] [10-6/K] [°C]

DIN DIN DIN DIN DIN

Petroleum
Petrol
Trichloro-
ethylene
Dilute
acids
Dilute
alkalis
53479 53455 53457 53453 52328
21.0 Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics
Thermo- PI Polyim- Vespel 1.43 412) 3100 55 -273 Unfilled, opti- Automobile,
plastics ide SP-1 ...245 mised phys. electrical, sem-

GARANT MACHINING MANUAL


properties iconductor,
Electr. and aerospace
therm. insula- industry as
tion well as in mili-
tary devices
Vespel 1.55 242) 3100 55 ....480 Additive 15%
SP-211 (short- graphite,
term) 10% teflon
Lowest coeffi-
cient of fric-
tion
Best wearing
rate
Vespel 1.6 3300 50 ....480 Additive 15%
SP-3 (short- molybdenum
term) disulphide
4
PEI Poly- 1.27 1051) 3000 ) 45 -50...170 B B BB B B Unreinforced, High-perform-
ether- amorphous ance plastic
imide thermoplastic Electrical engi-
High mech. neering, food
strength industry
Very high Medical tech-
upper use nology (for
temp. objects to be
Excellent repeatedly
hydrolysis sterilised)
resistance

1) Yield stress
2) Tensile strength
4) Sample unbroken
Table 1.2 (Continued) – Categorisation in GARANT material groups – (Continued) GARANT material group 21.0

Material Code Desig- Own Density Strength E mod- Impact Coeffi- Appli- Chemical resistance to Special Use
group nation trade ule value cient of cation properties
name linear ex- temper- B ... chemical,
pansion ature BB ... conditionally resistant,

Materials
U ... non-resistant
[g/cm3] [N/mm2] [N/mm2] [kJ/m2] [10-6/K] [°C]

DIN DIN DIN DIN DIN

Petroleum
Petrol
Trichloro-
ethylene
Dilute
acids
Dilute
alkalis
53479 53455 53457 53453 52328
21.0 Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics
PA 66- Polya- Ertalon 1.29 1102) 5200 55 -20...110 B B B BB BB Very high Technical plas-
GF30 mide 66 – resistance to tic
+30% GF 30 wear Deploy- Gears, guide
glass ment in and coupler
fibre higher upper parts, casing
use tempera- parts
tures
POM Poly- Ultra- 1.58 1302) 8800 55 30 -50...100 B B U B B Good fric- Radial cams
GF 25 oxy- form tional resist- and sealing
meth- N2200 ance, abrasive rings that can
ylene G53 resistant, withstand high
+25% good spring loads, motor
glass properties, vehicle parts,
fibre puncture- gears, bear-
proof ings, casing
PP GF Poly- 1.04 331) 2900 50 65...105 0...100 B B BB B B Low density, Fan wheels,
20 propyl- very chemical pump parts
ene + resistant
20%
glass
fibre
PP GF Poly- 1.14 831) 6700 45 70 -30...100 B B BB B B Low density, Fan wheels,
30 propyl- very chemical pump parts
ene + resistant
30%
glass
fibre

1) Yield stress
2) Tensile strength

39
3) Ultimate tensile strength
Table 1.2 (Continued) – Categorisation in GARANT material groups – (Continued) GARANT material group 21.1

40
Material Code Desig- Own Density Strength E mod- Impact Coeffi- Appli- Chemical resistance to Special Use
group nation trade ule value cient of cation properties
name linear temper- B ... chemical,
expan- ature BB ... conditionally resistant,
sion U ... non-resistant
[g/cm3] [N/mm2] [N/mm2] [kJ/m2] [10-6/K] [°C]

DIN DIN DIN DIN DIN

Petroleum
Petrol
Trichloro-
ethylene
Dilute
acids
Dilute
alkalis
53479 53455 53457 53453 52328
21.1 Fibre-reinforced plastics
PA 66- Polya- Ertalon 1.29 1102) 5200 55 -20...110 B B B BB BB Very high Technical plas-

GARANT MACHINING MANUAL


GF30 mide 66 – resistance to tic
+30% GF 30 wear Deploy- Gears, guide
glass ment in and coupler
fibre higher upper parts, casing
use tempera- parts
tures
POM Poly- Ultra- 1.58 1302) 8800 55 30 -50...100 B B U B B Good fric- Radial cams
GF 25 oxy- form tional resist- and sealing
meth- N2200 ance, abrasive rings that can
ylene G53 resistant, withstand high
+25% good spring loads, motor
glass properties, vehicle parts,
fibre puncture- gears, bear-
proof ings, casing
PP GF Poly- 1.04 331) 2900 50 65...105 0...100 B B BB B B Low density, Fan wheels,
20 propyl- very chemical pump parts
ene + resistant
20%
glass
fibre
PP GF Poly- 1.14 831) 6700 45 70 -30...100 B B BB B B Low density, Fan wheels,
30 propyl- very chemical pump parts
ene + resistant
30%
glass
fibre
1) Yield stress
2) Tensile strength
Table 1.2 (Continued) – Categorisation in GARANT material groups – (Continued) GARANT material group 21.1

Material Code Desig- Own Density Strength E mod- Impact Coeffi- Appli- Chemical resistance to Special Use
group nation trade ule value cient of cation properties
name linear temper- B ... chemical,

Materials
expan- ature BB ... conditionally resistant,
sion U ... non-resistant
[g/cm3] [N/mm2] [N/mm2] [kJ/m2] [10-6/K] [°C]

DIN DIN DIN DIN DIN

Petroleum
Petrol
Trichloro-
ethylene
Dilute
acids
Dilute
alkalis
53479 53455 53457 53453 52328
21.1 Fibre-reinforced plastics
PVDF Polyvi- 1.92 902) 10000 72 -40...150 B B B B B Solid, creep- Running
GF 20 nyli- resistant, can wheels and
dene- withstand body for
fluo- steady loads pumps
ride
+20%
glass
fibre
PEEK - Poly- Victrex 1.50 1302) 8100 30 25 -20...250 B B BB B B High mech. High-perform-
GF30 ethere- strength, stiff- ance plastic
therke- ness
tone Very high use Gears, pumps,
+30% temp. compressor
glass Good creep parts, gaskets,
fibre resistance at scrapers, valve
high tempera- seats, plain
tures bearings (in
medical tech-
nology,
nuclear, phar-
maceutical,
automobile
industry and
similar)

41
2) Tensile strength
Table 1.2 (Continued) – Categorisation in GARANT material groups – (Continued) GARANT material group 21.1

42
Material Code Desig- Own Density Strength E mod- Impact Coeffi- Appli- Chemical resistance to Special Use
group nation trade ule value cient of cation properties
name linear temper- B ... chemical,
expan- ature BB ... conditionally resistant,
sion U ... non-resistant
[g/cm3] [N/mm2] [N/mm2] [kJ/m2] [10-6/K] [°C]

DIN DIN DIN DIN DIN

Petroleum
Petrol
Trichloro-
ethylene
Dilute
acids
Dilute
alkalis
53479 53455 53457 53453 52328
21.1 Fibre-reinforced plastics
PEEK - Poly- Victrex 1.44 2242) 13000 4...38 -65...250 B B BB B B High mech. High-perform-

GARANT MACHINING MANUAL


CF30 ethere- strength, stiff- ance plastic
therke- ness Gears, pumps,
tone Very high use compressor
+30% temp. parts, gaskets,
carbon Good creep scrapers, valve
fibre resistance at seats, plain
high tempera- bearings (in
tures medical tech-
nology)
PTFE Poly- 2.23 113) 92 -200 B B B B B Compression- Compression-
+25% tetra- ...230 proof, good proof gaskets,
glass fluor- chem. resist- bearings, valve
oethyl- ance, good seats, piston
ene friction and rings, sealing
wear charac- rings, piston
teristics rod packaging
PTFE Poly- 2.09 113) 95 -200 B B B B B Compression- Piston rings,
+25% tetra- ...260 proof and piston guide
carbon fluor- wear-resist- rings, bear-
oethyl- ant, chemical- ings, packag-
ene resistant, ing, valve seat
good thermal rings
conductivity,
antistatic
1) Yield stress
2) Tensile strength
3) Ultimate tensile strength
4) Sample unbroken
++ Measured on sample bodies stored up to saturation in normal climate (23°C / 55%RF)
Materials

1.2 Designation of materials


The various materials can be categorised according to DIN (German Industrial Standard)
as follows (Table 1.3):

Designation of materials by chemical composition, DIN 17006

- 1st and possible


Cast metal 2nd treatment state
symbol with special properties
due to the treatment
Code letter for
high-alloy steels
Specification of Grade for
chemical composition tool steels

Cast symbol Specification of chemical composition


G- Cast C For unalloyed steels
GG- Lamellar graphite cast iron (also GGL-) Cf Steel for flame and induction hardening
GGG Cast iron with spheroidal graphite Ck Unalloyed stainless steel with low
P and S content
GH- Chill cast
GS- Cast steel Cm Unalloyed stainless steel with lower and
upper limitation of the S content
GT- Malleable cast iron in general
GTS- Black malleable cast iron Cq Steel suitable for cold forming
GTW- White malleable cast iron Code letter for high-alloy steels
Treatment state (excerpts) X Mass proportions of characteristic alloy com-
ponents > 5%
A Tempered HJ Surface induction hard-
(HI) ened
B Best machining prop- Grades for tool steels
erties
E Case-hardened N Normalised W1 1st grade
F Minimum tensile S Stress-free W2 2nd grade
strength
G Soft-annealed U Untreated W3 3rd grade
H Hardened V Annealed WS Special grade
Designation by material numbers DIN 17 007

. .
Main material Type number, Sixth and seventh
group number type class + count number digits

Main material groups Type number


0 Pig iron and ferrous-alloys The type classes are to be taken from the following
tables for each material
1 Steel
2 Heavy metals (nonferrous metals)
3 Light metals (nonferrous metals)

Table 1.3 Designation of materials and material numbers

43
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

1.2.1 Designation systems for steels and cast iron


Designation systems for steels and cast iron can be distinguished by abbreviated names
or a numbering system. In the following Tables 1.4 to 1.8, these are shown as an overview.

Designation system for steels – abbreviated names DIN EN 10027-1


DIN 17006-100

Mainsymbols
Main symbols Additivesymbols
Additive symbols

Letterforforsteel
Letter steelgroup
group Properties
Properties

oror
LetterC C
Letter Carboncontent
Carbon content

oror
Carboncontent
Carbon content Alloyelements
Alloy elements

Area of application Letter Properties Additional symbol for steels


Steel for steel con- S Minimum yield point Re in N/mm2 Impact work at different test temperatures (e.g.: J2: 27J
struction E.g.: S 355 J2 (until now St 52) at –20°C)
Steel for mechanical E Minimum yield point Re in N/mm2 G Other grades (possibly with number)
engineering E.g.: E 355
Area of application Letter Properties Additional symbol for steels
Unalloyed steel C 100 x medium C content E Prescribed max. S content
Except for free cutting steels R Prescribed range for S content
Mn content <1% For wire drawing
E.g.: C 35 E (until now Ck 35) D With special cold forming properties
C For springs
S For tools
U
Area of application Letter Properties Alloy elements
Unalloyed steel With- 100 x medium C content Letters For the characteristic alloy elements,
Mn content <1% out sorted by declining content,
Alloyed steel E.g.: 28 Mn 6 (unalloyed steel) Separated by hyphens, corresponding
Content of individ- Numbers
42 CrMo 4 (alloyed steel) to the mean percentage content of ele-
ual alloy elements ments x factor, sorted in the order of the
<5% G... = cast steel
alloy elements
E.g.: G 20Mo 5 Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Si, W Factor 4
Al, Be, Cu, Mo, Nb, Pb, Ta, Ti, V, Zr Factor 10
C, Ce, N, P, S Factor 100
B Factor 1000
Alloyed steel X 100 x medium C content
Min. one alloy ele- E.g.: X 22 CrMoV 12-1
ment ≥5%
GX = cast steel
E.g.: GX 7 CrNi Mo 12-1
Area of application Letter Alloy elements
High-speed steels HS Numbers separated by hyphen, specifying the percentage content of alloy elements in the fol-
lowing order: W – Mo – V - Co
E.g.: HS 7-4-2-5

Table 1.4 Designation system for steels by abbreviated name


Materials

Designation system for steels – numbering system DIN EN 10027-2

1 .
Main material group number, steel Steel group number Additive number
(currently only 2nd no.)

Steel group numbers


Unalloyed steels Alloyed steels
00, 90 Ordinary low-carbon steels High-grade steels
High-grade steels 08, 98 Steels with special phys. properties
01, 91 Gen. structural steels, Rm < 500 N/mm2 09, 99 Steels for various areas of application
02, 92 Other structural steels not intended for heat Stainless steels
treatment, Rm < 500 N/mm2
20...28 Tool steels
03, 93 Steels with C < 0,12%, Rm < 400 N/mm2 29 Unused
04, 94 Steels with 0.12% ≤ C < 0.25% or 30. 31 Unused
400 N/mm2 ≤ Rm < 500 N/mm2 32 High-speed steels with Co
05, 95 Steels with 0.25% ≤ C < 0.55% or 33 High-speed steels without Co
500 N/mm2 ≤ Rm < 700 N/mm2
06, 96 Steels with C ≥ 0.55%, Rm ≥ 700 N/mm2 34 Unused
07, 97 Steels with higher P or S content 35 Roller bearing steels
Stainless steels 36, 37 Steels with special magnetic properties
10 Steels with special physical 38, 39 Steels with special physical properties
properties
11 Construction, machine, container steels with 40...45 Non-corroding steels
C < 0.5%
12 Mechanical engineering steels with C ≥ 0.5% 46 Chem. resistant and high-temperature Ni alloy
13 Construction, machine, container steel with 47, 48 Heat resistant steels
special
requirements
14 Unused 49 High-temperature materials
15...18 Tool steels 50...84 Construction, machine, container steel. Sorted
by alloy elements
19 Unused 85 Nitride steels
86 Unused
87...89 Not for steels intended for heat treatment,
high-strength steels suitable for welding

Table 1.5 Designation system for steels by numbering system

Steel designation: Examples


GARANT material group (Cf. chapter 'Materials', section 1.1)
1.0422 C 22 Tempering steel 3.0
1.3505 100 Cr 5 Structural steel roller bearing steel 8.0
1.8515 31 CrMo 12 Nitride steel 7.1

45
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

The designation of cast iron according to DIN 17006 can be taken from Table 1.3. The fol-
lowing Tables 1.6 and 1.7 show the designation systems for the codes and/or the number-
ing system according to EU standard. Table 1.8 contains the numbering system for cast
iron according to DIN 17007.

Designation system for cast iron – codes according to DIN EN 1560


EU standard

EN  GJ 
European Additional
standard requirements

G - Cast metals · Mechanical properties


J - Iron (tensile strength and hardness)
Graphite Micro- and · Chemical composition
structure macrostructure

Graphite structure Microstucture or macrostructure Mechanical properties


L Lamellar A Austenite – Specification of tensile strength and of a letter
to describe the sample pieces
S Nodular F Ferrite S Sample piece cast separately
M Temper carbon P Perlite U Sample piece cast on
C Sample piece taken from a casting
V Vermicular M Martensite Additionally, if required
(worm-shaped) – Specification of yield in %
N Graphite-free L Ledeburite – Specification of test temperature for shock
(chill cast) resistance
– Specification of hardness
Y Special structure Q Quenched
T Annealed
B Annealed, not decarbonised *)
W Annealed, decarbonised
*) Only for malleable cast iron E.g.: EN-GJS-400-18S-RT
Additional requirements Cast iron with spheroidal graphite, minimum
tensile strength Rm=400 N/mm2, yield A=18%,
D Unfinished casting impact strength at room temperature meas-
H Heat-treated casting ured on the separately cast sample piece
W Suitable for welding
Z Additionally stipulated requirements E.g.: EN-GJS-HB 150
Cast iron with spheroidal graphite and hard-
ness of 150 HB
Chemical composition
Letter X and specification of essential alloy elements
and their content in descending order
E.g.: EN-GJL-XniMn 13-7
Alloyed cast iron with lamellar graphite, with
13% Ni and 7% Mn

Table 1.6 Designation system for cast iron by code

46
Materials

Designation system for cast iron – numbering system DIN EN 1560


according to EU standard

EN J
European Special
standard requirements
J - Iron Serial number
Graphite Main features of (00 ... 99)
structure the cast material

Main feature Special requirements


0 Reserve 0 None 5 Impact strength at low temp.
1 Tensile strength 1 Sample piece cast separately 6 Suitability for welding
2 Hardness 2 Sample piece cast on 7 Unfinished casting
3 Chemical composition 3 Sample piece removed 8 Casting heat-treated
4...9 Reserve 4 Impact strength at room temp. 9 Additional requirements
E.g.: EN-JL 2 03 0 Cast iron material with lamellar graphite, main feature hardness, without
special requirements (short description of the material EN-GJL-HB 195)

Table 1.7 Designation system for cast iron by numbering system

Designation system for cast iron – numbering system DIN 17007

0.
Main material Type number,
group number type class + count number

Type classes of main material group 0


00...09 Pig iron for steel production 60...61 Cast iron with lamellar graphite, unalloyed
10...19 Pig iron for casting production 62...69 Cast iron with lamellar graphite, alloyed
20...29 Special pig iron 70...71 Cast iron with spheroidal graphite, unalloyed
30...49 Master alloys 72...79 Cast iron with spheroidal graphite , alloyed
50...59 Reserve 80...81 Malleable cast iron, unalloyed
82 Malleable cast iron, alloyed
83...89 Malleable cast iron, reserve
90...91 Special cast iron, unalloyed
92...99 Special cast iron, alloyed

Table 1.8 Designation system for cast iron according to DIN numbering system

Cast iron designation: Examples


European standard Until now GARANT material group
Material no. Abbreviated name Material no. Abbreviated name (Cf. chap. 1, section 1.1)
EN-JL 1020 EN-GJL-150 0.6015 GG 15 15.0
EN-JS 1030 EN-GJS- 400-15 0.7040 GGG-40 15.2
EN-JM 1180 EN-GJMB-650 0.8165 GTS-65 15.2
EN-JM 1030 EN-GJMW-400 0.8040 GTW-40 15.2

47
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

1.2.2 Designation systems for nonferrous materials


Designation systems for nonferrous materials are distinguished in the same way as those
for ferrous materials. Tables 1.9 and 1.10 show the numerical designation systems.

Designation system for nonferrous metals - numbering system DIN 17007

. .
Main material Sixth and
group number seventh digits
Type number

Main material Type numbers Sixth and seventh digit


group
2 Heavy 2.0000 ... 2.1799 Cu 0 Untreated
metals
2.1800 ... 2.1999 Reserve 1 Soft
2.2000 ... 2.2499 Zn, Cd 2 Strain-hardened (intermediate-hardened)
2.2500 ... 2.2999 Reserve 3 Strain-hardened ('hard' and above)
2.3000 ... 2.3499 Pb 4 Solution-annealed, without mechan. rework
2.3500 ... 2.3999 Sn 5 Solution-annealed, cold reworked
2.4000 ... 2.4999 Ni, Co 6 Thermoset, cold reworked
2.5000 ... 2.5999 Precious metals 7 Thermoset, without mechan. rework
2.6000 ... 2.6999 Refractory metals 8 Unstressed, without prior strain-hardening
2.7000 ... 2.9999 Reserve 9 Special treatments
3 Light 3.0000 ... 3.4999 Al
metals
3.5000 ... 3.5999 Mg
3.6000 ... 3.6999 Reserve
3.7000 ... 3.7999 Ti
3.8000 ... 3.9999 Reserve

Table 1.9 Designation system for nonferrous metals according to DIN numbering system

Fig. 1.1 Light metal housing of a


thermographic camera

48
Materials

Designation system for nonferrous metals – numbering system DIN EN 573,


according to EU standard DIN EN 1412,
DIN EN 1754

EN (-)
European 5 digits for identification of the
standard chem. composition or

Main alloy and subgroups +


Letter for code letter or
material
3-digit count number +
code letter
Form of product

Letter for material (excerpts) Form of product


A Aluminium A Anodes
M Magnesium B Block form
Cu Copper C Cast material
F Supplementary welding materials and brazing solders
M Master alloys
R Refined copper
S Material in the form of scrap
W Wrought material
X Unstandardised materials

Table 1.10 Numerical designation system for nonferrous metals according to EU standard

Cast iron designation: Examples


European standard Until now GARANT material
group
Material no. Abbreviated name Material Abbreviated (cf. chap. 1,
no. name section 1.1)
Aluminium and Al alloys
EN AW–5754 EN AW-5754 [AlMg3] 3.3535 Al Mg 3 17.0
EN AC-43000 EN AC-43000 [AlSi10Mg] 3.2381.01 G-Al Si 10 Mg 17.1
EN AC-44200 EN AC-44200 [AlSi12] 3.2581 Al Si 12 17.2
Magnesium and Mg alloys
EN MC 21110 EN-MC Mg Al 8 Zn 1 3.5812.01 G-Mg Al 8 Zn 1 18.0
Copper and Cu alloys
CC 491 K CuSu5ZnPb5-C 2.1020 G-CuSu5ZnPb 19.0
CC 750 S CuZn33Pb2-C 20290.1 G-CuZn33Pb 20.0
CC 495 K CuSn10Pb10-C 2.1176.1 G-CuPb10Sn 21.0

49
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

1.2.3 Identification of thermoplastic moulding and extrusion materials


Identification of thermoplastic moulding and extrusion Polyethylene (PE) DIN 16 776-1: 1984-12
materials Polypropylene (PP) DIN 16 774-1: 1984-12
Polycarbonate (PC) DIN 7744-1: 1986-07

, , , Mass proportion
Polyethylen PE
Polypropylen PP in %
Polycarbonat PC Form for filling and
Additional reinforcement material
identification Type for filling and
(only for PP) reinforcement material
Application
additive Melt-flow index for PE and PP
Impact value at PC*
Density at PE
Isolax index at PP Melt-flow index test conditions
Viscoelasticity at PC* for PE and PP
* at PC, separated by hyphen Melt-flow index for PC*

Application Additive Density in g/cm3 Filling and reinforcing material for PE and PP
for PE
B Blow moulding A Processing Code over up to Type Form
C Calendering stabiliser
D Music disc manufactur- B Anti-block agents 15 0.917 A Asbestos B Balls
E ing C Dyes 20 0.917 0.922 B Boron D Powder
F Extrusion (pipes/tubes) D Powders 25 0.922 0.927 C Carbon F Fibres
G Extrusion (foils) E Blowing agents 30 0.927 0.932 G Glass G Milled material
H General application F Fire prevention agents 35 0.932 0.937 K Chalk (CaCO3) H Whiskers
K Coating G Granulate 40 0.937 0.942 L Cellulose (single fibre-shaped
L Cable, wire insulation H Thermal ageing bar. 45 0.942 0.947 M Minerals, Metal crystals)
M Injection moulding K Metal desactivators 50 0.947 0.952 S Synth. organ.
Q Pressing L Light stabilisers 55 0.952 0.957 T mat. S Lamella
R Rotational moulding N Natural dyes 60 0.957 0.962 W Talcum X Not specified
S Powder sintering P Impact resistant, modif. 65 0.962 X Wood Z Other
T Tape manufacturing R Deformation aid Z Not specified
X No data S Slip additives, lubri- Other
Y Fibre manufacturing T cants
W Increased transparency
Additional X Hydrolysis stabilisers Coefficient of Filling materials for PC
identification Y Can be networked viscosity
for PP for PC Mass proportion in %
Z Increased electr. con-
ductivity in cm3/g
Antistatic agent
H Homopolymers Isotaxy - index Code over up to Code over up Code over up Code over up
of polypropylene for PP to to to
B Thermoplastic
Block copolymers Code Mass proportion in % 46 46 5 7.5 40 37.5 42.5 75 72.5 77.5
R Thermopl. Static 49 46 52 10 7.5 12.5 45 42.5 47.5
95 >90 ... 100 50 52 58 15 12.5 17.5 50 47.5 52.5 80 77.5 82.5
copolymers 85 >80 ... 90
Q Mix of the groups H, B, R 61 58 64 20 17.5 22.5 55 52.5 57.5
75 >70 ... 80 67 64 70 25 22.5 27.5 60 57.5 62.5 85 82.5 87.5
65 >60 ... 70 70 70 30 27.5 32.5 65 62.5 67.5
55 >50 ... 60 35 32.5 37.5 70 67.5 72.5 90 87.5
Impact strength Impact value Melt-flow index in g/10 min Melt-flow index
an in kJ/m2 ak in kJ/m2 test conditions
for PE, PP for PC
an ak Code over up to Code over up The melt-flow index MFI
to specifies the mass that is pressed
through a nozzle under the set
Sym over up to Sym- over up to 000 0.1 03 3 conditions.
bol bol 001 0.1 0.2 05 3 6
003 0.2 0.4 09 6 12
A0 10 B0 8 006 0.4 0.8 18 12 24 190 °C / 2.16 kg
A1 10 30 B1 8 16 012 0.8 1.5 24 24 D 190 °C / 5 kg
A3 30 50 B3 16 24 022 1.5 3.0 T 190 °C / 21.6 kg
A5 50 70 B5 24 32 045 3.0 6.0 G 230 °C / 2.16 kg
A7 70 90 B7 32 40 090 6.0 12 M 300 °C / 1.2 kg
A9 90 B9 40 200 12 25 -
Description of a PE moulding material for extrusion of foils 400 25 50
using slip agents with a density of 700 50
0.981 g / cm3 and a melt-flow index MFI at
190 °C / 2.16 kg of 4.2 g / 10 min:
Moulding material DIN 16776 - PE, FS, 20 D 045
Table 1.11 Identification of thermoplastic moulding and extrusion materials

50
Materials

2 Ferrous materials

Iron-carbon alloys with a carbon58 content up to 2% are referred to as steels; materials


with more than 2% carbon content are referred to as cast iron.
Cast iron, with the exception of a few cast iron alloys and cast iron with spheroidal graph-
ite, has only moderate tensile strength. Steel, however, is strong, can always be hot
worked, and can also be cold worked if it has a low carbon content. Heat treatment (hard-
ening and tempering) significantly increases the strength of steel, but the ductility
decreases radically.

2.1 Steels

2.1.1 Categorisation of steels


Steels are categorised into groups according to their alloy elements, their structural con-
stituents and their mechanical properties.
Depending on the alloy content, they are categorized into:
V Unalloyed steels
V Low-alloy steels (content of each alloy element is < 5%)
V High-alloy steels (content of one of the alloy elements is at least 5%)
Unalloyed steels are split into steels not intended for heat treatment and steels intended
for heat treatment.
In principle, low-alloy steels have similar properties to those of unalloyed steels. Impor-
tant from a technical point of view is the greatly improved hardenability, but also the
increased heat resistance and good tempering properties.
High-alloy steels are required for applications requiring special properties.
Scaling resistance or special physical properties can only be created using high-alloy
steels.

Fig. 1.2 Stapler

51
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

It is often the case that an identification system which indicates other important proper-
ties makes sense for the user. This is why steels are also pragmatically distinguished
according to areas of application and use into:
V Free cutting steels
V Case hardening steels
V Heat treatable steels
V Nitride steels
V Tool steels
V Non-corroding and acid resistant steels
Section 1 of this chapter sorts the steels into
material groups and lists their properties and
areas of application in tables.

Fig. 1.3 Punching tool

2.1.2 Influencing the cutting properties of steels


The cutting properties of a workpiece material are always to be assessed in the context of
the cutting processes applied, the tool material and the cutting conditions. As far as the
material is concerned, the cutting properties of steels are determined by the structure
and mechanical properties (hardness, strength).

2.1.2.1 Cutting properties depending on the carbon content


Carbon steels (unalloyed high-grade steels) with a carbon content of C < 0.8% are referred
to as hypoeutectoid (with regard to the iron-carbon diagram – cf. also Fig. 1.5). The essential
structural constituents are perlite (mixture of ferrite and cementite, high hardness) and fer-
rite (low hardness, great ductility).
For cutting, ferrite creates great difficulties due to:
V High tendency to adhere to the tool, formation of built-up edges
V Formation of unwanted strip and snarl chips (great ductility)
V Poor surface quality and burr formation on workpieces
Perlite, on the other hand, leads to cutting difficulties with regard to:
V High abrasive wear
V Higher cutting forces
The cutting properties of steels with a carbon con-
tent of C < 0.25% is essentially determined by the
above-mentioned properties of ferrite. At low cut-
ting speeds, built-up edges form. Tool wear gradu-
ally increases with rising cutting speed, as does
the cutting temperature. Under these circum-
stances, tools with an effective cutting angle that
is as positive as possible are to be selected. Fig. 1.4
Ferritic-perlitic structure (ferrite bright)

52
Materials

In the case of carbon steels in the range


from 0.25% < C < 0.4%, the properties of
perlite affect the cutting properties, i.e.:
Temperature T

V There is a reduction in the adhesive


tendency and therefore in the forma-
Fe 0.8 2.06 % 4.3 tion of built-up edges.
Carbon content
V Due to the greater load at the contact
Steels Cast iron
zone, the cutter temperature, and thus
Strength High strength Moderate strength
increases, through harden- (except for GGG and the tool wear, rises during cutting.
ductility drops
moderately
ing and temper-
ing, but brittle
alloyed cast iron).
Very brittle, very
V The structure has a positive influence
and sensitive sensitive to impacts on the surface quality, chip formation
to impacts
and chip shape.
If the heat treatment is suitable, Ledeburite prevents
materials can be thermoformed and in
heating Another increase in the carbon content
part cold formed, can be hardened and
tempered. (0.4% < C < 0.8%) leads to another
Pure iron
increase in the perlite, until at 0.8% C
there is exclusively perlite.
E.g. general structural steels, DIN 17 100
0.1 0.5 Good cutting properties can be
Heat treatable steels, e.g. DIN 17 200 achieved with carbon steels at around
0.25 0.8
0.25% C.
Tool steels
Fig. 1.5 shows a diagram of the categori-
Cast iron (white, grey)
sation of iron-carbon alloys as well as
hypo- hyper- their properties.
eutectoid eutectoid
steels

Fig. 1.5
Diagram of categorisation of iron-carbon alloys

2.1.2.2 Cutting properties depending on the alloy elements


The following section describes the influence of a few important alloy elements on the
cutting properties of steels.
V Chromium and molybdenum improve the hardenability of the steel and thus influ-
ence the cutting properties of case-hardening and heat treatable steels by means of
their structure and strength. In the case of steels with higher carbon content or alloy
content, these elements form hard special and mixed carbides that can lead to deteri-
oration in cutting. Something similar applies to wolfram.
V Nickel also influences the strength of the steel and increases endurance. This generally
leads to unfavourable cutting properties, particularly in the case of austenitic Ni steels
(especially with higher Ni content).
V Silicon, e.g. in conjunction with aluminium, forms hard Si oxide (silicate) inclusions. The
result of this can be increased tool wear.
V Adding phosphorous by alloying achieves a short-brittle chip. With content up to
0.1%, phosphorous has a positive effect on cutting properties. With higher P content,
there is increased tool wear despite better surface qualities.

53
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

V Titanium and vanadium, even in


small amounts, can lead to a signifi-
cant increase in strength. With
regard to cutting forces and chip
formation, poor results can be
expected due to the strong grain
refinement.
V Sulphur has only low solubility in
iron. However, depending on the
alloy components in the steel, it
forms stable sulphides. Manganese
sulphides MnS (cf. Fig. 1.6) are desir-
able, as they positively influence Fig. 1.6 Manganese sulphide inclusion
cutting (short-brittle chips, low
formation of built-up edges, better
workpiece surfaces).
V Manganese improves the hardenability and increases the strength of steels. Due to the
high affinity to sulphur, manganese forms sulphides with the sulphur. In the case of
steels with low carbon content, manganese content up to 1.5% favour cutting due to
good chip formation. With higher carbon content, however, cutting is negatively influ-
enced by higher tool wear.
V Lead has a relatively low melting point and it lies in the iron in the form of sub-micro-
scopic inclusions. During cutting, a protective lead film forms between the tool and the
workpiece material, thus reducing tool wear. The chips become short-brittle.

54
Materials

2.1.2.3 Cutting properties depending on heat treatment


Specific heat treatment can influence the structure in such a way that - alongside the
change in mechanical properties - the cutting properties can also be adapted to require-
ments.
The following Table 1.12 summarises the effects of various heat treatment processes on
the cutting properties of steels with regard to tool wear and chip formation.

Heat treatment process Structural influence Cutting properties


Normalising Even and fine-grained Depending on the carbon content of the
structure due to anneal- steel (cf. section 2.1.2.1):
ing below critical point ferrite - poor chip formation,
low wear
Perlite - better chip formation, higher wear
Coarse grain annealing Coarse-grained structure, Relatively low tool wear,
limits due to impairment Good chip formation,
of strength properties High surface quality
Soft annealing High-ferrite perlite with Favourable tool wear,
globular cementite chip formation deteriorates with increas-
(soft, good ductile proper- ing ferrite proportion in the structure
ties)
Hardening Martensite High abrasive tool wear with deployment
of conventional tool materials,
Good chip formation

Table 1.12 Cutting properties depending on heat treatment

Initial structure

Normalised Coarse-grain annealed Hardened

Fig. 1.7 Structure patterns of steel C60, heat-treated in different ways

55
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

2.1.3 Cutting properties of different steels

Steel Features Cutting properties Effects


Free cutting steel Main alloy ele- Cutting speed-dependent Short-brittle chips
e.g.: ments: gains in tool-life, in particular Clean workpiece surfaces
Pb, P, S, due to Pb addition possible Low tendency to form
9 S Mn 28 Mn in conjunction (50% to 70%) built-up edges
9 S MnPb 28 with sulphur form Reduction in cutting power Low tool wear
35 S 20 the desired man- by up to 50% possible
ganese sulphide
45 S 20 MnS
Hardened steel Unalloyed con- High cutting speeds required Good surface qualities
e.g.: struction steels, for reduction of built-up edge
high-grade and formation, cut preferably with
Ck 15 stainless steels as carbide-tipped tools
16 MnCr 5 well as alloyed Reduction of feed rate
20 MoCr 4 stainless steels Adapted tool geometry (posi-
with a carbon tive effective cutting angle)
18 CrNi 8 content C < 0.2%
Case hardness: Hard finishing with finest Good chip breaking
carburization of grain hardened metals, mixed Very good surface quali-
edge zone to ceramics, CBN tool materials ties
0.6 - 0.9% C
(hardness up to
60 HRC)
Tempering steel Carbon content Cutting properties are heavily dependent on the corre-
e.g.: 0.2% < C < 0.6% sponding alloy elements and heat treatment
Main alloy ele- Tempering usually after roughing and before smoothing
Ck 45 ments: or
42 CrMo 4 Chromium Cr fine finishing
30 CrMoV 9 Nickel Ni Lower cutting speeds are required with increasing carbon
Vanadium V content (pearlite content)
36 CrNiMo 4 Molybdenum Mo
Silicon Si Roughing operation mainly Very good cutting proper-
Manganese Mn due to the high cutting rates ties
in the normalised state of the Low tool wear
material (normalising)
Finishing with low cutting Low tool wear
speeds mainly with carbide-
tipped tools of the P group
(HSS only for drilling and
threading)
Deployment of cutting
ceramics and CBN tool materi-
als only in the case of hard-
ness greater than 45 HRC
(cf. Hard cutting of case hard-
ening steel)

Table 1.13 Cutting properties of different steels

56
Materials

Table 1.13 Cutting properties of different steels (continued)

Steels Features Cutting properties Effects


Nitride steel Carbon content Cutting takes place prior to nitration due to the very high
e.g.: 0.2% < C < 0.45% material surface hardness
Main alloy ele-
34 CrAlNi 7 ments: Tempered initial material: Acceptable tool wear
31 CrMo 12 Cr, Mo, Al, V low cutting speeds
34 CrAlS High material sur- Untempered initial material Poor chip clearance
face hardness due Burr formation
to brittle metal
nitrides Ni content > 1% Poor cutting properties
Addition of sulphur S Favourable cutting prop-
erties
Tool steel C content < 0.9% Use of titanium and titanium- Increased adhesive ten-
e.g.: in the case of carbide hard metal tools dency
unalloyed tool (P 20) Formation of built-up
C 45 steels edges
C 60 Relatively poor cutting
properties
Poor and rough surfaces
Tempering tool steels Improvement in cutting
properties
Non-corroding Chromium con- Mainly ferritic steels Good cutting properties
and tent > 12%
high-
temperature Additional nickel Austenitic steels: Poor cutting properties
steels proportion low cutting speeds High adhesive tendency
e.g.: together 10-13% Relatively high feed rates to Formation of built-up
X5CrNiNb18-10 reduce the number of cuts edges
Tendency to strain-
harden

Fig. 1.8 Milling heat treatable steel

57
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

The PRE factor (Pitting Resistance Equivalent), which describes the resistance of stainless
steels to so-called pitting, can be used to assess the cutting properties of stainless steels
(GARANT material groups 13 and 14, Tables 1.1 and 1.2).

Cr ... chromium
PRE factor = % Cr + 3.3 · % Mo + 30 · % N Mo ... molybdenum (Equation 1.1)
N ...nitrogen
%... Percentage proportion of elements

In particular for turning stainless steels, the following ranges apply for assessment of the
cutting properties:

PRE factor range Evaluation of Material examples


cutting properties
Material designation GARANT material
group
PRE < 16 Good X6Cr13 (1.4000) 13.1
X10Cr13 (1.4006) 13.2
X30Cr13 (1.4028) 13.3
16 < PRE < 22 Medium X5CrNi 18 10 (1.4301) 13.1
22 < PRE < 34 Difficult X6CrNiMoTi 17 12 2 (1.4571) 13.1
PRE > 35 Very difficult X 8CrNiMo 27 5 (1.4460) 13.3

Table 1.14 PRE factor for assessment of the cutting properties of stainless steels

Calculation of the PRE factor: Example


Material: X 8 Cr Ni Mo 27 5 (1.4460, GARANT material group 13.3)

Analysis: Cr: 25.0 ... 28.0 % difference = 3.0 % ∆ Cr = 1.5%


Mo: 1.3 ... 2.0 % difference = 0.7 % ∆ Mo = 0.35%
N: 0.05 ... 0.2 % difference = 0.15 % ∆ N = 0.075%

31 41

PRE factor = (25.0+∆ Cr)% + 3.3 · (1.3+∆Mo)% + 30 · (0.05+∆N)%


= 26.5% + 3.3 · 1.65% + 30 · 0.125%
PRE factor = 35.7

58
Materials

Table 1.15 provides an overview of examples of cutting parameters that can be achieved
for turning steel.
Cutting 240 m/min 180 m/min 130 m/min 120 m/min 110 m/min
speed1) up to up to up to up to up to
400 m/min 320 m/min 250 m/min 220 m/min 190 m/min
Materials
General – up to 0.2% C over 0.2% C
structural steels e.g. St52-32) e.g. St52-12)
Free cutting steel, Not for heat – – – –
untreated treatment of
certain steels,
e.g. 9 S Mn 28
Free cutting steel, – up to 0.45% C over 0.45% C – –
annealed e.g. 35 S 20 V e.g. 60 S 20 V
Case hardening Treated to fer- – – – –
steel, unalloyed rite-perlite
structure (BG)
e.g. Ck15 BG
Case hardening – Treated to ferrite- Treated to certain – –
steel, alloyed perlite structure (BG) strength (BF)
e.g. 16MnCr5 BG e.g. 16CrNiMo6 BF
– – Untreated3) Untreated3) –
e.g. 16MnCr5 U e.g.
17CrNiMo6 U
Heat treatable steel, – up to 0.4% C over 0.4% C over 0.6% C –
unalloyed, e.g. Cf 35 G e.g. Cf 53 G, e.g. Cf 70 G
soft-annealed (G) Ck60 G
Heat treatable steel, – up to 0.45% C over 0.45% up to over 0.55% C –
unalloyed, e.g. Ck 45 N 0.55% C e.g. Ck 60 N
normalised (N) e.g. Cf 53 N,
Ck55 N
Tempering steel – – up to 0.45% C or over 0.45% up to –
unalloyed up to 800 N/mm2 0.6%C or over
annealed (V) e.g. Ck 35 V, 800 N/mm2
Cf 45 V e.g. Ck 55 V
Heat treatable steel, – up to 0.3% C up to 0.4% C over 0.4% C –
alloyed, or up to 200 HB or over 200 up to or over
soft-annealed (G) e.g. 25 CrMo4 B 230 HB 230 HB
or treated for e.g. 24 CrMo5 B e.g.
improved cutting 24CrNiMo6 B,
properties (B) 50 CrMo4 G
Heat treatable steel, – – up to 0.4% C up to 0.5% C over
alloyed, or over 700 up to or over 800 - 1000 N/mm2
annealed (V) 800 N/mm2 1000 N/mm2 e.g.
e.g. 34 Cr4 V e.g. 42 CrMo4 V 50 CrV4 V,
30 CrNiMo8 V
1) Cutting speed using uncoated carbide-tipped tools
2) Due to strong variance, different cutting properties possible
3) Different cutting properties depending on proportion of structural constituents
[N/mm2] Specification of tensile strength
[HB] Specification of material hardness

Table 1.15 Achievable cutting speed for steels

59
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

2.2 Cast iron materials

2.2.1 Categorisation of cast iron materials


Cast iron materials are iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content C > 2% (usually up to
4% – cf. Fig. 1.5). Alloy elements are usually silicon, manganese, phosphorous and sulphur.
Corrosion and heat resistance are to be improved by adding nickel, chromium, molybde-
num and copper. The alloy additives in cast materials influence the cutting properties to
the extent that they function as carbide formers or how they affect strength and/or hard-
ness. Fig. 1.9 shows the principle of categorisation of cast iron materials.
The descriptions of cast iron materials according to EU standard can be taken from
Table 1.6 (section 1.2).
Cast steel is steel cast in moulds which is later only cut as a shaping process. The good
endurance means that cast steel is used everywhere that vibrating stress as well as
impact and shock stress occurs.
Chill cast iron has a brittle structure and does not achieve the high tensile strength val-
ues of cast steel. Full chill cast (solidified white across the entire cross-section) is only used
rarely in mechanical engineering, and then almost exclusively in the untreated cast state.
Clear chill casting has much greater significance (specific cooling so that only the layer at
the edge solidifies white) with its hard and wear-resistant surface with improved endur-

Cast iron materials


White Grey Special
Cast steel cast iron cast iron cast iron

Carbon content: < 2% 2.4 % - 4.5 % 2.5 % - 5.0 % 1.5 % - 3.5 %


Break appearance: white white grey High-alloy
Low with
Mg additive
Alloy elements:
Raw Cast iron Cast iron Cast iron
Chill with with with Si Al Cr
cast tempered lamellar vermicular spheroidal
cast metal graphite graphite graphite

Tempering in
different
atmospheres

White Black
malleable malleable
cast iron cast iron

Designation: GS GH GTW GTS GG, GGL GGV GGG G-X 22CrNi17


acc. to EU standard: EN-GJN EN-GJMW EN-GJMB EN-GJL EN-GJV EN-GJS

Fig. 1.9 Categorisation of cast iron materials

60
Materials

ance in the core. Examples of application are,


among other things, rollers, camshafts, dies and
the like.
Malleable cast iron, also referred to as forgeable
cast iron, only gets its characteristic properties
after tempering. Depending on the heat treat-
ment, black or white malleable cast iron is cre-
ated. With regard to strength, malleable cast iron
has a middle position between cast iron and cast
steel. Depending on the wall thickness, the cut-
ting properties of white malleable cast iron are Fig. 1.10 Worm compressor
more difficult for thick parts due to the increased
pearlite content than for thin parts (decarbon-
ized layer generally reaches a thickness of 7 mm). This is why white malleable cast iron is
mainly deployed for thin-walled parts. In the case of black malleable cast iron, in contrast
to white cast iron, there is an even structure consisting of ferrite with dispersed temper
carbon across the entire cross-section of the cast part. Black malleable cast iron is there-
fore generally easier to cut than white malleable cast iron. It is preferred for thick-walled
components that are to be cut further.
The various malleable cast iron types differ essentially in the geometric form of the
graphite in each case. Cast iron with lamellar graphite (referred to as grey cast iron or GG )
has outstanding damping characteristics, but is not as solid as white cast iron. The slight-
est structural changes lead to considerable fluctuations in the tool life. Cast iron with
spheroidal graphite (referred to as spheroidal graphite iron or GGG) has low damping
properties (approx. factor 2), but can be cut relatively well. Cast iron with vermicular
graphite (referred to as GGV) is a recently developed material that combines the positive
properties of GG and GGG. It is thus categorised between cast iron and spheroidal graph-
ite iron. GGV grows in the form of fingers and branches from a lamella and contains no
more than 20% spheroidal graphite. It is deployment particularly in diesel engine con-
struction. However, this cast iron material still presents problems with regard to its cutt-
ing properties.

2.2.2 Cutting properties of cast iron materials


The machining properties of cast iron materials are very strongly influenced by the
amount and formation of the dispersed graphite.
The graphite dispersions in the cast iron material firstly reduce the friction between the
tool and material and secondly interrupt the basic metallic structure. In comparison with
steel, this leads to more favourable cutting properties, featuring short-brittle chips, low
cutting forces and longer tool life.
When chill cast (white cast iron) is cut, the tool cutter is subjected to high loads due to
the high proportion of cementite in the material structure. To achieve an economic tool
life, the cutting speed should be reduced with increasing material hardness. A reduction
in the cutting depth leads to a lower tool cutter load. In comparison with hard metals, the

61
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

deployment of cutting ceramics permits an increase in


cutting speed by factor 3 to 4.
The good plastic ductility of tempered cast iron types
means that unwanted flowing chips are formed during
cutting. However, the temper carbon and manganese
sulphides dispersed in the basic structure lead to an
improvement in the chip breaking and thus in the cut-
ting properties. The different structure means that black
malleable cast iron, with the same material hardness,
Fig. 1.11 Structure of cast iron has significantly better cutting properties than white
with lamellar graphite malleable cast iron.
In the case of cast iron with lamellar graphite (cf.
Fig. 1.11), the basic structure (similar to steel) is inter-
rupted by graphite lamellas that lead to the formation of shearing or tearing chips during
cutting. This always creates short-brittle chips (mostly discontinuous chips). This prevents
excessive flank wear. A reduction in the cutting forces can also be determined. Breakouts
at the edges of components can arise during cutting. The surface quality created
depends on the production process, the cutting conditions and the fineness and even-
ness of the cast iron structure.
If the lamellar structure is disrupted (e.g. lamella in the form of rosettes – 'B graphite'), the
tool life can vary at high cutting speeds up to factor 10 with otherwise equal conditions.
In cast iron with spheroidal graphite (GGG), the graphite appears as globular inclusions
(cf. Fig. 1.12). The basic structure of the types with low strength and good endurance (e.g.
as in the case of the illustrated GGG 40) consists mainly of the ferrite with good cutting
properties. Helical chips occur, but these are slightly brittle due to the graphite disper-
sions. The problem with cutting at higher cutting speeds is the flank wear. The chips here
display strong break characteristics and have a tendency, especially in the case of dry cut-
ting, to form spurious chips, i.e. to melt the material between the flank and workpiece.
In the case of vermicular cast iron (GGV), the vermicular graphite is branched in a man-
ner similar to coral. This means it can be cut just as well as lamellar graphite. At low cut-
ting speeds, GGV has considerable advantages compared to GGG; its cutting characteris-
tics are only slightly different to those of GG with the same hardness. The cutting
properties of perlitic GGV at a cutting speed of vc = 300 m/
min are similar to that of GG-25. At cutting speeds above
300 m/min, high flank wear occurs at the tool cutter; this
results from the abrasive effect of the graphite inclusions.
The edge zone of cast workpieces (casting skin) has poorer
cutting properties than the core zone due to non-metallic
inclusions, changed structural formation and/or scaling.
The result of this is that there is increased abrasive wear if
the cutting parameters are not reduced and an abrasion
notch forms on the tool cutter. (cf. section 1.2)
Fig. 1.12
Structure pattern GGG 40

62
Materials

Table 1.16 summarises examples of the cutting values that can be achieved depending
on the cast material to be cut.

Material Process Tool/ Feed rate per Cutting


tool material cutter speed
fz [mm/Z] vc [m/min]
GG/GGG Milling Face mill / coated HM 0.25 500 ... 1000
Face mill/CBN 0.15 1500 ... 2000
Drilling 10 mm/VHM 0.15 ... 0.20 100 ... 150
Reboring/fin- Reboring tool/HM 0.10 ... 0.15 200 ... 400
ishing cuts
GGV Slightly increased cutting values compared to GG/GGG
cutting process; not yet stable (more research required)

Table 1.16 Examples of achievable cutting speeds for cast materials

A statement on the cutting properties of cast iron materials in conjunction with hard-
ness specifications in Brinell (HB) is relatively unreliable. This specification says nothing
about the abrasion hardness of the cast, which has a particularly unfavourable effect on
the cutting properties due to sand inclusions and free carbides. For example, a cast with
Brinell hardness of 180 HB and a number of free carbides has considerably more difficult
cutting properties than a cast material of the same degree of hardness but with 100%
pearlitic structure and without free carbides.

3 Nonferrous metals
3.1 Aluminium and aluminium alloys

3.1.1 Categorisation of aluminium alloys


Aluminium materials are split into wrought alloys and cast alloys. In the case of wrought
alloys, the plastic ductility is the most important factor; in the case of cast alloys, the
mould filling properties are most important. Another subdivision of aluminium and its
alloys can be made based on alloy hardening. A distinction is then made between hard-
enable (hardening through solid solution formation) and non-hardenable or naturally
hard (hardening through precipitation of previously separated constituents) aluminium
alloys.
Fig. 1.13 provides an overview of the large number of alloys. The most important main
alloy elements for aluminium are silicon, magnesium, zinc, copper and manganese.
Hardenable aluminium wrought alloys are preferred when their favourable ratio of
strength to density or their high corrosion resistance for various applications is to be used
in mechanical engineering, vehicle and aircraft construction.

63
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

For the cast aluminium alloys, the strength values take second place after the casting
properties. This is why the composition of some cast alloys can vary considerably from
that of wrought alloys.
Important from a technical perspective are Al-Si cast alloys in particular. Eutectic Al-Si
alloys (Si content at 12%) have good strength and excellent pourability. They are pre-
ferred for use in for thin-walled, pressure and liquid-tight cast items in mechanical engi-
neering and appliance construction. Their casting properties deteriorate as the Si content
falls.
The development of Al piston alloys for internal combustion engines has led in individual
cases to hypereutectic compositions (Si > 12%). With rising Si content, this lowers the
coefficient of expansion of the Al alloy.

Cast alloys Wrought alloys

Fe AlFeSi
Naturally hard alloys

AlMg
Si AlSi Strengthening by
Si AlSi precipitation of previously
AlMn separated constituents
AlMg Mn
AlMgMn
Mg AlSiCu
AlZn
Al AlSiMg Al Mg
Zn AlMgSi AlMgSi
AlCu Zn AlCu(Si,Mn)
Hardenable alloys

Cu AlZnMg AlCuMg
Hardening by solid
Cu AlZnMg solution formation
AlZnMgCu
Li AlCu(Mg)Li

Fig. 1.13 Diagram of categorisation of cast aluminium and wrought aluminium alloys

64
Materials

3.1.2 Cutting properties of aluminium alloys


In general, aluminium is regarded as easy to cut. Compared to steel of the same strength,
the cutting forces that occur are considerably more favourable (approx. 30% of those of
steel). On account of the relatively large chip volume possible with aluminium, the chip
shape is an important criterion. It depends on the material itself, the cutting conditions
and in part also on the tool geometry. The tool life for cutting aluminium differs with
extensive limits. The decisive wear variable is flank wear. Crater wear does not occur with
aluminium cutting.

Fig. 1.14 Recess-milling aluminium

65
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

GARANT application data for aluminium cutting:


Milling Al Mg 3g
Tool Insert Work holding Cutting data
90° cutter head ANMT Short shell-end arbor vc = 1260 m/min
Diameter 50 Sk 40 D22 n = 8000 rpm
fz = 0.17 mm/Z
vf = 8000 mm/min
ae = 50 mm
ap = 6 mm
Plunge mill with VCTG 22 Short shell-end arbor vc = 790 m/min
internal coolant Sk 40 D22 n = 6000 rpm
Diameter 42 fz = 0.18 mm/Z
vf = 3400 mm/min
ae = 35 mm
ap = 3 mm
Al-Carbide roughing end mill Side lock arbor vc = 400 m/min
Diameter 16 n = 8000 rpm
fz = 0.298 mm/Z
vf = 7000 mm/min
ae = 16 mm
ap = 15 mm
Carbide semi-finishing end mill Side lock arbor vc = 390 m/min
Diameter 16 n = 8000 rpm
fz = 0.1 mm/Z
vf = 3200 mm/min
ae = 0.2 mm
ap = 20 mm
Carbide cutter HSC High-precision milling vc = 400 m/min
Diameter 16 chuck n = 8000 rpm
fz = 0.45 mm/Z
vf = 7200 mm/min
ae = 15 mm
ap = 1 mm

66
Materials

GARANT application data for aluminium cutting:


Drilling / threading Al Mg 3
Tool Coating Work holding Cutting data
VHM twist drill TiAlN HD clamping chuck vc = 260 m/min
Diameter 10.2 n = 8000 rpm
fz = 0.23 mm/Z
vf = 1800 mm/min
ae = 10.2 mm
GL machine tap TiCN HD clamping chuck vc = 50 m/min
Synchro n = 1400 rpm
Diameter 12 fz = 1.75 mm/Z
vf = 2450 mm/min
ae = 12 mm
GARANT thread mill UNIversal with IK HG clamping chuck vc = 120 m/min
Diameter 6.2 n = 6000 rpm
fz = 0.02 mm/Z
vf = 400 mm/min

In the case of aluminium wrought materials, wear is not a problem. They can be cut
well with HSS and HM tools. Even with relatively high tool stresses, the tool life remains at
1 to 2 shifts. Pure aluminium and hardenable wrought materials in the soft state, particu-
larly at low cutting speeds, often tend to form spurious chips or built-up edges. The
resulting change in the cutter geometry and thus a rise in temperature due to friction
means that frequently a poor surface can be expected. This is remedied by higher cutting
speeds, enlarged effective cutting angles (up to 40°) and possibly the use of lubricating
coolant.
The cutting properties of aluminium cast materials without silicon are approximately
the same as those of the corresponding wrought materials. Hardenable and hypoeutec-
tic Al-Si cast alloys (silicon content up to 12% ) have poorer cutting properties as the Si
proportion rises. Hard and brittle inclusions such as the Si itself or Al2O3 improve the chip
brittleness but increase tool wear. Hard metals are very suitable as tool material for cut-
ting. However, the selection should be made depending on the cutting parameters and
cutting process (interrupted or smooth cut).
Hypereutectic Al-Si cast alloys (Si content over 12%) can be cut well with regard to the
chip shape and achievable surface quality using hard metals (HM) and polycrystalline dia-
mond tools (PCD). The coarse Si particles in the relatively hard basic structure, however,
lead to a very significant drop in tool life compared to hypoeutectic cast alloys.
Core and edge zones of cast workpieces have very different cutting properties. It is only
in the case of eutectic Al-Si alloys that this difference has not been determined.

67
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

A few sample data values for various processes for Al-Si alloys that are of interest from a
technical point of view are listed below.

Material Process Tool Cutting Feed rate Cutting


material speed per cutter depth
vc [m/min] fz [mm/Z] ap [mm]
Hypoeutectic Turning HSS < 400 < 0.5 1) <6
Al alloys 1)
(Si content HM < 1200 < 0.6 <6
< 12%) PCD < 1500 < 0.3 1) <1
Milling HSS < 300 ≈ 0.3 <6
HM < 700 ≈ 0.3 <8
PCD < 2500 ≈ 0.15 < 2.5
1)
Drilling HSS 80 ... 100 0.1 ... 0.4 –
1)
HM < 500 0.15 –
PCD Less suitable for drilling into solids due to crushing
in the cross cutter area
Hypereutectic Turning HM < 400 < 0.6 1) <4
Al alloys 1)
(Si content PCD < 1000 < 0.2 < 0.8
> 12%) Milling HM < 500 ≈ 0.25 <8
PCD < 1500 ≈ 0.15 <2
Drilling HM 200 ... 300 0.15 1) –
PCD Less suitable for drilling into solids due to crushing
in the cross cutter area
1) For the turning and drilling processes, the feed rate value f [mm] applies instead of the tooth feed rate

Table 1.17 Process-dependent guide values for cutting various aluminium alloys

3.2 Magnesium and magnesium alloys


Magnesium and its alloys have the lowest density of all
metallic materials with medium strength properties at
the same time.
Magnesium has outstanding cutting properties. How-
ever, the high chemical avidity requires very special pro-
tective measures against spontaneous ignition. The
high affinity to oxygen means that corrosion measures
are required despite the protective oxide layer. The very
high level of contraction on solidifying (approx. 4%)
means that magnesium tends towards microporosity.
Fig. 1.15 These disadvantages can be prevented for the most
Bracket made of magnesium

68
Materials

part by alloying with aluminium and zinc. As manganese improves the corrosion resist-
ance, the most important magnesium alloys contain these three additives.
In comparison with other metals, magnesium and its alloys in particular require low cut-
ting forces. However, comparable with processing low-alloy aluminium alloys, strong
adhesion between most tool materials and the material to be processed can be
observed. If safety precautions against the risk of fire are taken, dry magnesium cutting
with PCD tools at high cutting speeds (vc > 2000 m/min) are possible. The danger arises
in particular when processing with small cutting cross sections from the fine, highly
inflammable and discontinuous chips that contaminate the machine in the workshop.
Uncoated hard metals and TiN coated hard metals are only to be used at cutting speeds
vc > 600 m/min with cooling lubricants. Moreover, tools with an adequately large clear-
ance angle are to be selected.
Some guide values for cutting magnesium alloys are listed as examples below.

Material Process Tool material Cutting Feed rate per Cutting


speed cutter depth
vc [m/min] fz [mm/Z] 1) ap [mm]
Mg alloys Finishing HSS 250 ... 300 0.01 ... 0.03 0.05 ... 0.3
cuts
HM 300 ... 500 0.01 ... 0.04 0.05 ... 0.4
PCD < 900 0.03 ... 0.06 0.02 ... 0.1
Shell end HSS 200 ... 260 0.03 ... 0.01 –
milling
HM 400 ... 800 0.02 ... 0.1 –
PCD 4000 0.15 –
Drilling HSS 140 0.36 ... 0.8 –
VHM 200 ... 600 0.03 ... 0.16 –
1) For the turning and drilling processes, the specified feed rate value f [mm] applies instead of the tooth
feed rate

Table 1.18 Process-dependent guide values for cutting various magnesium alloys

69
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

3.3 Titanium and titanium alloys


Titanium combines high strength with low den-
sity and excellent corrosion resistance. This com-
bination of properties means that titanium and
its alloys - despite the high price - are used exten-
sively in special fields, e.g. aerospace, in jet
engines and high-performance engines as well
as in medical technology.
Alloy additives of aluminium, tin, zirconium or
Fig. 1.16 PCD tool holder made of oxygen favour a hexagonal structure (α alloy
titanium for bilster saw moderate cold forming properties, for applica-
tions at higher temperatures, e.g. jet engines);
adding vanadium, chromium, molybdenum and
iron favour a cubic, spacially-centred structure (β alloy, better cold forming properties,
high strength but with higher density). A compromise of both structures can be found in
two-phase (α+β) alloys (example: TiAl6V4), which feature an especially favourable ratio
of strength to density. These alloys achieve the best strength properties in the thermoset
state.
In contrast to the other light metals, titanium has a special position with regard to cut-
ting properties, as its mechanical and physical properties (e.g. low thermal conductivity,
low modulus of elasticity) place it among the materials regarded as difficult to cut.
The heat generated is only dissipated to a very low extent via the chips; the chips tend to
adhere to the cutter. The tools are subject to periodically alternating loads due to the
lamellar chips that form and the discontinuous chip formation. This means that fatigue
(splintering, flank wear) on the tool cutter can be expected with longer cutting times.
Cooling lubricants must be used.
The avidity of titanium, e.g. with oxygen, can lead to titanium dust exploding or igniting.
Pure titanium and α alloys can be cut best; β alloys are the most difficult to cut. Tool
material development in particular over the last few years has led to a considerable trans-
formation in the cutting speeds that can be
applied. Alongside uncoated hard metals of the K
and P types, coated K hard metals (e.g. K10. TiCTiN
coated) are also used to increase the cutting speed
range further. The life of tools is determined to a
significant degree by the cutting speed and the
flank wear that mainly occurs.

Fig. 1.17 Milling titanium

70
Materials

The following points should be borne in mind when cutting titanium:


V Sharp cutters with adequately large clearance angle
V Positive effective cutting angles for HSS tools, more negative effective cutting angles
for HM cutters
V Optimise the feed rate
V Minimise the risk of vibration; ensure stable conditions and reliably clamped work-
pieces
V Choose climb milling
V Use cooling lubricant according to the cutting process
V Control the cutting temperature by limiting wear development
Some guide values for cutting alloys are listed as examples in the table below.

Material Process Tool Cutting Feed rate per


material speed cutter
vc [m/min] fz [mm/Z]1)
Pure titanium (annealed) Turning HSS 75 ... 30 0.13 ... 0.4 1)
e.g. HM 170 ... 50 0.13 ... 0.5 1)
Ti 99.8
Ti 99.2 Front milling HSS 55 ... 15 0.1 ... 0.3
Ti 99.0 HM 180 ... 70 0.1 ... 0.4
Drilling HSS 35 ... 12 0.05 ... 0.45 1)
HM – –
α alloys (annealed) Turning HSS 24 ... 6 0.13 ... 0.4 1)
e.g. Ti Mn 8,Ti Al12 Sn11 Zr5 Mo1. HM 80 ... 15 0.13 ... 0.4 1)
Ti Al6 V4
(α+β) alloys (annealed) Front milling HSS 21 ... 6 0.08 ... 0.2
e.g. Ti Al7 Mo4. HM 90 ... 25 0.1 ... 0.2
Ti Al6 V6 Sn2 Cu1 Fe1 Drilling HSS 14 ... 6 0.05 ... 0.40 1)
HM 75 ... 20 0.1 ... 0.3 1)
α alloys Turning HSS 20 ... 9 0.13 ... 0.4 1)
(solution-annealed and thermoset) HM 60 ... 12 0.13 ... 0.4 1)
e.g. Ti Al6 V4. Ti Al6 Sn2 Zr4 Mo2
(α+β) alloys Front milling HSS 17 ... 6 0.05 ... 0.15
(solution-annealed and thermoset) HM 50 ... 20 0.1 ... 0.2
e.g. Ti Al 5 Sn2 Zr2 Mo4 Cr4. Drilling HSS 9 ... 6 0.025 ... 0.25 1)
Ti Al8 Mo1 V1
HM 75 ... 20 0.1 ... 0.3 1)
β alloys Turning HSS 12 ... 8 0.13 ... 0.4 1)
(annealed or solution-annealed) HM 50 ... 15 0.13 ... 0.4 1)
e.g. Ti V8 Cr6 Mo4 Zr4 Al3.
Ti V8 Fe5 Al1 Front milling HSS 12 ... 6 0.08 ... 0.18
HM 40 ... 20 0.1 ... 0.2
Drilling HSS 8 0.025 ... 0.20 1)
HM – –
β alloys Turning HSS 10 ... 8 0.13 ... 0.4 1)
(solution-annealed and thermoset) HM 35 ... 12 0.13 ... 0.4 1)
e.g. Ti Cr11 Mo7.5 Al3.5
Ti V8 Fe5 Al1 Front milling HSS 9 ... 6 0.05 ... 0.15
HM 30 ... 15 0.1 ... 0.2
Drilling HSS 6 0.025 ... 0.15 1)
HM – –
1) For the turning and drilling processes, the specified feed rate values f [mm] apply instead of the tooth feed rate

Table 1.19 Process-dependent guide values for cutting various titanium alloys

71
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

3.4 Copper and copper alloys


The strength of copper can be raised
considerably with small amounts of alloy
additives. This takes place by means of
solid solution formation (silver, arsenic)
or hardening (chromium, zirconium,
cadmium, iron or phosphorous).
More than 37% zinc in the composition
of copper-zinc alloys (brass) leads to a
Fig. 1.18 Parts made of brass and argentan
drop in the endurance of the alloy with
simultaneously rising hardness. This is
favourable for metal-removing processes, as shorter chips form.
Argentans (German silver) are copper-zinc alloys in which part of the copper is replaced
with nickel. The nickel additive produces the white colour that is similar to silver. Technical
argentan alloys contain an Ni proportion of 10 to 25%. Argentan alloys containing lead, which
have better strength properties than brass containing lead, are used in light engineering and
for the manufacture of mathematical and drawing instruments.
The classical bronzes are copper-tin alloys with a tin content of up to a maximum of
8.5%. For cast alloys, an increase in strength is achieved by adding tin up to 14%. For cast
parts, in mechanical engineering in particular, it is necessary to remove the brittle struc-
tural state with its disadvantageous effects on the endurance of the material by means of
heat treatment.
Red bronze is the term used to describe bronzes that contain not only tin but also zinc
and lead. These are used for machine parts and apparatus or bearing shells that are prone
to corrosion.
The term special bronzes refers to alloys of copper and aluminium, manganese or silicon
or a combination of these elements. Today, they are referred to more appropriately as
copper alloys.
Pure copper has poor cutting properties due to the high endurance and high ductility.
Alloys with the elements Zn, Sn, Al and Si usually have a favourable chip shape. Alloys
with the elements Pb, Se, Te have cutting properties comparable to those of free cutting
steel (cf. Table 1.13). Table 1.20 lists sample guide values for processing.

Fig. 1.19 Fixture parts

72
Materials

Process Tool material Cutting speed Feed rate per cutter Cutting depth
vc [m/min] fz [mm/Z]1) ap [mm]
Turning HSS 30 ... 80 0.2 ... 0.45 1) 0.6 ... 4
HM 200 ... 1.000 0.2 ... 0.45 1) 0.6 ... 4
Milling HSS 40 ... 80 0.05 ... 0.2 0.6 ... 4
HM 120 ... 1200 0.05 ... 0.2 0.6 ... 4
Drilling HSS 50 ... 140 0.1 ... 0.4 1) –
1)
HM 80 ... 300 0.1 ... 0.4 –
1) For the turning and drilling processes,
the specified feed rate values f [mm] apply instead of the tooth feed rate

Table 1.20 Process-dependent guide values for cutting copper alloys

3.5 Nickel-based alloys


The alloy NiCr20 forms the basis for numerous heat resisting alloys. Using chromium as
an additive increases the melting temperature and scaling resistance.
High-temperature alloys on this basis (cf. chapter 'Materials', section 1. material
group 13.3) contain added titanium and aluminium. Ti and Al make the alloys hardena-
ble. Due to overageing of the material, the application of alloys of this kind in high tem-
peratures only permits a limited deployment period (special monitoring required). The
heat resistance can be increased by means of cobalt additives. Other alloy additives are
molybdenum and wolfram.
Corrosion-proof nickel alloys have been given the additives chromium, molybdenum
and copper. These alloys even surpass the corrosion resistance of austenitic steels as
regards chemical resistance. Corrosion-proof nickel alloys are used almost exclusively in
components for the chemical industry.
Table 1.21 shows the categorisation of nickel-based alloys as well as sample cutting guide
values for turning and milling.

73
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

☺ Difficulty of cutting 
Wrought alloys / cast alloys Cast alloys
Ni-Cu alloy Ni-(Cr)-Mo Hardenable Special alloys
alloy Ni-Fe-Cr alloy and/or (high-
Non- Ni-Cr-Fe alloy and/or Ni-Cr-Co temperature cast
hardenable alloy alloys)
Ni-Fe-Cr alloy
and/or Ni-Cr-
Fe alloy
Examples
Monell 400 Hastelloy B Incoloy 901 Nimonic 90 IN – 100
Monell 401 Hastelloy X Incoloy 903 Nimonic 95 Inconell 713 C
Monell 404 Incoloy 804 Inconel 718 Rene 41 Mar – M 200
Monell R 405 Incoloy 825 Inconel X-750 Udimet 500 Nimocast 739
Inconel 600 Nimonic 80 Udimet 700
Inconel 601 Waspaloy Astralloy
Guide data
annealed annealed annealed solution-annealed cast, thermoset
Turning
Tool HSS Car- HSS Car- HSS Car- HSS Car- HSS Car-
bide 2) bide 2) bide 2) bide 2) bide 2)
material
vc [m/min] 30 105 6 ... 8 30 ... 35 6 ... 8 24 ... 30 3.6 ... 5 21 ... 24 3.5 ... 5 11 ... 18
1) 0.18 0.18 0.13 ... 0.13 ... 0.13 ... 0.13 ... 0.13 ... 0.13 ... 0.13 0.13
fz [mm/Z]
0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18
ap [mm] 1 1 0.8 ... 2.5 0.8 ... 0.8 ... 0.8 ... 0.8 ... 2.5 0.8 ... 2.5 0.8 ... 2.5 0.8 ... 2.5
2.5 2.5 2.5
Face milling
Tool HSS Car- HSS Car- HSS Car- Car- Car- HSS Car-
bide bide bide bide bide bide
material
vc [m/min] 15 ... 17 46 ... 5 ... 6 18 ... 20 3.6 ... 6 14 ... 15 3.6 ... 6 14 ... 15 2 ... 3.6 8 ... 15
50
fz [mm/Z] 0.03 ... 0.03 ... 0.03 ... 0.03 ... 0.03 ... 0.04 ... 0.03 ... 0.04 ... 0.01 ... 0.03 ...
0.073) 0.073) 0.063) 0.043) 0.063) 0.053) 0.063) 0.053) 0.053) 0.043)
0.07 ... 0.07 ... 0.06 ... 0.03 ... 0.05 ... 0.05 ... 0.05 ... 0.05 ... 0.05 ... 0.03 ...
0.104) 0.104) 0.074) 0.044) 0.074) 0.064) 0.074) 0.064) 0.073) 0.054)
ae [mm] d/2 – d/4 d/2 – d/4 d/2 – d/4 d/2 – d/4 d/2 – d/4

1) For the turning process, the specification applies as feed rate f [mm] instead of tooth feed
rate.
2) Carbide
3) Applies in the case of cutter diameter 10 to 18 mm
4) Applies to cutter diameter 25 to 50 mm

Table 1.21 Categorisation of nickel-based alloys and guide application data for cutting

74
Materials

In principle, the nickel-based alloys are among the materials that are difficult to cut. In
the case of the hardenable alloys, only finish-machining should be performed in the
thermoset state. The cast alloys are difficult to cut due to the coarse-grained structure
and low grain-boundary strength. For the surface quality, torn-out material particles and
grain-boundary cracks frequently cause difficulties.
Due to the resulting high cutting temperatures, nickel-based alloys require cutting with
optimised, sharpedged tools, usually made of hard metal or ceramics. As these alloys
often smear excessively when cut and they also tend to form built-up edges due to the
relatively low possible cutting speeds, the tools should have a relatively large effective
cutting angle γ (approx. 5° to 15°) and an adequate clearance angle α (6° to 10°).

3.6 Cobalt-based alloys


Cobalt-based alloys are used as construction materials due to their good heat resistance
and scaling resistance up to around 950°C. On account of the limited cobalt resources,
the trend is moving towards deployment of cobalt-free or cobalt-containing nickel-
based alloys (e.g. Nimonic), e.g. for propulsion unit construction.
The surface coating of components subjected to high stress (e.g. in the case of forging
dies), cobalt-based alloys are used today in many areas of industry (Stellite). The most
important alloy elements alongside iron and up to 1% carbon are other refractory metals
such as chromium, nickel, wolfram, tantalum and niobium.
Comparative data on cutting properties of cobalt-based alloys is only available to a lim-
ited degree. In general, however, these alloys should be cut where possible in the ther-
moset state or non-hardenable alloys in the cold-drawn state.
As tool materials, carbide hard metals are normally used. For stellite cutting, the possible
higher cutting speeds mean that deployment of CBN is gaining in significance. Turning is
possible with the same tool life with cutting speeds that are three times higher. For mill-
ing, offset-tooth tools should be used to smooth out the process. For drilling, the drill
flute is only half as large as that on normal
drills due to the high tool stress in the cross
cutter area. Special grinding (e.g. cross-
grinding) should be used. Cutting oils sup-
port the cutting properties of these alloys in
particular. Due to the associated strain-hard-
ening, reaming should be avoided.

Fig. 1.20
Forging die with wear-protection coating
(stellite) on the edges subjected to high stress

75
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Some process-dependent guide application data for cutting cobalt-based alloys are
listed below as examples.

Process Tool material Cutting speed Feed rate per Cutting Cooling lubricant
vc [m/min] cutter depth
fz [mm/Z] 1) ap [mm]
Turning HSS 3 ... 8 0.1 ... 0.3
Carbide2) 8 ... 15 0.1 ... 0.3 Emulsion
or
CBN 15 ... 30 0.1 ... 0.3
0.2 ... 2.0 Sulphurous cutting
Milling HSS 7 ... 3 0.1 ... 0.2 oil
Carbide2) 12 ... 7 0.1 ... 0.2
CBN 20 ... 10 0.1 ... 0.2
2)
Drilling Carbide 6 ... 3 0.05 ... 0.12 – Sulphurous cutting
oil
1) For the turning and drilling processes, the specified feed rate values f [mm] apply instead of the tooth
feed rate f [mm]
2) Carbide hard metal

Table 1.22 Process-dependent guide application data for cutting cobalt-based alloys

4 Plastics

4.1 Categorisation of plastics


Plastics are categorised according to their
structure, the resulting properties and their Polymers
characteristics on being heated. Thermosetting
Thermoplastics plastics
As a general principle, three typical sets of • Polypropylene (PP) • Epoxy and
• Polyethylene (PE) polyester resins (UP)
characteristics for plastics are distin- • Polyamide (PA) • Phenolic and
• Polystyrene (PS) melamine resins
guished: • Polyvinylchloride (PVC) • etc.
• etc.
V Thermoplastic characteristics (plastic Thermoplastic elastomers
becomes ductile at increased tempera- • Block copolymers
• etc.
ture – thermoplastics or plastomers),
Elastomers
V Thermosetting characteristics (plastic
decomposed at increased temperature Synthetic rubber Natural rubber (NR)
without becoming ductile beforehand – • Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR)
• Acrylonnitrile butadiene rubber (NBR)
thermosetting plastics) and • Silicone
• etc.
V Elastomeric characteristics (plastic has
rubber-elastic characteristics even at
room temperature – elastomers). Fig. 1.21 Overview of polymers

76
Materials

4.2 Thermoplastics
Thermoplastics occur as amorphous and partially crystalline polymers. They consist of lin-
ear or branched macromolecules, soften on heating, repeatable up to melting, and
harden on cooling down. Thermoplastics can be welded. Semi-finished goods made of
hard thermoplastics can for the most part be warm-shaped. Depending on the area of
application, thermoplastics are categorised into:
V so-called mass plastics, e.g.
V polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), hard or soft
polyvinylchloride (PVC-H, PVC-W) and polypro-
pylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC),
V technical plastics such as
polyamide (PA), polyoxymethylene (POM) and
V high-performance polymers, e.g. polyacryl-
etherketone (PAEK)
Other important thermoplastics are e.g. poly-
methylmethacrylate (PMMA – acrylic glass, Per-
spex) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE – Teflon). Fig. 1.22 Pump part

4.3 Thermosetting plastics


If thermosetting plastics are heated, their mechanical characteristics change only slightly.
Prior to processing, these plastics are not crosslinked (usually liquid) and then harden into
their final shape on heating or on adding hardeners. Thereafter, they are especially resist-
ant to heat and chemicals and no longer ductile. The operation cannot be repeated. They
are harder and more brittle than thermoplastics.
Thermosetting plastics cannot be welded; they are insoluble when thermoset in organic
solvents; some can be expanded. Initial thermoset plastic products are available firstly as
'moulding and extrusion materials' for processing by means of melting and subsequent
thermal hardening, and secondly as liquid 'reaction or casting resins, that are processed
at room temperature and thermoset by means of catalysts.
Some thermosetting plastics are:
V phenolic resins (PF), amino resins
V polyurethane resins (PUR)
V Epoxy resins (EP), often processed with glass fibres to create glass-fibre reinforced plas-
tics (GFK, cf. section 4.6.1. chapter 'Materials')
V Unsaturated polyester resins (UP) – casting resins

4.4 Elastomers
Elastomers are plastics featuring high elasticity within a wide temperature range.
Depending on the type, they are either more or less hard-rubberelastic or soft-rubber-
elastic. After stretching, elastomer plastic returns virtually completely to its original posi-
tion and also reassumes its original length.

77
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

In general, elastomers are processed prior to cross-linking in the ductile state with the
addition of vulcanisation agents or cross-linking accelerators. Examples of this are:
V Natural rubber (NR)
V Chloroprene rubber (CR)
V Acrylonnitrile butadiene rubber (NBR)
V Ethylene propylene terpolymer (EPDM)
V Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR)

4.5 Thermoplastic elastomers (TPE)


Thermoplastic elastomers are thermoplastic polymers with elastomer-type properties.
They are not chemically networked. TPEs are usually block copolymers with 'hard' and
'soft' areas. Above a temperature determined by the chemical structure, these polymers
have thermoplastic flow properties.

4.6 Fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP)


Composite materials is the term used to describe materials consisting of a number of
individual materials combined to form one material. This combines the desired proper-
ties of the individual materials into one material.
The material in the composite that leads to an increase in strength or hardness is called
the lay-up; the other material that ensures the body holds together is called the bond or
matrix. If the lay-up consists of fibres, the term used is fibre-reinforced composite materi-
als.
The reinforcement improves the strength, stiffness and hardness of composite materials.
Over and above this, depending on the composite combination but also on other prop-
erties such as conducting capacity for heat and electricity, the temperature resistance
and wear resistance can be increased. The reinforcing effect of the fibres as well as the
mechanical properties of the composite material are influenced by the length, diameter
and chemical structure of the fibres on the one hand, and by the amount and position of
the fibres on the other.
For application as a matrix material, all easily liquefiable thermoplastics and thermoset-
ting plastics can be deployed, including elastomers and dispersions. In the case of ther-
moplastics, it is mainly polypropylene (PP) and polyamide (PA) as well as PC, PS and PE
that are used. In the case of thermosetting plastics, epoxy resins (EP), but also polyester
resins, silicon resins or vinyl-ester resins are preferred on account of their excellent
mechanical and electrical properties as well as their very favourable wetting properties.
A great advantage of fibre composite materials lies in the fact that the user can compose
a material that is specially aligned to the use case by embedding the fibres in a suitable
manner in the matrix. Alongside glass, the classical fibre material, it is above all relatively
expensive carbon fibres that are added to the base polymer.

78
Materials

4.6.1 Glass-fibre reinforced plastics (GRP)


Glass-fibre reinforced plastics usually consist of the thermosetting plastics polyester or
epoxy resin and glass fibres. As individual glass fibres (low thickness) are difficult to han-
dle, they are processed as rovings or woven fabric, mats or non-woven meshes. During
the manufacture of moulded parts, the plastic is liquid and is subsequently thermoset.
The properties of GFK are influenced by the resin used and the type of glass fibre, by the
proportion of glass fibres in relation to the total volume as well as their arrangement. The
strength increases with greater the fibre content and alignment of the fibres in one direc-
tion.

Type of reinforcement Glass content [weight %] E module [N/mm2]


Glass-fibre mat 25 6000
35 8000
45 10000
Glass-fibre woven fabric 45 12000
55 16000
65 20000
Glass-fibre roving 75 40000

Table 1.23 Dependency of the E module on glass content and type of reinforcement for glass-fibre
reinforced polyester resins

Fig. 1.23 CFK compressor wheel

79
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

4.6.2 Carbon-fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP)


Components made of carbon-fibre reinforced plastics are composed of a carbon-based
fibre that determines the strength which is super-hard and temperature-resistant (the
lay-up), embedded in a ductile matrix with low temperature stability. The various carbon
fibres can be bonded to a wide variety of possible polymer matrices. This leads to a large
number of material combinations, some of which have properties that differ to a very
great degree. These materials are referred to as CFRPs.
In order to make the most effective possible use of the excellent profile of properties, car-
bon fibres are normally used today as endless fibres, with a fibre volume content of 50%
to 65%.
Carbon-fibre reinforced plastics are used primarily in aviation (e.g. rudder / fin units, brac-
ings, brake flaps) but also in mechanical engineering where properties such as reduced
mass inertia or good damping characteristics are required (highly dynamic machine
components). Another area of application for these materials is the sporting goods and
leisure industry (e.g. tennis rackets, surfboards, bicycle frames).

4.7 Recognition, properties and designations of plastics


It is considerably more difficult to recognise plastics from their external characteristics
than in the case of metals. Metals have an identifying natural colour, which plastics do
not have due to their capacity to be dyed various colours.
The following overview lists some identifying features of plastics.
Code Desig- Some trade Appear- Mechanical Assessment of burning behaviour Smell of
nation names ance properties gases/
Flammable Type and col- smoke
our of flame
Thermoplastics
PA Polya- Nylon, Grilon, Milky white Hard, solid, Difficult to ignite, Blueish, yellow Burned
PA mide Grilamide, Aku- strong crackles, creates border horn
6PA 66 lon, Ultramide, droplets, draws
Trogamide, threads, continues
Vestamide burning after igni-
tion
PC Polycar- Macrolon, Sooty, burns in the luminous Phenol
bonate Lexan, Plasto- flame, goes out
carbon outside the flame
PE Poly- Ertalene, Milky, trans- Ductile and Creates burning Yellow with Paraffin
ethyl- Hostalene, lucent flexible droplets blue core
ene Lupolene
PMMA Polyme Plexiglas, Per- Colourless, Solid, Crackles, continues luminous Fruity,
thyl- spex, Diakon, crystal clear unbreakable burning after igni- sweet
meth- Lucite tion
acrylate
POM Poly- Delrin, Erta- Burns, creates Very light blue Formalde-
oxymet cetal, Polyfyde droplets, contin- hyde, pun-
hylene ues burning after gent
ignition

Table 1.24 Identifying features of plastics

80
Materials

Code Desig- Some trade Appear- Mechanical Assessment of burning behaviour Smell of
nation names ance properties gases/
Flammable Type and col- smoke
our of flame
PTFE Polytetr Teflon, Hosta- Milky white, Solid and charrs pungent
afluoro flon, Fluon opaque strong
ethyl-
ene
PP Poly- Hostalene PP, Creates burning Yellow with Paraffin
propyl- Vestolene, droplets, contin- blue core
ene Luparene ues burning after
ignition
PS Poly- Trolitul, Sty- Colourless, Hard and Strongly sooty Luminous Styrene,
styrene rene, Poly- crystal clear brittle (flakes) yellow, sweet
styrene flickering
PVC Poly- Vestolite soft, Cloudy, Hard and sooty Luminous yel- Pungent,
vinyl- Soft Mipolam, translucent, solid low hydro-
chloride Soflex, Hostal- colourless chloric
ite, Vinnol, acid
Vinoflex
Thermosetting plastics
EP Epoxy Araldite, Grilo- Colourless, Hard and Sooty, continues Yellow Undefina-
resins nite, Epikote, translucent strong burning after igni- ble,
Trolon to yellowish tion depend-
ing on
hardener
MF Mela- Madurit, Melan, Charrs, white goes out Fishy
mine Supraplas edges, difficult to smell,
formal- ignite or burns in burned
dehyde the flame, goes out milk
outside the flame
PF Phe- Bakelite, Yellowish to Hard, Sooty, difficult to goes out Phenol
nolic Durophene, brown fragile ignite or burns in
resins, Novolak the flame, goes out
amino outside the flame
resins
PUR Crosslin Vulkollan, Con- Colourless, Hard and Foams, continues Luminous yel- pungent
ked tilan, Moltop translucent strong to burning after igni- low
poly- to yellowish rubber- tion
ure- elastic
thane
UP Unsatu- Leguval, Yellowish to Hard, Sooty, continues Luminous yel- Styrene,
rated Vestopal, brown fragile burning after igni- low sharp
polyes- Artrite, Acrest tion
ter

Table 1.24 Identifying features of plastics

81
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Thermosetting plastics and thermoplastics can be distinguished by their characteristics


when exposed to heat. In general, thermosetting plastics do not change their properties
when exposed to heat. Thermoplastics, on the other hand, change their mechanical
properties: they soften and start to liquefy, usually long before they decompose.
The following graphic shows the change in strength of plastics when exposed to heat.

Thermosetting plastics
Decomposition

Thermoplastics
Elastomers e
Strength

and
Thermoelaste

50 100 150
Temperature in °C

Fig. 1.24 Change in strength of plastics when exposed to heat

Fig. 1.25 provides an overview of the strength and stiffness of various metallic materials
and plastics. An examination of the numerical value of the E module shows that plastics
are even more unfavourable here than in the case of strength. Their E module far below
that of, for example, aluminium. On account of the low E module, in particular where
bending stresses occur, considerably greater deformations must be expected than in the
case of metals.

105 Diamond
Tensile strength [Mpa or mm2]

Elastomers Thermoplastics Thermosetting plastics


a) Soft rubber Semi-crystalline h) Moulded plastic
104 b) Soft PVC d) PE compounds
Aluminium alloys

c) PUR el. e) PTEE i) Fibre-reinforced


f) PA UP, ep. resins
103 Glass state
g) PC

102

101

1 a) b) c) d)e) f ) g) h) i)

1 101 102 103 104 105 106


Modulus of elasticity (E) [Mpa or mm2]
Fig. 1.25 Strength and stiffness of various materials

In many cases, however, the lack of stiffness or the resulting ductility does not play a criti-
cal role. Plastics absorb a high level of deformation work and therefore have good damp-
ing properties (damping in the case of plastics is 9 to 10 times greater than that of met-
als). This is decisive, for example, for noise reduction of moving parts (e.g. gears).

82
Materials

Due to the fibre orientation that arises in pressed components, mechanical indicators can
only be compared to a limited extent. The following overview (Fig. 1.26) compares the
specific strength to the light construction potential resulting from the quotients of the E
module and the density to the power of three. With comparable specific strength, con-
siderable enhancement in the light construction potential can be achieved by varying
the fibres used.

250
Spec. strength in MPa * cm3/g

Fabric-rein-
forced thermo-
200 pl. GF/PA

LFT LFT
150 GF / PA CF / PA

100
LFT ... long-fibre-reinforced thermoplast. GMT and LFT LFT
GMT ... glass-mat-reinforced thermoplast. GF / PP CF / PP
Material combinations of the granulates
50 GF/PA glass fibre / polyamide matrix
GF / PP glass fibre / polypropylene m.
CF/PA carbon fibre/polyamide M
CF PP carbon fibre / polypropylene M
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Light construction potential in GPa * (cm3/g)3
Fig. 1.26 Categorisation of various moulded plastic compounds by specific strength and
light constructionpotential

4.8 Cutting properties of plastics

4.8.1 Cutting properties of thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics


Compared to metallic materials, plastics have very good cutting properties. However, the
material properties of plastics result in a number of features which are described below.
On account of the poor thermal conductivity and relatively low melting temperature of
most plastics, attention must be paid to ensuring that during processing as little heat as
possible is developed and transferred to the workpiece. In order to prevent the conse-
quences of thermal overstress (discolouration, melting of surface, warping) of the plastic,
the following criteria in particular should be borne in mind:
V The tool cutters must always be in perfect condition and well sharpened
V The clearance angle must be adequately large so that only the cutters make contact
with the workpiece in order to prevent friction (cf. Table 1.24)
V Good chip clearance is to be ensured so that no heat accumulation occurs.
V Although coolants are normally not required, they are to be used in the event of
greater heat development and for chip conveyance (e.g. when drilling and threading).
[13] Standard coolants or drilling emulsions can be used. For plastics that tend to form
stress cracks, e.g. PC, water or compressed air should be deployed for cooling.
With regard to the machines to be used, it is advantageous to use wood working
machines to manufacture tailored pieces, strips and long profiles or rough cutting. For

83
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

the production of milled and turned parts, machine tools for light metal processing have
proven effective.
Suitable cutting tool materials for processing are commercially available, hard metal
indexable inserts and HSS tools. The relatively low hardness makes no special demands
on the cutting tool quality. The cutter geometry available for metal and wood processing
can be used unchanged. Wear on the cutting edges under these conditions rarely occurs
and the tool life is thus virtually unlimited.
The cutting forces that occur are significantly lower than in the case of metal cutting. The
result is that low clamping forces are also sufficient. High clamping forces often lead to
deformation of the workpieces (especially important in the case of thin-walled parts).
The cutting tolerances for workpieces made of thermoplastic plastics are significantly
greater than those applied for metal parts. The reasons for this can be found in the signif-
icantly greater thermal coefficient of expansion of plastics, the volume changes due to
absorption of moisture and the deformations caused by the release of residual stresses
during processing.

Turning Milling Drilling Sawing


Band sawing Circular
sawing
Tool material SS SS SS SS Carbide SS Car-
bide
Clearance angle α [°] 5 ... 15 5 ... 15 3 ... 10 30 ... 40 10 ... 15 30...40 10...15
Effective cutting 0 ... 10 10 ... 15 3 ... 5 0 ...8 5 ... 8 0 ... 5
angle γ [°]
Setting angle of the 45 ... 60 – – – –
turning tool κr [°]
Point angle of the – – 60...90 (110) – –
drill σ [°]
Pitch T [mm] – – – 2 ...8
Cutting speed vc 200 ... 500 400 ... 800 50 ... 100 50 ... 500 1000 ... 3000
[m/min]
Feed rate [mm/rev.] 0.1 ... 0.51) 0.052) 0.1 ... 0.5 – –
1) ... Cutting depth ap to 6 mm
2) ... Feed rate per cutter [mm/Z]

Table 1.25 Tool geometry, cutting speeds and feed rates for plastics cutting

84
Materials

Threading is possible using conventional tools without difficulty. The effective cutting
angle of 0° should not be exceeded. However, the thread convolutions can be damaged
if the screws are frequently loosened. Self-tapping screws (not metal plate screws) have
proven effective for connections that are rarely loosened.

4.8.2 Cutting properties of fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP)


Typical processing tasks in the area of fibre composite materials are in particular rework-
ing and creating functional surfaces. Due to the large number of possible combinations
of fibre and matrix related to composite-specific influencing variables, individual aspects
of cutting can frequently only be regarded in conjunction with a composite material var-
iant.
In contrast to thermosetting plastics, which remain in a solid state up to their decomposi-
tion temperature, thermoplastics soften as of a temperature of 200 °C. This leads to
another drop in the resistance to temperatures of the matrix, which is low anyway. In
addition, molten matrix material can lead to conglutinations on the tool cutter, which
then increase tool wear.
Compared to woven fibres, cutting laminates reinforced with fibre mats is much simpler.
Whereas in the case of mat reinforcements only the tensile strength and flexional resist-
ance of the fibres have to be overcome, in the case of woven fabric the textile structure is
another reinforcing element. Cutting fibre-reinforced plastics therefore requires tool
materials that have high resistance to abrasive wear. These tool material include the car-
bide hard metals, cubical boron nitride (CBN) and polycrystalline diamond (PCD) – see
also chapter 'Basic principles'.
Although hard metals have high flexibility with regard to tool geometry and can be pro-
duced at low cost, their tool life when processing fibre-reinforced plastics is very much
lower than that of polycrystalline diamond. The considerably greater hardness and ther-
mal conductivity of PCD compared to hard metal and cubical boron nitride means that
this tool material is preferred for cutting fibre-reinforced plastics. On account of the rela-
tively high acquisition costs for PCD, diamond-coated carbide-tipped tools are an alterna-
tive.
The forms of wear that occur include in particular flank wear, honed cutting edges and - if
uncoated hard metal is used - also to a low extent crater wear (see also chapter 'Basic
principles'). Due to the high abrasive load, uncoated hard metal wears the flank heavily,
increasing the frictional area between the workpiece and tool. This leads to a rise in the
cutting temperature and decomposition of the plastic matrix. Diamond-coated or dia-
mond tools wear due to honed cutting edges and microscopic breakouts, up to an
including failure of the cutter due to large-area flaking.
With regard to the cutter fine geometry, small cutter serrations and a small cutter edge
radius should be used. On account of the pronounced brittleness characteristics of glass
and carbon fibres, the tool geometries can correspond approximately to the tools used
for metalworking (cf. Table 1.25).

85
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

For milling components made of aligned long fibres, non-twisted, two-flute cutters with
very sharp cutting edges should be used, as clean cutting of the fibres is only fibres with
these tools. Wedge angles β of around 75° with an effective cutting angle γ of 0° have
proven to be favourable tool angles. Reducing the effective cutting angle and thus using
a sharper cutter is only a short-term advantage that is counteracted by greater wear.
Compared to metallic materials, the cutting forces are very low. However, the cutting
quality depends strongly on the fibre orientation. As a general principle, the difficulties
due to the material when cutting CFRP must be pointed out. These result from the lack of
homogeneity in the material structure and the high abrasiveness of carbon fibres. This
leads to cutting properties that deviate significantly to those for cutting metal. In the case
of carbon fibres, it is the brittle, super-hard breaking characteristics that influence the cut-
ting properties.

Turning Milling Drilling Sawing


Band Circular
sawing sawing

Tool material Carbide / Carbide / Carbide / Carbide / Carbide /


PCD PCD PCD PCD PCD
Clearance angle α [°] 5 ... 10 5 ... 10 6 ... 8 25 ... 40 10 ... 15
Effective cutting angle γ [°] 10 ... 15 5 ... 15 6 ... 10 0 ... 8 0 ... 15
Setting angle of the turning 45 ... 60 – – – –
tool κr [°]
Point angle of the drill σ [°] – – 90 ... 120 – –
Pitch T [mm] – – – 4 ... 6 8 ... 25
Cutting speed ... 400 1000 ... 1500 100 ... 120 300 1000 ... 3000
vc [m/min]
Feed rate [mm/rev.] 0.05 ... 0.51) 0.052) 0.1 ... 0.3 – –
Note: All values are only to be viewed as guide values. The cutting parameters depend strongly on
the type of fibre and the fibre orientation.
1) ... Cutting depth ap to 10 mm
2) ... Feed rate per cutter [mm/Z]

Table 1.26 Tool geometry, cutting speeds and feed rates for fibre-reinforced plastics

86
Materials

5 Assessment of properties by means of material hardness


test
The hardness values for all methods are specified as pure numerical values without units.
In place of the unit of measurement, the code of the test method comes after the
number. In some cases, hardness specifications are given the unit N/mm2. This does not
correspond to the DIN hardness test methods normally used.

5.1 Hardness test for metals


5.1.1 Static hardness test method
The static method involves applying the testing force without an impact, affecting the
sample for a certain time. After removing the applied load, the remaining impression is
measured.

Designation Stand- Code Description Application


ard
Measurement of area of impression
BRINELL method DIN EN HB Determines the diameter Only for soft materials,
ISO of the impression of a hardness values a maxi-
6506-1 hard metal ball mum of 450 HB
VICKERS DIN ISO HV Determines the square Can be applied univer-
method 4516, area of impression of a sally.
DIN EN diamond pyramid For soft, very hard materi-
ISO als, thin parts and layers
6507-1 Hardness values between
3 HV (e.g. lead), 1800 HV
(hard metal) and 3599 HV
(CBN)
Measurement of penetration depth
ROCKWELL-B DIN EN HRB Determines the penetra- For materials of medium
method ISO tion depth of a hard hardness, e.g. steels with
6508-1 metal ball low carbon content or
brass
Hardness values between
35 HRB and 100 HRB
ROCKWELL-C HRC Determines the penetra- Mainly for hardened and
method tion depth of a diamond tempered steels.
cone Most widespread for test-
ing the evenness of heat
treatment.
Permitted values between
20 HRC and 70 HRC

Table 1.27 Hardness test method for metals according to DIN

87
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

5.1.2 Comparison of hard-


ness specifications
Only hardness values determined
using the same method under the
same conditions are exactly compa-
rable. A comparison of the hardness
values from various methods is only
permitted for similar materials. Fig.
1.27 compares the value scales of 4
common methods. This diagram
does not apply to steels; it corre-
sponds to the hardness comparison
tables according to DIN (German
Industrial Standard).
DIN 50 150 includes an estimate of
the tensile strength - also for steel -
from the Vickers hardness. For mate-
rials with hardness values between
Fig. 1.27 80 and 650 HV, the mean tensile
Comparison of hardness values according to DIN 50 150
strength Rm (in N/mm2) is:

(Equation 1.2)
R m = c ⋅ HV (or HB)

The factor c for the estimate of the tensile strength Rm is usually proposed for:
c ≈ 3.5 for steel
c ≈ 5.5 for Cu and Cu alloys annealed
c ≈ 4.0 for Cu and Cu alloys cold-formed
c ≈ 3.7 for Al and Al alloys.

5.2 Hardness test of plastics


In exactly the same way as for metals, the most important hardness tests for plastics refer
to determining the impression hardness. Here, the tests applied for plastic are derived
from those originally developed for metals.

5.2.1 Ball impression hardness in the case of hard plastics


Compared to metals, plastics have a pronounced visco-elastic deformation component.
When the load is removed from the penetrating stamp, the elastic proportion of the
deformation returns instantly, then the visco-elastic proportion returns gradually. This
means that the measured impression depth (or the hardness number calculated from it)

88
Materials

would be dependent not only on the period of load application, but also on the period
that has elapsed since the load was removed.
This means that for plastics it is better to apply a load to the penetrating stamp for a cer-
tain time and then to measure the total penetration depth under load (elastic, visco-elas-
tic and viscosity). According to this principle, both the modified α Rockwell hardness and
the common ball impression hardness (DIN 53456) are determined.
It should be borne in mind that the results of test methods in which the total impression
is measured (α Rockwell hardness, ball impression hardness) cannot be compared with
results based on the remaining impression (ROCKWELL, BRINELL, VICKERS hardness).
These are two fundamentally various test methods.
The following table shows the ball impression hardness of various thermoplastic and
thermosetting plastics. By way of comparison, the Brinell hardness of some metals is also
listed.

GARANT material Designation Plastic Ball impression hard-


group ness [N/mm2]
Thermoplastics
21.0 PA 6/6 Polyamide 60 to 80
PE low density Polyethylene 14 to 20
PE high density Polyethylene 18 to 30
PP Polypropylene 65 to 80
PS Polystyrene 110
PVC hard Polyvinylchloride 120
Thermosetting plastics
21.1 EP Epoxy resin 150 to 180
PF (pressed parts) Phenolic resin 130
UP Polyester resin 130 to 200
Metals
17.0 Aluminium alloys 900 to 1100
19.1 and 19.2 Brass 700 to 1400
19.3 to 19.6 Bronze 600 to 1800
15.0 to 15.3 Cast iron 1400 to 2400
10.0 to 10.2 Hardened steel 1300 to 2500

Table 1.28 Ball impression hardness of various plastics and metals

89
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

5.2.2 Shore hardness of soft plastics


In the case of plastics that have been softened or are similar to rubber, the simple but not
very precise shore hardness test (DIN 53505) is usual; it uses a steel pin (form A, C or D) as
penetrating stamp. The penetration depth is read from a dial gauge (shore hardness units
from zero = no resistance, i.e. maximum impression, up to one hundred = very high
resistance, i.e. no impression).
An exact conversion and assignment of the measured values determined using various
test methods and hardness scales is not possible. However, the following table provides
some orientation by comparing the hardness numbers.
Shore hardness, Shore hardness, Shore hardness, α ROCKWELL Ball impression
form A form C form D (cone tip) hardness, hardness
(truncated cone) (truncated cone) DIN 53505 form B [N/mm2]
DIN 53505 DIN 53505 ASTM D 785 DIN 53456
Preferably for For soft, but relatively rigid plastics, in particu- Preferably for hard plastics
soft plastics lar for further differentiation of the hardness
40 – – – –
45 – – – –
50 – – – –
55 – – – –
60 – – – –
65 – 17 – –
70 36 22 – –
75 43 28 – –
80 50 30 – 4.8
85 57 34 – 6
90 65 38 – 8.5
– 70 43 – 11
93 75 48 – 13
– 80 51 – 15
– 85 53 – 18.5
– 90 55 – 20
– – 57 – 25
– – 59 46 30
– – 61 – 35
– 95 64 – 40
– – 67 – 45

Table 1.29 Comparison of hardness numbers

90
Materials

Shore hardness, Shore hardness, Shore hardness, α ROCKWELL Ball impression


form A form C form D (cone tip) hardness, hardness
(truncated cone) (truncated cone) DIN 53505 form B [N/mm2]
DIN 53505 DIN 53505 ASTM D 785 DIN 53456
Preferably for For soft, but relatively rigid plastics, in particu- Preferably for hard plastics
soft plastics lar for further differentiation of the hardness
– – 71 85 50
– – 74 88 60
– – 77 90 70
– – 80 93 80
– – 83 96 90
– – 86 97 100
– – 90 100 120
– – – 103 140
– – – 106 160
– – – 109 180
– – – 113 200
– – – 117 220
– – – 122 240

Table 1.29 Comparison of hardness numbers

91
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Contents

1 Cutting properties 94
1.1 Processes during chip formation 94
1.1.1 Chip formation model 94
1.1.2 Chip compression 95
1.1.3 Types of chip 96
1.1.4 Chip shape 97
1.1.5 Formation of built-up edges 100
1.2 Tool wear 101
1.2.1 Causes of wear 101
1.2.2 Forms of wear 102
1.2.2.1 Flank wear 102
1.2.2.2 Crater wear 103
1.2.2.3 Ductile deformation 104
1.2.2.4 Notch wear 104
1.2.2.5 Ridge crack formation 105
1.2.2.6 Tool breakage 106
1.3 Tool life 107
1.3.1 Tool-life diagram and tool-life equation 107
1.3.2 Influencing variables for the tool life 109
1.4 Cutting force and performance criteria 112
1.4.1 Cutting force 112
1.4.1.1 Cutting force component 112
1.4.1.2 Cutting force and specific cutting force 114
1.4.1.3 Influencing variables for the cutting force and specific
cutting force 119
1.4.1.4 Feed rate and passive force 120
1.4.2 Power and torque 121
1.4.3 Metal removal rate and specific chip volume 122
1.4.4 Determining the power requirement 123
1.5 Surface quality 124
Modern manufacturing technologies 126
2
2.1 High-speed machining (HSM) 127
2.1.1 Terminology definition and potentials 127
2.1.2 Process requirements 128
2.2 High-performance cutting (HPC) 130
2.2.1 Objective of high-performance cutting 130
2.2.2 High-performance cutting with milling as an example 131
2.3 Dry cutting 132
2.3.1 Benefits, effects and special features 132
2.3.2 Tools suitable for dry cutting 134
2.4 Mist lubrication 135

92
Basic principles

Basic principles
2.5 Hard machining 137
2.5.1 Special features, requirements and potentials 137
2.5.2 Hard machining with milling as an example 138
Tool materials and coatings 140
3
3.1 Categorisation of tool materials 140
3.1.1 High-performance high-speed steels (HSS) 142
3.1.2 Hard metals (HM or VHM) 143
3.1.3 Cermets 145
3.1.4 Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCB or CBN) 146
3.1.5 Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) 148
3.2 Coatings 149
3.2.1 Coating processes 149
3.2.2 Layers 150
3.3 Overview of tool materials 151

93
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

1 Cutting properties

A number of variables resulting from the combined effects of workpiece, tool and
machine tool as well as the chip formation process itself are the influencing factors for
the result of a metal-removing cutting process. Some of the possible influencing varia-
bles are summarised in Fig. 2.1.

1.1 Processes during chip formation

1.1.1 Chip formation model


During chip formation, the cutting edge penetrates the workpiece material, which is
then subjected to elastic and ductile deformation. In principle, the material is sheared off
during cutting in the form of thin lamella. These lamella slide off on the so-called shear
plane, which together with the cutting direction of the tool encloses the shear angle Φ.
During creation of the chip, the crystals are reoriented in the direction of the slide, which
can be seen in so-called chip root points (Fig. 2.2, right) as structure lines. These structure
lines and the shear plane enclose the structure angle Ψ.

Component Machining process Productivity


- Chip formation
- Production accuracy - Temperature
- Wear - Manufacturing costs
- Edge zone influence - Cost optimisation
- Friction
- Surface topography - Cutting parameters
- Material
Machining
- Cutting speed - Thermal characteristics
- Feed rate - Machine accuracy
- Cutting force - Type - Chip removal
- Lubricating coolant - Properties
- Cutter geometry
Cutting parameters Tool material Machine tool

Fig. 2.1 Influencing variables on the metal-removing machining process

94
Basic principles

Structure angle

She
Shear angle ar p
lane
Tool

Model based on Merchant Chip root point

Fig. 2.2 Diagram of chip formation

1.1.2 Chip compression


Chip compression is very suitable for assessing and particularly for comparing cutting
processes, as it is related to all the other effects of the chip formation process (e.g. cutting
force, surface quality) and is influenced by both the material properties and the cutting
conditions. The value of the chip compression therefore depends on the deformability of
the material and the geometric conditions at the cutting edge. The consequence of com-
pression during cutting is that the chip becomes higher, wider and shorter than the cor-
responding cutting variables.

This means that the following applies in general:


Cutting thickness h < Chip thickness h1
Cutting width b < Chip width b1
Cutting length l < Chip length l1
Cutting cross section A < Chip cross section A1

Fig. 2.3 Chip compression on the idealised square chip

95
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

1.1.3 Types of chip


According to the effect of the chip formation process on the chip that forms, three types
of chip are distinguished. The individual types of chip are essentially dependent on the
material and the cutting conditions. The types of chip (not to be confused with the chip
shapes – section 1.1.4) often overlap.

Flowing chip Characteristics:


– Joined
Flow-off – Varied surface
– Underside always smooth
Chip formation:
– Continuous flowing of the material
– Chip elements are not cut in the shear zone, rather they are con-
tinuously deformed
Conditions:
– Strong material with favourable cutting conditions
– (high cutting speed, large effective cutting angle)

Shearing chip Characteristics:


Shearing off – Single, unjoined chip elements can be seen
Welding – Surface strongly indented
Chip formation:
– Chip lamellas are only slightly deformed in the shear plane, sep-
arated from one another, but subsequently welded again
Conditions:
– Form of disruption of flowing chip
– Causes of disruption: irregularities in the material, vibrations,
effective cutting angle too small, large cut-
ting depth, low cutting speed

Tearing chip Characteristics:


(discontinuous chip) – Single, unjoined chip elements
– Rough surface due to fracture
Tear-off
Chip formation:
– Brittle materials tear even after slight deformation in the shear
zone (e.g. cast metal, chill cast, cast bronze, brass). In the case of
extremely brittle materials, complete disintegration of the chip
lamellas occur.
Conditions:
– Materials with low ductile characteristics
– Unfavourable cutting conditions

96
Basic principles

1.1.4 Chip shapes


The shape of the chip that is created is influenced by all the factors involved in the cut-
ting process. In principle, they can be categorised as follows:

Class Chip shape Assessment


1 Ribbon chip
Unfavourable

2 Snarl chip

3 Helical chip Satisfactory

4 Fragmental helical Favourable


chip

Table 2.1 Chip shape classes – continued on page 98

97
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Class Chip shape Assessment


5 Fragmental spiral chip

Favourable

6 Spiral chip pieces

7 Chip fragments Satisfactory

.
8 Partly welded

For industrial practice, short-broken chips are required, as long ribbon chips represent a
hazard, snarl chips can make the tool and workpiece useless, and the low space require-
ment for short-broken chips means that they are the only way to ensure smooth chip
conveyance. The influences of cutting conditions on the chip shape are summarised in
Table 2.2 and Fig. 2.4.

98
Basic principles

Cutting conditions Influence on the chip shape


Cutting speed With increasing cutting speed, the chip shape deteriorates
depending on the material
Feed rate With increasing feed rate, the chip breaking improves, but high
feed rates lead to poorer surface qualities
Cutting depth No direct influence
Effective cutting angle A negative effective cutting angle leads to good chip breaking,
but poorer surface quality
Setting angle The greater the setting angle the better the chip breaking
Chip breakers Chip breakers specifically improve chip breaking (adaptation to
process required)

Table 2.2 Influence of cutting conditions and cutter geometry on the chip shape

Fig. 2.4 Chip shapes depending on cutting depth (ap) and feed rate (f)

99
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

1.1.5 Formation of built-up edges


During chip formation, the workpiece material layers that form the boundary layer
between the chip surface and the underside of the chip after cutting are heavily
deformed. If cutting takes place under unfavourable conditions, pressure welding can
occur. Especially in the case of low cutting speeds, there is a danger of intensive forma-
tion of built-up edges.
Built-up edges occur due to heavily deformed and bonded workpiece material that
assume the task of the cutting edge as conglutination. Depending on the cutting condi-
tions, parts of the material periodically drift from the built-up edge to the underside of
the chip. This has negative effects on the cutting edge of the tool (breakouts) and work-
piece (surface quality, dimensional accuracy). Fig. 2.5 is a diagram of the formation of
built-up edges.
One possibility to prevent unnecessary friction at the contact faces and thus prevent
increased temperatures is to use cutter geometry optimised for each cutting process as
well as optimised cutting parameters. In particular, the following measures can prevent
the formation of built-up edges:
V Increasing the cutting speed
V Enlarging the effective cutting angle
V Using coatings
V Using effective cooling

Built-up edge on the tool cutting face

Fig. 2.5 Diagram of periodical formation of built-up edges

100
Basic principles

1.2 Tool wear

1.2.1 Causes of wear


Wear is caused by simultaneous mechanical and thermal loads on the cutting edge. The
most important causes are:
V Mechanical abrasion
V Shearing of pressure welded spots
V Oxidation processes
V Diffusion
In the case of low cutting speeds and easy-to-cut materials, mechanical (abrasive) wear
comes into the foreground; in the case of higher cutting speeds and materials that are
more difficult to cut, on the other hand, the thermal-related causes of wear - oxidation
and diffusion (Fig. 2.6) - occur.

a Diffusion
b Abrasion
(mechanical abrasion,
ductile deformation)
a
Wear

c Oxidation
(scaling)
b d Adhesion
(shearing of pressure welded
d c spots)

Cutting temperature

Fig. 2.6 Causes of wear during cutting (based on Vieregge)

Cutting speed
As shown in Fig. 2.7, the cutting temperature
Cutting temperature

Feed rate
Cutting depth that prevails during cutting and the wear
that occurs depend essentially on the cut-
ting conditions in each case. Increasing the
cutting speed, the cutting depth or the feed
Wear

rate has a directly proportional effect on the


vc cutting temperature and wear.
ap
f

Fig. 2.7 Influence of cutting conditions on cutting temperature and wear

101
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

1.2.2 Forms of wear


The attributes of the individual forms of wear serve to assess the resilience of the tool. In
principle, the following forms of wear can be distinguished:
V Flank wear
V Crater wear
V Ductile deformation
V Notch wear
V Splintering
V Ridge crack formation
V Tool breaking

VB width of wear land


VBmax max. width of wear land
KT crater depth
KM centre distance of crater
KB crater width
KL crater lip width

Fig. 2.8 Wear variables with turning tool as an example

1.2.2.1 Flank wear


Flank wear refers to more or less even removal tool material on the flank of the tool. The
worn face runs approximately parallel to the cutting direction and is referred to as the
width of wear land (VB or VBmax).
Wear on the flank of the tool has the following effect:
V a rise in the cutting forces
V increasing vibrations
V rising temperatures
V a deterioration in the surface quality
V dimensional inaccuracies on the workpiece

Fig. 2.9 Flank wear

102
Basic principles

Cause Remedy
Excessively high cutting speed Reduce cutting speed
Tool material with insufficient Select a tool material with higher wear resistance, select a
wear resistance coated tool
Non-adpated feed rate Set the feed rate to the right ratio to cutting speed and cutting
(feed rate too low) depth (increase feed rate)

Table 2.3 Problem handling – excessive flank wear

1.2.2.2 Crater wear

Crater wear refers to recessed removal of tool


material on the tool cutting face (diffusion and
abrasion – cf. Fig. 2.6). Excessive crater wear leads
to a weakening of the cutting edge, to greater
chip deformations and, as a result, to a rise in the
cutting forces. This increases the danger of tool
breakage.

Fig. 2.10 Crater wear

Cause Remedy
Excessive cutting speed and/or Reduce cutting speed and/or feed rate,
feed rate use more wear-resistant type of tool material
Effective cutting angle too small Use a toolholder and indexable inserts with positive effective
cutting angle
Incorrectly fed coolant Increase coolant volume and/or pressure, ensure improved
supply at the cutting point
Tool material with insufficient Use a type with greater resistance to cratering, use coating
wear resistance

Table 2.4 Problem handling – excessive crater wear

103
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

1.2.2.3 Ductile deformation


Ductile deformation occurs in particular due
to thermal overload of the cutting edge. In
order to assess the tool material, the elevated
temperature hardness is the major factor.

Fig. 2.11 Ductile deformation

Cause Remedy
Excessive working temperature, thus Reduce cutting speed
softening of the base material due to Use more wear-resistant type of tool material
high cutting speeds and feed rates as
well as hard workpiece material Reduce chip cross section (particularly feed rate)
Use adapted edge preps
Reduce approach angle
Use cooling
Damage to the coating Change the inserts in good time

Table 2.5 Problem handling – excessive ductile deformation

1.2.2.4 Notch wear


Notch wear can occur both on the major cutting
edge and minor cutting edge. It leads to defi-
cient surface finish and the risk of tool breakage.
Notch wear on the major cutting edge has
mechanical causes. Notch wear on the minor
cutting edge is typical adhesion wear (cf. Fig. 2.6),
but can also occur together with oxidation wear.
The notch wear then concentrates on the posi-
tion of the cutting edge where air can reach the
cutting zone.

Fig. 2.12 Notch wear

104
Basic principles

Cause Remedy
Oxidation Select a suitable coating
Abrasion Reduce the cutting speed, but if heat-resistant material is being
cut with ceramic tool materials
→ increase the cutting speed

Table 2.6 Problem handling – notch wear

1.2.2.5 Ridge crack formation


Hot cracks (ridge crack formation) occur as fatigue wear as a result of thermal shocks
(often in the case of brittle tool materials or temperature changes). Here, cracks form ver-
tically in relation to the cutting edge, whereby individual tool material particles splinter
between the cracks to an increasing degree and can lead to sudden tool breakage.

Fig. 2.13 Ridge crack formation

Cause Remedy
Changing chip thickness Select uniform contact conditions
Fluctuating coolant supply Supply coolants evenly and in adequate volume
Particularly in the case of hard metals and ceramic tool materials,
run without coolant
Interrupted cut Select a tool material with higher endurance and better temper-
ature-change resistance
Supply and adequate volume of lubricating coolant or avoid
completely in the case of hard metals

Table 2.7 Problem handling – ridge crack formation

105
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

1.2.2.6 Tool breakage


In the case of splintering and tool breakage,
mechanical overload peaks occur that do not
permit even wear of the cutting edge. They
cause deficient surface finish. Notching and
flaking of individual particles are, among other
things, indications of an imminent tool break.
In the case of a mechanical fatigue break, the
cracks run mainly parallel to the cutting edge.

Fig. 2.14 Cutter breakout

Cause Remedy
Type of tool material is to Use a stronger type of tool material, chamfer the cutting edge
brittle (wear-resistant)
Vibrations Use positive effective cutting angle and angle of inclination,
use a smaller pivot radius,
reduce the flute length of the toolholder,
use a greater setting angle, avoid the built-up edge zone (cf. sec-
tion 1.15)
Cutter geometry too weak Select cutters with stronger geometry,
greater chamfer, particularly in the case of ceramic cutters
Built-up edge Increase cutting speed,
select positive geometry
Excessive feed rate and/or Reduce chip cross section, in particular reduce feed rate and/or
cutting depth cutting depth,
use stronger type of tool material,
use negative cutter geometry,
chamfer cutting edge
Excessive load fluctuations at Adapt cutting speed and feed rate,
the cutting edge, select tool material with higher endurance,
interrupted cut chamfer cutting edge,
improve stability,
use negative cutter geometry
Chip collision Chamfer cutting edge
Use negative cutter geometry
Change chip deflection (change the feed rate,
cutting speed, chip breaker ...)
Use stronger type of tool material

Table 2.8 Problem handling – splintering and tool breaking

106
Basic principles

1.3 Tool life


Tool life parameters specify the possibilities of a tool cutter for use in cutting.
The tool life is the most significant variable for assessment of the cutting properties of a
material. It specifies the period for a cutter in which the tool can be used for cutting until
it reaches a selected tool life criterion (without fitting times). If, for example, the required
tolerances are no longer adhered to or the required surface qualities can no longer be
achieved with the cutter, the end of tool life has been reached.
Alongside the tool life, the length of cut and other factors are used as tool life parameters
for evaluation of drilling or milling processes. The number or components produced is
used as the tool-life parameter for evaluation of automatic machine lines or machining
centres.

Resilience
- Cutting capability of the tool Tool life criteria Tool life parameters
- Life of cutting tool - On the tool - Tool life
- Ease of cutting of the - On the workpiece - Tool life travel
material - During the cutting - Tool life quantity
process - Tool life volume

Fig. 2.15 Tool-life terminology (according to DIN 6583)

1.3.1 Tool-life diagram and tool-life equation


Reliable and calculable tool lives are a requirement for securing production. The basis for
determining tool life suitable for practical use are long-term tests, but these require high
time and material overhead.

Short testing methods reduce this overhead, but only permit conditional conclusions to
be drawn regarding the life of the tool. These are used mainly for to check tool materials
and materials when they arrive or to monitor the cutting properties.

107
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Tool-life tests are frequently run to determine the


tool life. The determining factor for tool failure
here is the wear on the tool. When comparing
wear values, special attention must be paid to
achieving a uniform, standardised procedure for
recording wear. A relatively good wear variable
that is easy to record is the flank wear, which is
often used for this reason. Fig. 2.16 shows wear
progression of this nature on the flank (VB) for
turning.
The individual cutting speed curves (Fig. 2.16, cen-
tre), for example, are used to determine for a con-
stant width of wear land VBmax (specified wear or
tool life criterion) the associated times t1 to t3
(tool lives). These are entered in the lgT-lgvc dia-
gram (Fig. 2.16, bottom). Correspondingly
assigned tool lives can be read from the curves for
selected cutting speeds.

The flank wear VB depending on tool-life travel L


with the deployment of various carbide hard metal
cutters is shown below as an example for roughing Fig. 2.16 Determining the tool life
milling.

Cutting test VHM cutter


0,4
Mat: 1.2379 WBW 3
0,35
Vc=102 m/min
0,3 fz=0.04 mm/Z
Flank wear VB (mm)

0,25 ae=6 mm WBW 2


ap=18 mm
0,2 Emulsion
0,15 WBW 1
0,1 GARANT
0,05
0
0 2000 4000 6000 8000
Tool life travel L (mm)

Very low wear Breakout of the cutter


Fig. 2.17 Cutting tests to
determine the tool-life travel

108
Basic principles

The course of the curve can be described over a wide range by a straight line, which after
logarithmic analyses leads to the so-called Taylor equation:

In this equation:
T = vck ⋅ Cv Cv tool-life T for vc = 1 m/min (Equation 2.1)
k upward slope of straight line (k = tan αv)
or

vk In this equation:
T = ----c-k CT cutting speed vc for T = 1 min (Equation 2.2)
CT
Whereby CT = Cv -(1/k).

Converting the equation according to the variables cutting speed vc also provides the
representation used in practice:

1
--
k (Equation 2.3)
vC = T ⋅ CT

1.3.2 Influencing variables for the tool-life


For practical application, the influence of the other cutting variables e.g. feed rate, cutting
depth, material and tool material must be known and included in the examination. The
following Table 2.9 provides an overview of the influence of these variables.
The cutting speed exerts the greatest influence on the tool life. The next most important
influencing variable is the feed rate. Its variation in the tool life diagram results in parallel
straight lines under the condition that the material-tool material pairing remains con-
stant. The same applies to the influence of the cutting depth, the geometric conditions
such as effective cutting angle, clearance angle and setting angle and approximately also
for the influence of the process material. If on the other hand the material, the tool mate-
rial or the wear criterion are changed, other angles of inclination of the tool life straight
lines result.

109
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Cutting
conditions
Cutting speed Feed rate Cutting depth

Most common form of the tool With a rising feed rate, the tool With a rising cutting depth, the
life diagram. life is reduced with all other con- tool life is reduced with all other
The cutting speed has the ditions remaining equal. The conditions remaining equal.
strongest influence on the tool feed rate influences the tool life
life. The tool life falls radically more strongly than the cutting
with increasing cutting speed. depth.
Constant variables:
Constant variables: material, tool material, feed rate,
Constant variables: effective cutting angle, clearance
material, tool material, cutting material, tool material, cutting angle, setting angle
depth, effective cutting angle, depth, effective cutting angle,
clearance angle, setting angle clearance angle, setting angle

Material The structure, hardness, tensile


Al-Si Mg strength and alloy elements
have a major influence on the
tool life.
Ig T

With all other conditions remain-


Cast ing equal, the tool life falls as the
metals Steel pearlite content in the structure
increases and the hardness or
Material tensile strength of the material
rises.
In the case of different material Constant variables:
groups, the angles of inclination tool material, feed rate, cutting depth, effective cutting angle, clear-
of the tool life straight lines ance angle, setting angle
change.

Tool material The tool material has a very great influence on the tool life.
The adjacent diagram shows that with rising cutting tool quality the
application of higher cutting speeds is possible with constant tool
life. If, on the other hand, the cutting speed is kept constant in cer-
tain ranges, longer tool lives result as cutting tool quality increases.
Constant variables:
material, feed rate, cutting depth, effective cutting angle, clearance
angle, setting angle

Table 2.9 Influencing the tool-life

110
Basic principles

Table 2.9 (continued) Influencing the tool life

Tool Depending on their composition, lubricating coolants


material have a more lubricating or more cooling effect. In the
T2
T1
case of low cutting speeds, the tool life can be improved
mainly by lubricating; in the case of higher cutting
Ig T

with cooling
dry
speeds, the tool life can be improved mainly by cooling.
Vc With all other conditions remaining constant, cooling
Ig Vc
and lubrication lead to increases in tool life, above all in
the case of high-speed steel tools.
Constant variables:
material, feed rate, cutting depth, effective cutting
angle, clearance angle, setting angle
Tool material: high-speed steel

Geometry
of the
cutter
Influence Effective cutting angle Clearance angle Setting angle

With all other conditions If the clearance angle is The smaller the setting
remaining equal, the tool kept below 5° to 6°, the angle, the longer the
life is reduced if effective tool life falls due to greater length of the protruding
cutting angles that devi- friction at the flank with all cutting edge, with all other
ate greatly from the usual other conditions remain- conditions remaining
guide values are used. ing equal. equal, and the longer the
Effective cutting angle too An increase in the clear- tool life and vice versa.
positive: ance angle of 10° to 15°
weak cutting wedge weakens the cutting Constant variables:
Effective cutting angle to wedge.
material, tool material, feed
negative: rate, cutting depth, effec-
crater wear is too great Constant variables: tive cutting angle, clear-
Constant variables: material, tool material, feed ance angle
material, tool material, feed rate, cutting depth, effec-
rate, cutting depth, clear- tive cutting angle, setting
ance angle, setting angle angle

111
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

1.4 Cutting force and performance criteria

1.4.1 Cutting force


The cutting forces are examined and defined as exerted on the workpiece. The terminol-
ogy for all cutting processes is contained in DIN 6584 (German Industrial Standard).

1.4.1.1 Cutting force components


The cutting force F is the total force exerted on a workpiece. It can be resolved into vari-
ous components, whereby special significance is attached to the components on the
work plane as well as in the cutting and feed direction. Fig. 2.18 shows the principle of the
resolution of cutting force into its components. Fig. 2.19 and Fig. 2.20 show examples for
turning or contour milling. Here, the forces are assumed to work on one cutter point. In
the case of multiflute tools, the forces on the individual working cutting wedges must be
examined. They can be added once again to form a total cutting force by vectoral addi-
tion.

Cutting force F
Components of the cutting force F

In the working plane Vertical to the working plane

Active force Fa Passive force Fp

Components of the active force Fa


In effective direction Vertical to the effective direction
Effective force Fe Effective normal force FeN

Components of the active force Fa

In cutting direction Vertical to cutting direction

Cutting force Fc Normal cutting force FcN

Components of the active force F a


Fig. 2.18
Resolution of In feed direction Vertical to feed direction
cutting force into
its components Feed force F f Normal feed force FeN
according to
DIN 6584

112
Basic principles

Ve Vc Tool
η η (plain milling cutter)
Ve
Vc
ω Working plane
ϕ
-Fp Vf ϕ Vf
-Ff -FcN -Fp
Workpiece
Tool
(turning tool) τ -Fa
-Fc Working plane
-F
-F -Fa
Workpiece

Fig. 2.19 Components of cutting force Fig. 2.20 Components of cutting force for
for turning (feed directions- contour milling in reverse
angle ϕ = 90°) (feed direction angle ϕ < 90°)

The possibilities for the resolution of forces shown in Fig. 2.19 result in various mathemat-
ical relationships.
For cutting force F:

2 2
F= Fa + Fp (Equation 2.4)

The components of the active force Fa are used to create the power during cutting. A
particularly important component is the cutting force Fc (formerly also referred to as
main cutting force). This is significant for the actual removal of the chip and especially for
the power rating as well as the configuration of forces on the machine tools.
Furthermore, the components feed force Ff and passive force Fp (formerly also known
as return force) are worthy of mention. Knowledge of the extent and direction of the feed
force is required to determine the feed power output and also - together with the passive
force - for calculation of the tools and tool clamping devices.

113
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

The type of tool wear can be established from the different influences on the cutting force.
Crater wear, which usually leads to a greater positive effective cutting angle, usually leads
in turn to a reduction in the cutting force. In the case of prevailing flank wear, on the other
hand, the forces increase, as the friction surface between the workpiece and flank
becomes larger. A quantitative statement on the increase in force with increasing tool
wear can only be approximate due to the large number of influencing variables.
As a guide to the force increase in the case of flank wear up to a width of wear land of
0.5 mm, the following can be generally assumed:

Feed force Ff ≈ 90 %
Passive force Fp ≈ 100 %
Cutting force Fc ≈ 20 %

1.4.1.2 Cutting force and specific cutting force


The cutting force Fc as so-called ’power-leading’ force, together with the cutting speed,
is the most important factor in calculating the cutting or driving power of the machine
tool. The extent of the cutting force depends primarily on the material to be cut and the
effective cutting conditions (e.g. cutter geometry, cutting thickness h). This is why it is
determined specifically for each process (cutting cross sections A specific to each proc-
ess).
The fundamental equation of the cutting force (per cutter) is shown in Equation 2.5, as
it was derived in its original form for turning.
For cutting force Fc for turning, the following applies in line with Kienzle:

Fc cutting force [N] (Equation 2.5)


2
Fc = A ⋅ kc = b ⋅ h ⋅ kc A cutting cross section [mm ] based on Fig. 1.42
b cutting width [mm]
h cutting thickness [mm]
kc specific cutting force [N/mm2]

The cutting cross section A results, as shown in


Fig 2.21 for turning, from cutting width b and
cutting thickness h. During cutting, the cutting
thickness can change (e.g. for milling). In order
to determine the cutting force, a mean cutting
thickness hm is assumed (cf. chapter ’Milling’
and chapter 'Information – collection of formu-
lae').

Fig. 2.21 Variables on the cutting cross


section for turning

114
Basic principles

Although the specific cutting force kc is mainly influenced by the material, it is to be


viewed as a pure calculation variable and not as a material indicator. Fig. 1.43 shows the
dependency of the specific cutting force kc on the cutting thickness h (cf. Equation 2.6 as
well as Table 2.10 for selected materials and cutting thicknesses).
Important influencing factors for kc are:
V Strength and alloy components of the material to be cut
V Cutter geometry of the tool

kc 1.1 Main value of the specific cutting force with (Equation 2.6)
kc1.1 cutting cross section A = 1 mm2 (b = 1 mm, h = 1 mm)
kc = --------
-
h
m
m Rise of the tangent of the angle of inclination ζ
(cf. Fig. 2.22)

5000 6300
spec. cutting force k c [N/mm2]

spec. cutting force k c [N/mm2]

5000
4000 tan z = m
4000

3000 3150

2500
2000 kc 1.1 z
2000

1000 1600
1250
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 1000
Cutting thickness h [mm] 0,063 0,1 0,16 0,25 0,4 0,7 1,0 1,6
Cutting thickness h [mm]

Arithmetical representation Double logarithmic representation

Fig. 2.22 Dependency of the specific cutting force kc on the cutting thickness h

The main value of the specific cutting force kc1.1 and the rise m of the tangent of the
angle of inclination ζ depend on the material and have been determined for the various
materials in tests. For each of the material groups, these values can be taken from the
chapter ’Materials’, section 1. Guide values for the specific cutting force kc can be found in
the following Table 2.10.

115
Material group Strength Material Specific cutting force kc [N/mm2] depending on cutting thickness h [mm]

116
[N/mm2]
Mate- Material desig- kc1.1 m 0.05 0.06 0.1 0.16 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.8 1.6 2.5
rial no. nation accord-
ing to DIN
1.0 Gen. structural steel up to 500 1.0037 St 37-2 1.780 0.17 2.962 2.872 2.633 2.431 2.253 2.080 2.003 1.849 1.643 1.523
1.1 Gen. structural steel 500–850 1.0050 St 50-2 1.990 0.26 4.336 4.136 3.621 3.205 2.854 2.525 2.383 2.109 1.761 1.568
1.0060 St 60-2 2.110 0.17 3.511 3.404 3.121 2.881 2.671 2.466 2.374 2.192 1.948 1.806
1.0070 St 70-2 2.260 0.30 5.552 5.256 4.509 3.916 3.426 2.975 2.782 2.416 1.963 1.717
2.0 Free cutting steel up to 850 1.0718 9SMnPb28 1200 0.18 1997 1.844 1.775 1.639 1.473 1.402 1.350 1.246 1.108 1.027
3.0 Unalloyed heat up to 700 1.0402 C 22 1.800 0.16 2.907 2.823 2.602 2.413 2.247 2.084 2.011 1.865 1.670 1.555
treatable steel
1.0501 C 35 1.516 0.27 3.404 3.240 2.823 2.486 2.204 1.942 1.828 1.610 1.335 1.184
3.1 Unalloyed heat 700–850 1.0503 C 45 1.680 0.26 3.661 3.491 3.057 2.705 2.409 2.132 2.012 1.780 1.487 1.324

GARANT MACHINING MANUAL


treatable steel
1.1191 Ck 45 2.220 0.14 3.377 3.292 3.064 2.869 2.696 2.524 2.446 2.290 2.079 1.953
3.2 Unalloyed heat 850–1000 1.1221 Ck 60 2.130 0.18 3.652 3.534 3.224 2.962 2.734 2.512 2.413 2.217 1.957 1.806
treatable steel
4.1 Alloyed heat treatable 1000–1200 1.7218 25CrMo4 2.070 0.25 4.378 4.182 3.681 3.273 2.927 2.603 2.462 2.189 1.841 1.646
steel
1.7225 42CrMo4 2.500 0.26 5448 5195 4549 4026 3585 3173 2994 2649 2212 1970
5.0 Unalloyed case up to 750 1.0401 C 15 1.820 0.22 3.518 3.380 3.020 2.724 2.469 2.226 2.120 1.912 1.641 1.488
hardening steel
6.0 Alloyed case hardening up to 1000 1.5919 15CrNi6 1.380 0.30 3390 2.944 2.753 2.391 1.980 1.817 1.699 1.476 1.199 1.048
steel
1.7131 16MnCr5 2.100 0.26 4.576 4.364 3.821 3.382 3.011 2.665 2.515 2.225 1.858 1.655
6.1 Alloyed case hardening over 1000 1.7147 20MnCr5 2.140 0.25 4.526 4.324 3.806 3.384 3.026 2.691 2.545 2.263 1.903 1.702
steel
1.7262 15CrMo5 2.290 0.17 3.811 3.694 3.387 3.127 2.899 2.676 2.576 2.379 2.114 1.960
7.0 Nitride steel up to 1000 1.8507 34CrAlMo5 1.740 0.26 3.792 3.616 3.166 2.802 2.495 2.208 2.084 1.844 1.540 1.371
8.0 Tool steel up to 850 1.1730 C45W 1.680 0.26 3.661 3.491 3.057 2.705 2.409 2.132 2.012 1.780 1.487 1.324
1.2067 100Cr6 1.410 0.39 4.535 3.776 3.461 2.881 2.255 2.016 1.848 1.538 1.174 986
8.1 Tool steel 850–1100 1.2312 40CrMnMoS8-6 1.800 0.27 4.042 3.847 3.352 2.952 2.617 2.305 2.170 1.912 1.585 1.405
1.2842 90MnCrV 2.300 0.21 4.315 4.153 3.730 3.380 3.077 2.788 2.660 2.410 2.084 1.897
8.2 Tool steel over 1100 1.2080 X210Cr12 1.820 0.26 3.966 3.782 3.312 2.931 2.610 2.310 2.179 1.929 1.611 1.434

Table 2.10 Guide values for specific cutting force kc


Table 2.10 (Continued) Guide values for specific cutting force kc

Material group Strength Material Specific cutting force kc [N/mm2] depending on cutting thickness h
[N/mm2] [mm]
Mate- Material desig- kc1.1 m 0.05 0.06 0.1 0.16 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.8 1.6 2.5
rial no. nation accord-

Basic principles
ing to DIN
12.0 Spring steel up to 1500 1.5023 38Si7 1.800 0.27 4.042 3.847 3.352 2.952 2.617 2.305 2.170 1.912 1.585 1.405
1.8159 50CrV4 2.220 0.26 4.925 4.697 4.113 3.639 3.241 2.868 2.706 2.395 2.000 1.781
13.0 Stainless steel, sulphured up to 700 1.4104 X14CrMpS17 1.820 0.26 3.966 3.782 3.312 2.931 2.610 2.310 2.179 1.929 1.611 1.434
13.1 Stainless steel, austenitic up to 700 1.4301 X5CrNi18 10 2.350 0.21 4.408 4.243 3.811 3.453 3.144 2.849 2.718 2.463 2.129 1.939
1.4401 X5CrNiMo17122 2.600 0.19 4.594 4.437 4.027 3.683 3.383 3.094 2.966 2.713 2.378 2.185
13.2 Stainless steel, austenitic up to 850 1.4034 X46Cr13 1.820 0.26 3.966 3.782 3.312 2.931 2.610 2.310 2.179 1.929 1.611 1.434
13.3 Stainless steel, martensitic / up to 1100 1.4028 X30Cr13 1.820 0.26 3.966 3.782 3.312 2.931 2.610 2.310 2.179 1.929 1.611 1.434
ferritic
2.4631 NiCr20TiAl 2.088 0.29 4.978 4.721 4.071 3.553 3.121 2.724 2.553 2.228 1.822 1.601
15.0 Cast iron (GG) (lamellar up to 0.6020 GG 20 1.020 0.25 2.157 2.061 1.814 1.613 1.442 1.283 1.213 1.079 907 811
graphite) 180 HB
15.1 Cast iron (GG) over 180 HB 0.6040 GG 40 1.470 0.26 3.203 3.055 2.675 2.367 2.108 1.865 1.760 1.558 1.301 1.158
(lamellar graphite)
15.2 Cast iron (GGG, GT) as of 180 HB 0.7040 GGG-40 1.005 0.25 2.125 2.031 1.787 1.589 1.421 1.264 1.195 1.063 894 799
(spheroidal graphite, mallea-
ble cast iron) 0.8040 GTW-40 2.060 0.19 3.640 3.516 3.191 2.918 2.681 2.452 2.350 2.149 1.884 1.731

15.3 Cast iron (GGG, GT as of 260 HB 0.7080 GGG-80 1.132 0.44 4.230 3.904 3.118 2.535 2.083 1.694 1.536 1.249 921 756
(spheroidal graphite, mallea-
ble cast iron) 0.8165 GTS-65 1.180 0.24 2.422 2.318 2.051 1.832 1.646 1.470 1.394 1.245 1.054 947
16.1 Ti, Ti alloys 850–1200 3.7164 TiAl6V4 1.370 0.21 2.570 2.378 2.222 2.013 1.764 1.661 1.585 1.436 1.241 1.130
17.0 Al, Al alloys up to 530 3.3535 AlMg3 780 0.23 1.554 1.490 1.325 1.189 1.073 963 915 821 700 632
3.1325 AlCuMg1 780 0.23 1.554 1.490 1.325 1.189 1.073 963 915 821 700 632
17.1 Cast alumin. alloys Si<10% up to 600 3.2381 G-AlSi10Mg 830 0.23 1.653 1.585 1.410 1.265 1.142 1.025 973 874 745 672
17.2 Cast alumin. alloys Si>10% up to 600 3.2581 G-AlSi12 830 0.23 1.653 1.585 1.410 1.265 1.142 1.025 973 874 745 672
19.1 Brass, short-chipping up to 600 2.0380 CuZn39Pb2 780 0.18 1.337 1.294 1.181 1.085 1.001 920 884 812 717 661
19.3 Bronze, short-chipping up to 600 2.1090 CuSn7ZnPb 640 0.25 1.353 1.293 1.138 1.012 905 805 761 677 569 509

117
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

The specified values for specific cutting force in Table 2.10 refer to:
V Tool material: Carbide
V Cutting speed vc = 100 m/min
V Effective cutting angle γ = 6° (exception in the case of cast materials: γ = - 6°)
V Setting angle κ = 45°
V Cutter at working sharpness

In the case of deviations from the given cutting conditions, correction factors are re-
quired for calculation of the cutting force Fc.
This applies especially to:
V Effective cutting angle correction Kγ
V Cutting speed correction Kv
V Tool material correction KSch
V Wear correction KVer

Fc = b ⋅ h ⋅ kc ⋅ Kγ ⋅ Kν ⋅ KSch ⋅ KVer (Equation 2.7)

The correction factors for cutting force calculation can be taken from Table 2.11.

Calculation / variable range Comments


γ actual effective cutting angle
γ–γ
Kγ Kg = 1 – ------------k- (Equation 1.9) γk for steel processing: 6°
66, 7° for cast metal processing: 2°
Kv at vc > 80 m/min negligible Carbide
1.15 HSS cutters
KSch 1 Carbide
0.95 ... 0.9 Ceramics
KVer 1 Tool at working sharpness
1.3 ... 1.5 Worn tool

Table 2.11 Specifying correction values for cutting force calculation

118
Basic principles

1.4.1.3 Influencing variables for the cutting force and specific cutting force
The amount of cutting force serves to assess the cutting properties, as in general, higher
forces occur when materials that are difficult to cut are involved. Table 2.12 summarises
the influencing variables.
These influencing variables affect the specific cutting force kc the same way. With regard
to the influence of feed rate or cutting thickness and cutting depth or cutting width on
the specific cutting force, however, fundamentally different relationships apply. In the va-
lidity range of the law of cutting force (h = 0.05...2.5 mm), the specific cutting force falls
with rising feed rate and/or cutting thickness (cf. Fig. 2.22). The influence of the cutting
depth or cutting width can be viewed as virtually constant.

Cutting Cutting speed Feed rate Cutting depth


conditions
ap, b
Actual
course

Fc
Limit of validity of force
the law of cutting
0 h ~ 0,05 f, h

In the range as of 100 m/min, The feed rate f and/or the cut- With increasing cutting depth,
the cutting force only falls to ting thickness h exert a major the cutting force rises propor-
an insignificant degree with influence on the cutting force. tionally. Depending on the
rising cutting speed. In the selected feed rate, the straight
range below 100 m/min, the lines rise more steeply or less
rise in Fc depends on the steeply.
material to be cut in each case.
Material Tool material Coolant

Material type

Fc Fc Dry cut
Cooling lubrication

Rm, HB Vc

When different materials are SS high-speed steel The deployment of corre-


being cut and all other cutting HM hard metal sponding lubricating coolants
conditions remain constant, can lower the cutting forces
different cutting forces result SK cutting ceramics slightly compared to dry cut-
from the various properties. As SHS superhard tool ting.
an initial approach, it can be materials (CBN) However, what is decisive for
assumed that with rising ten- The conditions shown apply to influencing the cutting force is
sile strength or hardness the cutting ferrous materials. the choice of suitable tool
cutting force rises. material (cf. chapter 1,
section 4).

Table 2.12 Influencing the cutting force – (continued on page 120)

119
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Table 2.12 (continued) Influencing the cutting force

Cutting ratio f In general, a cutting ratio in the range between G = 2...10 is selected
G = ap / f ap for rough grinding and a ratio of G = 10...20 for finishing.
f
Fc ap The influence of the cutting ratio is not as strong as that of the feed
rate or of the cutting depth.
A=const
A low cutting ratio is more favourable with regard to the forces. A
1 ap 10 high cutting ratio, on the other hand, is more favourable in achiev-
G= f ing longer tool life.

Geometry of Effective cutting angle Setting angle


the cutter
Combined cut

Fc Free cut

60˚
Kr

Cutting force change per degree of effective cutting The setting angle has a relatively low
angle change: influence on the cutting force.
approx. 1 ... 2% (for γ = –20° ... +30°)

1.4.1.4 Feed rate and passive force


Compared to cutting force, there are only relatively few research results for the feed force
Ff and passive force Fp in the available literature. They are calculated in the same way as
the cutting force. The following identical relationships apply:

Ff feed force [N]


1–x
Ff = b ⋅ kv1.1 ⋅ h b cutting width [mm] (Equation 2.8)
h cutting thickness [mm]
kf 1.1 main value of the specific feed force [N/mm2]
1-x rise value

Fp passive force [N]


1– y
Fp = b ⋅ kp1.1 ⋅ h b cutting width [mm] (Equation 2.9)
h cutting thickness [mm]
kp 1.1 main value of the specific passive force [N/mm2]
1-y rise value

Fig. 2.23 shows the influence of the setting angle on the feed and passive force for turn-
ing. It can be seen that the passive force falls and the feed force rises as the setting angle
increases.

120
Basic principles

Fig. 2.23 Influence of the setting angle κ on the feed rate and passive force for turning

1.4.2 Power and torque


In general, the cutting power output is the product of the speed components and the
components of cutting force exerted in their direction. The following therefore applies in
general:

P power [kW]
F⋅v -
P = -------------- F force [N] (Equation 2.10)
60000
v speed [m/min]
If the torque and speed are used for determining the power output, this results in:

P power [kW]
Md ⋅ n
P = -----------
- Md torque [N/m] (Equation 2.11)
9554
n speed [rpm]

The cutting power Pc is the most important factor for configuration of a machine tool
with regard to power. This occurs directly at the tool. It is calculated as follows:

Pc cutting power [kW]


Fc ⋅ vc
Pc = --------------
- Fc cutting force [N] (Equation 2.12)
60000
vc cutting speed [m/min]
The feed power output Pf is calculated as follows:

Pf feed power output [kW]


Pf = Ff ⋅ vf Ff feed force [N] (Equation 2.13)
vf feed rate speed [mm/min]

121
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

The effective power Pe is the total of the corresponding cutting and feed shares.

Pe effective power [kW]


Pe = Pc + Pf Pc cutting power [kW] (Equation 2.14)
Pf feed power output [kW]
Due to the relatively low feed rate speed in comparison with cutting speeds, the effective
power in most cases can be set nearly the same as the cutting power (Pe ≈ Pc ).
For the configuration of the drive motors, the driving power Pa is the most important
factor, where the efficiency η is taken into consideration.

Pa driving power [kW]


P
Pa = ---c- Pc cutting power [kW] (Equation 2.15)
η
η efficiency
or:

Pa = Pc + Pa idle Pa idle idling power of the motor [kW] (Equation 2.16)

1.4.3 Metal removal rate and specific chip volume


The measure of productivity of a material-removing machine tool is the time-cutting vol-
ume or the specific chip volume. The principle that with rising time-cutting volume or
specific chip volume the base machine time falls applies here.
Metal removal rate Q is defined as the amount of chip removed within the time unit.
The following equation applies:

Q time-cutting volume [cm3/min]


Q = A ⋅ vc A cutting cross section [mm2] (Equation 2.17)
vc cutting speed [m/min]
The specific chip volume Qc, also power-related time-cutting volume, expressed the
amount of chip removed within a time unit and per kilowatt. The following applies:

Qc specif. chip volume [cm3/kW * min]


A ⋅ vc 1
Q- = ----------
Qc = --- - = ---- Pc cutting power [kW] (Equation 2.18)
Pc Fc ⋅ vc kc
A cutting cross section [mm2]
Fc cutting force [N]
vc cutting speed [m/min]
kc spec. cutting force [N/mm2]

122
Basic principles

This can be used to calculate the size of the specific chip volume Qc from the specific cut-
ting force kc and vice versa. The power-related time-cutting volume Qc is consequently
not dependent on the quality of the machine tool, rather on the specific cutting force kc
present for the cutting process in relation to the material .

1.4.4 Determining the power requirement


To determine the working parameters, the power requirement can be used to check.
Here, it make no difference whether the power requirement is determined via the specif-
ic cutting force kc or the specific chip volume Qc. What is determined is the power that
has to be available at the nose of the spindle.
For preconfiguration of the working parameters, a rough power requirement analysis can
be run in advance. In this connection, the following adequate rules of thumb apply for
processing various materials:
Steel processing:
ap ⋅ f ⋅ vc ap cutting depth [mm]
Pc = ---------------
- f feed rate [mm] (Equation 2.19)
20 vc cutting speed [m/min]

Cast metal processing:


ap ⋅ f ⋅ vc (Equation 2.20)
Pc = ---------------
-
30

Aluminium processing:
ap ⋅ f ⋅ vc (Equation 2.21)
Pc = ---------------
-
54, 5

Example:
Target: Pc (steel processing, e.g. C 45)
Given: ap = 2 mm, f = 0.1 mm, vc = 180 m/min
Solution:
2 ⋅ 0.1 ⋅ 180
Pc = ------------------------ = 1,8 kW
20

Note: Compared to an exact calculation (see Equation 2.12), the deviation is very low (1.85 kW
with exact calculation). In the case of materials with higher specific cutting forces, e.g. tool steels
or stainless and acid resistant steels, the power requirement is calculated too low.

123
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

1.5 Surface quality


For a finishing process, the quality of the created surface can be a criterion for configura-
tion of the cutting process. The theoretical peak-to-valley height results from the shape
of the cutting edge and the relative movement between the tool and workpiece. For
turning, the relationships are shown in Fig. 2.24.

Fig. 2.24 Geometric contact conditions for turning

Rt (theoretical) peak-to-valley height [mm]


rε edge radius of cutter [mm] (Equation 2.22)
f = 8 ⋅ re ⋅ Rt
f feed rate [mm/rev.]
ap cutting depth [mm]

This means the peak-to-valley height increases (squared) with the feed rate and decreas-
es (linear) with enlargement of the cutter corner radius. Equation 2.22 applies to feed
rates up to f ≥ 0.08 mm. An enlargement of the rounded cutter corner radius also leads to
an improvement in the surface quality, but this must be applied with relative caution, as
flat cutters (rε large) tend to rattle as soon as they start to wear.

124
Basic principles

The following table shows an overview of the relationships of common roughness indica-
tors.

Peak-to-valley height Rt (Rmax), Rz


Maximum peak-to-valley height Rt (Rmax) is the larg-
est single peak-to-valley height within the entire
measured stretch lm.
Mean peak-to-valley height Rz is the mean value of the
single peak-to-valley heights Zi of consecutive single
measured stretches le . This is used frequently in prac-
tice. 1
Rz = RzDIN = --- ⋅ (Zl + Z2 + … + Zn)
n

(Equation 2.23)

Mean roughness values Ra, Rq


Arithmetical mean roughness value Ra is the arithmet-
ical mean value of the amounts of all profile values of
the roughness profile. This is used frequently in prac- l
tice. 1
The square mean roughness value Rq is the square
mean value of all profile values of the roughness pro-
l∫
Ra = -- ⋅ y(x ) dx (Equation 2.24)
0
file.
y (x) = profile values of the roughness profile.
Rq y Average line Ra

0 x l
1
l ∫
Rq = -- ⋅ y(x ) dx (Equation 2.25)
0

Table 2.13 Determining common roughness indicators according to DIN

125
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

2 Modern manufacturing technologies

The growing competitive market forces have led companies to exploit technical innova-
tions more intensively than ever before. In the area of material-removing production, the
focal points are shortening the essential operating times and extending tool lives - as
well as exploiting and implementing the potentials of
V high-speed machining
V high-performance cutting
V dry cutting
V cutting with mist lubrication and
V hard machining

HSC cutting Hard cutting

Mist lubrication Dry cutting

Fig. 2.25 Modern cutting technologies

126
Basic principles

2.1 High-speed machining (HSM)

2.1.1 Terminology definition and potentials


High-speed machining means working at significantly increased cutting speed vc with rela-
tively small cutting depths. Applying the expression to certain cutting speeds is always to
be viewed in conjunction with the cutting processes, but also with the material to be cut
(Fig. 2.26).

Fibre-reinforced plastics Turning


Aluminium Milling
Bronze / brass Drilling
Cast metals Broaching
Steel Reaming
Titanium Sawing
(with circular saw)
Nickel-based
alloys Grinding

10 100 1000 10000 1 10 100 1000 10000


Cutting speed [m/min] Cutting speed [m/min]
Usual cutting speed
High-speed range

Cutting speeds depending on


material material-removing production process

Fig. 2.26 HSM cutting speed range

With increasing cutting speed, the following advantages arise:


V Considerable reduction in essential operating times
V Increased specific chip volume by approx. 30% is possible
V Increase in feed rate speed by a factor of 5 to 10
V Reduction in cutting force by more than 30% possible
V Low-vibration processing of geometrically complicated components is possible
V Material-removing finishing possible with HSC (surface quality virtually ground quality,
distortion-free processing by dissipation of process heat mainly via the chips)
Disadvantages, on the other hand, are:
V Reduction in tool-life with increasing cutting speed
V Tool materials and coatings have to be adapted to the circumstances
V Optimised technology parameters are not yet known to a comprehensive degree
V At the moment, machining strategies have to be worked out for each component

127
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL
Process evaluation

Time-cutting volume

Surface quality

Tool life travel

Cutting forces

Thermal
workpiece load

Cutting speed

Fig. 2.27 Effects of high-speed cutting on the cutting process

2.1.2 Process requirements


HSM machining parameters influence not only the process itself, but also affect the over-
all system machine tool-tool-workpiece (Fig. 2.28).

Material
Geometry
Clamping/fixing

Workpiece

Main spindle
Machine concept Geometry
Machine

Mass / stiffness HSC


Tool

Tool material
Drives technology Coating
Control systems Toolholder
Measurement systems

Process chain
Fig. 2.28 CAD/CAM
Influencing factors Machining strategy
Technology
on and impulse pro-
viders for the overall
process

128
Basic principles

For optimised use of this technology, the following requirements have to be set up:
Machine:
V Working method with low backlash and low vibration
V High rigidity
V Light-construction moving parts
V High speed and concentricity of
spindles
V Implementation of high feed rates
(linear drives)
Tool:
V High concentricity
– special TiAIN coating
V High balancing speed (geometry,
shank design) – special cutter geometry
V Long tool-life (with special – highest concentricity
cutter geometries and coatings)
V High rigidity
Toolholder: Fig. 2.29 GARANT VHM torus cutter for HSC cutting
V High concentricity (vc up to 1000 m/min)
V Hydroexpanding, high-precision or
shrink-fit chuck
Workpiece:
V Stable and low-vibration fixing
Longer tool-life and better surface qualities can only be achieved with the corresponding
tool materials if high concentricity of the spindle can be achieved via the toolholder up to
the cutter. Particularly for high-speed machining, this is an essential requirement. It pre-
supposes not only improved shaft accuracy of the cutting tool, but also toolholders
where the clamping systems have been optimised to such a degree that as few clamping
errors as possible are reproduced on the cutter (see also chapter 'Clamping').
A a number of conventional clamping systems are known, such as collet chucks for col-
lets in different versions or Weldon/whistle notches, which have already been improved
for many areas of application by hydroexpanding techniques. These are used successfully
today on account of their high concentricity and simple handling in many areas, up to
and including high-speed machining.

129
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Another method involves shrinking techniques that feature the highest accuracy, reliable
frictional connection and high stiffness. Due to the rotationally symmetrical design of the
clamping chucks they are particularly suitable for high-speed cutting. Concentricities
smaller than 0.003 mm with 3 x D flute length are ensured. If tools with precise concen-
tricity are used, these accuracies can for the most part be transferred to the cutter. This
leads to significant extensions of tool life and an improvement in surface quality (cf. chap-
ter 'Clamping').
Especially significant in the case of high-speed machining are the centrifugal forces. They
subject the spindle bearings to stress (destruction of the spindle), cause vibrations that
negatively influence the surface quality, lead to a deterioration in production accuracy,
and shorten the tool life. Fine or superfine balancing is always required when optimised
working conditions are to be achieved (finishing).
More information on balancing and balancing speed can be found in the chapter 'Clamp-
ing'.

2.2 High-performance cutting (HPC)

2.2.1 Objective of high-performance cutting


In the case of high-performance cutting, in contrast to high-speed cutting (HSC), optimi-
sation of the metal removal rate (see also section 1.4.3) is in the foreground in order to
achieve a reduction in essential cycle times. It also includes the area of low cutting
speeds with significantly higher feed rate values, as outstanding metal removal rate can
also be achieved here.
HPC also involves shortening the nonproductive times by increasing the positioning and
rapid motion speeds and reducing tool allowances.

500 %
Time-cutting volume

Increased time-cutting volume


ity

(feed rate, cutting speed, cutting depth)


tiv
uc
od
Pr

Reduction in essential operating


100 % and nonproductive time

Fig. 2.30 Objective of HPC

130
Basic principles

Whereas the possible feed rate results essentially from the number of cutters, the cutting
speed is given by the tool material used. The next section (Section 3) lists the most im-
portant developments and potentials of tool materials for cutting tools.
High-performance tools must take account of both the cutting forces that occur in par-
ticular with HPC and the significantly higher centrifugal forces that occur with high-
speed cutting. Together with machine technology that has been conceived accordingly,
tools for high-performance and high-speed cutting provide the basis for a significant in-
crease in productivity in material-removing processing by increasing the cutting speeds,
the feed rate and the surface quality of the workpieces with achievable chip volumes of
5000 to 10 000 cm3/min, e.g. in the case of light-alloy cutting.

2.2.2 High-performance cutting with milling example


In the case of hard cutting, the versatility of the expression 'high-performance machining'
becomes particularly clear. For extreme feed rates and the highest metal removal rate Qc
this achieves, as well as reduced processing times, high-performance carbide-tipped cut-
ters provide the best conditions. The extreme stiffness and the high feed rate values this
enables means that these tools are up to the loads involved in high-performance cutting.

Machining example: Contour milling of St 37 (1.0037)


Tool: GARANT - VHM cutter
Cutting data: Test 1: vc = 66 m/min, fz = 0.1 mm
Test 2: vc = 112 m/min, fz = 0.1 mm
Test 3: vc = 140 m/min, fz = 0.1 mm
Result:
– Increase in the time-cutting volume to 340%, adhering to the tool life quantity (8 parts)
– Increase in the metal removal rate through additional optimisation of the cutting parameters
to 840% with increase in tool life quantity (14 parts)

800 %
Time-cutting volume

ity
tiv
uc
od

300 %
Pr

100 %

GARANT - Carbide cutter


Test 1 Test 2 Test 3

131
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

2.3 Dry cutting

2.3.1 Benefits, effects and special features


The effective approach of combining cutting data, tool geometry, material characteristics
and machine tool technology supports the economic advantages and ecological objec-
tives of dry cutting. The implementation of this process requires a detailed knowledge of
the complex combined effects of the
V Workpiece
V Material
V Cutting tool
V Cutting process
V Cutting conditions
V Machine tools and their influence on the cutting process and the machining results.

The aim of dry cutting has to be to suitably substitute the basic functions of the cooling
lubricant in order to manufacture the components in the required quality and within the
specified cost framework. The ecological significance of cooling lubricants becomes clear
when the amount of cooling lubricants consumed per year is examined. According to the
(German) Federal Bureau for the Economy, consumption in Germany per year is approx.
75,148 tonnes of cooling lubricant (cf. Fig. 2.31).

132
Basic principles

Table 2.14

Cast alloy Wrought alloy High-alloy Free cutting GG20


steels, roller steel GGG70
bearing steel Heat treatable
Process steel
Drilling Mist lubrica- Mist lubrica- Mist lubrication Dry Dry
Coating tion tion TiAlN+sliding layer TiN TiN
TiAlN Uncoated
Reaming Mist lubrica- Mist lubrica- — Mist lubrication Mist lubri-
Coating tion tion PCD strip cation
TiAlN, PCD Uncoated PCD strip
Threading Mist lubrica- — Mist lubrication Mist lubrication Mist lubri-
tion TiN TiN, TiAlN cation
TiN, TiCN TiCN
Thread forming Mist lubrica- Mist lubrica- Mist lubrication Mist lubrication —
tion tion TiCN
CrN, WC/C
Milling Dry Mist lubrica- Mist lubrication Dry Dry
Coating TiN+sliding tion TiAlN+sliding layer TiN TiN
layer Uncoated
CVD dia-
mond
Hobbing — — Mist lubrication Dry Dry
Sawing Mist lubrica- Mist lubrica- Mist lubrication Mist lubrication —
tion tion
Broaching — — Dry Dry —
Coating TiCN multilayer TiCN multilayer
— no use cases known that involve reliable process or no research activities

Table 2.14 Possibilities of dry cutting (mist lubrication, see 2.4)


In the case of cutting with a defined cutter
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

2.3.2 Tools suitable for dry cutting


Due to the high elevated temperature hardness and heat wear resistance, it is above all
coated carbides, but also cutting ceramics, CBN and diamond tools that are suitable for
dry cutting.
With suitable layer systems, HSS tools can also be used economically in dry cutting. This is
cutting at low cutting speeds and with high requirements with regard to endurance of
the substrate, as in the case of tapping for example.
Very good results are
achieved drilling in steel
with TiAlN-TiN multilay- Adhesive layer
er coatings. The 'lubri-
cating' effect of the soft Multilayer
sliding layers reduces Nanolayer
the friction between the Z
chip and tool. O
O
M

Covering layer,
hard thermal shield
Interface for lubricating layer

Fig. 2.32 TiAlN-TiN multilayer structure

f [mm] vc [m/min] t [sec] Lf [m]

13
250

200 200

6
100
85
55
0,8
0,2 0,3 1

TiN coating Multilayer structure Multilayer HSC structure

Fig. 2.33 Increase in productivity for dry drilling GG26Cr


(Lt = tool life travel in [m])

134
Basic principles

The development and deployment of tools with optimised geometries is of great signifi-
cance with regard to high process reliability.
Dry drilling in particular continues to create problems. The core problem in the case of
dry drilling is reliable chip clearance from the bore. A promising approach, alongside the
layer systems, involves tools with enlarged flutes.

2.4 Mist lubrication


As pure dry cutting is often not possible due to deficient results of work, a compromise
frequently used in practice is mist coolant lubrication (quasi-dry cutting). Small amounts
of cooling lubricant KSS improve the work result and are a possibility to reduce KSS con-
sumption.
For the supply of an extremely small amount of cooling lubricant, the following expres-
sions have been adopted:
mist (coolant) lubrication MMKS (amount of lubricant generally less than 50 ml/h) and
reduced volume (coolant) lubrication MKS (amount of lubricant generally less than 120
l/h).
However, the cooling effect is the subject of debate, which means that many authors fa-
vour the expression mist lubrication.

Fig. 2.34 Application of mist lubrication

135
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

For application of the mist lubrication technique, a fundamental distinction should be


made between the type of supply and the type of mixture preparation, as this is signifi-
cant for the final result. There are a large number of possibilities for the supply of the lu-
bricant, shown for drilling in Fig. 2.35.

Minimum volume supply

external supply internal supply

Spraying Spraying Supply of Supply of


tool prior tool prior injected injected
to each to each compressed compressed
drilling drilling air through air via side
operation operation machine spindle supply

Application of (Quasi-) con- Compressed Compressed


(solid) tinuous supply air through air supply
lubricants to in towards the machine from tool
tool prior to workpiece spindle, rotation,
each drilling during lubricant from lubricant from
operation machining tool reservoir tool reservoir

Fig. 2.35 Mist lubrication supply methods for drilling

136
Basic principles

2.5 Hard machining

2.5.1 Special features, requirements and potentials


Hard machining is characterised by special chip for-
mation mechanisms.
At normal temperatures and pressures, hard materi-
als cannot be deformed. During chip formation, no
shear plane or shear zone forms (cf. section 1.1). At
the start of the material cutting, a crack forms in the
workpiece surface front of the chip surface, and this
continues. Chip segments are formed, and most of
these 'bake together' to form a chip tooth. In the
case of hard cutting, chip formation mechanisms
come into play, causing very high cutting forces and
cutting temperatures in comparison with soft cut-
ting.

Fig. 2.36 Milling hardened steel

The stresses that occur in the case of hard cutting specify the requirements for the tool
materials:

Stresses Tool material


caused by hard machining requirements
High deployment temperatures Diffusion resistance and elevated temperature
hardness
High pressure near the cutting edge Flectional strength and resistance to pressure
High impact loads in the interrupted cut Endurance, edge strength

Table 2.15 Tool material requirements for hard cutting

Whereas it was normally the case in the past that spark erosion or (as finishing process)
grinding had to be used for processing materials with hardness values over 60HRC, the
consistent use of high wear-resistant tool materials and more detailed knowledge of
processes mean that production processes with geometrically set cutters can be used
nowadays. They offer advantages such as greater flexibility, complete processing in one
fixing and the possibility to optimise manufacturing sequences with energy savings and

137
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

shorter production times. GARANT offers a comprehensive range of corresponding tool


technologies for hard machining (turning, shell end and indexable insert milling, drilling,
threading, countersinking and reaming).
So that the potentials of hard cutting with geometrically set cutters (e.g. hard turning)
can be fully exploited compared to grinding, not only tool materials have to be further
developed but also the availability of corresponding clamping tools and machine tech-
nology has to be ensured.

2.5.2 Hard machining with milling as an example


Turning and milling processes are already used in industry, whereby high wear-resistant
tool materials such as polycrystalline boron nitride (PCB or CBN) or Al2O3 mixed ceramics
can be deployed (cf. section 3 'Tool materials'). Some practical examples for hard milling
are shown below.

Technology data – hard machining

GARANT - Carbide cutter

Machine: Maho 1000 S Toolholders: Sk40


Tool: Diameter 16 mm High-precision
climb mills milling chuck
Material: 40CrMnMo7
(1.2311, tool steel hardened to 63 HRC)
Cutting data: vc = 90 m/min n = 1000 rpm
fs = 0.08 mm/Z vf = 800 mm/min
ap = 0.2 mm aa = 16 mm
Cooling: Air
Result: Wear: VB = 0.12 mm
Tool-life travel: L = 103 m
Surface quality: N6

138
Basic principles

Hard milling tool steel

Tool: GARANT ultra grain carbide end milling cutter


Diameter 10 mm, 6 cutters
TiAlN monolayer coating
Concentricity tolerance < 10 µm
Material: X155CrMoV121
(1.2379, tool steel hardened to 62 HRC)
Cutting fz = 0.07 mm/Z vc variable
parameters: ap = 10 mm ae = 0.2 mm

1. Determining the opt. cutting speed for


dry cutting depending on tool life
40
travel L.
Tool life travel (m)

30
Result:
vc optimised at 70 m/min 20
(cf. diagram on the right)
10
VHM end milling
cutter Ø 10 mm

0
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

2. Comparison of dry and wet cutting


Result:
Optimised dry cutting
(cf. diagram on the right) 150.0
VB (µm)

100.0 VB critical

50.0
70 m/min f2=0,07 (Emulsion)

70 m/min f2=0,07 (dry)


0.0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34
Mill travel (m)

If the requirement of stable cutting machines with adequate machine control is met,
high surface qualities can be achieved.

139
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

3 Tool materials and coatings

3.1 Categorisation of tool materials


In general, the following requirements have to be met by tool materials (active part of the
tool):
V High hardness and resistance to pressure
V High flexional resistance and endurance.
V High wear resistance
V High temperature resistance
Which of the above requirements forms the focal point depends on the machining task
in each case. Tool materials for material-removing processes can be categorised as fol-
lows:

Requirements
Wear resistance, elevated temperature hardness

Ideal tool
e.g. from material
Hard cutting PKD
(high material hardness) CBN
High tool material hardness
and edge strength

Interrupted cutting Oxide Coated cermets Coated


(milling) ceramic ultra-finest grain HM
High transverse rupture resistance Cermets
Coated hard metal
and resistance to temperature Mixed Ultra-finest
changes ceramic Nitride Hard metal based Finest- grain
Continuous cutting on WC grain HM HM
ceramic
(turning) Coated HSS
High heat wear resistance High-speed steel
and thermal diffusivity
Endurance, flexional resistance

Fig. 2.37 Properties of common tool materials

Table 2.16 shows some important characteristic indicators for various tool materials. The
comparison makes clear, for example, that high-speed steels and carbides in relation to
cutting ceramics and superhard tool materials (CBN, PCD) have considerably greater
transverse rupture resistance with lower hardness and resistance to pressure.

140
Basic principles

Properties Tool materials


High- Carbide Cutting Superhard
speed ceramics tool materi-
steel P02–P40 M10–M40 K03–K40 als (CBN,
PCD)
Density 8.0 to 9.0 6.0 to 15.0 3.2 to 4.5 3.12 to 3.5
[g/cm3]
Vickers hardness 700 to 900 1350 to 1350 to 1300 to 1350 to 3500 2)
HV30 1650 1700 1800 2100

Transverse rupture 2500 to 800 to 1350 to 1200 to 400 to 950 500 to 1100
resistance 4000 1900 2100 2200
[MPa]
Resistance to 2800 to 5100 to 6000 to 6200 to 3500 to 7600 3)
pressure 3800 4600 4400 4500 55001)
[Mpa]
E module 260 to 300 440 to 560 540 to 580 580 to 630 300 to 450 680 to 840
[GPa]
Thermal expansion 9 to 12 7.5 to 5.5 5.5 5.0 to 5.5 3.0 to 8.0 –
[10-6K-1]
1) applies to oxide ceramics
2) applies to CBN
3) applies to PCD

Table 2.16 Properties of various tool materials at room temperature

The following section describes the major tool materials and their coatings. More details
on the guide values and special applications can be found in the chapter 'Drilling' to
'Turning' for each production process. The theoretical relationships with regard to cutting
forces, wear, tool lives etc. are shown in section 1.

141
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

3.1.1 High-performance high-speed steels (HSS)


High-performance high-speed steels are widespread, used for twist drills, countersinking
and reaming tools, cutters and saw blades. High-speed steel is also frequently used for
form-turning and firmer chisels. The conditions for this are:
V low cutting speeds
V normally cooling of cutter is essential
V lower wear resistance compared to hard metals
V high heat and transverse rupture resistance
V low cost
A number of preferred qualities are shown in Table 2.17. In general, high-speed steel S 6-
5-2 (1.3343) is referred to as HSS. The designations HSCO or HSS/Co stands for the materi-
al S 6-5-2-5 (1.3243). The higher alloyed high-speed steels are usually referred to as HSS-E.
The following table summarises the alloy elements and features of the individual high-
performance high-speed steels. Quality improvements can be achieved using powder-
metallurgical manufacturing grades (PM steels). Here, the liquid steel is atomised through
nozzles and then pressed into blanks. This creates a very fine-grained structure with very
good mechanical properties, significantly improving the wear properties.

Tool material Use Alloy proportions [%]


C W Mo V Co Cr
HSS General application 0.9 6.5 5.0 2.0 – 4.2
HSS with High heat resistance for higher cutting
approx. 5% Co speeds, 0.9 6.5 5.0 2.0 4.8 4.2
drilling: processing high-strength
(HSS/Co5) materials
HSS with Co Generic term for HSS/Co5 and 0.9 6.5 5.0 2.0 4.8 4.2
or V HSS/V3, 1.2 6.5 5.0 3.0 – 4.2
(HSS/E) especially in the case of tapping
HSS with 8% Co Especially for interrupted cuts, e.g. in 0.9 6.5 5.0 2.0 8.0 4.2
(HSS/Co8) the case of milling work
HSS with 10% Extremely high heat resistance for 1.2 9.3 3.6 3.2 10.0 4.2
Co or 12.5% Co processing stainless and acid resistant 12.5
(HSS/Co10) materials for milling
(HSS/Co12.5)
Powder-metal- Especially for dry cutting and for the
lurgical HSS highest loads when milling and tap- 1.3 6.5 5.0 3.1 8.5 4.2
steel ping
(PM)

Table 2.17 Alloy and performance groups of GARANT high-performance high-speed steels

142
Basic principles

A coating on HSS tools adapted to the machining task leads to a further increase in per-
formance with regard to resilience. Fig. 2.38 contains an example of this.

0.09
Tool
0.08 TiAIN with HSS roughing end mill,
Flank wear VB min (mm)

cooling lubrication D = 12 mm
0.07
TiAIN without
0.06 cooling lubrication Workpiece
0.05 34 CrNiMo 6 (1.6582, 850 N/mm2)
0.04
0.03
Cutting data
vc = 70 m/min
0.02 fz = 0.064 mm
0.01 ap = 18 mm
ae = 3 mm
0
0 2,500 5,000 7,500 10,000 12,500 15,000 17,500 20,000
Mill travel (m) Source: GARANT

Fig. 2.38 Application of different coatings for HSS roughing milling

3.1.2 Carbide (HM or VHM)


In particular, sintered carbide made of a number of different carbides and a binding met-
al play an essential role in material-removing shaping. Hard metals (abbreviated to HM)
are usually categorised according to ISO in line with the three main cutting groups:
V P For processing long-chipping materials such as steel, cast steel, stainless steel
and malleable cast iron,
V M Type for long- and short-chipping materials such as austenitic stainless steel,
heat resistant materials, manganese steels, alloyed cast metal types etc.
V K For processing short-chipping materials such as cast iron, hardened steel as well
as nonferrous materials such as aluminium, bronze, plastics etc.

With coarse grain With fine grain With high bonding With low bonding
ISO = K 20 ISO = K 10 metal proportion metal proportion
ISO = P 40 ISO = P 10

Fig. 2.39 Micro-structures of different carbide types

143
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Conditions:
V considerably longer tool-life in comparison to HSS
V higher wear resistance
V higher possible cutting speeds and feed rates (increased time-cutting volumes)

The hard particles that conventional carbides contain fluctuate depending on the manu-
facturer in a range between 1 and 5 µm. If machining tasks demand sharp cutters with
the highest requirements as regards endurance, the edge and wear resistance of the tool
material, the ultra-grain carbides whose development has recently been intensified are
used. GARANT ultra-grain solid carbide (Universal Carbide) consists of ultra-grain carbides
with a size of approx. 0.3 µm. These ultra-grain hardened metals cover the range of the P
to K types (cf. Fig. 2.39). The area of application for these tool materials lies in cutting an-
nealed and hardened steels, in cast metal cutting, and processing composite-fibre and
nonferrous materials.

GRAIN SIZE / HARDNESS = DIAGRAM


2000
1900
1800 FINE 1 µm

1700 MEDIUM 1-2 µm

1600 GROB 3-4 µm


HARDNESS HV 30

1500
1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
900
800
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
CO CONTENT (% OF WEIGHT)

Fig. 2.40 Properties of various carbides

144
Basic principles

3.1.3 Cermets
Cermets are cutting material containing titanium carbide (TIC, TiCN). They are com-
pounds of ceramic particles in a metallic binder (CERamic-METal).
Properties of cermets worthy of mention are:
V High flank and crater wear resistance
V High chemical stability and elevated temperature hardness
V Low tendency for formation of built-up edges
V Low tendency for oxidation wear

With their low wear characteristic and long tool-life they can produce excellent accura-
cies and surface qualities. They are used at high cutting speeds, low feed rates and even
cutting depths. Ideally, the cutting conditions should be relatively stable for optimised
deployment of cermets, i.e. their main application is in finishing.
The higher endurance of the new types of cermet for milling permit cutting of stainless
and austenitic steels. Compared with the range of uses of coated, wolfram-based car-
bides, however, cermets have a relatively low range. However, they are a good alternative
for certain finishing operations, especially in the case of 'smearing' materials.
A coating increases the surface hardness and thus the resistance to abrasion; it also re-
duces the formation of built-up edges. Cermets can only be coated with PVD (cf. other in-
formation on coatings).
The GARANT cermet consists of ultra-grain carbides with a size of approx. 0.2 to 0.4 µm.
Here, the proportion of the binding agent nickel has been precisely adapted on a per-
centage basis to application as a full cermet cutter or insert. In particular, dry cutting for
finishing is possible.

Nickel / cobalt binder

Unchanged
titanium-based material

Carbon-nitride phase

Fig. 2.41 Structure pattern of a cermet


type

145
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

3.1.4 Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCB or CBN)


Cubical boron nitride (CBN) is used as a polycrystalline cutter in three different forms:
V as a solid indexable insert
V as a coating, sintered onto a hard metal substrate
V as a cutter, soldered onto a hard metal substrate

Fig. 2.42 Micro-structure of cubical boron nitride (CBN)

Properties:
V extreme hardness
V high elevated temperature hardness up to temperatures of 2000°C
V high abrasive wear resistance
V relatively brittle, but stronger and harder than cutting ceramics
V good chemical stability during cutting
The properties of a CBN tool material can be varied by changing the crystal size, the con-
tent and type of the binder. A low CBN content in combination with a ceramic binder cre-
ate better wear resistance and chemical stability. This tool material is especially suitable
for finishing hard steels and cast iron materials.
A higher content of CBN leads to higher endurance. They are used preferably where a
case of coarse cutting is likely to lead to high mechanical cutter stresses and high thermal
stress. They are suitable primarily for processing hard cast metal types and heat resistant
alloys (Fig. 2.43 and Table 2.18).

146
Basic principles

Re
sist ce vit
y
a
De nce t uran cti
d u
ns o p
ity res En cond
ss
sur
e al d ne
rm r
Th
e Ha

CBN content (% vol.) Fig. 2.43


Properties of CBN tool materials

Low CBN content High CBN content


Characteristics CBN content < 60% CBN content 80 to 95%
Properties Low resistance to pressure High fracture toughness
Low thermal conductivity High thermal conductivity
Preferred appli- Finishing: Coarse cutting:
cation V Hardened steel V Hardened steel
V Cast iron V Clear chill casting
V Hard coatings V Hard coatings
(Co, Ni and Fe basis) (Co, Ni and Fe basis)
Finishing:
V Clear chill casting
V Pearlitic cast iron

Table 2.18 Fields of application for various CBN tool materials

The fields of application of CBN include wrought steels, hardened steels and cast materi-
als, heat resistant alloys as well as cobalt-based and iron-based powder metals.
It is recommended to use CBN for processing hard materials above 45 to 65 HRC. If the
materials are too soft, unusually high wear is likely. CBN cutters can also achieve excellent
surface qualities.
GARANT offers the following two types of CBN tool materials:
V CBN 720 Extremely wear-resistant type with high endurance for continuous cutting
V CBN 725 Wear-resistant type with the highest endurance for interrupted cutting

147
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

3.1.5 Polycrystalline diamond (PCD)


The tool material polycrystalline diamond (PCD) is the hardest material. The exceptional
hardness enables it to withstand high abrasive wear. The tool lives for machining with
PCD are up to 100 times higher compared to carbide. Despite the positive effects, PCD al-
so has the following limits to its deployment:
V Temperatures in the cutting zone not higher than 600 °C
V Due to affinity, cannot be used to process ferrous materials
V Not suitable for high-strength workpiece materials
Areas of application are:
V Non-ferrous and non-metallic materials
V Machining that requires high accuracy and high surface quality

Due to its brittleness, PCD requires stable cutting conditions, stiff tools and machine as
well as high cutting speeds. Lubricating coolants are no problem for the tool material. A
typical PCD application is finishing operations.
Fig. 2.44 shows a cost comparison for graphite cutting using various tool materials. The
deployment of PCD tools enables a tool life that is ten times longer compared to a hard
metal tool. Moreover, tools with diamond coating have no imbalance because of the sol-
dered cutters and therefore guarantee increased concentricity of end milling cutters.
This is illustrated by the fact that a conscientious evaluation of the concrete conditions
and other general factors must precede selection of the tool material in order for it to be
cost-effective.

6
Workpiece:
5 Graphite V 14 66
Tool:
4
Processing costs

Carbide finishing
cutter
3 D = 6 mm
Cutting values:
2 vc = 600 m/min
fz = 0.06 mm/Z
1 ae = 1 mm
ap = 5 mm
0
Fig. 2.44 HM PKD HM
Cutting uncoated PCD coated
graphite

148
Basic principles

3.2 Coatings
Coatings have a major influence on the cutting process. Careful selection of the coating
for the tool cutter adapted to the machining task means that the following advantages
can be achieved:
V Extension of tool-life
V Lower cutting forces
V Higher cutting speeds and feed rate speeds
V Improved surface qualities
V Improved dry cutting
V Improved hard cutting up to 65 HRC

3.2.1 Coating processes


Hard-material coatings can be applied both chemically and physically. Process variants
are the
V CVD process (Chemical Vapour Deposition) as well as the
V PVD process (Physical Vapour Deposition).

The CVD process (chemical deposition from


the vapour phase) is used on a large scale
for coating e.g. hard metals. It is especially
suitable for the manufacture of multiple lay-
ers, as the different layer compositions can
be set easily across the vapour phase. They
are applied in different thicknesses, combi-
nations and orders to the surface.

Fig. 2.45 Coating processes

The advantage of the PVD process (physical deposition in a vacuum) compared to the
CVD process lies in the deposition of refractory substances at low temperatures and the
associated gentler treatment of the substrate. Another advantage lies in the lower layer
thickness. This is associated with adherence to a relatively sharp cutting edge (low cut-
ting edge radius), as required particularly in fine and precision cutting. The characteristics
of the coating processes are compared below.

149
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

3.2.2 Layers
Table 2.19 compared various properties of hard-material layers. Selection of the corre-
sponding layer is always to be adapted to the machining task in each case.

Hardness [HV] Thermal conduction Maximum


coefficient application temperature [°C]
[kW/mK]
TiN
2200 0.07 600

TiCN
3000 0.1 450

TiAIN
3300 0.05 800

Diamond
10 000 2.0 600

Table 2.19 Properties of coated special tools

Important properties of the various layers can be taken from the following table. Process-
specific guide values can be found in the chapters 'Drilling' to 'Turning'.

Layer type Properties


TiN Crater and diffusion resistance
TiAlN Elevated temperature hardness, oxidation resistance
TiCN Hardness, endurance
Diamond Hardness, wear resistance

Table 2.20 Outstanding properties of various layers

The requirements of the machining task can be met to an even more comprehensive de-
gree by using multi-layered coatings.

150
Basic principles

3.3 Overview of tool materials


GARANT tool materials include high-performance high-speed steels (HSS and PM) and
various carbides or cermets (coated and uncoated) as well as CBN tool materials for turn-
ing and milling processes.
The following tool materials can be used for turning (cf. Table 2.21 and Fig. 2.21):
GARANT - coated carbide
P05/P10/ Extremely wear-resistant type suitable for continuous cutting of steel and cast iron at the highest cutting
HB 7005 K05/K10 speeds (TiN/Al2O3/TiCN, multi-layered coating).
P10/20/ General deployment for uninterrupted or slightly interrupted cutting (cross hole) of steel at higher cutting
HB 7010 K10/20 speeds; can be used well as a universal type in cast materials. (TiN/Al2O3/TiCN, multi-layered coating).
P30/40 Application in the case of medium to rough cutting of steel at high cutting speeds. Can be used very well for
HB 7035 interrupted cutting due to the highest endurance. Also suitable for stainless steels (VA) (TiN/Al2O3/TiCN, multi-lay-
ered coating).
P10/20/ Special type for stainless steels (VA). Highest wear resistance for continuous cutting (TiN/Al2O3/TiCN, multi-lay-
HB 7120 S(Ti) ered coating with low honed cutting edge).
P30/40/ Special type for stainless steels (VA) and for threading due to low honed cutting edge and high endurance (PVD
HB 7135 S(Ti) TiN multi-layered coating).
HB 7020 P20/30/ Special type for threading (PVD TiAlN multi-layered coating) Premium type for universal deployment.
GARANT - cermet
P10/20 Coated cermet for finishing and finish-turning of steel at medium cutting speeds. Also suitable for slightly inter-
CB 7035 rupted cutting (cross hole).
P10/ Uncoated cermet for finest finishing and finishing of steel and cast metals at the highest cutting speeds.
CU 7033 K10 Only suitable for continuous cutting.
GARANT - uncoated carbide
K10 Especially for aluminium cutting at high cutting speeds due to outstanding wear resistance and highest cutting
HU
N 70AL
(Alu) edge stability.
P25/P35 Universal deployment for medium cutting in steel (low-cost alternative due to very good price/performance
HU 7020 ratio).
GARANT - CBN tool materials
CBN 710 48-67 HRC Extreme wear-resistant type for continuous cutting
CBN 720 48-67 HRC Wear-resistant type with high-endurance
CBN 725 48-67 HRC Wear-resistant type with highest endurance for universal deployment.
GARANT - ceramics
CE 720 K01 - K30 Al2O3 and TiCN mixed ceramic for cast metal cutting
CE 730 48 - 60 HRC Al2O3 and TiCN mixed ceramic for hard cutting
SECO - coated carbides
TP1000/ P05-P25, Productive high wear-resistant type for fine and medium processing of cast metals, steel and alloyed steel at high
TP100 K05-K15 cutting speeds. Ti(C,N)+Al2O3+TiN coating (CVD).
TP2000/ P15-P35, Universal type. First choice for medium coarse cutting of steel, cast metals and stainless steel that is easy to cut.
TP200 K15-K25 Ti(C,N)+Al2O3+TiN coating (CVD).
TP300 P30/40, M20/30, Reliable strong type with wide range of uses, especially in the case of high requirements for cutting edge and
K25/30 endurance. For materials that are difficult to cut, stainless steel as well as cutting interruption. Ti(C,N)+Al2O3+TiN
coating (CVD).
TP400 P30/40, High wear-resistant as regards ductile deformations and splintering. For processing austenitic and ferritic-auste-
M15-35 nitic stainless steel. Ti(C,N)+Al2O3+TiN coating (CVD).
TP40 P30/40, Very strong type for coarse cutting of steel, cast metals and wrought parts as well as high-alloy stainless steel. TiC/
M15-35 Ti(C,N)+TiN coating (CVD).
TX150 K10/20 Stronger than TP100. Complementary type for GGG processing and hardened as well as alloyed, high-
strength steel. Ti(C,N)+Al2O3+TiN coating (CVD).
CP500/ P20-40, M25-40, Very strong fine-grain type for fine and medium processing of stainless steel. Very suitable for cutting interrup-
CP50 K20/30 tion. Alternative for processing aluminium alloys. Ti(C,N)+(Ti,Al)N+TiN coating (PVD).
SECO - uncoated carbides
890 K05/10, S(Ti) Very hard and strong fine-grain type for processing superalloys based on Ni, Co and Fe. Also for hardened steel,
cast metals as well as nonferrous alloys such as Al and Cu.
883 K10/15, S(Ti) Stronger type than 890. Mainly for coarse cutting of heat resisting superalloys.
HX K20/30, N (Alu) Can be used universally for cast materials and nonferrous metals.

Table 2.21 Application possibilities of tool materials for turning

151
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

DIN ISO Hard metal, coated DIN Cermet Cermet DIN Hard metal
513 CVD 513 coated PVD uncoated 513 uncoated
HB 7005

HC P01 HT HW
CU 8033
HB 7010

HB 7120

HC P10 HT HW
CB 7035

HC P20 HT HW
HU 7020
HB 7020

HC P30 HT HW
HB 7135
HB 7035

HC P40 HT HW
HB 7005

CU 8033

HC K01 HT HW
HU 70AL

HC K10 HT HW
HB 7010

HC K20 HT HW

HC K30 HT HW

Fig. 2.46 GARANT Carbide tool grades according to ISO for turning

The carbide tool grades shown in Fig. 2.47 and explained in Table 2.22 can be used for
milling.

DIN ISO GARANT DIN GARANT DIN GARANT GARANT Saco MM


513 Hard metal 513 Cermet 513 Hard HSS-TIN hard metal
coated coated metal coated
PVD uncoated PVD
HB 7705


CU 7725

HC P01 HT HW
HB 7710
HB 7520

HB 7720

HC P10 HT HW
F 30 M
HB 7525

F 40 M

HC P20
 HT HW
F 60 M
HU 7730
HB 7735

HB 7835

HC P30 HT HW
HB 7535

HSS-TiN

HC P40 HT HW
CU 7725

HC M10 HT HW
HB 7520

HB 7525

HB 7735

F 40 M

HC M20 HT HW
HU 7730
HB 7535

HB 7835

F 60 M

HC M30 HT HW
HSS-TiN

HC M40 HT HW
HB 7705

HC K01 HT HW
HU 7710
HB 7510

HB 7710

HC K10 HT HW
F 30 M

HC K20 HT HW
HB 7720

HU 7730

F 40 M

HC K30 HT HW

Fig. 2.47 GARANT carbide tool grades according to ISO for milling

152
Basic principles

GARANT - coated carbide


N (Alu) Special type for aluminium and other nonferrous metals as well as plastics. Finest-grain type, TiAlN/TiN PVD coat-
HB 7510 ing.
P20/30 Universal type for dry cutting and highest cutting speeds. Finest-grain type with complex high wear-resistant
HB 7520 M10/200 TiC/TiN CVD multi-layered coating.
P25 Universal type for wet and dry cutting and high cutting speeds. TiC/TiN multi-layered coating.
HB 7525 M10/20
P30/40 Strong type also for wet cutting and moderate cutting speeds. Ideal in the case of difficult, unstable conditions and
HB 7535 M25-35 S (Ti) for stainless steels. Finest-grain type, TiAlN/TiN PVD multi-layered coating.
P05/K05 High wear-resistant type for hard cutting up to 60 HRC (dry or mist lubrication). Finest-grain type with thick
HB 7705 H>45HRC TiAlN CVD coating.
HB 7710 P10 K10/20 Wear-resistant type for cast metal processing. TiAlN CVD coating.
HB 7720 P20 Wear-resistant type for high-alloy tool steels and nickel alloys for wet and dry cutting (also for cast metal
K20/30 processing). TiAlN CVD coating.
P15-35 Very strong type for wet cutting and especially for dry cutting low-strength materials.
HB 7735 5-25, S(Ti) TiAlN CVD coating.
HB 7835 P30/40 Strong universal type for wet and dry cutting. TiCN multi-layered coating.
M10-30 S(Ti)
GARANT - uncoated carbide
CU 7725 P15/M10 Very strong and high-strength cermet for dry cutting with small cutting depths.

GARANT - uncoated carbide


HU 70AL K10/20 Especially for aluminium, nonferrous metals and plastics. Often with mirror finish.
HU 7020 K10/20 Strong type for low cutting speeds.

GARANT HSS steel


HSS-TiN P30/40 Superstrong HSS steel with TiN coating as problem solver.
M30/40, S(Ti)
SECO - coated carbide
T150M K01.20 Basic choice for milling GG and GGG with and without cooling. Ti(C,N)+Al2O3 coating (CVD).
T250M P10-30 First choice for medium to roughing of steel and stainless steel at medium to high cutting speeds, with and without
M20/30, cooling. Ti(C,N)-TiN/Al2O3 coating (CVD).
K20/30
N (Alu), S(Ti)
T25M P10-40 Strong type for rough grinding steel and stainless steel, with and without cooling. Ti(C,N)-TiC/Ti (C,N)-TiN coating
M20-40, K20/30 (CVD).
N(Alu), S(Ti)
T20M P01-P30 For simple to medium processing of steel and hardened steel as well as stainless steel at high cutting speeds. Excel-
M10/20, K10/20 lent for rough grinding GG and GGG. Ti(C,N)+Al2O3+TiN coating (CVD).
F15M P01-20, M10/20 For simple and medium processing of aluminium, Al alloys and materials that tend to stick. Extremely wear-resistant
K01-20, N(Alu), and sharp cutting edges. (Ti,Al)N+TiN coating (PVD).
S(Ti), H>45HRC
F30M P30/40, M20/30 Base type for Minimaster. Strong type for finishing all materials. For rough grinding hard cast metals, stainless steel
K20/30, N(Alu), and superalloys that are difficult to cut; small feed rates. Sharp cutting edges. (Ti,Al)N+TiN coating (PVD).
S(Ti), H>45HRC
F40M P30/40, M30/40 Type for finishing and pre-finishing steel, stainless steel, cast iron and superalloys. First choice for milling with small
K20/30, N(Alu), feed rates and/or low cutting speeds. Outstanding for milling in the case of vibration risk and with deployment of
S(Ti), H>45HRC coolants. (Ti,Al)N+TiN coating (PVD).
T60M P20-40 Universal type for Minimaster. Good combination of wear resistance and endurance. Ti(C,N)-(Ti,Al)N-TiN coating
(PVD).

SECO - uncoated carbide


HX K25, N(Alu) Fine-grain type for medium processing of cast iron and nonferrous metals. High hardness and endurance.
H25 P25-40 Strong fine-grain type for milling superalloys.
M25-40
K20/30
N(Alu), S(Ti)

Table 2.22 Application possibilities of tool materials for milling

153
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Contents

List of tables – application guide data, drilling 155


GARANT colour-coding system 156
Overview of tools, drilling with fixed cutter 158
Overview of tools, indexable drilling 162

1 Categorisation of drilling processes 164

2 Cutting application variables for drilling 164


2.1 Drilling into solids 165
2.2 Core drilling 165
Forces, torque, power requirement for drilling 166
3
3.1 Cutting force 166
3.2 Torque and power 167
3.3 Other cutting force components for drilling 169
Calculating the cycle time for drilling 170
4
5 Drilling depths and pilot drilling diameter 171
5.1 Drilling depth 171
5.2 Pilot drilling diameter for core drilling 172
6 HSS twist drills 172
6.1 Twist drill types 172
6.2 Types of point cut and grinding errors 174
Solid carbide drills 177
7
8 Indexable drills 178
8.1 Interchangeable crown drills 178
8.2 Indexable insert drills 179
8.2.1 Solid drills with indexable inserts 179
8.2.2 Core drilling with twin head unit with indexable inserts 180
Application examples for GARANT drilling tools 181
9
9.1 Using GARANT FS profiles on HSS drills 181
9.2 Using GARANT VHM high-performance drills 183
9.3 Using GARANT drills with indexable inserts 184
Influences on the drilling result and removing disruptions 186
10
10.1 Influences on the drilling result 186
10.2 Guide for troubleshooting during drilling 187
Application guide data for drills 188
11
154
Drilling

List of tables – application guide data, drilling


Drills Tool material / Coating Tab. Page
no.
Centre drills HSS and HSS/E 3.9 190
NC spotting drills HSS/E 3.10 192

Drilling
HSS/E (coated TiAlN) 3.11 194
Drills HSS and HSS/E 3.12 196
High-perform- HSS/E and HSS/Co8 (coated TiAlN) 3.13 198
ance
Powder steel PM (coated TiAlN) 3.14 200
HSS and HSS/E (coated TiAlN or TiN) 3.15 202
Centre drills Solid carbide 3.16 204
NC spotting drills Solid carbide 3.17 206
Solid carbide (coated with TiAlN) 3.18 208
Microdrills/twist drills stub Solid carbide 3.19 210
Drills Solid carbide (coated with TiAlN) 3.20 212
Carbide tipped 3.21 214
long Solid carbide 3.22 216
Solid carbide (coated with TiAlN) 3.23 218
High-performance drills 3xD Solid carbide (coated with TiAlN) 3.24 220
3/5xD Solid carbide (coated with TiAlN or TiN) 3.25 222
3/5xD Solid carbide (coated with TiAlN) 3.26 224
5xD Solid carbide (coated with TiAlN) 3.27 226
5xD Solid carbide (coated with TiAlN) 3.28 228
Drills, 3 flutes 5xD Solid carbide (coated with TiAlN) 3.29 230
Extremely high-perform- 8xD Solid carbide (coated with TiAlN) 3.30 232
ance drills
12xD Solid carbide (coated with TiAlN) 3.31 234
4-flute drills 3xD Solid carbide (coated with TiAlN) 3.32 236
7xD Solid carbide (coated with TiAlN) 3.33 238
12xD Solid carbide (coated with TiAlN) 3.34 240
Crown drills 3/5xD Solid carbide (types P, M, K) 3.35 242
Seco CL 2 effective cutters
Indexable inserts drills 2xD Indexable inserts (carbide) 3.36 244
Quatron
5xD Indexable insert (carbide) 3.37 246
Duon 2 effective cutters
3xD Indexable inserts (carbide) 3.38 248
Trigon
Core drills with indexable G01 Indexable inserts (carbide) 3.39 250
inserts, double cutter
3.40 258

155
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

GARANT colour-coding system

156
Drilling

157
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Solid drilling program


HSS drills

DIN " 333 NC spotting drills 1899 1897


Ring colour "
Drill type A/R/B N N N N N N N N N FS FS N VA
HSS/ HSS/E HSS/E HSS/E
Tool material HSSE HSS/E HSS/E long HSS/E HSS/E HSS/E long long HSS/E HSS/E HSS/E HSS/E HSS/E
Coating TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiN TiAlN
Point angle 60/120 90 90 90 120 142 142 120 142 118 135 130 130 130
Point geometry special special C C
Size range (é mm) 0.5 ± 10 3 ± 20 3 ± 20 6 ± 12 3 ± 20 3 ± 20 3 ± 20 6 ± 12 6 ± 12 0.15 ±1.45 1 ± 20 1 ± 12 1 ± 20 1 ± 13
11 1000 ±
Product code 11 1540 11 2000 11 2020 11 2100 11 2110 11 2120 11 2140 11 2160 11 2170 11 2300 11 3020 11 3140 11 3230 11 3260
! Material group
ALUM < 10 % Si o · · · · · o · · o · o o ·
ALUM > 10 % Si o o o o o o o
Steel > 500 N/mm2 · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
Steel < 750 N/mm2 · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
Steel < 900 N/mm2 · · · · · · · · · · · · o
Steel < 1100 N/mm2 · · · · · · · · · · · · o
Steel < 1400 N/mm2 · · · · · · · · · ·
Steel > 45 HRC
Stain. steel < 900 N/mm2 · · · · · · · · · · o · ·
Stain. steel > 900 N/mm2 · · · · · · · · · · o o ·
Ti > 850 N/mm2 · · · · · · o o ·
GG (G) · · · · · o ·
CuZn · · · · · · · · · o o
UNI o · · · · · · · · o o o

DIN " 338 M/Strd. 340 1869


Ring colour "
Drill type FS FS FS N W FS FS VA FS FS FS
Tool material HSS/Co8 HSS/E HSS-PM HSS/E HSS HSS HSS HSS/E HSS/E HSS/E HSS HSS/E
Coating TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN
Point angle 135 130 130 130 118 130 130 130 130 130 130 130
Point geometry special special special C A A C C C C C C
Size range (é mm) 3 ± 13 1 ± 13 2 ± 13 5 ± 13 1 ± 16 2.5 ± 10 1 ± 13 1 ± 14 1 ± 12 1 ± 12 3 ± 10.2 3 ± 10.2
Product code 11 4555 11 4600 11 4620 11 4660 11 6000 11 6040 11 6060 11 6061 11 6070 11 6080 11 6240 11 6280
! Material group
ALUM < 10 % Si o o o o · o o o · o
ALUM > 10 % Si o o o o
Steel > 500 N/mm2 · · · · o · o · · ·
Steel < 750 N/mm2 · · · · · · · · · ·
Steel < 900 N/mm2 · · · · · · ·
Steel < 1100 N/mm2 · · · ·
Steel < 1400 N/mm2 ·
Steel > 45 HRC
Stain. steel < 900 N/mm2 · · · ·
Stain. steel > 900 N/mm2 o o o ·
Ti > 850 N/mm2 o o o o o
GG (G) · · o o · · ·
CuZn ·
UNI · o · ·
· = Particularly suitable; o = Partially suitable

158
Drilling

1897 338

HVA VA N N N N N W N N FS H TiVA HVA


Precision
HSS/PM HSS/E HSS roll roll HSS HSS HSS HSS HSS HSS/E HSS/E HSS/E HSS/E HSS-Co8
TiAlN TiAlN TiN TiAlN TiAlN
130 120 118 118 118 118 118 130 118 130 130 135 135 135
A/C ± A C A C C special C C C
2 ± 12 3 ± 13 1 ± 13 3 ± 13 0.2 ± 20 1 ± 16 0.2 ± 20 0.9 ± 13 1 ± 16 1 ± 13 1 ± 13 2 ± 12 1 ± 13 1 ± 13
11 3280 11 3310 11 4000 11 4020 11 4050 11 4100 11 4150 11 4200 11 4350 11 4400 11 4450 11 4470 11 4500 11 4550

o o o o · o ·
o o
· · · · · · · · · ·
· · · · · · · · · · o
· · · o · · · · · o ·
· · o o o o o ·
· · o o o o · ·
· · · · o
· · o · ·
· · o o · · o
· o o o o · · · ·
· · o o o
o o o o o

345 343 222 341 1870

N N NW VA H FS FS VA N N N FS N
HSS HSS HSS HSS/E HSS/Co8 HSS/E HSS/E HSS/E HSS HSS HSS HSS HSS
TiAlN
118Ê 118Ê 118Ê 130Ê 130Ê 130Ê 130Ê 130Ê 120Ê 118 130Ê 118
A A C C C C C A A A
13 ± 40 5 ± 75 12 ± 32 10 ± 35 7.5 ± 30 10 ± 22 10 ± 30 10 ± 30 7.8 ± 40 29.7 ± 62 10 ± 50 8 ± 30 8 ± 30
11 6320 11 6340 11 6350 11 6360 11 6380 11 6420 11 6440 11 6540 11 6620 11 6640 11 6700 11 6720 11 6760

o o · o o o
o
· · · · · · · · · · ·
· · · · · · · · · · ·
o · · · · · · · ·
· · · o o
· o o

o · o · o o
o ·
· · o ·
o · · · o o · ·
·
o o o o o
· = Particularly suitable; o = Partially suitable

159
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Carbide drills

DIN " 333 NC spot. NC spot. NC spot. NC spot. 1899 6539 8037 338
Ring colour "
Drill type Centre drill N N N N N N N N N N
Length
Shank type
Through-coolant
Tool material VHM VHM VHM VHM VHM VHM VHM VHM HM VHM VHM
Coating TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN
Point angle 60 90 90 142 142 130 118 118 118 118 118
Point geometry C C C C
Size range (é mm) 0.5 ± 6.3 2 ± 20 2 ± 20 2 ± 20 2 ± 20 0.2 ± 1.4 0.5 ±13 0.5 ± 13 3 ± 16 1 ± 13 1 ± 13
Product code 12 1000 12 1020 12 1040 12 1070 12 1110 12 1200 12 2100 12 2150 12 2200 12 2250 12 2300
! Material group
ALUM < 10 % Si · · · · · · · · · ·
ALUM > 10 % Si o o · o · o o · o ·
Steel > 500 N/mm2 · · · · · · · · · · ·
Steel < 750 N/mm2 · · · · · · · · · · ·
Steel < 900 N/mm2 · · · · · · · · · · ·
Steel < 1100 N/mm2 · · · · · · · · · · ·
Steel < 1400 N/mm2 · · · · · · · · · · ·
Steel > 45 HRC
Stainless steel < 900 N/mm2 · · · · · · o · o ·
Stainless steel > 900 N/mm 2
· · · · · · o · o ·
Ti > 850 N/mm2 · · · · · · · · · ·
GG (G) · · · · · · · · · · ·
CuZn · · · · · · · · · · ·
UNI · · · · · · · · · ·

DIN " 6537 long


Ring colour "
Drill type NH NH GG/W GG/W GG/W N N N N
Length 5XD 5XD 5XD 5XD 5XD 5XD 8XD 8XD 12XD 12XD
Shank type HA HB HA HA HA HB HA HB HA HB
Through-coolant yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
Tool material VHM VHM VHM VHM VHM VHM VHM VHM VHM VHM
Coating TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN
Point angle 140 140 140 130 130 130 140 140 140 140
Point geometry special special special special special special special special special spezial
Size range (é mm) 3 ± 20 3 ± 20 4 ± 12 3 ± 16 3 ± 16 3 ± 16 3 ± 20 3 ± 20 4 ± 20 4 ± 18
Product code 12 2760 12 2770 12 2790 12 2791 12 2800 12 2820 12 3100 12 3121 12 3300 12 3321
! Material group
ALUM < 10 % Si · · · o o o o
ALUM > 10 % Si · · · o o o o
Steel > 500 N/mm2 o o · o o o o
Steel < 750 N/mm2 · · · · · · ·
Steel < 900 N/mm2 · · · · · · ·
Steel < 1100 N/mm2 · · o · · · ·
Steel < 1400 N/mm2 · · · · · ·
Steel > 45 HRC · ·
Stainless steel < 900 N/mm2 o o o o o o o
Stainless steel > 900 N/mm 2 o o o o o o o
Ti > 850 N/mm2 o o o o o o
GG (G) · · · · · · · · ·
CuZn · · ·
UNI o o o o o o o
· = Particularly suitable; o = Partially suitable

160
Drilling

6537 stub 6537 long

H VA VA VA HVA NH NH NH NH FS FS VA VA VA
3XD 3XD 3XD 3XD 3XD 3XD 3XD 3XD 3XD 3XD 5XD 5XD 5XD 5XD 5XD
HA HA HA HA HB HA HA HB HA HB HA HB HA HA HB
yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
VHM VHM VHM VHM VHM VHM VHM VHM VHM VHM VHM VHM VHM VHM VHM
TiAlN TiN TiN TiAlN TiAlN TiCN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiN TiAlN TiAlN
140 140 140 140 140 130 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140
special special special special special special special special special special special special special special special
3 ± 16 3 ± 20 3 ± 20 3 ± 20 4 ± 16 4 ± 20 2 ± 20 3 ± 20 3 ± 20 3 ± 20 2 ± 20 4.1 ± 20 3 ± 20 3 ± 20 3 ± 20
12 2305 12 2310 12 2340 12 2380 12 2410 12 2431 12 2440 12 2450 12 2500 12 2510 12 2540 12 2561 12 2630 12 2650 12 2660

· ·
· ·
· · · · o o o o · · · · ·
· · · · · · · · · · · · ·
· · · · · · · · · · · · ·
o o o o · · · · · · o o o
· o o o o · · · · · · o o o
· · · · ·
o · · · · o o o o · · · · ·
o · · · · o o o o · · · · ·
· · · · o o o o · · · · ·
· o o o o · · · · o o o o o
o o
o o o o · ·

6539 » 338 Manufacturer standard

GG /AL GG /AL GG /AL AL HM N N N N


3XD 7XD 12XD special blind hole blind hole through hole through hole
HA HA HA HA MK HA HA HA HA
yes yes yes yes
VHM VHM VHM PKD HM VHM VHM VHM VHM
TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN TiAlN
120 120 120 120 118 140 140 140 140
special special special special special special
3 ± 20 3 ± 20 4 ± 20 4 ± 20 10 ± 20 M3 ± M12 M3 ± M12 M3 ± M12 M3 ± M12
12 3620 12 3640 12 3660 12 3900 12 4500 12 5050 12 5100 12 5120 12 5200

· · · · o · o ·
· · · · o o o
· · · ·
· · · ·
· · · · ·
· · · · ·
· · · ·
· · · ·
· · · ·
· · · ·
· · · · · o · o ·
· · · · ·
· · · ·
· = Particularly suitable; o = Partially suitable

161
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Overview of tools, indexable drilling

Indexable drills

GrownLoc
interchangeable crown drills
∅ from 12 mm to 20 mm

Tool materials:
P M K N S H Carbide grades, Cermet,
PCD and CBN

KUB Quatron
1 14 mm–44 mm
(2 × D, 3 × D)

KUB Duon
1 17.3 mm – 36.2 mm
(5 × D)

KUB Trigon
1 14 mm–44 mm
(3 × D)

162
Drilling

Boring

Twin boring head


G01/G03
1 24 – 91 mm

Tool holders and


indexable inserts for turning,
spare parts

Boring head
B301 with precision turning
M302 cartridge
1 de 29,5 mm à 199 mm

Boring head
M03 Speed
1 24,8 mm – 103 mm

Electronic boring head


M040 set (Ø 8 – 17 mm)

Mechanical boring head set


1 8 – 17 mm

Boring bars and


indexable inserts for boring

Note: see also chapter 'Turning'

163
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

1 Categorisation of drilling processes

According to DIN 8589, Part 2. drilling processes are categorised into:


V Solid drilling
V Core drilling
V Tapping
V Countersinking
V Reaming
V etc.

2 Application variables for drilling

The cutting cross section A is the major influence on the cutting force (cf. section 3).
Fig. 3.1 shows the relationship between the feed rate proportion per cutter fz and the cut-
ting depth ap or the possible calculation from the cutting thickness h and cutting
width b. The following relationships apply:

f f feed rate [mm/rev.] (Equation 3.1)


fz = ---
Z Z number of teeth

σ κr setting angle [°] (Equation 3.2)


κr = ---
2 σ point angle of the drill [°]

ap b cutting width [mm] (Equation 3.3)


b = ------------ ap cutting depth [mm]
sin κr

h cutting thickness [mm] (Equation 3.4)


h = fz ⋅ sinκr
fz tooth feed rate [mm]

A = fz ⋅ ap = b ⋅ h A cutting cross section [mm2] (Equation 3.5)

164
Drilling

2.1 Solid drilling


For a twist drill with 2 teeth (z = 2), the following
applies:

d fz = --f
ap = ---
2 2

This means the cutting cross section A for drilling


into solids using the above relationships as well
as Equation 3.5 are calculated as follows:
Fig. 3.1
A=d ⋅ -f
------ (Equation 3.6) Cutting cross section for
4 drilling into solids with twist drills

In the case of drills with indexable inserts, z = 1 is


Section
likely, as a number of indexable inserts only share outer ind.ins.
the cutting width b, but implement the full feed rate.
The following applies:
bi cutting width inner ind.ins.
b = bi + ba ba cutting width outer ind.ins.

Section
inner ind.ins.
The setting angle κ for indexable insert drills can be
different for each insert, which influences the cut- Fig. 3.2
ting thickness h. Cutting distribution on indexable drills

2.2 Core drilling


Fig. 3.3 shows the cutting cross section A for core
drilling. The following relationships apply here:

From the cutting depth ap = (--------------


D – d )-
2
follows for cutting cross section A for
core drilling:

(D – d) ⋅ f
A = --------------------z- (Equation 3.7) Fig. 3.3
2
Cutting cross section
for core drilling with a twist drill

165
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

3 Forces, torque, power requirement for drilling

3.1 Cutting force


For the calculation of the cutting force on drilling, a
good approximation is to use the equation for turning
based on Kienzle (cf. Equation 2.5, chapter 'Basic princi-
ples', section 1.4). For drilling, the introduction of a vari-
ance factor fB is favourable to take account of the influ-
ences on the cutting force (e.g. cutter shape, cutting
speed, among other things) that are different for drill-
ing and for turning. This means that the following rela-
tionships apply (Table 3.1):

Fig. 3.4
Cutting force component of a
twist drill

Drilling into solids Core drilling


Variance factor fB
fB = 1 fB = 0, 95

Cutting power per (Equation 3.8) (Equation 3.9)


cutter Fcz
D (D – d)
Fcz = --- ⋅ fz ⋅ kc ⋅ fB Fcz = --------------- ⋅ fz ⋅ kc ⋅ fB
2 2

Fcz Cutting force per cutter [N]


D Bore hole diameter, outer [mm]
d Bore hole diameter, inner [mm]
fz Tooth feed rate [mm/Z]
kc Specific cutting force [N/mm2] (dependent on material, cf. chapter 1)
fB Variance factor for drilling

Table 3.1 Cutting force calculation for drilling

166
Drilling

3.2 Torque and power


In the case of drilling, the power calculation is generally via the torque (Table 3.2).

Drilling into solids Core drilling


Application of H=D/4 H = (D + d) / 4
force

Torque
D
Fcz ⋅ Z ⋅ --- (Equation Fcz ⋅ Z ⋅ (D + d) (Equation
4 3.10) Mb = -----------------------------
- 3.12)
Mb = ------------------ 4000
1000

For Z = 2: For Z = 2:

Fcz ⋅ D Fcz ⋅ (D + d )
Md = -----------
- (Equation 3.11) Md = -----------------------
- (Equation 3.13)
2000 2000

9554 ⋅ P
Md = ------------------c-
n (Equation 3.14)

Power
P Md ⋅ n
Pa = ---c- (Equation 2.15) Pc = -----------
- (Equation 3.15)
η 9554

Fcz ⋅ νc Fcz ⋅ νc ⋅ ⎛1 + --- d⎞


Pc = -------------- (Equation 3.16) ⎝ D⎠ (Equation
60000 Pc = --------------------------------- 3.17)
60000
Fc Cutting force [N] (Fc = Fcz *Z) Md Torque [Nm]
Fcz Cutting force per cutter[N] Pc Cutting power [kW]
H Lever arm of force [mm] Pa Driving power [kW]
Z Number of teeth n Speed [rpm]
D Bore hole diameter, outer [mm] vc Cutting speed [m/min]
d Bore hole diameter, inner [mm] η Efficiency

Table 3.2 Torque and power calculation for drilling

167
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Practical example:

GARANT carbide high-performance drills

Task:
A solid carbide drill is to be used to drill holes with a diameter of 20 mm in a solid made of St37.
The target is the required cutting power and required torque.
Procedure:
1. Selection of tool-dependent and material-dependent variables:
Tool Main catalogue Point angle σ = 140°
Number of cutters Z=2
Material St 37 Chapter 'Materials', Material group 1.0 kc1.1 = 1780 N/mm2
section 1 m = 0.17
2. Selection of the working parameters:
Table 3.26 Material group 1.0 D = 19...20 mm
vc = 80 m/min
n = 1306 rpm
f = 0.45 mm/rev.
3. Calculation of cutting power, torque and power
D kc1.1 (Equa- with fB = 1 and h = fz * sin (σ/2) (section 3.1)
FCZ = --- ⋅ fz ⋅ --------
- ⋅ fB
2 h
m tion 3.8)

1780
FCZ = 10 ⋅ 0, 225 ⋅ ----------------------------------------
- ⋅ 1 = 5123,24 N
(0, 25 ⋅ sin 70° )0,17

Fcz ⋅ D (Equation 3.11) 5123, 2 ⋅ 20


Md = -----------
- Md = ------------------------- = 51,23 Nm
2000 2000

Fcz ⋅ vc (Equation 3.16) 5123, 2 ⋅ 80189


Pc = -------------- PC = ---------------------------------- = 6,83 kW or
60000 60000

Md ⋅ n
Pc = -----------
- (Equation 3.15) 51, 2 ⋅ 1306 1)
9554 PC = ------------------------- = 7, 0 kW
9554
1) Slight deviations result from the specified diameter range for the speed in Table 3.26.

168
Drilling

3.3 Other cutting force components for drilling


The passive force Fp is directly radially outwards (cf. Fig. 3.4). It is determined by the chisel
point, major cutting edge, cutter corner and heel of the drill. In the normal case of a sym-
metrically cutting drill with a number of cutters, all of the passive forces cancel one
another out and influence neither the tool nor the workpiece.
An exception is in the case of drills with indexable inserts. Their cutter is divided across a
number of asymmetrically arranged inserts, which also often have different setting
angles. Theoretical calculation methods are still very unreliable. The passive force is to be
determined here by measurement.
Other exceptions can be found in the case of asymmetrically cut twist drills and spot-fac-
ing uneven surfaces. The errors that occur here are described later in this chapter.
Feed forces Ff in the axial direction of the drill (cf. Fig. 3.4) occur at the major and minor
cutting edges and are determined especially by the material properties, the cutting cross
section, the effective cutting angle and the sharpness of the cutting edges. Theoretical
calculations of the feed force are relatively imprecise. Measurements have shown the fol-
lowing relationships:

Drills with indexable inserts: Ff ≈ 0, 6 ⋅ FC (steel processing),


Ff ≈ 0, 8 ⋅ FC (cast metal processing) as well as
Twist drills Ff ≈ FC

This includes a considerable proportion of force through the chisel point (up to 60% pos-
sible). This chisel point proportion can be reduced by means of special grinding. Pilot
drilling to the core diameter creates the possibility to remove the unfavourable chisel
point influence completely and thus to lower the feed force Ff by approximately 50%.

169
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

4 Calculating the cycle time for drilling

The general relationships for determining the essential cycle time th are shown for drilling
into solids and core drilling in Fig. 3.5. The following applies in general for determining
the essential cycle time:
th Essential cycle time [min]
L L Total drill travel [mm] (Equation 3.18)
th = -------
f⋅n f Feed rate [mm/rev.]
n Speed [rpm]

Drilling into solids Core drilling

Fig. 3.5 Starting and overrun travel for drilling

For the total drill travel L, the following then applies:


l Workpiece thickness [mm]
L = l + la + lu la Starting travel [mm] (Equation 3.19)
lu Overrun travel [mm]

For the overrun travel lu, the following is generally set for drilling:

Through hole: Iu = 2 mm
Drilling to the base: Iu = 0 mm

The starting travel la for drilling is determined from:

D -
Ia = 1 + --------------------- (Equation 3.20)
σ
2 ⋅ tan ⎛ ---⎞
⎝ 2⎠

170
Drilling

Taking account of the conditions already mentioned, the total drill travel L can be calcu-
lated as follows:
Through hole: D -
L = l + 3 + ---------------------
σ
2 ⋅ tan ⎛ ---⎞ (Equation 3.21)
⎝ 2⎠

Drilling to the base: D


L = l + 1 + ----------------------
σ
2 ⋅ tan ⎛ ---⎞ (Equation 3.22)
⎝ 2⎠

5 Drilling depths and pilot drilling diameter

5.1 Drilling depth


For drilling, the type of chips created and their transport from the bore hole are of deci-
sive significance. The chip shape that is created depends essentially on the material to be
cut. In the case of cast iron, for example, fragmental helical chips or fragmental spiral
chips are created. When steel is drilled, on the other hand, long helical chips or ribbon
chips can occur (cf. chapter 'Basic principles', section 1.1.3). Due to the difficulty of chip
transport out of the bore hole, the possible bore hole depth is limited. In the case of
materials that are easy to cut and have less chip accumulation, the drilling depth can be
enlarged by 40% in comparison with materials that are difficult to cut. Maximum drilling
depths can be estimated based on the following formula:

BTmax Max. drilling depth [mm] (Equation 3.23)


BTmax = l3 – [ Dwz ⋅ (1, 0…1, 4 )] l3 Length of chip breaker at the drill
DWZ drill diameter [mm]
The following apply:

Material specification Material groups Max. drilling depth


(according to chapter 'Materials', BTmax
section 1)
Easy to cut 1.0/ 1.1/ 2.0/ 3.0/ 13.0/ 13.1/ 15.9/ 15.1/
15.2/ 17.0/ 17.1/ 18.0/21.0 l3 – 1, 0 ⋅ Dwz
Normal cutting 2.1/ 3.1/ 3.2/ 4.0/ 4.1/ 5.0/ 6.0/ 6.1/ 8.0/ 8.1/
8.2/ 9.0/ 13.0/ 15.3/ 17.3/ 19.0/ 19.1/ 19.2/ l3 – 1, 2 ⋅ Dwz
19.3/ 19.4/ 19.5/ 19.6/ 20.0/
Difficult to cut 7.0/ 7.1/ 10.0/ 10.1/ 10.2/ 11.0/ 11.1/ 12.0/
13.1/ 13.2/ 13.3/ 14.0/ 16.0/ 16.1/21.1 l3 – 1, 4 ⋅ Dwz

Table 3.3 Maximum drilling depths

171
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

5.2 Pilot drilling diameter for core drilling


For core drilling with twist drills or countersinks, Table 3.4 can be used to estimate the
dimension of the smallest pilot drilling diameter as follows:

Core drilling with Smallest pilot drilling diameter


Twist drills 0,3 · D
Core drills 0,7 · D
Core drills with hard metal cutters 0,8 · D

Table 3.4 Smallest pilot drilling diameter

6 HSS twist drills

Fig. 3.6 GARANT twist drill

6.1 Twist drill types


The distinguishing feature for twist drill types is the tool side rake γf, which is identical to
the helix angle δ with adequate accuracy. Depending on the chip breaking properties of
the material, this is varied and allocated to the main drill groups N (normal materials), H
(hard materials) and W (soft materials) (cf. Table 3.5). Furthermore, various subgroups, as
described in more detail in section 9 of this chapter, can be defined. For example, type FS
(parabolic flutes), type UNI (universal deployment), type FW (parabolic soft materials) and
type VA (deployment for VA steels).

172
Drilling

Type Tool side Point Grooves Application


rake angle
(helix σ
angle)
γx
N 19° to 40° 118° Spacious Structural and
heat treatable
steel up to
800 N/mm2. cast
materials, brass
N 18° to 30° 130° to Spacious Alloyed steel up
140° to 1400 N/mm2.
high-alloy steels,
aluminium
H 10° to 19° 118° Very wide Brass,
magnesium alloy,
pressed materials
Type N Type H Type W W 27° to 45° 130° Wide Aluminium and
Al alloys, copper,
gunmetal,
bronze, depth
bore diameter in
pressed materials

Table 3.5 Main twist drill types for various materials

In order to increase the stability without enlarging the chisel point at the tip to an exces-
sive degree, drills of type N are usually manufactured with a core rise, i.e. the core has the
target dimension at the drill tip and becomes thicker towards the shaft (Fig. 3.6).

Fig. 3.7 Core rise in the case of twist drills

173
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Twist drills are ground to taper from the tip towards the shaft to keep the friction of the
land at the wall of the hole as low as possible. The value of this diameter reduction is
specified according to DIN 1414 with 0.02 to 0.08 mm on 100 mm flute length.

d1 – d = 0.02 to 0.08 mm

Fig. 3.8 Shaft tapering in the case of twist drills

6.2 Types of point cut and grinding errors


The point cut has great significance for the dimensional accuracy of the bore hole, but
above all for the tool life or tool life travel of the drilling tool.

Point cut Application Schematic diagram


shape
Shape A Application:
Cut chisel V Drill with strong core, as well as for drilling into
point solids with large drill diameters
V For cast iron materials and steels up to
approx. 1000 N/mm2
Advantages:
V Good centring on spot-facing
V Reduction in feed force
Shape B Application:
Cut chisel V For drilling steels with high strength, for hard
point with cor- spring steels and manganese steels (over 10% Mn)
rected major V With point angle of 118° for strong materials (chip
cutting edge breaking)
V With point angle of 130° for high-strength mate-
rials over 1000N/mm2
Advantages:
V Insensitive to impacts
V No jamming in the case of thin workpieces

Table 3.6 Types of point cut

174
Drilling

Table 3.6 (continued) Types of point cut

Point cut Application Schematic diagram


shape
Shape C Application:
Cross-grind- V For drills with very strong core as well as for
ing taper shank long series drills
V For especially strong and hard materials as well as
for wrought workpieces
Advantages:
V Good centring
V Low feed force
Shape D Application:
Point cut for V For drilling cast iron, malleable cast iron and
cast iron wrought items
V For workpieces with uneven first cut surface
(pipes, shafts)
Advantages:
V Low load on cutting corners due to extended
major cutting edges
V Insensitive to impacts
V Good heat dissipation
Shape E Application:
Brad point V Drilling in soft materials such as copper and for
thin sheet metals
V Drilling blind holes with even base
V Advantages:
V Good centring, no jamming
V Low burr formation when drilling through thin
sheet metals and pipes

Fig. 3.9 Chisel point of a PCD drill

175
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Alongside the requirement to adhere to suitable tool angles and low roughness of the
cutting edge, the symmetrical point cut is very important for an even load on the individ-
ual cutters. Table 3.7 provides an overview of possible symmetry errors and their effects.

Symmetry error Characteristics Consequences


Point angle asymmetric Oversized bore hole
Major cutting edges of Stepped base
unequal length Major cutting edges
Tip in the centre subjected to uneven wear

Point angle symmetrical Oversized bore hole


Major cutting edges of Major cutting edges
unequal length subjected to uneven wear
Tip centre shifted

Point angle asymmetric Oversized bore hole


Major cutting edges of Stepped base
unequal length Major cutting edges
Tip centre shifted subjected to uneven wear

Table 3.7 Grinding errors and their consequences

176
Drilling

7 Solid carbide drills

Twist drills made of solid carbide are the logical consequence from the demands of
industry for tools with higher performance and/or better wear resistance. For this reason,
the deployment of these tools on NC machining centres is gaining in significance.
The advantages of carbide drills compared to HSS twist drills lie in the shorter processing
times and longer tool life travels. This becomes particularly clear in the case of processing
strongly abrasive workpiece materials such as cast iron, aluminium alloys with a high pro-
portion of silicon, plastics with filler, graphite and glass-fibre reinforced materials. The
same applies to all types of steel that are difficult to cut.
For the most part, the dimensions have been adopted from HSS twist drills. This means
that similar variants are possible with regard to the shape and cutter geometry. The
boundaries are set by the endurance of the tool material, especially with regard to the
diameter-length ratio.

Fig. 3.10 GARANT high-performance drill

The GARANT extremely high-performance drill is a newly developed carbide tool for drill-
ing into solids. As standard, it is offered for bore hole diameters of 3 to 20 mm and is
equally suitable for drilling long-chipping and short-chipping ferrous materials. Its superi-
ority becomes particularly clear when soft and strong types of steel that create problems
during cutting are involved.
The benefits are:
V high stiffness
V high positioning accuracy
V good centring and guide properties
V up to 10 times higher feed rate speeds compared to the guide values for HSS twist drills
(cf. guide value tables at section 11 of this chapter)
V short chips and good chip conveyance, even in the case of soft and strong types of
steel
V low reconditioning costs through regrinding and recoating

177
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

8 Drills with removable crown

8.1 Interchangeable crown drills


The interchangeable crown drill (Seco Crown-
Loc) consists of a drill body and interchangeable
hard metal crowns for bore holes up to 20 mm
diameter and drilling depths up to 5xD.
As an alternative to solid carbide and soldered
drills, this drills has the following advantages:
V Enormous cost and time saving through
constant precision, long tool lives, short re-
equipping times (reduced equipping costs),
no regrinding costs
V Self-centring point cut Fig. 3.11 Crown drill in use
V Generously dimensioned internal cooling for
reliable chip conveyance
V Exact positioning and stable clamping of the crown by means of patented interlacing

An entry angle of max. 8° is recommended for good positioning. If the drill is to enter the
material at an angle, the feed rate must always be reduced by 30 to 50%. The same
applies to a drill exit angle greater than 8°. Here, a max. exit angle of 30° should not be
exceeded.
Plate stacks can also be drilled with a drill of this type. However, a requirement is that the
fixing is very stable and there are no gaps between the plates, as these prevent chip
removal and can lead to the drill breaking.

178
Drilling

8.2 Indexable insert drills

8.2.1 Solid drills with indexable inserts


It is important for the best possible result when using
drills equipped with indexable inserts to know the
geometry being applied and thus its performance
characteristics.
Coarse cutting, for example, requires more robust
inserts (ISO basic shape S) than the production of
high-quality bore holes (ISO basic shape W). The spe-
cific application of the insert, for example in the case of
the solid drill with indexable inserts KUB (cf. main cata-
logue) achieves clean centring and prevents scoring
Fig. 3.12 Solid drill with indexable on retraction. As a rule, the bore hole can be created
inserts in use with a dimensional accuracy of ± 0.1 mm in the case of
KUB Trigon and ± 0.2 mm in the case of KUB Quatron.
With the KUB Duon drill concept, the principle of interchangeable cutters on dual-cutter
tools is implemented (2 effective cutters). Drilling depths of up to 5xD can be achieved
and a base body using the corresponding insert enables the production of several bore
hole diameters.
The major advantages of drills with indexable inserts lie in the constant geometry of the
drill tip, the unchanged tool length as well as in simple and economic adaptation of the
tool material to each material to be cut. Furthermore, work processes such as regrinding
and recoating the cutters can be eliminated.
A fundamental difference between most solid drills with indexable inserts (e.g. KUB Qua-
tron and KUB Trion) and twist drills lies in how the cutting cross section is viewed, as
some drills with indexable inserts are to be regarded as single-cutter drills (z = 1. see also
section 2.1). Possible feed rates f are therefore slightly smaller than in the case of compa-
rable dual-cutter twist drills. However, the missing chisel point enables significantly
higher cutting speeds, which means that the feed rate speeds that can be achieved with
drills with indexable inserts are at a similar twist drill level.
The asymmetric arrangement of the cutters on the drill with indexable inserts results in
very different cutting conditions at the inner and outer cutters. A considerably greater
volume is cut using the outer cutter at a mean speed that is also higher. The different load
of the individual cutters must therefore be balanced out by the selection of suitable
inserts.

179
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

8.2.2 Core drilling with twin head unit with indexable inserts
Alongside the deployment of single-cutter boring bars (cf. chapter 'Turning'), double cut-
ters can also be used for core drilling (Fig. 3.13).

Fig. 3.13 Double cutter G01

In the case of the twin head G01. the base body with the two equally large tool grippers
achieve a compact tool design. In the case of deep reboring operations, the spiral
grooves increase chip quality.
The radial adjustable tool cartridges enable conversion of the boring tool into a stepping
tool for greater cutting depths. Axial adjustable inserts fit on the same base body and
serve to evenly spread the cutting load to both cutters. In the case of a combination of
the radial and axial adjustment (combined rough grinding/combined finishing), radial
and axial shifting of the cutters achieves a spread of the entire cut width. This is intended
to better distribute the cutting forces and thus ensure balanced cutting properties (cf. Fig.
3.14).
In the case of rough boring, the cut width is dou-
bled (only apply simple feed rate f = fz). In the case
of finishing, the cut width is divided so that inter-
mediate processing can be eliminated in some
cases.
d2
d1

Fig. 3.14
Cut distribution by means of axial and radial cutting offset

A fine adjustment can be made with an adjustment accuracy of ± 0.02 mm in the diame-
ter by means of an ABS eccentric adjustment facility. In the case of greater diameters, the
fine adjustment spindle built into the base body of the carrier tool is used to correct the
dimension.

180
Drilling

9 Application examples for GARANT drilling tools

9.1 Using GARANT FS profiles on HSS drills


FS drills have a special cross section profile, large grooves (pecking only required after
approx. 15 x D) and a large core (cf. Fig. 3.15).

Drill Type N Drill Type N Drill Type N

FS drill FS drill FS drill

FS profile 1 FS profile 2 FS profile 3

Fig. 3.15 GARANT FS profiles for drills

Example of application:
FS-Spibo profile 1:
Can be used for soft long-chipping materials up to 500 N/mm2 in the case of bores of above-aver-
age depth.
Usable parameters:
Material: Aluminium, long-chipping (material group 17.0. chapter 'Materials',
section 1)
Bore hole diameter: 5.0 mm
Bore hole depth: 130 mm (26 x D)
Tool: FS drills
Cutting Cutting speed: vc = 80 m/min
parameters: Speed: n = 5000 rpm
Feed rate: f = 0.1 mm/rev.
Chip removal after 60/100/130 mm

181
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Example of application:
FS-Spibo profile 2:
Can be used for cutting free cutting steels and non-ferrous metals.
Usable parameters:
Material: 9SMnPb28 K (material group 2.0. chapter 'Materials', section 1)
Bore hole diameter: 6.2 mm
Bore hole depth: 13 mm
Tool: FS drills
Cutting Cutting speed: vc = 47 m/min
parameters: Speed: n = 2400 rpm
Feed rate: f = 0.2 mm/rev.
Chip removal after 13 mm

Example of application:
FS-Spibo profile 3:
For cutting cast iron and steels up to 1000 N/mm2.
Usable parameters:
Material: C 45 (material group 3.1. chapter 'Materials', section 1)
Bore hole diameter: 12.5 mm
Bore hole depth: 210 mm
Tool: FS drills
Cutting Cutting speed: vc = 20 m/min
parameters: Speed: n = 500 rpm
Feed rate: f = 0.1 mm/rev.
Chip removal after 100/170/210 mm

182
Drilling

9.2 Using GARANT carbide high-performance drills


The use of carbide high-performance drills (cf. Fig. 3.16) requires both high concentricity
of the machine and clamping tools, but also high performance machine technology to
achieve high feed rate values.

Fig. 3.16
GARANT carbide high-
performance drill

Example of application:
drilling through holes:
Material: GG 25 (material group 15.1. chapter 'Materials', section 1)
C 45 (material group 8.0. chapter 'Materials', section 1)
Bore hole diameter: 10.0 mm
Bore hole depth: 110 mm (11 x D)
Tool: Carbide high-performance drill
For drilling up to 12xD in cast iron, spheroidal
graphite iron, malleable cast iron, short-chipping
as well as corrosion and acid resistant steels

Cutting data:
GG 25 C 45
Cutting speed vc = 50 m/min vc = 40 m/min
Speed n = 1600 rpm n = 1200 rpm
Feed rate f = 0.2 mm/rev. f = 0.2 mm/rev.
Feed rate speed vf = 320 mm/min vf = 240 mm/min

183
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

9.3 Using GARANT drills with indexable inserts

Example of application:
drilling a flange with indexable inserts drill, KUB Quatron:
Sturdy short-hole drill for difficult drilling conditions such as slanted pilot drilling, rolling skin,
slants in cast materials, interrupted cutting, packages as well as bore holes with tolerance of
± 0.2 mm and drilling depths up to 2xD (3xD)

Usable parameters:
Workpiece: Flange
Bore hole diameter: 18.0 mm
Bore hole depth: 2xD
Material: X6CrNiMoTi 17 12 2 (1.4571)
(material group 13.2. chapter 'Materials’, section 1)
Tool: KUB Quatron

Cutting data:
Cutting speed vc = 170 m/min
Speed n = 3000 rpm
Feed rate f = 0.8 mm/rev.
Feed rate speed vf = 240 mm/min
Result: Increase in tool life of 80 min to 180 min

184
Drilling

Example of application:
package bore hole using indexable inserts drill, KUB Duon:
Sturdy, highly productive drill in the range up to 5xD for a soft cut without pre-centring, in partic-
ular for package bore holes in steel and cast metals

Usable parameters:
Workpiece: Racks in the package (2 units)
Bore hole diameter: 24.8 mm
Bore hole depth: 5xD
Material: C45 (1.0503)
material group 3.1. chapter 'Materials', section 1)
Tool: KUB Duon

Cutting data:
Cutting speed vc = 136 m/min
Speed n = 1746 rpm
Feed rate f = 0.14 mm/rev.
Feed rate speed vf = 244 mm/min
Result: Tool life travel 24 m with width of wear land of VB < 0.2 mm

185
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

10 Influences on the drilling performance and trouble


shooting

10.1 Influences on the drilling result


The actual quality of the completed bore hole depends on various factors.
A strong influence on the bore hole tolerance is exerted by the radial run-out of the drill
in the spindle. Fig. 3.17 shows the relationship between concentricity tolerance of the
clamping tool and the life of the drilling tool.
A medium influence on the drilling result is exerted by the general machine condition as
well as drill tip wear. On the other hand, the feed rate speed and the material only influ-
ence the bore hole tolerance very slightly.

Shrink-fit clamping chuck


Tool life

Hydraulic chuck/high-precision chuck


200 %

Collets
Side clamping chuck
100 %

5 µm 10 µm 15 µm 20 µm 25 µm

Radial run-out

Fig. 3.17 Influence of the radial run-out on the life of the drill

More information on the various types of chucks can be found in the chapter 'Clamping',
section 2.6.

186
Drilling

10.2 Guide for trouble-shooting during drilling

Code Disruption
1 Chisel point wear
2 Major cutting edge wear
3 Cutting edge wear
4 Chamfered edge wear
5 Cutter breakout
6 Tip breakout
7 Chip congestion on drill spine
8 Tool breaking
9 Rattling or similar noises
10 Chip congestion
11 Workpiece hardening
12 Fluctuating accuracy
13 Burr formation at the drill hole exit
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Remedy

The clearance angle at the drill centre should be greater


than the relief
Flute length as short as possible
Enlargement of the clearance angle at the outer cutting
edges
Shortening the intervals between regrinds
Enlarging the point angle
The cutting edge difference should be a maximum of
0.02 mm
The edge prep should be greater
Clearance angle should be smaller
Extension of the groove width
Smaller spine diameter
Smaller helix
Greater tapering and smaller chamfered edge width
Smaller edge prep
Lower feed rate
Lower cutting speed
Greater feed rate

Table 3.8 Trouble-shooting when drilling

187
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

11 Application guide data for drills


Using the guide value tables – example

Machining application:
To create bore holes with a diameter D = 6 mm in the material 100Cr6
on machining centre.
Procedure:
1. Selection of the drilling tool from the main catalogue Ho no. 12 2630 (Holex)
2. Selection of the material group (chapter 'Materials', section 1) Mat. gr. 8.0
3. Selection of the cutting parameters:
3.1 Selection of the deployment guide value table Table 3.25
Tool 12 2630 → 3/5xD, VHM-TiN coated
3.2 Selection of the cutting parameters
Table 3.25 GARANT high-performance drills up to 3/5 x D with through-coolant
(solid carbide – TiAIN/TiN)
Catalogue number 122310; 122340; 122380; 122410; 122431; 122630; 122650; 122660
DIN 6537; 6537K
Number of teeth 2
Material Material designation Strength vc ∅ 0.1 – 0.9 ∅ 1.0 – 1.9 ∅ 2.0 – 2.9 ∅ 3.0 – 5.9 ∅ 6.0 – 8.9 ∅
group [m/min] f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f
[Nm/mm2] min. Start max. [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/
rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.]
1.0 General structural steels < 500 100 – 130 – 150 – – – 0.10 9299 930 0.12 5554 667 0.16
1.1 General structural steels 500 – 850 90 – 100 – 120 – – – 0.14 7153 1001 0.18 4273 769 0.22
2.0 Free cutting steels < 850 100 – 140 – 180 – – – 0.14 10014 1402 0.18 5982 1077 0.22
2.1 Free cutting steels 850 – 1000 90 – 100 – 110 – – – 0.14 7153 1001 0.18 4273 769 0.22
3.0 Unalloyed heat treatable steels <700 90 – 95 – 100 – – – 0.14 6795 951 0.18 4059 731 0.22
3.1 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 700 – 850 85 – 90 – 95 – – – 0.14 6438 901 0.18 3845 692 0.22
3.2 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 80 – 85 – 90 – – – 0.12 6080 730 0.18 3632 654 0.20
4.0 Alloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 – – – – – –
4.1 Alloyed heat treatable steels 1000 – 1200 – – – – – –
5.0 Unalloyed case hardening steels <750 90 – 95 – 100 – – – 0.12 6795 815 0.16 4059 649 0.20
6.0 Alloyed case hardening steels < 1000 – – – – – –
6.1 Alloyed case hardening steels > 1000 – – – – – –
7.0 Nitride steels < 1000 – – – – – –
7.1 Nitride steels > 1000 – – – – – –
8.0 Tool steels < 850 70 – 80 – 90 – – 0.11 5722 629 0.15 3418 513 0.18
8.1 Tool steels 850 – 1100 – – – – –
8.2 Tool steels 1100 – 1400 – – – – – –
9.0 High-speed steels 830 – 1200 – – – – – –

Cutting speed: Starting value vc range: 70 ... 90 m/min


vc = 80 m/min
Feed rate: f = 0.15 mm/rev.
Speed n = 3418 rpm
in the diameter range:
Feed rate speed vf = 513 mm/min
in the diameter range:

188
Drilling

189
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Table 3.9 GARANT centre drills (HSS and HSS/E)


Catalogue number 111000; 111050; 111100; 111200; 11250; 111300; 111350; 111450; 111500; 111520; 111540
DIN 333; 333-A; 333-B; 333-R, company standard
Number of teeth 2

Material Material designation Strength vc ∅ 0.5 – 0.8 ∅ 1.0 – 1.25 ∅ 1.6 – 2


group [m/min] f n vf f n vf f n vf
[Nm/mm2] min. Start max. [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
[mm/
[rpm] [mm/min]
[mm/
[rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.]
1.0 General structural steels < 500 30 – 40 – 50 0.02 19588 392 0.03 11368 369 0.04 7074 283
1.1 General structural steels 500 – 850 25 – 30 – 35 0.02 14691 294 0.03 8526 277 0.04 5305 212
2.0 Free cutting steels < 850 25 – 30 – 35 0.02 14691 294 0.03 8526 277 0.04 5305 212
2.1 Free cutting steels 850 – 1000 20 – 25 – 30 0.01 12243 147 0.02 7105 139 0.02 4421 106
3.0 Unalloyed heat treatable steels <700 25 – 30 – 35 0.01 14691 176 0.02 8526 166 0.02 5305 127
3.1 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 700 – 850 20 – 25 – 30 0.01 12243 147 0.02 7105 139 0.02 4421 106
3.2 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 20 – 22 – 25 0.01 10774 103 0.02 6253 98 0.02 3890 75
4.0 Alloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 15 – 17 – 20 0.01 8325 67 0.01 4831 63 0.02 3006 48
4.1 Alloyed heat treatable steels 1000 – 1200 8 – 10 – 12 0.01 4897 39 0.01 2842 37 0.02 1768 28
5.0 Unalloyed case hardening steels <750 25 – 30 – 35 0.01 14691 176 0.02 8526 166 0.02 5305 127
6.0 Alloyed case hardening steels < 1000 15 – 18 – 20 0.01 8815 71 0.01 5116 67 0.02 3183 51
6.1 Alloyed case hardening steels > 1000 8 – 10 – 12 0.01 4897 39 0.01 2842 37 0.02 1768 28
7.0 Nitride steels < 1000 10 – 13 – 15 0.01 6366 51 0.01 3695 48 0.02 2299 37
7.1 Nitride steels > 1000 8 – 10 – 12 0.01 4897 39 0.01 2842 37 0.02 1768 28
8.0 Tool steels < 850 10 – 13 – 15 0.01 6366 51 0.01 3695 48 0.02 2299 37
8.1 Tool steels 850 – 1100 8 – 10 – 12 0.01 4897 39 0.01 2842 37 0.02 1768 28
8.2 Tool steels 1100 – 1400 6 – 8 – 10 0.01 3918 31 0.01 2274 30 0.02 1415 23
9.0 High-speed steels 830 – 1200 6 – 8 – 10 0.01 3918 31 0.01 2274 30 0.02 1415 23
10.0 Hardened steels 48–55 HRC – – – –
10.1 Hardened steels 55–60 HRC – – – –
10.2 Hardened steels 60–67 HRC – – – –
11.0 Wear-resistant structural steels 1350 8 – 9 – 10 – – 0.02 1592 25
11.1 Wear-resistant structural steels 1800 4 – 5 – 6 – – 0.02 884 14
12.0 Spring steels < 1500 5 – 8 – 10 0.01 3918 31 0.01 2274 30 0.02 1415 23
13.0 Stainless steel, sulphured < 700 10 – 15 – 20 0.01 7346 59 0.01 4263 55 0.02 2653 42
13.1 Stainless steel, austenitic < 700 10 – 15 – 20 0.01 7346 59 0.01 4263 55 0.02 2653 42
13.2 Stainless steel, austenitic < 850 8 – 12 – 15 0.01 5876 47 0.01 3410 44 0.02 2122 34
13.3 Stainless steel, martensitic < 1100 6 – 8 – 10 0.01 3918 31 0.01 2274 30 0.02 1415 23
14.0 Special alloys < 1200 3 – 5.5 – 8 0.01 2693 22 0.01 1563 20 0.02 973 16
15.0 Cast iron (GG) < 180 HB 20 – 25 – 30 0.02 12243 245 0.03 7105 231 0.04 4421 177
15.1 Cast iron (GG) > 180 HB 20 – 25 – 30 0.02 12243 196 0.03 7105 185 0.03 4421 141
15.2 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 180 HB 25 – 30 – 35 0.02 14691 294 0.03 8526 277 0.04 5305 212
15.3 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 260 HB 18 – 20 – 22 0.02 9794 157 0.03 5684 148 0.03 3537 113
16.0 Titanium, titanium alloys < 850 3 – 5.5 – 8 0.01 2693 22 0.01 1563 20 0.02 973 16
16.1 Titanium, titanium alloys 850 – 1200 3 – 4.5 – 6 0.01 2204 18 0.01 1279 17 0.02 796 13
17.0 Aluminium, aluminium alloys < 530 40 – 70 – 100 0.02 34280 686 0.03 19894 647 0.04 12379 495
17.1 Aluminium cast alloys <10% Si <600 30 – 45 – 60 0.02 22037 441 0.03 12789 416 0.04 7958 318
17.2 Aluminium cast alloys >10% Si < 600 30 – 40 – 50 0.01 19588 235 0.02 11368 222 0.02 7074 170
18.0 Magnesium, Mg alloys < 280 40 – 70 – 100 0.02 34280 686 0.03 19894 637 0.04 12379 495
19.0 Copper, low-alloy < 400 35 – 50 – 65 0.02 24485 490 0.03 14210 462 0.04 8842 354
19.1 Brass, short-chipping < 600 60 – 80 – 100 0.03 39177 1254 0.05 22736 1182 0.06 14147 905
19.2 Brass, long-chipping < 600 35 – 45 – 60 0.02 22037 441 0.03 12789 416 0.04 7958 318
19.3 Bronze, short-chipping < 600 25 – 40 – 50 0.02 19588 392 0.03 11368 369 0.04 7074 283
19.4 Bronze, short-chipping 650 – 850 25 – 40 – 50 0.02 19588 392 0.03 11368 369 0.04 7074 283
19.5 Bronze, long-chipping < 850 15 – 23 – 35 0.02 11263 225 0.03 6537 212 0.04 4067 163
19.6 Bronze, long-chipping 850 – 1200 15 – 23 – 35 0.02 11263 225 0.03 6537 212 0.04 4067 163
20.0 Graphite – – – –
21.0 Thermoplastics and thermoset- – – – –
ting plastics
21.1 GFK and CFK – – – –
Note: The values for speed n and the feed rate speed vf apply for a mean drill diameter and the cutting speed starting value.

190
Drilling

∅ 2.5 – 3.15 ∅4 ∅5 ∅ 6.3 ∅8 ∅ 10 Cooling


f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf lubricant
[mm/ [mm/ [mm/ [mm/ [mm/ [mm/
rev.] [rpm] [mm/min] rev.] [rpm] [mm/min] rev.] [rpm] [mm/min] rev.] [rpm] [mm/min] rev.] [rpm] [mm/min] rev.] [rpm] [mm/min]

0.05 4547 227 0.05 3183 159 0.07 2546 166 0.08 2021 158 0.10 1592 161 0.15 1273 194 Emulsion
0.05 3410 171 0.05 2387 119 0.07 1910 124 0.08 1516 118 0.10 1194 121 0.15 955 145 Emulsion
0.05 3410 171 0.05 2387 119 0.07 1910 124 0.08 1516 118 0.10 1194 121 0.15 955 145 Emulsion
0.03 2842 85 0.03 1989 60 0.04 1592 62 0.05 1263 59 0.06 995 61 0.09 796 73 Emulsion
0.03 3410 102 0.04 2387 95 0.04 1910 74 0.05 1516 71 0.06 1194 73 0.09 955 87 Emulsion
0.03 2842 85 0.36 1989 716 0.04 1592 62 0.05 1263 59 0.06 995 61 0.09 796 73 Emulsion
0.02 2501 60 0.02 1751 42 0.03 1401 44 0.04 1112 42 0.05 875 43 0.07 700 51 Emulsion/oil
0.02 1933 39 0.02 1353 27 0.03 1082 28 0.03 859 27 0.04 676 27 0.06 541 33 Emulsion/oil
0.02 1137 23 0.02 796 16 0.03 637 17 0.03 505 16 0.04 398 16 0.06 318 19 Emulsion/oil
0.03 3410 102 0.03 2387 72 0.04 1910 74 0.05 1516 71 0.06 1194 73 0.09 955 87 Emulsion/oil
0.02 2046 41 0.02 1432 29 0.03 1146 30 0.03 909 28 0.04 716 29 0.06 573 35 Oil
0.02 1137 23 0.02 796 16 0.03 637 17 0.03 505 16 0.04 398 16 0.06 318 19 Oil
0.02 1478 30 0.02 1035 21 0.03 828 22 0.03 657 20 0.04 517 21 0.06 414 25 Emulsion/oil
0.02 1137 23 0.02 796 16 0.03 637 17 0.03 505 16 0.04 398 16 0.06 318 19 Emulsion/oil
0.02 1478 30 0.02 1035 21 0.03 828 22 0.03 657 20 0.04 517 21 0.06 414 25 Emulsion/oil
0.02 1137 23 0.02 796 16 0.03 637 17 0.03 505 16 0.04 398 16 0.06 318 19 Emulsion/oil
0.02 909 18 0.02 637 13 0.03 509 13 0.03 404 13 0.04 318 13 0.06 255 15 Emulsion/oil
0.02 909 18 0.02 637 13 0.03 509 13 0.03 404 13 0.04 318 13 0.06 255 15 Emulsion/oil
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
0.02 1023 20 0.02 716 14 0.03 573 15 0.03 455 14 0.04 358 15 0.06 286 17 Emulsion
0.02 568 11 0.02 398 8 0.03 318 8 0.03 253 8 0.04 199 8 0.06 159 10 Emulsion
0.02 909 18 0.02 637 13 0.03 509 13 0.03 404 13 0.04 318 13 0.06 255 15 Emulsion/oil
0.02 1705 34 0.03 1194 36 0.04 955 38 0.05 758 38 0.06 597 36 0.08 477 38 Emulsion
0.02 1705 34 0.03 1194 36 0.04 955 38 0.05 758 38 0.06 597 36 0.08 477 38 Emulsion
0.02 1364 27 0.03 955 29 0.04 764 31 0.05 606 30 0.06 477 29 0.08 382 31 Emulsion
0.02 909 18 0.03 637 19 0.04 509 20 0.05 404 20 0.06 318 19 0.08 255 20 Emulsion
0.02 625 13 0.02 438 9 0.03 350 9 0.03 278 9 0.04 219 9 0.06 175 11 Oil
0.05 2842 142 0.05 1989 99 0.07 1592 103 0.08 1263 99 0.10 995 101 0.15 796 121 dry/comp. air
0.04 2842 114 0.04 1989 80 0.05 1592 83 0.06 1263 79 0.08 995 81 0.12 796 97 dry/comp. air
0.05 3410 171 0.05 2387 119 0.07 1910 124 0.08 1516 118 0.10 1194 121 0.15 955 145 Emulsion
0.04 2274 91 0.04 1592 64 0.05 1273 66 0.06 1011 63 0.08 796 65 0.12 637 77 Emulsion
0.02 625 13 0.02 438 9 0.03 350 9 0.03 278 9 0.04 219 9 0.06 175 11 Oil
0.02 512 10 0.02 358 7 0.03 286 7 0.03 227 7 0.04 179 7 0.06 143 9 Oil
0.05 7958 398 0.05 5570 279 0.07 4456 290 0.08 3537 276 0.10 2785 282 0.15 2228 339 Emulsion
0.05 5116 256 0.05 3581 179 0.07 2865 186 0.08 2274 177 0.10 1790 182 0.15 1432 218 Emulsion
0.03 4547 136 0.03 3183 95 0.04 2546 99 0.05 2021 95 0.06 1592 97 0.09 1273 116 Emulsion
0.02 7958 159 0.05 5570 279 0.07 4456 294 0.08 3537 276 0.10 2785 284 0.15 2228 339 Emulsion
0.05 5684 284 0.05 3979 199 0.07 3183 207 0.08 2526 197 0.10 1989 202 0.15 1592 242 Emulsion/oil
0.08 9095 728 0.08 6366 509 0.10 5093 530 0.12 4042 504 0.16 3183 516 0.24 2546 620 dry/emulsion/oil
0.05 5116 256 0.05 3581 179 0.07 2865 186 0.08 2274 177 0.10 1790 182 0.15 1432 218 Emulsion/oil
0.05 4547 227 0.05 3183 159 0.07 2546 166 0.08 2021 158 0.10 1592 161 0.15 1273 194 Emulsion/oil
0.05 4547 227 0.05 3183 159 0.07 2546 166 0.08 2021 158 0.10 1592 161 0.15 1273 194 Emulsion/oil
0.05 2615 131 0.05 1830 92 0.07 1464 95 0.08 1162 91 0.10 915 93 0.15 732 111 Emulsion/oil
0.05 2615 131 0.05 1830 92 0.07 1464 95 0.08 1162 91 0.10 915 93 0.15 732 111 Emulsion/oil
– – – – – –

191
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Table 3.10 GARANT NC spotting drills (HSS/E)


Catalogue number 112000; 112120
DIN Company standard
Number of teeth 2

Material Material designation Strength vc ∅3 ∅4 ∅5


group [m/min] f n vf f n vf f n vf
[Nm/mm2] min. Start max. [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.]
1.0 General structural steels < 500 30 – 40 – 50 0.05 4244 212 0.05 3183 159 0.07 2546 166
1.1 General structural steels 500 – 850 25 – 30 – 35 0.05 3183 159 0.05 2387 119 0.07 1910 124
2.0 Free cutting steels < 850 25 – 30 – 35 0.05 3183 159 0.05 2387 119 0.07 1910 124
2.1 Free cutting steels 850 – 1000 20 – 25 – 30 0.03 2653 80 0.03 1989 60 0.04 1592 62
3.0 Unalloyed heat treatable steels <700 25 – 30 – 35 0.03 3183 95 0.03 2387 72 0.04 1910 74
3.1 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 700 – 850 20 – 25 – 30 0.03 2653 80 0.03 1989 60 0.04 1592 62
3.2 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 20 – 22 – 25 0.02 2334 56 0.02 1751 42 0.03 1401 44
4.0 Alloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 15 – 17 – 20 0.02 1804 36 0.02 1353 27 0.03 1082 28
4.1 Alloyed heat treatable steels 1000 – 1200 8 – 10 – 12 0.02 1061 21 0.02 796 16 0.03 637 17
5.0 Unalloyed case hardening steels <750 25 – 30 – 35 0.03 3183 95 0.03 2387 72 0.04 1910 74
6.0 Alloyed case hardening steels < 1000 15 – 18 – 20 0.02 1910 38 0.02 1432 29 0.03 1146 30
6.1 Alloyed case hardening steels > 1000 8 – 10 – 12 0.02 1061 21 0.02 796 16 0.03 637 17
7.0 Nitride steels < 1000 10 – 13 – 15 0.02 1379 28 0.02 1035 21 0.03 828 22
7.1 Nitride steels > 1000 8 – 10 – 12 0.02 1061 21 0.02 796 16 0.03 637 17
8.0 Tool steels < 850 10 – 13 – 15 0.02 1379 28 0.02 1035 21 0.03 828 22
8.1 Tool steels 850 – 1100 8 – 10 – 12 0.02 1061 21 0.02 796 16 0.03 637 17
8.2 Tool steels 1100 – 1400 6 – 8 – 10 0.02 849 17 0.02 637 13 0.03 509 13
9.0 High-speed steels 830 – 1200 6 – 8 – 10 0.02 849 17 0.02 637 13 0.03 509 13
10.0 Hardened steels 48–55 HRC – – – –
10.1 Hardened steels 55–60 HRC – – – –
10.2 Hardened steels 60–67 HRC – – – –
11.0 Wear-resistant structural steels 1350 8 – 9 – 10 0.02 955 19 0.02 716 14 0.03 573 15
11.1 Wear-resistant structural steels 1800 4 – 5 – 6 0.02 531 11 0.02 398 8 0.03 318 8
12.0 Spring steels < 1500 5 – 8 – 10 0.02 849 17 0.02 637 13 0.03 509 13
13.0 Stainless steel, sulphured < 700 10 – 15 – 20 0.02 1592 32 0.02 1194 24 0.03 955 25
13.1 Stainless steel, austenitic < 700 10 – 15 – 20 0.02 1592 32 0.02 1194 24 0.03 955 25
13.2 Stainless steel, austenitic < 850 8 – 12 – 15 0.02 1273 25 0.02 955 29 0.03 764 20
13.3 Stainless steel, martensitic < 1100 6 – 8 – 10 0.02 849 17 0.02 637 13 0.03 509 13
14.0 Special alloys < 1200 3 – 5.5 – 8 0.02 584 12 0.02 438 9 0.03 350 9
15.0 Cast iron (GG) < 180 HB 20 – 25 – 30 0.05 2653 133 0.05 1989 99 0.07 1592 103
15.1 Cast iron (GG) > 180 HB 20 – 25 – 30 0.04 2653 106 0.04 1989 80 0.05 1592 83
15.2 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 180 HB 25 – 30 – 35 0.05 3183 159 0.05 2387 119 0.07 1910 124
15.3 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 260 HB 18 – 20 – 22 0.04 2122 85 0.04 1592 64 0.05 1273 66
16.0 Titanium, titanium alloys < 850 3 – 5.5 – 8 0.02 584 12 0.02 438 9 0.03 350 9
16.1 Titanium, titanium alloys 850 – 1200 3 – 4.5 – 6 0.02 477 10 0.02 358 7 0.03 286 7
17.0 Aluminium, aluminium alloys < 530 40 – 70 – 100 0.05 7427 371 0.05 5570 279 0.07 4456 290
17.1 Aluminium cast alloys <10% Si <600 30 – 45 – 60 0.03 4775 143 0.03 3581 107 0.05 2865 143
17.2 Aluminium cast alloys >10% Si < 600 30 – 40 – 50 0.03 4244 127 0.03 3183 95 0.05 2546 127
18.0 Magnesium, Mg alloys < 280 40 – 70 – 100 0.05 7427 371 0.05 5570 279 0.07 4456 290
19.0 Copper, low-alloy < 400 35 – 50 – 65 0.05 5305 265 0.05 3979 199 0.07 3183 207
19.1 Brass, short-chipping < 600 60 – 80 – 100 0.05 8488 424 0.05 6366 318 0.07 5093 336
19.2 Brass, long-chipping < 600 35 – 45 – 60 0.05 4775 239 0.05 3581 179 0.07 2865 186
19.3 Bronze, short-chipping < 600 25 – 40 – 50 0.05 4244 212 0.05 3183 159 0.07 2546 166
19.4 Bronze, short-chipping 650 – 850 25 – 40 – 50 0.05 4244 212 0.05 3183 159 0.07 2546 166
19.5 Bronze, long-chipping < 850 15 – 23 – 35 0.03 2440 73 0.04 1830 73 0.05 1464 73
19.6 Bronze, long-chipping 850 – 1200 15 – 23 – 35 0.03 2440 73 0.04 1830 73 0.05 1464 73
20.0 Graphite – – – –
21.0 Thermoplastics and thermo- – – – –
setting plastics
21.1 GFK and CFK – – – –
Note: The values for speed n and the feed rate speed vf apply for the cutting speed starting value.

192
Drilling

∅6 ∅8 ∅ 10 ∅ 12 ∅ 16 ∅ 20 Cooling
f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf lubricant
[mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.]
0.08 2122 166 0.10 1592 161 0.15 1273 194 0.18 1061 191 0.24 796 191 0.33 637 210 Emulsion
0.08 1592 124 0.10 1194 121 0.15 955 145 0.18 796 143 0.24 597 143 0.33 477 158 Emulsion
0.08 1592 124 0.10 1194 121 0.15 955 145 0.18 796 143 0.24 597 143 0.33 477 158 Emulsion
0.05 1326 62 0.06 995 61 0.09 796 73 0.14 663 91 0.19 497 94 0.28 398 111 Emulsion
0.05 1592 74 0.06 1194 73 0.09 955 87 0.14 796 109 0.19 597 113 0.28 477 134 Emulsion
0.05 1326 62 0.06 995 61 0.09 796 73 0.14 663 91 0.19 497 94 0.28 398 111 Emulsion
0.04 1167 44 0.05 875 43 0.07 700 51 0.11 584 64 0.16 438 72 0.25 350 86 Emulsion/oil
0.03 902 28 0.04 676 27 0.06 541 33 0.09 451 41 0.14 338 46 0.21 271 56 Emulsion/oil
0.03 531 17 0.04 398 16 0.06 318 19 0.09 265 24 0.14 199 27 0.21 159 33 Emulsion/oil
0.05 1592 74 0.06 1194 73 0.09 955 87 0.14 796 109 0.19 597 113 0.28 477 134 Emulsion/oil
0.03 955 30 0.04 716 29 0.06 573 35 0.09 477 44 0.14 358 49 0.21 286 59 Oil
0.03 531 17 0.04 398 16 0.06 318 19 0.09 265 24 0.14 199 27 0.21 159 33 Oil
0.03 690 22 0.04 517 21 0.06 414 25 0.09 345 31 0.14 259 35 0.21 207 42 Emulsion/oil
0.03 531 17 0.04 398 16 0.06 318 19 0.09 265 24 0.14 199 27 0.21 159 33 Emulsion/oil
0.03 690 22 0.04 517 21 0.06 414 25 0.09 345 31 0.14 259 35 0.21 207 42 Emulsion/oil
0.03 531 17 0.04 398 16 0.06 318 19 0.09 265 24 0.14 199 27 0.21 159 33 Emulsion/oil
0.03 424 13 0.04 318 13 0.06 255 15 0.09 212 19 0.14 159 22 0.21 127 26 Emulsion/oil
0.03 424 13 0.04 318 13 0.06 255 15 0.09 212 19 0.14 159 22 0.21 127 26 Emulsion/oil
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
0.03 477 15 0.04 358 15 0.06 286 17 0.09 239 22 0.14 179 25 0.21 143 29 Emulsion
0.03 265 8 0.04 199 8 0.06 159 10 0.09 133 12 0.14 99 14 0.21 80 16 Emulsion
0.03 424 13 0.04 318 13 0.06 255 15 0.09 212 19 0.14 159 22 0.21 127 26 Emulsion/oil
0.03 796 25 0.04 597 24 0.06 477 29 0.9 398 36 0.14 298 41 0.21 239 49 Emulsion
0.03 796 25 0.04 597 24 0.06 477 29 0.9 398 36 0.14 298 41 0.21 239 49 Emulsion
0.03 637 20 0.04 477 19 0.06 382 23 0.9 318 29 0.14 239 33 0.21 191 39 Emulsion
0.03 424 13 0.04 318 13 0.06 255 15 0.9 212 19 0.14 159 22 0.21 127 26 Emulsion
0.03 292 9 0.04 219 9 0.06 175 11 0.09 146 13 0.14 109 15 0.21 88 18 Oil
0.08 1326 103 0.10 995 101 0.15 796 121 0.20 663 133 0.24 497 119 0.28 398 111 dry/comp. air
0.06 1326 83 0.08 995 81 0.12 796 97 0.16 663 106 0.19 497 94 0.25 398 99 dry/comp. air
0.08 1592 124 0.10 1194 121 0.15 955 145 0.20 796 159 0.24 597 143 0.28 477 134 Emulsion
0.06 1061 66 0.08 796 65 0.12 637 77 0.16 531 85 0.19 398 76 0.25 318 80 Emulsion
0.03 292 9 0.04 219 9 0.06 175 11 0.09 146 13 0.14 109 15 0.21 88 18 Oil
0.03 239 7 0.04 179 7 0.06 143 9 0.09 119 11 0.14 90 12 0.21 72 15 Oil
0.08 3714 290 0.10 2785 282 0.15 2228 339 0.20 1857 371 0.26 1393 362 0.33 1114 368 Emulsion
0.06 2387 134 0.07 1790 125 0.09 1432 132 0.16 1194 191 0.21 895 184 0.28 716 201 Emulsion
0.06 2122 119 0.07 1592 111 0.09 1273 116 0.16 1061 170 0.21 796 163 0.28 637 178 Emulsion
0.08 3714 290 0.10 2785 282 0.15 2228 339 0.20 1857 371 0.26 1393 362 0.33 1114 368 Emulsion
0.08 2653 207 0.10 1989 202 0.15 1592 242 0.20 1326 265 0.26 995 259 0.33 796 263 Emulsion/oil
0.08 4244 331 0.10 3183 325 0.15 2546 387 0.20 2122 424 0.26 1592 414 0.33 1273 420 dry/emul./oil
0.08 2387 186 0.10 1790 182 0.15 1432 218 0.20 1194 239 0.26 895 233 0.33 716 236 Emulsion/oil
0.08 2122 166 0.10 1592 161 0.15 1273 194 0.20 1061 212 0.26 796 207 0.33 637 210 Emulsion/oil
0.08 2122 166 0.10 1592 161 0.15 1273 194 0.20 1061 212 0.26 796 207 0.33 637 210 Emulsion/oil
0.06 1220 68 0.07 915 64 0.09 732 67 0.16 610 98 0.21 458 94 0.28 366 102 Emulsion/oil
0.06 1220 68 0.07 915 64 0.09 732 67 0.16 610 98 0.21 458 94 0.28 366 102 Emulsion/oil
– – – – – –
– – – – – –

– – – – – –

193
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Table 3.11 GARANT NC spotting drills (HSS/E – TiAlN)


Catalogue number 112020; 112100; 112110; 112140; 112160; 112170
DIN Company standard
Number of teeth 2

Material Material designation Strength vc ∅3 ∅4 ∅5


group [m/min] f n vf f n vf f n vf
[Nm/mm2] min. Start max. [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.]
1.0 General structural steels < 500 38 – 50 – 63 0.05 5305 286 0.05 3979 215 0.07 3183 223
1.1 General structural steels 500 – 850 31 – 37 – 44 0.05 3926 212 0.05 2944 159 0.07 2355 165
2.0 Free cutting steels < 850 31 – 37 – 44 0.05 3926 212 0.05 2944 159 0.07 2355 165
2.1 Free cutting steels 850 – 1000 25 – 31 – 38 0.03 3289 107 0.03 2467 80 0.04 1974 83
3.0 Unalloyed heat treatable steels <700 31 – 37 – 44 0.03 3926 127 0.03 2944 95 0.04 2355 99
3.1 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 700 – 850 25 – 31 – 38 0.03 3289 107 0.03 2467 80 0.04 1974 83
3.2 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 25 – 27 – 31 0.03 2865 74 0.03 2149 56 0.03 1719 58
4.0 Alloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 19 – 21 – 25 0.02 2228 48 0.02 1671 36 0.03 1337 38
4.1 Alloyed heat treatable steels 1000 – 1200 10 – 12 – 15 0.02 1273 28 0.02 955 21 0.03 764 21
5.0 Unalloyed case hardening steels <750 31 – 37 – 44 0.03 3926 127 0.03 2944 95 0.04 2355 99
6.0 Alloyed case hardening steels < 1000 19 – 22 – 25 0.02 2334 50 0.02 1751 38 0.03 1401 39
6.1 Alloyed case hardening steels > 1000 10 – 12 – 15 0.02 1273 28 0.02 955 21 0.03 764 21
7.0 Nitride steels < 1000 13 – 16 – 19 0.02 1698 37 0.02 1273 28 0.03 1019 29
7.1 Nitride steels > 1000 10 – 12 – 15 0.02 1273 28 0.02 955 21 0.03 764 21
8.0 Tool steels < 850 13 – 16 – 19 0.02 1698 37 0.02 1273 28 0.03 1019 29
8.1 Tool steels 850 – 1100 10 – 12 – 15 0.02 1273 28 0.02 955 21 0.03 764 21
8.2 Tool steels 1100 – 1400 7.5 – 10 – 13 0.02 1061 23 0.02 796 17 0.03 637 18
9.0 High-speed steels 830 – 1200 7.5 – 10 – 13 0.02 1061 23 0.02 796 17 0.03 637 18
10.0 Hardened steels 48–55 HRC – – – –
10.1 Hardened steels 55–60 HRC – – – –
10.2 Hardened steels 60–67 HRC – – – –
11.0 Wear-resistant structural steels 1350 10 – 11 – 13 0.02 1167 25 0.02 875 19 0.03 700 20
11.1 Wear-resistant structural steels 1800 5 – 6 – 7.5 0.02 637 14 0.02 477 10 0.03 382 11
12.0 Spring steels < 1500 6 – 10 – 13 0.02 1061 23 0.02 796 17 0.03 637 18
13.0 Stainless steel, sulphured < 700 13 – 19 – 25 0.02 2016 44 0.02 1512 33 0.03 1210 34
13.1 Stainless steel, austenitic < 700 13 – 19 – 25 0.02 2016 44 0.02 1512 33 0.03 1210 34
13.2 Stainless steel, austenitic < 850 10 – 15 – 19 0.02 1592 34 0.02 1194 26 0.03 955 27
13.3 Stainless steel, martensitic < 1100 7.5 – 10 – 13 0.02 1061 23 0.02 796 17 0.03 637 18
14.0 Special alloys < 1200 3.5 – 7 – 10 0.02 743 16 0.02 557 12 0.03 446 13
15.0 Cast iron (GG) < 180 HB 25 – 31 – 38 0.05 3289 178 0.05 2467 133 0.07 1974 139
15.1 Cast iron (GG) > 180 HB 25 – 31 – 38 0.04 3289 142 0.04 2467 107 0.06 1974 111
15.2 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 180 HB 31 – 37 – 44 0.05 3926 212 0.05 2944 159 0.07 2355 165
15.3 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 260 HB 23 – 25 – 28 0.04 2653 115 0.04 1989 86 0.06 1592 89
16.0 Titanium, titanium alloys < 850 3.5 – 7 – 10 0.02 743 16 0.02 557 12 0.03 446 13
16.1 Titanium, titanium alloys 850 – 1200 3.5 – 5.5 – 7.5 0.02 584 13 0.02 438 9 0.03 350 10
17.0 Aluminium, aluminium alloys < 530 50 – 87 – 125 0.05 9231 498 0.05 6923 374 0.07 5539 389
17.1 Aluminium cast alloys <10% Si <600 38 – 56 – 75 0.03 5942 193 0.03 4456 144 0.05 3565 193
17.2 Aluminium cast alloys >10% Si < 600 38 – 50 – 63 0.03 5305 172 0.03 3979 129 0.05 3183 172
18.0 Magnesium, Mg alloys < 280 50 – 87 – 125 0.05 9231 498 0.05 6923 374 0.07 5539 389
19.0 Copper, low-alloy < 400 44 – 62 – 81 0.05 6578 355 0.05 4934 266 0.07 3947 277
19.1 Brass, short-chipping < 600 75 – 100 – 125 0.05 10610 573 0.05 7958 430 0.07 6366 454
19.2 Brass, long-chipping < 600 44 – 56 – 75 0.05 5942 321 0.05 4456 241 0.07 3565 250
19.3 Bronze, short-chipping < 600 31 – 50 – 63 0.05 5305 286 0.05 3979 215 0.07 3183 223
19.4 Bronze, short-chipping 650 – 850 31 – 50 – 63 0.05 5305 286 0.05 3979 215 0.07 3183 223
19.5 Bronze, long-chipping < 850 19 – 29 – 44 0.03 3077 100 0.04 2308 100 0.05 1846 100
19.6 Bronze, long-chipping 850 – 1200 19 – 29 – 44 0.03 3077 100 0.04 2308 100 0.05 1846 100
20.0 Graphite – – – –
21.0 Thermoplastics and thermo- – – – –
setting plastics
21.1 GFK and CFK – – – –
Note: The values for speed n and the feed rate speed vf apply for the cutting speed starting value.

194
Drilling

∅6 ∅8 ∅ 10 ∅ 12 ∅ 16 ∅ 20 Cooling
f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf lubricant
[mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.]
0.08 2653 223 0.11 1989 218 0.16 1592 261 0.19 1326 258 0.26 995 258 0.36 796 284 Emulsion
0.08 1963 165 0.11 1472 161 0.16 1178 193 0.19 981 191 0.26 736 191 0.36 589 210 Emulsion
0.08 1963 165 0.11 1472 161 0.16 1178 193 0.19 981 191 0.26 736 191 0.36 589 210 Emulsion
0.05 1645 83 0.07 1233 81 0.10 987 97 0.15 822 122 0.21 617 127 0.30 493 149 Emulsion
0.05 1963 99 0.07 1472 97 0.10 1178 116 0.15 981 145 0.21 736 151 0.30 589 178 Emulsion
0.05 1645 83 0.07 1233 81 0.10 987 97 0.15 822 122 0.21 617 127 0.30 493 149 Emulsion
0.04 1432 58 0.05 1074 56 0.08 859 68 0.12 716 85 0.18 537 95 0.27 430 114 Emulsion/oil
0.03 1114 38 0.04 836 37 0.07 668 44 0.10 557 55 0.15 418 62 0.22 334 74 Emulsion/oil
0.03 637 21 0.04 477 21 0.07 382 25 0.10 318 31 0.15 239 35 0.22 191 42 Emulsion/oil
0.05 1963 99 0.07 1472 97 0.10 1178 116 0.15 981 145 0.21 736 151 0.30 589 178 Emulsion/oil
0.03 1167 39 0.04 875 38 0.07 700 46 0.10 584 58 0.15 438 65 0.22 350 78 Oil
0.03 637 21 0.04 477 21 0.07 382 25 0.10 318 31 0.15 239 35 0.22 191 42 Oil
0.03 849 29 0.04 637 28 0.07 509 33 0.10 424 42 0.15 318 47 0.22 255 56 Emulsion/oil
0.03 637 21 0.04 477 21 0.07 382 25 0.10 318 31 0.15 239 35 0.22 191 42 Emulsion/oil
0.03 849 29 0.04 637 28 0.07 509 33 0.10 424 42 0.15 318 47 0.22 255 56 Emulsion/oil
0.03 637 21 0.04 477 21 0.07 382 25 0.10 318 31 0.15 239 35 0.22 191 42 Emulsion/oil
0.03 531 18 0.04 398 17 0.07 318 21 0.10 265 26 0.15 199 29 0.22 159 35 Emulsion/oil
0.03 531 18 0.04 398 17 0.07 318 21 0.10 265 26 0.15 199 29 0.22 159 35 Emulsion/oil
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
0.03 584 20 0.04 438 19 0.07 350 23 0.10 292 29 0.15 219 32 0.22 175 39 Emulsion
0.03 318 11 0.04 239 10 0.07 191 13 0.10 159 16 0.15 119 18 0.22 95 21 Emulsion
0.03 531 18 0.04 398 17 0.07 318 21 0.10 265 26 0.15 199 29 0.22 159 35 Emulsion/oil
0.03 1008 34 0.04 756 33 0.07 605 40 0.10 504 50 0.15 378 56 0.22 302 67 Emulsion
0.03 1008 34 0.04 756 33 0.07 605 40 0.10 504 50 0.15 378 56 0.22 302 67 Emulsion
0.03 796 27 0.04 597 26 0.07 477 31 0.10 398 39 0.15 298 44 0.22 239 53 Emulsion
0.03 531 18 0.04 398 17 0.07 318 26 0.10 265 26 0.15 199 29 0.22 159 35 Emulsion
0.03 371 13 0.04 279 12 0.07 223 15 0.10 186 18 0.15 139 21 0.22 111 25 Oil
0.08 1645 139 0.11 1233 135 0.16 987 162 0.22 822 178 0.26 617 160 0.30 493 149 dry/comp. air
0.07 1645 111 0.09 1233 108 0.13 987 130 0.17 822 142 0.21 617 127 0.27 493 133 dry/comp. air
0.08 1963 165 0.11 1472 161 0.16 1178 193 0.22 981 212 0.26 736 191 0.30 589 178 Emulsion
0.07 1326 89 0.09 995 87 0.13 796 105 0.17 663 115 0.21 497 102 0.27 398 107 Emulsion
0.03 371 13 0.04 279 12 0.07 223 15 0.10 186 18 0.15 139 21 0.22 111 25 Oil
0.03 292 10 0.04 219 10 0.07 175 12 0.10 146 14 0.15 109 16 0.22 88 19 Oil
0.08 4615 389 0.11 3462 379 0.16 2769 455 0.22 2308 498 0.28 1731 486 0.36 1385 493 Emulsion
0.06 2971 180 0.08 2228 168 0.10 1783 177 0.17 1485 257 0.22 1114 247 0.30 891 270 Emulsion
0.06 2653 160 0.08 1989 150 0.10 1592 157 0.17 1326 229 0.22 995 221 0.30 796 241 Emulsion
0.08 4615 389 0.11 3462 379 0.16 2769 455 0.22 2308 498 0.28 1731 486 0.36 1385 493 Emulsion
0.08 3289 277 0.11 2467 270 0.16 1974 324 0.22 1645 355 0.28 1233 346 0.36 987 352 Emulsion/oil
0.08 5305 447 0.11 3979 438 0.16 3183 523 0.22 2653 573 0.28 1989 559 0.36 1592 567 dry/emul./oil
0.08 2971 250 0.11 2228 244 0.16 1783 293 0.22 1485 321 0.28 1114 313 0.36 891 318 Emulsion/oil
0.08 2653 223 0.11 1989 218 0.16 1592 261 0.22 1326 286 0.28 995 279 0.36 796 284 Emulsion/oil
0.08 2653 223 0.11 1989 218 0.16 1592 261 0.22 1326 286 0.28 995 279 0.36 796 284 Emulsion/oil
0.06 1538 93 0.08 1154 87 0.10 923 92 0.17 769 133 0.22 577 128 0.30 462 140 Emulsion/oil
0.06 1538 93 0.08 1154 87 0.10 923 92 0.17 769 133 0.22 577 128 0.30 462 140 Emulsion/oil
– – – – – –
– – – – – –

– – – – – –

195
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Table 3.12 GARANT twist drills (HSS and HSS/E)


Catalogue number 112300; 113020; 114000; 114020; 114050; 114100; 114150; 114200; 114400; 114500; 114700; 116000;
116040; 116061; 116070; 116240; 116320; 116340; 116350; 116360; 116380; 116420; 116700; 116720; 116760
DIN 1899-A; 1897; 338; 340; 1869; 345; 343; 341; 1870
Number of teeth 2
Material Material designation Strength vc ∅2 ∅5 ∅8
group [m/min] f n vf f n vf f n vf
[Nm/mm2] min. Start max. [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.]
1.0 General structural steels < 500 30 – 40 – 50 0.05 6366 318 0.12 2546 306 0.20 1592 318
1.1 General structural steels 500 – 850 25 – 30 – 35 0.05 4775 239 0.12 1910 229 0.20 1194 239
2.0 Free cutting steels < 850 25 – 30 – 35 0.05 4775 239 0.12 1910 229 0.20 1194 239
2.1 Free cutting steels 850 – 1000 20 – 25 – 30 0.03 3979 119 0.07 1592 111 0.10 995 99
3.0 Unalloyed heat treatable steels <700 25 – 30 – 35 0.03 4775 143 0.07 1910 134 0.10 1194 119
3.1 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 700 – 850 20 – 25 – 30 0.03 3979 119 0.07 1592 111 0.10 995 99
3.2 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 20 – 22 – 25 0.02 3501 84 0.06 1401 84 0.09 875 79
4.0 Alloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 15 – 17 – 20 0.02 2706 54 0.05 1082 54 0.08 676 54
4.1 Alloyed heat treatable steels 1000 – 1200 8 – 10 – 12 0.02 1592 32 0.05 637 32 0.08 398 32
5.0 Unalloyed case hardening steels <750 25 – 30 – 35 0.03 4775 143 0.07 1910 134 0.10 1194 119
6.0 Alloyed case hardening steels 800 – 1000 15 – 18 – 20 0.02 2865 57 0.05 1146 57 0.08 716 57
6.1 Alloyed case hardening steels 1000 – 1200 8 – 10 – 12 0.02 1592 32 0.05 637 32 0.08 398 32
7.0 Nitride steels 850 – 1000 10 – 13 – 15 0.02 2069 41 0.05 828 41 0.08 517 41
7.1 Nitride steels 1000 – 1200 8 – 10 – 12 0.02 1592 32 0.05 637 32 0.08 398 32
8.0 Tool steels < 850 10 – 13 – 15 0.02 2069 41 0.05 828 41 0.08 517 41
8.1 Tool steels 850 – 1100 8 – 10 – 12 0.02 1592 32 0.05 637 32 0.08 398 32
8.2 Tool steels 1100 – 1400 6 – 8 – 10 0.02 1273 25 0.05 509 25 0.08 318 25
9.0 High-speed steels 830 – 1200 6 – 8 – 10 0.02 1273 25 0.05 509 25 0.08 318 25
10.0 Hardened steels 48–55 HRC – – – –
10.1 Hardened steels 55–60 HRC – – – –
10.2 Hardened steels 60–67 HRC – – – –
11.0 Wear-resistant structural steels 1350 8 – 9 – 10 – – 0.08 358 29
11.1 Wear-resistant structural steels 1800 4 – 5 – 6 – – 0.06 199 12
12.0 Spring steels <1200 5 – 8 – 10 0.02 1273 25 0.05 509 25 0.08 318 25
13.0 Stainless steel, sulphured < 700 10 – 15 – 20 0.02 2387 48 0.05 955 48 0.08 597 48
13.1 Stainless steel, austenitic < 700 10 – 15 – 20 0.02 2387 48 0.05 955 48 0.08 597 48
13.2 Stainless steel, austenitic < 850 8 – 12 – 15 0.02 1910 38 0.05 764 38 0.08 477 38
13.3 Stainless steel, martensitic < 1100 6 – 8 – 10 0.02 1273 25 0.05 509 25 0.08 318 25
14.0 Special alloys < 1200 3 – 5.5 – 8 0.02 875 18 0.05 350 18 0.08 219 18
15.0 Cast iron < 160 HB 20 – 25 – 30 0.05 3979 199 0.12 1592 191 0.20 995 199
15.1 Cast iron > 180 HB 20 – 25 – 30 0.04 3979 159 0.10 1592 159 0.16 995 159
15.2 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 180 HB 25 – 30 – 35 0.05 4775 239 0.12 1910 229 0.20 1194 239
15.3 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 260 HB 18 – 20 – 22 0.04 3183 127 0.10 1273 127 0.16 796 127
16.0 Titanium, titanium alloys < 850 3 – 5.5 – 8 0.02 875 18 0.05 350 18 0.08 219 18
16.1 Titanium, titanium alloys 850 – 1200 3 – 4.5 – 6 0.02 716 14 0.05 286 14 0.08 179 14
17.0 Aluminium, aluminium alloys < 400 40 – 70 – 100 0.05 11141 557 0.14 4456 624 0.18 2785 501
17.1 Aluminium cast alloys <10% Si <600 30 – 45 – 60 0.05 7162 358 0.14 2865 401 0.18 1790 322
17.2 Aluminium cast alloys >10% Si < 600 30 – 40 – 50 0.03 6366 191 0.08 2546 204 0.14 1592 223
18.0 Magnesium, Mg alloys < 280 40 – 70 – 100 0.05 11141 557 0.14 4456 624 0.18 2785 501
19.0 Copper, low-alloy < 350 35 – 50 – 65 0.05 7958 398 0.14 3183 446 0.18 1989 358
19.1 Brass, short-chipping < 600 60 – 80 – 100 0.08 12732 1019 0.18 5093 917 0.25 3183 796
19.2 Brass, long-chipping < 600 35 – 45 – 60 0.05 7162 358 0.15 2865 430 0.40 1790 716
19.3 Bronze, short-chipping < 600 25 – 40 – 50 0.05 6366 318 0.08 2546 204 0.14 1592 223
19.4 Bronze, short-chipping 650 – 850 25 – 40 – 50 0.05 6366 318 0.08 2546 204 0.14 1592 223
19.5 Bronze, long-chipping < 850 15 – 23 – 35 0.05 3661 183 0.08 1464 117 0.14 915 128
19.6 Bronze, long-chipping 850 – 1200 15 – 23 – 35 0.05 3661 183 0.08 1464 117 0.14 915 128
20.0 Graphite – – – –
21.0 Thermoplastics and thermo- – – – –
setting plastics
21.1 GFK and CFK – – – –
Note: The values for speed n and the feed rate speed vf apply for the cutting speed starting value. The feed rate values apply as base values for drills complying with DIN 338.
For stub drills, the feed rate can be increased by 30%. For long drills, the feed rate must be reduced by 30%.

196
Drilling

∅ 12 ∅ 16 ∅ 25 ∅ 40 ∅ 63 ∅ 80 Cooling
f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf lubricant
[mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.]
0.25 1061 265 0.30 796 239 0.40 509 204 0.40 318 127 0.50 202 101 0.50 159 80 Emulsion
0.25 796 199 0.30 597 179 0.35 382 134 0.40 239 95 0.50 152 76 0.60 119 72 Emulsion
0.25 796 199 0.30 597 179 0.35 382 134 0.40 239 95 0.50 152 76 0.60 119 72 Emulsion
0.16 663 106 0.20 497 99 0.25 318 80 0.32 199 64 0.40 126 51 0.50 99 50 Emulsion
0.16 796 127 0.20 597 119 0.25 382 95 0.32 239 76 0.40 152 61 0.50 119 60 Emulsion
0.16 663 106 0.20 497 99 0.25 318 80 0.32 199 64 0.40 126 51 0.50 99 50 Emulsion
0.14 584 82 0.18 438 79 0.22 280 62 0.30 175 53 0.36 111 40 0.44 88 39 Emulsion/oil
0.12 451 54 0.14 338 47 0.18 216 39 0.23 135 31 0.27 86 23 0.32 68 22 Emulsion/oil
0.12 265 32 0.14 199 28 0.18 127 23 0.23 80 18 0.27 51 14 0.32 40 13 Emulsion/oil
0.16 796 127 0.20 597 119 0.25 382 95 0.32 239 76 0.40 152 61 0.50 119 60 Emulsion/oil
0.12 477 57 0.14 358 50 0.18 229 41 0.23 143 33 0.27 91 25 0.32 72 23 Oil
0.12 265 32 0.14 199 28 0.18 127 23 0.23 80 18 0.27 51 14 0.32 40 13 Oil
0.12 345 41 0.14 259 36 0.18 166 30 0.23 103 24 0.27 66 18 0.32 52 17 Emulsion/oil
0.12 265 32 0.14 199 28 0.18 127 23 0.23 80 18 0.27 51 14 0.32 40 13 Emulsion/oil
0.12 345 41 0.14 259 36 0.18 166 30 0.23 103 24 0.27 66 18 0.32 52 17 Emulsion/oil
0.12 265 32 0.14 199 28 0.18 127 23 0.23 80 18 0.27 51 14 0.32 40 13 Emulsion/oil
0.12 212 25 0.14 159 22 0.18 102 18 0.23 64 15 0.27 40 11 0.32 32 10 Emulsion/oil
0.12 212 25 0.14 159 22 0.18 102 18 0.23 64 15 0.27 40 11 0.32 32 10 Emulsion/oil
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
0.12 239 29 0.15 179 27 0.30 115 34 0.40 72 29 – – Emulsion
0.10 133 13 0.13 99 13 0.22 64 14 0.30 40 12 – – Emulsion
0.12 212 25 0.14 159 22 0.18 102 18 0.23 64 15 0.27 40 11 0.32 32 10 Emulsion/oil
0.12 398 48 0.14 298 42 0.18 191 34 0.24 119 29 0.27 76 20 0.32 60 19 Emulsion
0.12 398 48 0.14 298 42 0.18 191 34 0.24 119 29 0.27 76 20 0.32 60 19 Emulsion
0.12 318 38 0.14 239 33 0.18 153 28 0.24 95 23 0.27 61 16 0.32 48 15 Emulsion
0.12 212 25 0.14 159 22 0.18 102 18 0.24 64 15 0.27 40 11 0.32 32 10 Emulsion
0.12 146 18 0.14 109 15 0.18 70 13 0.24 44 11 0.27 28 8 0.32 22 7 Oil
0.25 663 166 0.30 497 149 0.40 318 127 0.40 199 80 0.50 126 63 0.60 99 60 dry/comp. air
0.20 663 133 0.25 497 124 0.32 318 102 0.32 199 64 0.40 126 51 0.50 99 50 dry/comp. air
0.25 796 199 0.30 597 179 0.40 382 153 0.40 239 95 0.50 152 76 0.60 119 72 Emulsion
0.20 531 106 0.25 398 99 0.32 255 81 0.32 159 51 0.40 101 40 0.50 80 40 Emulsion
0.12 146 18 0.14 109 15 0.18 70 13 0.23 44 10 0.27 28 8 0.32 22 7 Oil
0.12 119 14 0.14 90 13 0.18 57 10 0.23 36 8 0.27 23 6 0.32 18 6 Oil
0.22 1857 408 0.30 1393 418 0.40 891 357 0.45 557 251 0.50 354 177 0.60 279 167 Emulsion
0.22 1194 263 0.30 895 269 0.40 573 229 0.45 358 161 0.50 227 114 0.60 179 107 Emulsion
0.20 1061 212 0.25 796 199 0.30 509 153 0.40 318 127 0.50 202 101 0.60 159 95 Emulsion
0.22 1857 408 0.30 1393 418 0.40 891 357 0.45 557 251 0.50 354 177 0.60 279 167 Emulsion
0.22 1326 292 0.30 995 298 0.40 637 255 0.45 398 179 0.50 253 126 0.60 199 119 Emulsion/oil
0.30 2122 637 0.35 1592 557 0.40 1019 407 0.50 637 318 0.60 404 243 0.70 318 223 dry/emul./oil
0.25 1194 298 0.35 895 313 0.40 573 229 0.50 358 179 0.60 227 136 0.70 179 125 Emulsion/oil
0.20 1061 212 0.25 796 199 0.30 509 153 0.40 318 127 0.50 202 101 0.60 159 95 Emulsion/oil
0.20 1061 212 0.25 796 199 0.30 509 153 0.40 318 127 0.50 202 101 0.60 159 95 Emulsion/oil
0.20 610 122 0.25 458 114 0.30 293 88 0.40 183 73 0.50 116 58 0.60 92 55 Emulsion/oil
0.20 610 122 0.25 458 114 0.30 293 88 0.40 183 73 0.50 116 58 0.60 92 55 Emulsion/oil
– – – – – –
– – – – – –

– – – – – –

197
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Table 3.13 GARANT high-performance twist drills, some with through-coolant


(HSS/E and HSS/Co8 – TiAIN)
Catalogue number 114555; 114660
DIN 338
Number of teeth 2
Material Material designation Strength vc ∅3 ∅5 ∅8
group [m/min] f n vf f n vf f n vf
[Nm/mm2] min. Start max. [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.]
1.0 General structural steels < 500 30 – 40 – 50 0.08 6366 509 0.14 2546 357 0.22 1592 350
1.1 General structural steels 500 – 850 25 – 30 – 40 0.07 4775 334 0.11 1910 210 0.18 1194 215
2.0 Free cutting steels < 850 30 – 40 – 50 0.08 6366 509 0.14 2546 357 0.22 1592 350
2.1 Free cutting steels 850 – 1000 25 – 30 – 40 0.07 4775 334 0.11 1910 210 0.18 1194 215
3.0 Unalloyed heat treatable steels <700 30 – 40 – 50 0.08 6366 509 0.14 2546 357 0.22 1592 350
3.1 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 700 – 850 25 – 30 – 40 0.07 4775 334 0.11 1910 210 0.18 1194 215
3.2 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 25 – 30 – 40 0.07 4775 334 0.11 1910 210 0.18 1194 215
4.0 Alloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 15 – 20 – 25 0.06 3183 191 0.09 1273 115 0.13 796 103
4.1 Alloyed heat treatable steels 1000 – 1200 15 – 20 – 25 0.06 3183 191 0.09 1273 115 0.13 796 103
5.0 Unalloyed case hardening steels <750 30 – 40 – 50 0.08 6366 509 0.14 2546 357 0.22 1592 350
6.0 Alloyed case hardening steels < 1000 15 – 20 – 25 0.06 3183 191 0.09 1273 115 0.13 796 103
6.1 Alloyed case hardening steels > 1000 10 – 14 – 18 0.05 2228 111 0.07 891 62 0.10 557 56
7.0 Nitride steels < 1000 15 – 18 – 20 0.06 2865 172 0.09 1146 103 0.13 716 93
7.1 Nitride steels > 1000 10 – 12 – 15 0.05 1910 95 0.07 764 53 0.10 477 48
8.0 Tool steels < 850 15 – 20 – 25 0.06 3183 191 0.06 1273 115 0.13 796 103
8.1 Tool steels 850 – 1100 10 – 12 – 15 0.05 1910 95 0.05 764 53 0.10 477 48
8.2 Tool steels 1100 – 1400 10 – 12 – 15 0.05 1910 95 0.05 764 53 0.10 477 48
9.0 High-speed steels 830 – 1200 10 – 12 – 15 0.05 1910 95 0.05 764 53 0.10 477 48
10.0 Hardened steels 48–55 HRC – – – –
10.1 Hardened steels 55–60 HRC – – – –
10.2 Hardened steels 60–67 HRC – – – –
11.0 Wear-resistant structural steels 1350 6 – 8 – 10 0.04 1273 51 0.06 509 28 0.08 318 25
11.1 Wear-resistant structural steels 1800 6 – 8 – 10 0.04 1273 51 0.06 509 28 0.08 318 25
12.0 Spring steels < 1500 6 – 8 – 10 0.04 1273 51 0.06 509 28 0.08 318 25
13.0 Stainless steel, sulphured < 700 10 – 12 – 15 0.05 1910 95 0.07 764 53 0.10 477 48
13.1 Stainless steel, austenitic < 700 10 – 12 – 15 0.05 1910 95 0.07 764 53 0.10 477 48
13.2 Stainless steel, austenitic < 850 10 – 12 – 15 0.05 1910 95 0.07 764 53 0.10 477 48
13.3 Stainless steel, martensitic < 1100 6 – 8 – 10 0.04 1273 95 0.06 509 28 0.08 318 25
14.0 Special alloys < 1200 6 – 8 – 10 0.03 1273 38 0.04 509 20 0.06 318 19
15.0 Cast iron (GG) < 180 HB 30 – 40 – 50 0.08 6366 509 0.14 2546 357 0.22 1592 350
15.1 Cast iron (GG) > 180 HB 25 – 30 – 40 0.08 4775 328 0.14 1910 267 0.22 1194 263
15.2 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 180 HB 30 – 40 – 50 0.08 6366 509 0.14 2546 357 0.22 1592 350
15.3 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 260 HB 25 – 30 – 40 0.08 4775 382 0.14 1910 267 0.22 1194 263
16.0 Titanium, titanium alloys < 850 8 – 10 – 15 0.04 1592 64 0.06 637 35 0.08 398 32
16.1 Titanium, titanium alloys 850 – 1200 6 – 8 – 10 0.04 1273 51 0.06 509 28 0.08 318 25
17.0 Aluminium, aluminium alloys < 530 – – – –
17.1 Aluminium cast alloys <10% Si <600 – – – –
17.2 Aluminium cast alloys >10% Si < 600 – – – –
18.0 Magnesium, Mg alloys < 280 – – – –
19.0 Copper, low-alloy < 400 – – – –
19.1 Brass, short-chipping < 600 – – – –
19.2 Brass, long-chipping < 600 – – – –
19.3 Bronze, short-chipping < 600 – – – –
19.4 Bronze, short-chipping 650 – 850 – – – –
19.5 Bronze, long-chipping < 850 – – – –
19.6 Bronze, long-chipping 850 – 1200 – – – –
20.0 Graphite – – – –
21.0 Thermoplastics and thermo- – – – –
setting plastics
21.1 GFK and CFK – – – –
Note: The values for speed n and the feed rate speed vf apply for the cutting speed starting value. Coolant pressure: 25 bar

198
Drilling

∅ 10 ∅ 13 ∅ 16 ∅ 20 ∅ 25 ∅ 30 Cooling
f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf lubricant
[mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.]
0.25 1061 265 0.26 796 207 – – – – Emulsion
0.20 796 159 0.22 597 131 – – – – Emulsion
0.25 1061 265 0.26 796 207 – – – – Emulsion
0.20 796 159 0.22 597 131 – – – – Emulsion
0.25 1061 265 0.26 796 207 – – – – Emulsion
0.20 796 159 0.22 597 131 – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.20 796 159 0.22 597 131 – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.16 531 85 0.18 398 72 – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.16 531 85 0.18 398 72 – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.25 1061 265 0.26 796 207 – – – – Emulsion
0.16 531 85 0.18 398 72 – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.13 371 46 0.14 279 39 – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.16 477 76 0.18 358 64 – – – – Emulsion
0.13 318 40 0.14 239 33 – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.16 531 85 0.18 398 72 – – – – Emulsion
0.13 318 40 0.14 239 33 – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.13 318 40 0.14 239 33 – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.13 318 40 0.14 239 33 – – – – Emulsion/oil
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
0.10 212 21 0.11 159 18 – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.10 212 21 0.11 159 18 – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.10 212 21 0.11 159 18 – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.13 318 40 0.14 239 33 – – – – Oil
0.13 318 40 0.14 239 33 – – – – Oil
0.13 318 40 0.14 239 33 – – – – Oil
0.10 212 21 0.11 159 18 – – – – Oil
0.08 212 17 0.09 159 14 – – – – Oil
0.25 1061 265 0.26 796 207 – – – – Emuls./comp. air
0.25 796 199 0.26 597 155 – – – – Emuls./comp. air
0.25 1061 265 0.26 796 207 – – – – Emuls./comp. air
0.25 796 199 0.26 597 155 – – – – Emuls./comp. air
0.10 265 27 0.11 199 22 – – – – Oil
0.10 212 21 0.11 159 18 – – – – Oil
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –

– – – – – –

199
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Table 3.14 GARANT twist drills, powder metal (PM – TiAlN)


Catalogue number 113280; 114620
DIN 1897; 338
Number of teeth 2

Material Material designation Strength vc ∅2 ∅5 ∅8


group [m/min] f n vf f n vf f n vf
[Nm/mm2] min. Start max. [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.]
1.0 General structural steels < 500 50 – 60 – 70 0.05 9549 516 0.13 3820 427 0.18 2387 430
1.1 General structural steels 500 – 850 50 – 60 – 70 0.05 9549 516 0.13 3820 427 0.18 2387 430
2.0 Free cutting steels < 850 50 – 60 – 70 0.05 9549 516 0.13 3820 427 0.18 2387 430
2.1 Free cutting steels 850 – 1000 40 – 50 – 60 0.03 7958 255 0.08 3183 242 0.11 1989 215
3.0 Unalloyed heat treatable steels <700 40 – 50 – 60 0.03 7958 255 0.08 3183 242 0.11 1989 215
3.1 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 700 – 850 40 – 50 – 60 0.03 7958 255 0.08 3183 242 0.11 1989 215
3.2 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 40 – 45 – 50 0.03 7162 186 0.06 2865 183 0.10 1790 175
4.0 Alloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 30 – 35 – 40 0.02 5570 123 0.05 2228 120 0.09 1393 120
4.1 Alloyed heat treatable steels 1000 – 1200 30 – 35 – 40 0.02 5570 123 0.05 2228 120 0.09 1393 120
5.0 Unalloyed case hardening steels <750 50 – 60 – 70 0.03 9549 306 0.08 3820 290 0.11 2387 258
6.0 Alloyed case hardening steels < 1000 40 – 50 – 60 0.02 7958 175 0.05 3183 172 0.09 1989 171
6.1 Alloyed case hardening steels > 1000 40 – 45 – 50 0.02 7162 158 0.05 2865 155 0.09 1790 154
7.0 Nitride steels < 1000 30 – 35 – 40 0.02 5570 123 0.05 2228 120 0.09 1393 120
7.1 Nitride steels > 1000 30 – 35 – 40 0.02 5570 123 0.05 2228 120 0.09 1393 120
8.0 Tool steels < 850 30 – 35 – 40 0.02 5570 123 0.05 2228 120 0.09 1393 120
8.1 Tool steels 850 – 1100 30 – 35 – 40 0.02 5570 123 0.05 2228 120 0.09 1393 120
8.2 Tool steels 1100 – 1400 25 – 30 – 35 0.02 4775 105 0.05 1910 103 0.09 1194 103
9.0 High-speed steels 830 – 1200 25 – 30 – 35 0.02 4775 105 0.05 1910 103 0.09 1194 103
10.0 Hardened steels 48–55 HRC – – – –
10.1 Hardened steels 55–60 HRC – – – –
10.2 Hardened steels 60–67 HRC – – – –
11.0 Wear-resistant structural steels 1350 10 – 15 – 20 0.02 2387 53 0.05 955 52 0.09 597 51
11.1 Wear-resistant structural steels 1800 10 – 13 – 15 0.02 2069 46 0.05 828 45 0.06 517 33
12.0 Spring steels < 1500 10 – 13 – 15 0.02 2069 46 0.05 828 45 0.09 517 44
13.0 Stainless steel, sulphured < 700 18 – 23 – 28 0.02 3661 81 0.05 1464 79 0.09 915 79
13.1 Stainless steel, austenitic < 700 15 – 20 – 25 0.02 3183 70 0.05 1273 69 0.09 796 68
13.2 Stainless steel, austenitic < 850 15 – 20 – 25 0.02 3183 70 0.05 1273 69 0.09 796 68
13.3 Stainless steel, martensitic < 1100 12 – 15 – 20 0.02 2387 53 0.05 955 52 0.09 597 51
14.0 Special alloys < 1200 10 – 13 – 15 0.02 2069 46 0.05 828 45 0.09 517 44
15.0 Cast iron (GG) < 180 HB 70 – 80 – 90 0.05 12732 688 0.13 5093 662 0.22 3183 688
15.1 Cast iron (GG) > 180 HB 50 – 60 – 70 0.04 9549 420 0.11 3820 413 0.17 2387 411
15.2 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 180 HB 70 – 80 – 90 0.05 12732 688 0.13 5093 662 0.22 3183 688
15.3 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 260 HB 50 – 60 – 70 0.04 9549 420 0.11 3820 413 0.17 2387 411
16.0 Titanium, titanium alloys < 850 20 – 25 – 30 0.02 3979 88 0.05 1592 86 0.09 995 86
16.1 Titanium, titanium alloys 850 – 1200 9 – 12 – 15 0.02 1910 42 0.05 764 41 0.09 477 41
17.0 Aluminium, aluminium alloys < 530 350 – 400 – 450 0.05 63662 3438 0.15 25465 3871 0.19 15915 3088
17.1 Aluminium cast alloys <10% Si <600 70 – 80 – 90 0.05 12732 688 0.15 5093 774 0.19 3183 618
17.2 Aluminium cast alloys >10% Si < 600 50 – 60 – 70 0.03 9549 306 0.09 3820 328 0.15 2387 363
18.0 Magnesium, Mg alloys < 280 350 – 400 – 450 0.05 63662 3438 0.15 25465 3871 0.19 15915 3088
19.0 Copper, low-alloy < 400 70 – 80 – 90 0.05 12732 688 0.15 5093 774 0.19 3183 618
19.1 Brass, short-chipping < 600 75 – 100 – 125 0.09 15915 1369 0.19 6366 1235 0.27 3979 1074
19.2 Brass, long-chipping < 600 44 – 56 – 75 0.05 8913 481 0.16 3565 578 0.22 2228 481
19.3 Bronze, short-chipping < 600 31 – 50 – 63 0.05 7958 430 0.09 3183 274 0.15 1989 302
19.4 Bronze, short-chipping 650 – 850 31 – 50 – 63 0.05 7958 430 0.09 3183 274 0.15 1989 302
19.5 Bronze, long-chipping < 850 19 – 29 – 44 0.05 4615 249 0.09 1846 159 0.15 1154 175
19.6 Bronze, long-chipping 850 – 1200 19 – 29 – 44 0.05 4615 249 0.09 1846 159 0.15 1154 175
20.0 Graphite – – – –
21.0 Thermoplastics and thermo- – – – –
setting plastics
21.1 GFK and CFK – – – –
Note: The values for speed n and the feed rate speed vf apply for a mean drill diameter and the cutting speed starting value.

200
Drilling

∅ 12–13 ∅ 16 ∅ 25 ∅ 40 ∅ 63 ∅ 80 Cooling
f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf lubricant
[mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.]
0.22 1528 336 – – – – – Emulsion
0.22 1528 336 – – – – – Emulsion
0.22 1528 336 – – – – – Emulsion
0.17 1273 219 – – – – – Emulsion
0.17 1273 219 – – – – – Emulsion
0.17 1273 219 – – – – – Emulsion
0.15 1146 174 – – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.13 891 116 – – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.13 891 116 – – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.17 1528 263 – – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.13 1273 166 – – – – – Oil
0.13 1146 149 – – – – – Oil
0.13 891 116 – – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.13 891 116 – – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.13 891 116 – – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.13 891 116 – – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.13 764 99 – – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.13 764 99 – – – – – Emulsion/oil
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
0.13 382 50 – – – – – Emulsion
0.11 331 36 – – – – – Emulsion
0.13 331 43 – – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.13 586 76 – – – – – Emulsion
0.13 509 66 – – – – – Emulsion
0.13 509 66 – – – – – Emulsion
0.13 382 50 – – – – – Emulsion
0.13 331 43 – – – – – Oil
0.27 2037 550 – – – – – dry/comp. air
0.22 1528 330 – – – – – dry/comp. air
0.27 2037 550 – – – – – Emulsion
0.22 1528 330 – – – – – Emulsion
0.13 637 83 – – – – – Oil
0.13 306 40 – – – – – Oil
0.24 10186 2424 – – – – – Emulsion
0.24 2037 485 – – – – – Emulsion
0.22 1528 330 – – – – – Emulsion
0.24 10186 2424 – – – – – Emulsion
0.24 2037 485 – – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.32 2546 825 – – – – – dry/emul./oil
0.27 1426 385 – – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.22 1273 275 – – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.22 1273 275 – – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.22 738 160 – – – – – Emulsion/oil
0.22 738 160 – – – – – Emulsion/oil
– – – – – –
– – – – – –

– – – – – –

201
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Table 3.15 GARANT twist drills (HSS and HSS/E – TiAIN/TiN)


Catalogue number 113140; 113230; 113260; 113310; 114350; 114500; 114550; 114600; 116060; 116080; 116280; 116440;
116540
DIN 1897; 338; 340; 1869; 345; 341; 1870
Number of teeth 2
Material Material designation Strength vc ∅2 ∅5 ∅8
group [m/min] f n vf f n vf f n vf
[Nm/mm2] min. Start max. [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.]
1.0 General structural steels < 500 38 – 50 – 63 0.05 7958 430 0.13 3183 414 0.22 1989 430
1.1 General structural steels 500 – 850 31 – 37 – 44 0.05 5889 318 0.13 2355 306 0.22 1472 318
2.0 Free cutting steels < 850 31 – 37 – 44 0.05 5889 318 0.13 2355 306 0.22 1472 318
2.1 Free cutting steels 850 – 1000 25 – 31 – 38 0.03 4934 158 0.08 1974 150 0.11 1233 133
3.0 Unalloyed heat treatable steels <700 31 – 37 – 44 0.03 5889 188 0.08 2355 179 0.11 1472 159
3.1 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 700 – 850 25 – 31 – 38 0.03 4934 158 0.08 1974 150 0.11 1233 133
3.2 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 25 – 27 – 31 0.03 4297 112 0.06 1719 110 0.10 1074 105
4.0 Alloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 19 – 21 – 25 0.02 3342 74 0.05 1337 72 0.09 836 72
4.1 Alloyed heat treatable steels 1000 – 1200 10 – 12 – 15 0.02 1910 42 0.05 764 41 0.09 477 41
5.0 Unalloyed case harden. steels <750 31 – 37 – 44 0.03 5889 188 0.08 2355 179 0.11 1472 159
6.0 Alloyed case hardening steels < 1000 19 – 22 – 25 0.02 3501 77 0.05 1401 76 0.09 875 75
6.1 Alloyed case hardening steels > 1000 10 – 12 – 15 0.02 1910 42 0.05 764 41 0.09 477 41
7.0 Nitride steels < 1000 13 – 16 – 19 0.02 2546 56 0.05 1019 55 0.09 637 55
7.1 Nitride steels > 1000 10 – 12 – 15 0.02 1910 42 0.05 764 41 0.09 477 41
8.0 Tool steels < 850 13 – 16 – 19 0.02 2546 56 0.05 1019 55 0.09 637 55
8.1 Tool steels 850 – 1100 10 – 12 – 15 0.02 1910 42 0.05 764 41 0.09 477 41
8.2 Tool steels 1100 – 1400 7.5 – 10 – 13 0.02 1592 35 0.05 637 34 0.09 398 34
9.0 High-speed steels 830 – 1200 7.5 – 10 – 13 0.02 1592 35 0.05 637 34 0.09 398 34
10.0 Hardened steels 48–55 HRC – – – –
10.1 Hardened steels 55–60 HRC – – – –
10.2 Hardened steels 60–67 HRC – – – –
11.0 Wear-resistant structural steels 1350 10 – 11 – 13 – – 0.09 438 38
11.1 Wear-resistant structural steels 1800 5 – 6 – 7.5 – – 0.06 239 15
12.0 Spring steels < 1500 6 – 10 – 13 0.02 1592 35 0.05 637 34 0.09 398 34
13.0 Stainless steel, sulphured < 700 13 – 19 – 25 0.02 3024 67 0.05 1210 65 0.09 756 65
13.1 Stainless steel, austenitic < 700 13 – 19 – 25 0.02 3024 67 0.05 1210 65 0.09 756 65
13.2 Stainless steel, austenitic < 850 10 – 15 – 19 0.02 2387 53 0.05 955 52 0.09 597 51
13.3 Stainless steel, martensitic < 1100 7.5 – 10 – 13 0.02 1592 35 0.05 637 34 0.09 398 34
14.0 Special alloys < 1200 3.5 – 7 – 10 0.02 1114 25 0.05 446 24 0.09 279 24
15.0 Cast iron (GG) < 180 HB 25 – 31 – 38 0.05 4934 266 0.13 1974 257 0.22 1233 266
15.1 Cast iron (GG) > 180 HB 25 – 31 – 38 0.04 4934 217 0.11 1974 213 0.17 1233 212
15.2 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 180 HB 31 – 37 – 44 0.05 5889 318 0.13 2355 306 0.22 1472 318
15.3 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 260 HB 23 – 25 – 28 0.04 3979 175 0.11 1592 172 0.17 995 171
16.0 Titanium, titanium alloys < 850 3.5 – 7 – 10 0.02 1114 25 0.05 446 24 0.09 279 24
16.1 Titanium, titanium alloys 850 – 1200 3.5 – 5.5 – 7.5 0.02 875 19 0.05 350 19 0.09 219 19
17.0 Aluminium, aluminium alloys < 530 50 – 87 – 125 0.05 13846 748 0.15 5539 842 0.19 3462 672
17.1 Aluminium cast alloys <10% Si <600 38 – 56 – 75 0.05 8913 481 0.15 3565 542 0.19 2228 432
17.2 Aluminium cast alloys >10% Si < 600 38 – 50 – 63 0.03 7958 255 0.09 3183 274 0.15 1989 302
18.0 Magnesium, Mg alloys < 280 50 – 87 – 125 0.05 13846 748 0.15 5539 842 0.19 3462 672
19.0 Copper, low-alloy < 400 44 – 62 – 81 0.05 9868 533 0.15 3947 600 0.19 2467 479
19.1 Brass, short-chipping < 600 75 – 100 – 125 0.09 15915 1369 0.19 6366 1235 0.27 3979 1074
19.2 Brass, long-chipping < 600 44 – 56 – 75 0.05 8913 481 0.16 3565 578 0.22 2228 481
19.3 Bronze, short-chipping < 600 31 – 50 – 63 0.05 7958 430 0.09 3183 274 0.15 1989 302
19.4 Bronze, short-chipping 650 – 850 31 – 50 – 63 0.05 7958 430 0.09 3183 274 0.15 1989 302
19.5 Bronze, long-chipping < 850 19 – 29 – 44 0.05 4615 249 0.09 1846 159 0.15 1154 175
19.6 Bronze, long-chipping 850 – 1200 19 – 29 – 44 0.05 4615 249 0.09 1846 159 0.15 1154 175
20.0 Graphite – – – –
21.0 Thermoplastics and thermo- – – – –
setting plastics
21.1 GFK and CFK – – – –
Note: The values for speed n and the feed rate speed vf apply for the cutting speed starting value.

202
Drilling

∅ 12 ∅ 16 ∅ 25 ∅ 40 ∅ 63 ∅ 80 Cooling
f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf lubricant
[mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.]
0.27 1326 358 0.32 995 322 0.43 637 275 0.43 398 172 0.54 253 136 0.54 199 107 Emulsion
0.27 981 265 0.32 736 238 0.38 471 178 0.43 294 127 0.54 187 101 0.65 147 95 Emulsion
0.27 981 265 0.32 736 238 0.38 471 178 0.43 294 127 0.54 187 101 0.65 147 95 Emulsion
0.17 822 141 0.22 617 133 0.27 395 107 0.35 247 85 0.43 157 68 0.54 123 67 Emulsion
0.17 981 169 0.22 736 159 0.27 471 127 0.35 294 102 0.43 187 81 0.54 147 79 Emulsion
0.17 822 141 0.22 617 133 0.27 395 107 0.35 247 85 0.43 157 68 0.54 123 67 Emulsion
0.15 716 109 0.19 537 104 0.24 344 82 0.32 215 70 0.39 136 53 0.48 107 51 Emulsion/oil
0.13 557 72 0.15 418 64 0.19 267 52 0.25 167 41 0.29 106 31 0.35 84 29 Emulsion/oil
0.13 318 41 0.15 239 36 0.19 153 30 0.25 95 24 0.29 61 18 0.35 48 17 Emulsion/oil
0.17 981 169 0.22 736 159 0.27 471 127 0.35 294 102 0.43 187 81 0.54 147 79 Emulsion/oil
0.13 584 76 0.15 438 67 0.19 280 54 0.25 175 43 0.29 111 32 0.35 88 30 Oil
0.13 318 41 0.15 239 36 0.19 153 30 0.25 95 24 0.29 61 18 0.35 48 17 Oil
0.13 424 55 0.15 318 48 0.19 204 40 0.25 127 32 0.29 81 24 0.35 64 22 Emulsion/oil
0.13 318 41 0.15 239 36 0.19 153 30 0.25 95 24 0.29 61 18 0.35 48 17 Emulsion/oil
0.13 424 55 0.15 318 48 0.19 204 40 0.25 127 32 0.29 81 24 0.35 64 22 Emulsion/oil
0.13 318 41 0.15 239 36 0.19 153 30 0.25 95 24 0.29 61 18 0.35 48 17 Emulsion/oil
0.13 265 34 0.15 199 30 0.19 127 25 0.25 80 20 0.29 51 15 0.35 40 14 Emulsion/oil
0.13 265 34 0.15 199 30 0.19 127 25 0.25 80 20 0.29 51 15 0.35 40 14 Emulsion/oil
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
0.13 292 38 0.16 219 35 0.32 140 45 0.43 88 38 – – Emulsion
0.11 159 17 0.14 119 17 0.24 76 18 0.32 48 15 – – Emulsion
0.13 265 34 0.15 199 30 0.19 127 25 0.25 80 20 0.29 51 15 0.35 40 14 Emulsion/oil
0.13 504 66 0.15 378 57 0.19 242 47 0.26 151 39 0.29 96 28 0.35 76 26 Emulsion
0.13 504 66 0.15 378 57 0.19 242 47 0.26 151 39 0.29 96 28 0.35 76 26 Emulsion
0.13 398 52 0.15 298 45 0.19 191 37 0.26 119 31 0.29 76 22 0.35 60 21 Emulsion
0.13 265 34 0.15 199 30 0.19 127 25 0.26 80 21 0.29 51 15 0.35 40 14 Emulsion
0.13 186 24 0.15 139 21 0.19 89 17 0.26 56 14 0.29 35 10 0.35 28 10 Oil
0.27 822 222 0.32 617 200 0.43 395 171 0.43 247 107 0.54 157 85 0.65 123 80 dry/comp. air
0.22 822 178 0.27 617 167 0.35 395 137 0.35 247 85 0.43 157 68 0.54 123 67 dry/comp. air
0.27 981 265 0.32 736 238 0.43 471 204 0.43 294 127 0.54 187 101 0.65 147 95 Emulsion
0.22 663 143 0.27 497 134 0.35 318 110 0.35 199 69 0.43 126 55 0.54 99 54 Emulsion
0.13 186 24 0.15 139 21 0.19 89 17 0.25 56 14 0.29 35 10 0.35 28 10 Oil
0.13 146 19 0.15 109 17 0.19 70 14 0.25 44 11 0.29 28 8 0.35 22 8 Oil
0.24 2308 549 0.32 1731 561 0.43 1108 479 0.49 692 336 0.54 440 237 0.65 346 224 Emulsion
0.24 1485 354 0.32 1114 361 0.52 713 372 0.49 446 217 0.54 283 153 0.65 223 144 Emulsion
0.22 1326 286 0.27 995 269 0.32 637 206 0.43 398 172 0.54 253 136 0.65 199 129 Emulsion
0.24 2308 549 0.32 1731 561 0.43 1108 479 0.49 692 336 0.54 440 237 0.65 346 224 Emulsion
0.24 1645 391 0.32 1233 400 0.43 789 341 0.49 493 240 0.54 313 169 0.65 247 160 Emulsion/oil
0.32 2653 859 0.38 1989 752 0.43 1273 550 0.54 796 430 0.65 505 327 0.76 398 301 dry/emul./oil
0.27 1485 401 0.38 1114 421 0.43 713 308 0.54 446 241 0.65 283 183 0.76 223 168 Emulsion/oil
0.22 1326 286 0.27 995 269 0.32 637 206 0.43 398 172 0.54 253 136 0.65 199 129 Emulsion/oil
0.22 1326 286 0.27 995 269 0.32 637 206 0.43 398 172 0.54 253 136 0.65 199 129 Emulsion/oil
0.22 769 166 0.27 577 156 0.32 369 120 0.43 231 100 0.54 147 79 0.65 115 75 Emulsion/oil
0.22 769 166 0.27 577 156 0.32 369 120 0.43 231 100 0.54 147 79 0.65 115 75 Emulsion/oil
– – – – – –
– – – – – –

– – – – – –

203
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Table 3.16 GARANT centre drills (solid carbide)


Catalogue number 121000
DIN 333-A
Number of teeth 2

Material Material designation Strength vc ∅ 0.5 – 0.8 ∅ 1 – 1.25 ∅ 1.6 – 2


group [m/min] f n vf f n vf f n vf
[Nm/mm2] min. Start max. [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.]
1.0 General structural steels < 500 75 – 80 – 85 0.02 39177 784 0.03 22736 682 0.08 14147 1132
1.1 General structural steels 500 – 850 65 – 70 – 75 0.02 34280 686 0.03 19894 597 0.08 12379 990
2.0 Free cutting steels < 850 75 – 80 – 85 0.02 39177 784 0.03 22736 682 0.08 14147 1132
2.1 Free cutting steels 850–1000 65 – 70 – 75 0.01 34280 343 0.02 19894 398 0.07 12379 867
3.0 Unalloyed heat treatable steels <700 60 – 65 – 70 0.01 31831 637 0.02 18473 554 0.07 11495 920
3.1 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 700 – 850 60 – 65 – 70 0.01 31831 637 0.02 18473 554 0.07 11495 920
3.2 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 60 – 65 – 70 0.01 31831 318 0.02 18473 369 0.07 11495 805
4.0 Alloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 60 – 65 – 70 0.01 31831 318 0.02 18473 369 0.07 11495 805
4.1 Alloyed heat treatable steels 1000 – 1200 60 – 65 – 70 0.01 31831 318 0.02 18473 369 0.07 11495 805
5.0 Unalloyed case harden. steels <750 70 – 75 – 80 0.02 36728 735 0.03 21315 639 0.08 13263 1061
6.0 Alloyed case hardening steels < 1000 65 – 70 – 65 0.01 34280 686 0.02 19894 597 0.06 12379 990
6.1 Alloyed case hardening steels > 1000 60 – 65 – 70 0.01 31831 318 0.02 18473 369 0.06 11495 690
7.0 Nitride steels < 1000 60 – 65 – 70 0.01 31831 318 0.02 18473 369 0.06 11495 690
7.1 Nitride steels > 1000 60 – 65 – 70 0.01 31831 318 0.02 18473 369 0.06 11495 690
8.0 Tool steels < 850 55 – 60 – 65 0.01 29382 294 0.02 17052 341 0.06 10610 637
8.1 Tool steels 850 – 1100 45 – 50 – 55 0.01 24485 245 0.02 14210 284 0.06 8842 531
8.2 Tool steels 1100 – 1400 – – – –
9.0 High-speed steels 830 – 1200 – – – –
10.0 Hardened steels 48–55 HRC – – – –
10.1 Hardened steels 55–60 HRC – – – –
10.2 Hardened steels 60–67 HRC – – – –
11.0 Wear-resistant structural steels 1350 – – – –
11.1 Wear-resistant structural steels 1800 – – – –
12.0 Spring steels < 1500 – – – –
13.0 Stainless steel, sulphured < 700 – – – –
13.1 Stainless steel, austenitic < 700 – – – –
13.2 Stainless steel, austenitic < 850 – – – –
13.3 Stainless steel, martensitic < 1100 – – – –
14.0 Special alloys < 1200 – – – –
15.0 Cast iron (GG) < 180 HB 60 – 70 – 75 0.02 34280 686 0.04 19894 796 0.07 12379 867
15.1 Cast iron (GG) > 180 HB 60 – 70 – 75 0.01 34280 343 0.03 19894 597 0.06 12379 743
15.2 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 180 HB 60 – 70 – 75 0.01 34280 343 0.03 19894 597 0.06 12379 743
15.3 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 260 HB 60 – 70 – 75 0.01 34280 343 0.03 19894 597 0.06 12379 743
16.0 Titanium, titanium alloys < 850 – – – –
16.1 Titanium, titanium alloys 850 – 1200 – – – –
17.0 Aluminium, aluminium alloys < 530 150 – 200 – 220 0.01 97942 979 0.01 56841 568 0.02 35368 707
17.1 Aluminium cast alloys <10% Si <600 150 – 180 – 200 0.01 88147 881 0.01 51157 512 0.02 31831 637
17.2 Aluminium cast alloys >10% Si < 600 130 – 160 – 180 0.01 78353 784 0.01 45473 455 0.02 28294 566
18.0 Magnesium, Mg alloys < 280 150 – 200 – 220 0.01 97942 979 0.01 56841 568 0.02 35368 707
19.0 Copper, low-alloy < 400 80 – 100 – 130 0.01 48971 490 0.01 28421 284 0.01 17684 177
19.1 Brass, short-chipping < 600 140 – 160 – 180 0.01 78353 784 0.01 45473 455 0.01 28294 283
19.2 Brass, long-chipping < 600 100 – 120 – 140 0.01 58765 588 0.01 34105 341 0.01 21221 212
19.3 Bronze, short-chipping < 600 60 – 70 – 85 0.01 34280 343 0.01 19894 199 0.01 12379 124
19.4 Bronze, short-chipping 650 – 850 60 – 70 – 85 0.01 34280 343 0.03 19894 199 0.01 12379 124
19.5 Bronze, long-chipping < 850 50 – 60 – 70 0.01 29382 294 0.01 17052 171 0.01 10610 106
19.6 Bronze, long-chipping 850 – 1200 50 – 60 – 70 0.01 29382 294 0.01 17052 171 0.01 10610 106
20.0 Graphite 50 – 60 – 70 0.01 29382 294 0.01 17052 171 0.01 10610 106
21.0 Thermoplastics and thermoset- – – – –
ting plastics
21.1 GFK and CFK – – – –
Note: The values for speed n and the feed rate speed vf apply for a mean drill diameter and the cutting speed starting value.

204
Drilling

∅ 2.5 – 3.15 ∅4 ∅5 ∅ 6.3 ∅8 ∅ 10 Cooling


f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf lubricant
[mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.]
0.10 9095 909 0.13 6366 828 0.13 5093 662 0.20 4042 808 – – Emulsion
0.08 7958 597 0.10 5570 557 0.10 4456 446 0.15 3537 531 – – Emulsion
0.10 9095 909 0.14 6366 891 0.14 5093 713 0.20 4042 808 – – Emulsion
0.08 7958 597 0.10 5570 557 0.10 4456 446 0.15 3537 531 – – Emulsion
0.10 7389 739 0.14 5173 724 0.14 4138 579 0.20 3284 657 – – Emulsion
0.10 7389 739 0.14 5173 724 0.14 4138 579 0.20 3284 657 – – Emulsion
0.08 7389 554 0.10 5173 517 0.10 4138 414 0.15 3284 493 – – Emulsion
0.10 7389 739 0.12 5173 621 0.12 4138 497 0.18 3284 591 – – Emulsion
0.08 7389 554 0.10 5173 517 0.10 4138 414 0.15 3284 493 – – Emulsion
0.10 8526 853 0.14 5968 836 0.14 4775 668 0.20 3789 758 – – Emulsion
0.10 7958 796 0.14 5570 780 0.14 4456 624 0.20 3537 707 – – Emulsion
0.08 7389 562 0.10 5173 517 0.10 4138 414 0.15 3784 493 – – Emulsion
0.08 7389 562 0.10 5173 517 0.10 4138 414 0.15 3284 493 – – Emulsion
0.08 7389 554 0.10 5173 517 0.10 4138 414 0.15 3284 493 – – Emulsion
0.08 6821 512 0.10 4775 477 0.10 3820 382 0.15 3032 455 – – Emulsion
0.08 5684 426 0.10 3979 398 0.10 3183 318 0.15 2526 379 – – Emulsion
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
0.08 7958 597 0.13 5570 696 0.13 4456 577 0.18 3537 619 – – dry/emulsion
0.08 7958 597 0.10 5570 557 0.10 4456 446 0.15 3537 531 – – dry/emulsion
0.08 7958 597 0.10 5570 557 0.10 4456 446 0.15 3537 531 – – Emulsion
0.08 7958 597 0.10 5570 557 0.10 4456 446 0.15 3537 531 – – Emulsion
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
0.02 22736 455 0.03 15915 477 0.03 12732 382 0.07 10105 707 – – Emulsion
0.02 20463 409 0.03 14324 430 0.03 11459 344 0.07 9095 637 – – Emulsion
0.02 18189 364 0.03 12732 382 0.03 10186 306 0.07 8084 566 – – Emulsion
0.02 22736 455 0.03 15915 477 0.03 12732 382 0.07 10105 707 – – Emulsion
0.01 11368 114 0.02 7958 159 0.02 6366 127 0.06 5053 303 – – Emulsion
0.01 18189 182 0.02 12732 255 0.02 10186 204 0.06 8084 485 – – Emulsion
0.01 13642 136 0.02 9549 191 0.02 7639 153 0.06 6063 364 – – Emulsion
0.01 7958 80 0.02 5570 111 0.02 4456 89 0.06 3537 212 – – Emulsion
0.01 7958 80 0.02 5570 111 0.02 4456 89 0.06 3537 212 – – Emulsion
0.01 6821 68 0.02 4775 95 0.02 3820 76 0.06 3032 182 – – Emulsion
0.01 6821 68 0.02 4775 95 0.02 3820 76 0.06 3032 182 – – Emulsion
0.01 6821 68 0.02 4775 95 0.02 3820 76 0.06 3032 182 – – dry
– – – – – –

– – – – – –

205
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Table 3.17 GARANT NC spotting drills (solid carbide)


Catalogue number 121020; 121070
DIN Company standard
Number of teeth 2

Material Material designation Strength vc ∅2–3 ∅4 ∅5


group [m/min] f n vf f n vf f n vf
[Nm/mm2] min. Start max. [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.]
1.0 General structural steels < 500 60 – 80 – 85 0.06 10186 611 0.08 6366 509 0.11 5093 560
1.1 General structural steels 500 – 850 60 – 70 – 75 0.06 8913 535 0.08 5570 446 0.11 4456 490
2.0 Free cutting steels < 850 60 – 80 – 85 0.06 10186 611 0.08 6366 509 0.11 5093 560
2.1 Free cutting steels 850 – 1000 60 – 70 – 75 0.05 8913 446 0.07 5570 390 0.09 4456 401
3.0 Unalloyed heat treatable steels <700 55 – 65 – 70 0.06 8276 497 0.08 5173 414 0.11 4138 455
3.1 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 700 – 850 55 – 65 – 75 0.06 8276 497 0.08 5173 414 0.11 4138 455
3.2 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 50 – 60 – 70 0.05 7639 382 0.06 4775 286 0.09 3820 344
4.0 Alloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 50 – 60 – 70 0.05 7639 382 0.06 4775 286 0.09 3820 344
4.1 Alloyed heat treatable steels 1000 – 1200 45 – 50 – 60 0.05 6366 318 0.06 3979 239 0.09 3183 286
5.0 Unalloyed case harden. steels <750 50 – 60 – 70 0.06 7639 458 0.07 4775 334 0.10 3820 382
6.0 Alloyed case hardening steels < 1000 50 – 60 – 70 0.06 7639 458 0.07 4775 334 0.10 3820 382
6.1 Alloyed case hardening steels > 1000 50 – 60 – 70 0.05 7639 382 0.06 4775 286 0.09 3820 344
7.0 Nitride steels < 1000 45 – 55 – 65 0.05 7003 350 0.06 4377 263 0.09 3501 315
7.1 Nitride steels > 1000 45 – 55 – 65 0.05 7003 350 0.06 4377 263 0.09 3501 315
8.0 Tool steels < 850 45 – 50 – 60 0.06 6366 382 0.07 3979 279 0.10 3183 318
8.1 Tool steels 850 – 1100 45 – 50 – 60 0.05 6366 318 0.06 3979 239 0.09 3183 286
8.2 Tool steels 1100 – 1400 – – – –
9.0 High-speed steels 830 – 1200 – – – –
10.0 Hardened steels 48–55 HRC – – – –
10.1 Hardened steels 55–60 HRC – – – –
10.2 Hardened steels 60–67 HRC – – – –
11.0 Wear-resistant structural steels 1350 – – – –
11.1 Wear-resistant structural steels 1800 – – – –
12.0 Spring steels < 1500 – – – –
13.0 Stainless steel, sulphured < 700 – – – –
13.1 Stainless steel, austenitic < 700 – – – –
13.2 Stainless steel, austenitic < 850 – – – –
13.3 Stainless steel, martensitic < 1100 – – – –
14.0 Special alloys < 1200 – – – –
15.0 Cast iron (GG) < 180 HB 65 – 70 – 75 0.06 8913 535 0.08 5570 446 0.11 4456 490
15.1 Cast iron (GG) > 180 HB 65 – 70 – 75 0.05 8913 446 0.07 5570 390 0.10 4456 446
15.2 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 180 HB 65 – 70 – 75 0.06 8913 535 0.08 5570 446 0.11 4456 490
15.3 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 260 HB 65 – 70 – 75 0.05 8913 446 0.07 5570 390 0.10 4456 446
16.0 Titanium, titanium alloys < 850 – – – –
16.1 Titanium, titanium alloys 850 – 1200 – – – –
17.0 Aluminium, aluminium alloys < 530 150 – 200 – 220 0.02 25465 509 0.03 15915 477 0.03 12732 382
17.1 Aluminium cast alloys <10% Si < 600 150 – 180 – 200 0.02 22918 458 0.03 14324 430 0.03 11459 344
17.2 Aluminium cast alloys >10% Si < 600 130 – 140 – 160 0.02 17825 357 0.03 11141 334 0.03 8913 267
18.0 Magnesium, Mg alloys < 280 150 – 200 – 220 0.02 25465 509 0.03 15915 477 0.03 12732 382
19.0 Copper, low-alloy < 400 130 – 160 – 180 0.01 20372 204 0.02 12732 255 0.02 10186 204
19.1 Brass, short-chipping < 600 130 – 160 – 180 0.01 20372 204 0.02 12732 255 0.02 10186 204
19.2 Brass, long-chipping < 600 100 – 120 – 140 0.01 15279 153 0.02 9549 191 0.02 7639 153
19.3 Bronze, short-chipping < 600 55 – 70 – 100 0.01 8913 89 0.02 5570 111 0.02 4456 89
19.4 Bronze, short-chipping 650 – 850 55 – 70 – 90 0.01 8913 89 0.02 5570 111 0.02 4456 89
19.5 Bronze, long-chipping < 850 50 – 60 – 90 0.01 7639 76 0.02 4775 95 0.02 3820 76
19.6 Bronze, long-chipping 850 – 1200 50 – 60 – 75 0.01 7639 76 0.02 4775 95 0.02 3820 76
20.0 Graphite 50 – 60 – 75 0.01 7639 76 0.02 4775 95 0.02 3820 76
21.0 Thermoplastics and thermo- – – – –
setting plastics
21.1 GFK and CFK – – – –
Note: The values for speed n and the feed rate speed vf apply for a mean drill diameter and the cutting speed starting value.

206
Drilling

∅6 ∅8 ∅ 10 ∅ 12 ∅ 16 ∅ 20 Cooling
f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf lubricant
[mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.]
0.14 4244 594 0.16 3183 509 0.19 2546 484 0.22 2122 467 0.26 1592 414 0.35 1273 446 Emulsion
0.14 3714 520 0.16 2785 446 0.19 2228 423 0.22 1857 408 0.26 1393 362 0.35 1114 390 Emulsion
0.14 4244 594 0.16 3183 509 0.19 2546 484 0.22 2122 467 0.26 1592 414 0.35 1273 446 Emulsion
0.12 3714 446 0.14 2785 390 0.17 2228 379 0.20 1857 371 0.24 1393 334 0.33 1114 368 Emulsion
0.14 3448 483 0.16 2586 414 0.19 2069 393 0.22 1724 379 0.26 1293 336 0.35 1035 362 Emulsion
0.14 3448 483 0.16 2586 414 0.19 2069 393 0.22 1724 379 0.26 1293 336 0.35 1035 362 Emulsion
0.12 3183 382 0.14 2387 334 0.17 1910 325 0.20 1592 318 0.24 1194 286 0.30 955 286 Emulsion
0.12 3183 382 0.14 2387 334 0.17 1910 325 0.20 1592 318 0.24 1194 286 0.30 955 286 Emulsion
0.11 2653 392 0.13 1989 259 0.16 1592 255 0.19 1326 252 0.23 995 229 0.28 796 223 Emulsion
0.12 3183 382 0.14 2387 334 0.17 1910 325 0.20 1592 318 0.24 1194 286 0.30 955 286 Emulsion
0.12 3183 382 0.14 2387 334 0.17 1910 325 0.20 1592 318 0.24 1194 286 0.30 955 286 Emulsion
0.11 3183 350 0.13 2387 310 0.16 1910 306 0.19 1592 302 0.23 1194 275 0.28 955 267 Emulsion
0.12 2918 350 0.14 2188 306 0.17 1751 298 0.20 1459 292 0.24 1094 263 0.30 875 263 Emulsion
0.11 2918 321 0.13 2188 284 0.16 1751 280 0.19 1459 277 0.23 1094 252 0.28 875 245 Emulsion
0.12 2653 318 0.14 1989 279 0.17 1592 271 0.20 1326 265 0.24 995 239 0.30 796 239 Emulsion
0.11 2653 292 0.13 1989 259 0.16 1592 255 0.19 1326 252 0.23 995 229 0.28 796 223 Emulsion
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
0.12 3714 446 0.14 2785 390 0.17 2228 379 0.20 1857 371 0.26 1393 362 0.36 1114 401 Emulsion
0.11 3714 408 0.13 2785 362 0.16 2228 357 0.19 1857 353 0.25 1393 348 0.33 1114 368 Emulsion
0.12 3714 446 0.14 2785 390 0.17 2228 379 0.20 1857 371 0.26 1393 362 0.33 1114 368 Emulsion
0.11 3714 408 0.13 2785 362 0.16 2228 357 0.19 1857 353 0.25 1393 348 0.33 1114 368 Emulsion
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
0.07 10610 743 0.07 7958 557 0.11 6366 700 0.11 5305 584 0.15 3979 597 0.20 3183 637 Emulsion
0.07 9549 668 0.07 7162 501 0.11 5730 630 0.11 4775 525 0.15 3581 537 0.20 2865 573 Emulsion
0.07 7427 520 0.07 5570 390 0.11 4456 490 0.11 3714 408 0.15 2785 418 0.20 2228 446 Emulsion
0.07 10610 743 0.07 7958 557 0.11 6366 700 0.11 5305 584 0.15 3979 597 0.20 3183 637 Emulsion
0.06 8488 509 0.06 6366 382 0.11 5093 560 0.11 4244 467 0.16 3183 509 0.20 2546 509 Emulsion
0.06 8488 509 0.06 6366 382 0.11 5093 560 0.11 4244 467 0.16 3183 509 0.20 2546 509 Emulsion
0.06 6366 382 0.06 4775 286 0.11 3820 420 0.11 3183 350 0.16 2387 382 0.20 1910 382 Emulsion
0.06 3714 223 0.06 2785 167 0.11 2228 245 0.11 1857 204 0.16 1393 223 0.20 1114 223 Emulsion
0.06 3714 223 0.06 2785 167 0.11 2228 245 0.11 1857 204 0.16 1393 223 0.20 1114 223 Emulsion
0.06 3183 191 0.06 2387 143 0.11 1910 210 0.11 1592 175 0.16 1194 191 0.20 955 191 Emulsion
0.06 3183 191 0.06 2387 143 0.11 1910 210 0.11 1592 175 0.16 1194 191 0.20 955 191 Emulsion
0.06 3183 191 0.06 2387 143 0.11 1910 210 0.11 1592 175 0.16 1194 191 0.20 955 191 dry
– – – – – –

– – – – – –

207
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Table 3.18 GARANT NC spotting drills (solid carbide – TiAIN)


Catalogue number 121040; 121110
DIN Company standard
Number of teeth 2

Material Material designation Strength vc ∅2–3 ∅4 ∅5


group [m/min] f n vf f n vf f n vf
[Nm/mm2] min. Start max. [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.]
1.0 General structural steels < 500 80 – 90 – 100 0.06 11459 688 0.08 7162 573 0.11 5730 630
1.1 General structural steels 500 – 850 60 – 80 – 90 0.06 10186 611 0.08 6366 509 0.11 5093 560
2.0 Free cutting steels < 850 60 – 80 – 90 0.06 10186 611 0.08 6366 509 0.11 5093 560
2.1 Free cutting steels 850 – 1000 60 – 80 – 90 0.05 10186 509 0.07 6366 446 0.09 5093 458
3.0 Unalloyed heat treatable steels <700 60 – 80 – 90 0.06 10186 611 0.08 6366 509 0.11 5093 560
3.1 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 700 – 850 60 – 80 – 90 0.06 10186 611 0.08 6366 509 0.11 5093 560
3.2 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 55 – 70 – 85 0.05 8913 446 0.06 5570 334 0.09 4456 401
4.0 Alloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 50 – 65 – 70 0.05 8276 414 0.06 5173 310 0.09 4138 372
4.1 Alloyed heat treatable steels 1000 – 1200 50 – 65 – 70 0.05 8276 414 0.06 5173 310 0.09 4138 372
5.0 Unalloyed case harden. steels <750 50 – 65 – 70 0.06 8276 497 0.07 5173 362 0.10 4138 414
6.0 Alloyed case hardening steels < 1000 50 – 65 – 70 0.06 8276 497 0.07 5173 362 0.10 4138 414
6.1 Alloyed case hardening steels > 1000 50 – 65 – 70 0.05 8276 414 0.06 5173 310 0.09 4138 372
7.0 Nitride steels < 1000 50 – 60 – 70 0.05 8276 414 0.06 5173 310 0.09 4138 372
7.1 Nitride steels > 1000 50 – 60 – 65 0.05 7639 382 0.06 4775 286 0.09 3820 344
8.0 Tool steels < 850 50 – 60 – 65 0.06 7639 485 0.07 4775 334 0.10 3820 382
8.1 Tool steels 850 – 1100 45 – 55 – 65 0.05 7003 350 0.06 4377 263 0.09 3501 315
8.2 Tool steels 1100 – 1400 45 – 55 – 65 0.05 7003 350 0.06 4377 263 0.08 3501 280
9.0 High-speed steels 830 – 1200 45 – 55 – 65 0.05 7003 350 0.06 4377 263 0.08 3501 280
10.0 Hardened steels 48–55 HRC – – – –
10.1 Hardened steels 55–60 HRC – – – –
10.2 Hardened steels 60–67 HRC – – – –
11.0 Wear-resistant structural steels 1350 25 – 30 – 35 0.04 3820 153 0.04 2387 95 0.05 1910 95
11.1 Wear-resistant structural steels 1800 25 – 30 – 35 0.04 3820 153 0.04 2387 95 0.05 1910 95
12.0 Spring steels < 1500 25 – 30 – 35 0.04 3820 153 0.04 2387 95 0.05 1910 95
13.0 Stainless steel, sulphured < 700 20 – 25 – 30 0.04 3183 127 0.05 1989 99 0.06 1592 95
13.1 Stainless steel, austenitic < 700 20 – 25 – 30 0.04 3183 127 0.05 1989 99 0.06 1592 95
13.2 Stainless steel, austenitic < 850 20 – 25 – 30 0.04 3183 127 0.05 1989 99 0.06 1592 95
13.3 Stainless steel, martensitic < 1100 20 – 25 – 30 0.04 3183 127 0.05 1989 99 0.06 1592 95
14.0 Special alloys < 1200 20 – 25 – 30 0.04 3183 127 0.07 1989 139 0.06 1592 95
15.0 Cast iron (GG) < 180 HB 80 – 90 – 100 0.06 11459 688 0.08 7162 573 0.11 5730 630
15.1 Cast iron (GG) > 180 HB 80 – 90 – 100 0.05 11459 573 0.07 7162 501 0.10 5730 573
15.2 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 180 HB 80 – 90 – 100 0.06 11459 688 0.08 7162 573 0.11 5730 630
15.3 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 260 HB 80 – 90 – 100 0.05 11459 573 0.07 7162 501 0.10 5730 573
16.0 Titanium, titanium alloys < 850 35 – 40 – 45 0.06 5093 306 0.08 3183 255 0.09 2546 229
16.1 Titanium, titanium alloys 850 – 1200 35 – 40 – 45 0.05 5093 255 0.07 3183 223 0.08 2546 204
17.0 Aluminium, aluminium alloys < 530 220 – 260 – 300 0.02 33104 662 0.03 20690 621 0.03 16552 497
17.1 Aluminium cast alloys <10% Si <600 200 – 240 – 260 0.02 30558 611 0.03 19099 573 0.03 15279 458
17.2 Aluminium cast alloys >10% Si < 600 180 – 200 – 240 0.02 25465 509 0.03 15915 477 0.03 12732 382
18.0 Magnesium, Mg alloys < 280 220 – 260 – 300 0.02 33104 662 0.03 20690 621 0.03 16552 497
19.0 Copper, low-alloy < 400 180 – 200 – 240 0.01 25465 255 0.02 15915 318 0.02 12732 255
19.1 Brass, short-chipping < 600 180 – 200 – 240 0.01 25465 255 0.02 15915 318 0.02 12732 255
19.2 Brass, long-chipping < 600 150 – 180 – 200 0.01 22918 229 0.02 14324 286 0.02 11459 229
19.3 Bronze, short-chipping < 600 130 – 140 – 160 0.01 17825 178 0.02 11141 223 0.02 8913 178
19.4 Bronze, short-chipping 650 – 850 130 – 140 – 160 0.01 17825 178 0.02 11141 223 0.02 8913 178
19.5 Bronze, long-chipping < 850 110 – 130 – 150 0.01 16552 166 0.02 10345 207 0.02 8276 166
19.6 Bronze, long-chipping 850 – 1200 110 – 130 – 150 0.01 16552 166 0.02 10345 207 0.02 8276 166
20.0 Graphite 110 – 130 – 150 0.01 16552 166 0.02 10345 207 0.02 8276 166
21.0 Thermoplastics and thermo- – – – –
setting plastics
21.1 GFK and CFK – – – –
Note: The values for speed n and the feed rate speed vf apply for a mean drill diameter and the cutting speed starting value.

208
Drilling

∅6 ∅8 ∅ 10 ∅ 12 ∅ 16 ∅ 20 Cooling
f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf lubricant
[mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.]
0.14 4775 668 0.16 3581 573 0.19 2865 544 0.22 2387 525 0.26 1790 466 0.35 1432 501 Emulsion
0.14 4244 594 0.16 3183 509 0.19 2546 484 0.22 2122 467 0.26 1592 414 0.35 1273 446 Emulsion
0.14 4244 594 0.16 3183 509 0.19 2546 484 0.22 2122 467 0.26 1592 414 0.35 1273 446 Emulsion
0.12 4244 509 0.14 3183 446 0.17 2546 433 0.20 2122 424 0.24 1592 382 0.33 1273 420 Emulsion
0.14 4244 594 0.16 3183 509 0.19 2546 484 0.22 2122 467 0.26 1592 414 0.35 1273 446 Emulsion
0.14 4244 594 0.16 3183 509 0.19 2546 484 0.22 2122 467 0.26 1592 414 0.35 1273 446 Emulsion
0.12 3714 446 0.14 2785 390 0.17 2228 379 0.20 1857 371 0.24 1393 334 0.30 1114 334 Emulsion
0.12 3448 414 0.14 2586 362 0.17 2069 352 0.20 1724 345 0.24 1293 310 0.30 1035 310 Emulsion
0.11 3448 379 0.13 2586 336 0.16 2069 331 0.19 1724 328 0.23 1293 297 0.28 1035 290 Emulsion
0.12 3448 414 0.14 2586 362 0.17 2069 352 0.20 1724 345 0.24 1293 310 0.30 1035 310 Emulsion
0.12 3448 414 0.14 2586 362 0.17 2069 352 0.20 1724 345 0.24 1293 310 0.30 1035 310 Emulsion
0.11 3448 379 0.13 2586 336 0.16 2069 331 0.19 1724 328 0.23 1293 297 0.28 1035 290 Emulsion
0.12 3448 414 0.14 2586 362 0.17 1910 352 0.20 1724 345 0.24 1293 310 0.30 1035 310 Emulsion
0.11 3183 350 0.13 2387 310 0.16 1910 306 0.19 1592 302 0.23 1194 275 0.28 955 267 Emulsion
0.12 3183 382 0.14 2387 334 0.17 1910 325 0.20 1592 318 0.24 1194 286 0.30 955 286 Emulsion
0.11 2918 321 0.13 2188 284 0.15 1751 263 0.19 1459 277 0.23 1094 252 0.28 875 245 Emulsion
0.10 2918 292 0.12 2188 263 0.13 1751 228 0.16 1459 233 0.19 1094 208 0.22 875 193 Emulsion
0.10 2918 292 0.12 2188 263 0.13 1751 228 0.16 1459 233 0.19 1094 208 0.22 875 193 Emulsion
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
0.05 1592 80 0.08 1194 95 0.10 955 95 0.12 796 95 0.15 597 90 0.18 477 86 Emulsion
0.05 1592 80 0.08 1194 95 0.10 955 95 0.12 796 95 0.15 597 90 0.18 477 86 Emulsion
0.05 1592 80 0.08 1194 95 0.10 955 95 0.12 796 95 0.15 597 90 0.18 477 86 Emulsion
0.06 1326 80 0.10 995 99 0.12 796 95 0.15 663 99 0.18 497 90 0.21 398 84 Emulsion
0.06 1326 80 0.10 995 99 0.12 796 95 0.15 663 99 0.18 497 90 0.21 398 84 Emulsion
0.06 1326 80 0.09 995 90 0.11 796 88 0.14 663 93 0.17 497 85 0.20 398 80 Emulsion
0.06 1326 80 0.09 995 90 0.11 796 88 0.14 663 93 0.17 497 85 0.20 398 80 Emulsion
0.06 1326 80 0.09 995 90 0.11 796 88 0.14 663 93 0.17 497 85 0.20 398 80 Emulsion
0.12 4775 573 0.14 3581 501 0.17 2865 487 0.20 2387 477 0.26 1790 466 0.36 1432 516 Dry / emulsion
0.11 4775 525 0.13 3581 466 0.16 2865 458 0.19 2387 454 0.25 1790 448 0.33 1432 473 Dry / emulsion
0.12 4775 573 0.14 3581 501 0.17 2865 487 0.20 2387 477 0.26 1790 466 0.33 1432 473 Emulsion
0.11 4775 525 0.13 3581 466 0.16 2865 458 0.19 2387 454 0.25 1790 448 0.33 1432 473 Emulsion
0.09 2122 191 0.11 1592 175 0.14 1273 178 0.17 1061 180 0.19 796 151 0.25 637 159 Emulsion
0.08 2122 170 0.10 1592 159 0.13 1273 166 0.16 1061 170 0.18 796 143 0.25 637 159 Emulsion
0.07 13793 966 0.07 10345 724 0.11 8276 910 0.11 6897 759 0.15 5173 776 0.20 4138 828 Emulsion
0.07 12732 891 0.07 9549 668 0.11 7639 840 0.11 6366 700 0.15 4775 716 0.20 3820 764 Emulsion
0.07 10610 743 0.07 7958 557 0.11 6366 700 0.11 5305 584 0.15 3979 597 0.20 3183 637 Emulsion
0.07 13793 966 0.07 10345 724 0.11 8276 910 0.11 6897 759 0.15 5173 776 0.20 4138 828 Emulsion
0.06 10610 637 0.06 7958 477 0.11 6366 700 0.11 5305 584 0.16 3979 637 0.20 3183 637 Emulsion
0.06 10610 637 0.06 7958 477 0.11 6366 700 0.11 5305 584 0.16 3979 637 0.20 3183 637 Emulsion
0.06 9549 573 0.06 7162 430 0.11 5730 630 0.11 4775 525 0.16 3581 573 0.20 2865 573 Emulsion
0.06 7427 446 0.06 5570 334 0.11 4456 490 0.11 3714 408 0.16 2785 446 0.20 2228 446 Emulsion
0.06 7427 446 0.06 5570 334 0.11 4456 490 0.11 3714 408 0.16 2785 446 0.20 2228 446 Emulsion
0.06 6897 414 0.06 5173 310 0.11 4138 455 0.11 3448 379 0.16 2586 414 0.20 2069 414 Emulsion
0.06 6897 414 0.06 5173 310 0.11 4138 455 0.11 3448 379 0.16 2586 414 0.20 2069 414 Emulsion
0.06 6897 414 0.06 5173 310 0.11 4138 455 0.11 3448 379 0.16 2586 414 0.20 2069 414 dry
– – – – – –

– – – – – –

209
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Table 3.19 GARANT microdrills/short twist drills (solid carbide)


Catalogue number 121200; 122100
DIN 6539
Number of teeth 2

Material Material designation Strength vc ∅ 0.1 – 0.9 ∅ 1.0 – 1.9 ∅ 2.0 – 2.9
group [m/min] f n vf f n vf f n vf
[Nm/mm2] min. Start max. [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.]
1.0 General structural steels < 500 60 – 70 – 75 0.02 44563 713 0.04 15367 615 0.06 9095 546
1.1 General structural steels 500 – 850 60 – 70 – 75 0.02 44563 713 0.04 15367 615 0.06 9095 546
2.0 Free cutting steels < 850 60 – 70 – 75 0.02 44563 713 0.04 15367 615 0.06 9095 546
2.1 Free cutting steels 850 – 1000 55 – 60 – 65 0.02 38197 611 0.04 13171 527 0.06 7795 468
3.0 Unalloyed heat treatable steels <700 60 – 70 – 75 0.02 44563 713 0.04 15367 615 0.06 9095 546
3.1 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 700 – 850 60 – 70 – 75 0.02 44563 713 0.04 15367 615 0.06 9095 546
3.2 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 55 – 60 – 65 0.01 38197 458 0.03 13171 448 0.05 7795 390
4.0 Alloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 55 – 60 – 65 0.01 38197 458 0.03 13171 448 0.05 7795 390
4.1 Alloyed heat treatable steels 1000 – 1200 50 – 55 – 60 0.01 35014 420 0.03 12074 411 0.05 7146 357
5.0 Unalloyed case harden. steels <750 60 – 70 – 75 0.01 44563 535 0.03 15367 522 0.05 9095 455
6.0 Alloyed case hardening steels < 1000 55 – 60 – 65 0.01 38197 458 0.03 13171 448 0.05 7795 390
6.1 Alloyed case hardening steels > 1000 50 – 55 – 60 0.01 35014 420 0.03 12074 411 0.05 7146 357
7.0 Nitride steels < 1000 55 – 60 – 65 0.01 35014 382 0.03 13171 395 0.05 7795 359
7.1 Nitride steels > 1000 50 – 55 – 60 0.01 35014 350 0.03 12074 362 0.05 7146 329
8.0 Tool steels < 850 55 – 60 – 65 0.01 38197 382 0.03 13171 395 0.05 7795 359
8.1 Tool steels 850 – 1100 50 – 55 – 60 0.01 35014 350 0.03 12074 362 0.05 7146 329
8.2 Tool steels 1100 – 1400 30 – 35 – 40 0.01 22282 223 0.03 7683 231 0.05 4547 209
9.0 High-speed steels 830 – 1200 30 – 35 – 40 0.01 22282 223 0.03 7683 231 0.05 4547 209
10.0 Hardened steels 48–55 HRC – – – –
10.1 Hardened steels 55–60 HRC – – – –
10.2 Hardened steels 60–67 HRC – – – –
11.0 Wear-resistant structural steels 1350 20 – 30 – 35 0.01 19099 191 0.03 6586 198 0.05 3898 179
11.1 Wear-resistant structural steels 1800 15 – 20 – 25 0.01 12732 127 0.03 4390 132 0.05 2598 120
12.0 Spring steels < 1500 20 – 30 – 35 0.01 19099 191 0.03 6586 198 0.05 3898 179
13.0 Stainless steel, sulphured < 700 30 – 35 – 40 0.01 22282 267 0.03 7683 261 0.05 4547 227
13.1 Stainless steel, austenitic < 700 30 – 35 – 40 0.01 22282 267 0.03 7683 261 0.05 4547 227
13.2 Stainless steel, austenitic < 850 25 – 30 – 35 0.01 19099 229 0.03 6586 224 0.05 3898 195
13.3 Stainless steel, martensitic < 1100 25 – 30 – 35 0.01 19099 229 0.03 6586 224 0.05 3898 195
14.0 Special alloys < 1200 15 – 20 – 25 0.01 12732 127 0.03 4390 132 0.05 2598 120
15.0 Cast iron (GG) < 180 HB 70 – 90 – 100 0.01 57296 802 0.03 19757 632 0.05 11693 631
15.1 Cast iron (GG) > 180 HB 70 – 90 – 100 0.01 57296 802 0.03 19757 632 0.05 11693 631
15.2 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 180 HB 65 – 70 – 75 0.01 44563 535 0.03 15367 522 0.05 9095 455
15.3 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 260 HB 65 – 70 – 75 0.01 44563 535 0.03 15367 522 0.05 9095 455
16.0 Titanium, titanium alloys < 850 20 – 30 – 35 0.01 19099 191 0.03 6586 198 0.05 3898 179
16.1 Titanium, titanium alloys 850 – 1200 15 – 20 – 25 0.01 12732 127 0.03 4390 132 0.05 2598 120
17.0 Alumin., aluminium alloys < 530 150 – 200 – 220 0.02 127324 2037 0.04 43905 1756 0.06 25984 1559
17.1 Alumin. cast alloys <10% Si <600 100 – 140 – 180 0.02 89127 1426 0.04 30733 1229 0.06 18189 1091
17.2 Alumin. cast alloys >10% Si < 600 100 – 140 – 180 0.02 89127 1426 0.04 30733 1229 0.06 18189 1091
18.0 Magnesium, Mg alloys < 280 150 – 200 – 220 0.02 127324 2037 0.04 43905 1756 0.06 25984 1559
19.0 Copper, low-alloy < 400 100 – 140 – 180 0.02 89124 1426 0.04 30733 1229 0.06 18189 1091
19.1 Brass, short-chipping < 600 100 – 140 – 180 0.02 89124 1426 0.04 30733 1229 0.06 18189 1091
19.2 Brass, long-chipping < 600 100 – 140 – 180 0.02 89124 1426 0.04 30733 1229 0.06 18189 1091
19.3 Bronze, short-chipping < 600 100 – 140 – 180 0.02 89124 1426 0.04 30733 1229 0.06 18189 1091
19.4 Bronze, short-chipping 650 - 850 100 – 140 – 180 0.02 89124 1426 0.04 30733 1229 0.06 17825 1091
19.5 Bronze, long-chipping < 850 90 – 110 – 140 0.01 70028 980 0.03 24148 773 0.05 14291 772
19.6 Bronze, long-chipping 850 – 1200 90 – 110 – 140 0.01 70028 980 0.03 24148 773 0.05 14291 772
20.0 Graphite 70 – 90 – 100 0.01 57296 802 0.03 19757 632 0.05 11693 631
21.0 Thermoplastics and thermo- – – – –
setting plastics
21.1 GFK and CFK – – – –
Note: The values for speed n and the feed rate speed vf apply for a mean drill diameter and the cutting speed starting value.

210
Drilling

∅ 3.0 – 5.9 ∅ 6.0 – 8.9 ∅ 9.0 – 11.9 ∅ 12.0 – 15.9 ∅ 16.0 – 18.9 ∅ 19.0 – 20.0 Cooling
f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf lubricant
[mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.]
0.10 5007 501 0.14 2991 419 0.17 2132 362 0.23 1597 367 – – Emulsion
0.10 5007 501 0.14 2991 419 0.17 2132 362 0.23 1597 367 – – Emulsion
0.10 5007 501 0.14 2991 419 0.17 2132 362 0.23 1597 367 – – Emulsion
0.10 4292 429 0.14 2564 359 0.17 1828 311 0.23 1369 315 – – Emulsion
0.10 5007 501 0.14 2991 419 0.17 2132 362 0.23 1597 367 – – Emulsion
0.10 5007 501 0.14 2991 419 0.17 2132 362 0.23 1597 367 – – Emulsion
0.09 4292 386 0.12 2564 308 0.15 1828 274 0.20 1369 274 – – Emulsion
0.09 4292 386 0.12 2564 308 0.15 1828 274 0.20 1369 274 – – Emulsion
0.09 3934 354 0.12 2350 282 0.15 1675 251 0.20 1255 251 – – Emulsion
0.09 5007 451 0.12 2991 359 0.15 2132 320 0.20 1597 319 – – Emulsion
0.09 4292 386 0.12 2564 308 0.15 1828 274 0.20 1369 274 – – Emulsion
0.09 3934 354 0.12 2350 282 0.15 1675 251 0.20 1255 251 – – Emulsion
0.08 4292 343 0.11 2564 282 0.14 1828 256 0.18 1369 246 – – Emulsion
0.08 3934 315 0.11 2350 258 0.14 1675 235 0.18 1255 226 – – Emulsion
0.08 4292 343 0.11 2564 282 0.14 1828 256 0.18 1369 246 – – Emulsion
0.08 3934 315 0.11 2350 258 0.14 1675 235 0.18 1255 226 – – Emulsion
0.08 2504 200 0.11 1495 164 0.14 1066 149 0.18 799 144 – – Emulsion
0.08 2504 200 0.11 1495 164 0.14 1066 149 0.18 799 144 – – Emulsion
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
0.08 2146 172 0.11 1282 141 0.14 914 128 0.18 685 123 – – Emulsion
0.08 1431 114 0.11 855 94 0.14 609 85 0.18 456 82 – – Emulsion
0.08 2146 172 0.11 1282 141 0.14 914 128 0.18 685 123 – – Emulsion
0.09 2504 225 0.12 1495 179 0.15 1066 160 0.20 799 160 – – Emulsion
0.09 2504 225 0.12 1495 179 0.15 1066 160 0.20 799 160 – – Emulsion
0.09 2146 193 0.12 1282 154 0.15 914 137 0.20 685 137 – – Emulsion
0.09 2146 192 0.12 1282 154 0.15 914 137 0.20 685 137 – – Emulsion
0.08 1431 114 0.11 855 94 0.14 609 85 0.18 456 82 – – Emulsion
0.09 6438 605 0.13 3845 500 0.16 2741 439 0.21 2054 431 – – Dry / emulsion
0.09 6438 605 0.13 3845 500 0.16 2741 439 0.21 2054 431 – – Dry / emulsion
0.09 5007 451 0.12 2991 359 0.15 2132 320 0.20 1597 319 – – Emulsion
0.09 5007 451 0.12 2991 359 0.15 2132 320 0.20 1597 319 – – Emulsion
0.08 2146 172 0.11 1282 141 0.14 914 128 0.18 685 123 – – Emulsion
0.08 1431 114 0.11 855 94 0.14 609 85 0.18 456 82 – – Emulsion
0.10 14306 1431 0.14 8545 1196 0.17 6092 1036 0.23 4564 1050 – – Emulsion
0.10 10014 1001 0.14 5982 837 0.17 4264 725 0.23 3195 735 – – Emulsion
0.10 10014 1001 0.14 5982 837 0.17 4264 725 0.23 3195 735 – – Emulsion
0.10 14306 1431 0.14 8545 1196 0.17 6092 1036 0.23 4564 1050 – – Emulsion
0.10 10014 1001 0.14 5982 837 0.17 4264 725 0.23 3195 735 – – Emulsion
0.10 10014 1001 0.14 5982 837 0.17 4264 725 0.23 3195 735 – – Emulsion
0.10 10014 1001 0.14 5982 837 0.17 4264 725 0.23 3195 735 – – Emulsion
0.10 10014 1001 0.14 5982 837 0.17 4264 725 0.23 3195 735 – – Emulsion
0.10 10014 1001 0.14 5982 837 0.17 4264 725 0.23 3195 735 – – Emulsion
0.09 7868 740 0.13 4700 611 0.16 3351 536 0.21 2510 527 – – Emulsion
0.09 7868 740 0.13 4700 611 0.16 3351 536 0.21 2510 527 – – Emulsion
0.09 6438 605 0.13 3845 500 0.16 2741 439 0.21 2054 431 – – dry

211
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Table 3.20 GARANT short twist drills (solid carbide – TiAIN)


Catalogue number 122150;
DIN 6539
Number of teeth 2

Material Material designation Strength vc ∅ 0.1 – 0.9 ∅ 1.0 – 1.9 ∅ 2.0 – 2.9
group [m/min] f n vf f n vf f n vf
[Nm/mm2] min. Start max. [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.]
1.0 General structural steels < 500 80 – 90 – 100 0.02 57296 917 0.04 19757 790 0.06 11693 702
1.1 General structural steels 500 – 850 80 – 90 – 100 0.02 57296 917 0.04 19757 790 0.06 11693 702
2.0 Free cutting steels < 850 80 – 90 – 100 0.02 57296 917 0.04 19757 790 0.06 11693 702
2.1 Free cutting steels 850 – 1000 70 – 80 – 85 0.02 50930 815 0.04 17562 702 0.06 10394 624
3.0 Unalloyed heat treatable steels <700 80 – 90 – 100 0.02 57296 917 0.04 19757 790 0.06 11693 702
3.1 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 700 – 850 80 – 90 – 100 0.02 57296 917 0.04 19757 790 0.06 11693 702
3.2 Unalloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 70 – 80 – 85 0.01 50930 611 0.03 17562 597 0.05 10394 520
4.0 Alloyed heat treatable steels 850 – 1000 70 – 80 – 85 0.01 50930 611 0.03 17562 597 0.05 10394 520
4.1 Alloyed heat treatable steels 1000 – 1200 65 – 70 – 80 0.01 44563 535 0.03 15367 522 0.05 9095 455
5.0 Unalloyed case hardening steels <750 80 – 90 – 100 0.01 57296 688 0.03 19757 672 0.05 11693 585
6.0 Alloyed case hardening steels < 1000 70 – 80 – 85 0.01 50930 611 0.03 17562 597 0.05 10394 520
6.1 Alloyed case hardening steels > 1000 65 – 70 – 80 0.01 44563 535 0.03 15367 522 0.05 9095 455
7.0 Nitride steels < 1000 70 – 80 – 85 0.01 50930 509 0.03 17562 527 0.05 10394 478
7.1 Nitride steels > 1000 65 – 70 – 80 0.01 44563 446 0.03 15367 461 0.05 9095 418
8.0 Tool steels < 850 70 – 80 – 85 0.01 50930 509 0.03 17562 527 0.05 10394 478
8.1 Tool steels 850 – 1100 65 – 70 – 80 0.01 44563 446 0.03 15367 461 0.05 9095 418
8.2 Tool steels 1100 – 1400 40 – 45 – 50 0.01 28648 286 0.03 9879 296 0.05 5847 269
9.0 High-speed steels 830 – 1200 40 – 45 – 50 0.01 28648 286 0.03 9879 296 0.05 5847 269
10.0 Hardened steels 48–55 HRC – – – –
10.1 Hardened steels 55–60 HRC – – – –
10.2 Hardened steels 60–67 HRC – – – –
11.0 Wear-resistant structural steels 1350 25 – 35 – 45 0.01 22282 223 0.03 7683 231 0.05 4547 209
11.1 Wear-resistant structural steels 1800 20 – 25 – 35 0.01 15915 159 0.03 5488 165 0.05 3248 149
12.0 Spring steels < 1500 25 – 35 – 45 0.01 22282 223 0.03 7683 231 0.05 4547 209
13.0 Stainless steel, sulphured < 700 30 – 40 – 45 0.01 25465 306 0.03 8781 299 0.05 5197 260
13.1 Stainless steel, austenitic < 700 30 – 40 – 45 0.01 25465 306 0.03 8781 299 0.05 5197 260
13.2 Stainless steel, austenitic < 850 – – – –
13.3 Stainless steel, martensitic < 1100 25 – 30 – 25 0.01 19099 229 0.03 6586 224 0.05 3898 195
14.0 Special alloys < 1200 20 – 25 – 35 0.01 15915 159 0.03 5488 165 0.05 3248 149
15.0 Cast iron (GG) < 180 HB 90 – 110 – 130 0.01 70028 980 0.03 24148 773 0.05 14291 772
15.1 Cast iron (GG) > 180 HB 90 – 110 – 130 0.01 70028 980 0.03 24148 773 0.05 14291 772
15.2 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 180 HB 85 – 90 – 100 0.01 57296 688 0.03 19757 672 0.05 11639 585
15.3 Cast iron (GGG, GT) > 260 HB 85 – 90 – 100 0.01 57296 688 0.03 19757 672 0.05 11639 585
16.0 Titanium, titanium alloys < 850 25 – 35 – 45 0.01 22282 223 0.03 7863 231 0.05 4547 209
16.1 Titanium, titanium alloys 850 – 1200 20 – 25 – 35 0.01 15915 159 0.03 5488 165 0.05 3248 149
17.0 Aluminium, aluminium alloys < 530 200 – 260 – 300 0.02 165521 2648 0.04 57076 2283 0.06 33780 2027
17.1 Alu. cast alloys <10% Si <600 130 – 180 – 230 0.02 114592 1833 0.04 39514 1581 0.06 23386 1403
17.2 Alu. cast alloys >10% Si < 600 130 – 180 – 230 0.02 114592 1833 0.04 39514 1581 0.06 23386 1403
18.0 Magnesium, Mg alloys < 280 200 – 260 – 300 0.02 165521 2648 0.04 57076 2283 0.06 33780 2027
19.0 Copper, low-alloy < 400 130 – 180 – 230 0.02 114592 1833 0.04 39514 1581 0.06 23386 1403
19.1 Brass, short-chipping < 600 130 – 180 – 230 0.02 114592 1833 0.04 39514 1581 0.06 23386 1403
19.2 Brass, long-chipping < 600 130 – 180 – 230 0.02 114592 1833 0.04 39514 1581 0.06 23386 1403
19.3 Bronze, short-chipping < 600 130 – 180 – 230 0.02 114592 1833 0.04 39514 1581 0.06 23386 1403
19.4 Bronze, short-chipping 650 – 850 130 – 180 – 230 0.02 114592 1833 0.04 39514 1581 0.06 23386 1403
19.5 Bronze, long-chipping < 850 120 – 140 – 180 0.01 89127 1248 0.03 30733 983 0.05 18189 982
19.6 Bronze, long-chipping 850 – 1200 120 – 140 – 180 0.01 89127 1248 0.03 30733 983 0.05 18189 982
20.0 Graphite 90 – 110 – 130 0.01 70028 980 0.03 24148 773 0.05 14291 772
21.0 Thermoplastics and thermo- – – – –
setting plastics
21.1 GFK and CFK – – – –
Note: The values for speed n and the feed rate speed vf apply for the drill diameter and the cutting speed starting value.

212
Drilling

∅ 3.0 – 5.9 ∅ 6.0 – 8.9 ∅ 9.0 – 11.9 ∅ 12.0 – 15.9 16.0 – 18.9 ∅ 19.0 – 20.0 Cooling
f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf f n vf lubricant
[mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.] rev.]
0.10 6438 644 0.14 3845 538 0.17 2741 466 0.23 2054 472 – – Emulsion
0.10 6438 644 0.14 3845 538 0.17 2741 466 0.23 2054 472 – – Emulsion
0.10 6438 644 0.14 3845 538 0.17 2741 466 0.23 2054 472 – – Emulsion
0.10 5722 572 0.14 3418 479 0.17 2437 414 0.23 1825 420 – – Emulsion
0.10 6438 644 0.14 3845 538 0.17 2741 466 0.23 2054 472 – – Emulsion
0.10 6438 644 0.14 3845 538 0.17 2741 466 0.23 2054 472 – – Emulsion
0.09 5722 515 0.12 3418 410 0.15 2437 366 0.20 1825 365 – – Emulsion
0.09 5722 515 0.12 3418 410 0.15 2437 366 0.20 1825 365 – – Emulsion
0.09 5007 451 0.12 2991 359 0.15 2132 320 0.20 1597 320 – – Emulsion
0.09 6438 579 0.12 3845 461 0.15 2741 411 0.20 2054 411 – – Emulsion
0.09 5722 515 0.12 3418 410 0.15 2437 366 0.20 1825 365 – – Emulsion
0.09 5007 451 0.12 2991 359 0.15 2132 320 0.20 1597 320 – – Emulsion
0.08 5722 458 0.11 3418 376 0.14 2437 341 0.18 1825 329 – – Emulsion
0.08 5007 401 0.11 2991 329 0.14 2132 299 0.18 1597 288 – – Emulsion
0.08 5722 458 0.11 3418 376 0.14 2437 341 0.18 1825 329 – – Emulsion
0.08 5007 401 0.11 2991 329 0.14 2132 299 0.18 1597 288 – – Emulsion
0.08 3219 258 0.11 1923 211 0.14 1371 192 0.18 1027 185 – – Emulsion
0.08 3219 258 0.11 1923 211 0.14 1371 192 0.18 1027 185 – – Emulsion
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
– – – – – –
0.08 2504 200 0.11 1495 164 0.14 1066 149 0.18 799 144 – – Emulsion
0.08 1788 143 0.11 1068 117 0.14 762 106 0.18 570 103 – – Emulsion
0.08 2504 200 0.11 1495 164 0.14 1066 149 0.18 799 144 – – Emulsion
0.09 2861 258 0.12 1709 205 0.15 1218 183 0.20 913 183 – – Emulsion
0.09 2861 258 0.12 1709 205 0.15 1218 183 0.20 913 183 – – Emulsion
– – – –
0.09 2146 193 0.12 1282 154 0.15 914 137 0.20 685 137 – – Emulsion
0.08 1788 143 0.11 1068 117 0.14 762 107 0.18 570 103 – – Emulsion
0.09 7868 740 0.13 4700 611 0.16 3351 536 0.21 2510 527 – – Dry / emulsion
0.09 7868 740 0.13 4700 611 0.16 3351 536 0.21 2510 527 – – Dry / emulsion
0.09 6438 579 0.12 3845 461 0.15 2741 411 0.20 2054 411 – – Emulsion
0.09 6438 579 0.12 3845 461 0.15 2741 411 0.20 2054 411 – – Emulsion
0.08 2504 200 0.11 1495 164 0.14 1066 149 0.18 799 144 – – Emulsion
0.08 1788 143 0.11 1068 117 0.14 762 107 0.18 570 103 – – Emulsion
0.10 18598 1860 0.14 11109 1555 0.17 7920 1346 0.23 5933 1365 – – Emulsion
0.10 12875 1288 0.14 7691 1077 0.17 5483 932 0.23 4107 945 – – Emulsion
0.10 12875 1288 0.14 7691 1077 0.17 5483 932 0.23 4107 945 – – Emulsion
0.10 18598 1860 0.14 11109 1555 0.17 7920 1346 0.23 5933 1365 – – Emulsion
0.10 12875 1288 0.14 7691 1077 0.17 5483 932 0.23 4107 945 – – Emulsion
0.10 12875 1288 0.14 7691 1077 0.17 5483 932 0.23 4107 945 – – Emulsion
0.10 12875 1288 0.14 7691 1077 0.17 5483 932 0.23 4107 945 – – Emulsion
0.10 12875 1288 0.14 7691 1077 0.17 5483 932 0.23 4107 945 – – Emulsion
0.10 12875 1288 0.14 7691 1077 0.17 5483 932 0.23 4107 945 – – Emulsion
0.09 10014 941 0.13 5982 778 0.16 4264 682 0.21 3195 671 – – Emulsion
0.09 10014 941 0.13 5982 778 0.16 4264 682 0.21 3195 671 – – Emulsion
0.09 7868 740 0.13 4700 611 0.16 3351 536 0.21 2510 527 – – dry

213
GARANT MACHINING MANUAL

Table 3.21 GARANT short twist drills (carbide-brazed)


Catalogue number 122200; 124500
DIN 8037; 8041
Number of teeth 2

Material Material designation Strength vc ∅ 0.01 – 0.9 ∅ 1.0 – 1.9 ∅ 2.0 – 2.9
group [m/min] f n vf f n vf f n vf
[Nm/mm2] min. Start max. [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min] [mm/ [rpm] [mm/min]
rev.] rev.] rev.]
1.0 General structural steels < 500 60 – 70 – 75 – – –
1.1 General structural steels 500 – 850 60 – 70 – 75 – – –
2.0 Free cutting steels < 850 60 – 70 – 75 – – –
2.1 Free cutting steels 850 – 1000 55 – 60 – 65 – – –
3.0 Unalloyed heat treatable steels <700 60