Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 2

Mastering:  Recommended Equalisation Frequencies: 

Grassic Gibbon Songwriting Group


Sometimes the final mix is good enough to release  50Hz + to add more fullness to low frequency instru-
without additional processing, however mastering  ments like foot drum, floor tom, and bass.
can sometimes add sparkle and oomph to a song. 
 
- to decrease “boom” of bass but increase clarity of
bass in mix
Recording and
Here are suggestions to try with your final mix: 
 
100Hz + to add harder bass sound, fullness of guitars /
snare, warmth to piano and horns
Mastering
Compression: 
• Low ratio 1:1—1:5 
- to decrease “boom” on guitars but increase clarity
of guitars in mix Tips
• Low threshold –30dB  200Hz Ian Simpson             http://thefamilysimpson.wordpress.com 
+ to add fullness to vocals, add harder guitar / snare
• Long attack time to let drums punch through  sound
• Soft knee compression is best  - to reduce muddiness of vocals, “gong” sound of Equipment Needed: 
• Tube compression settings are best  cymbals
  Mixer (optional) 
400Hz + to add clarity to bass
EQ: 
- to decrease “cardboard” sound of foot drum and
• Cut mid‐range slightly to make mix appear louder 
toms, decrease ambiance on cymbals
 
Enhancer / Dynamic Equaliser:  800Hz + to add clarity and “punch” to bass Microphone 
• Dynamic equaliser redistributes harmonies to  - to remove “cheap” sound of guitars
give a smoother sound  1.5kHz + to add clarity and “pluck” to bass
• Can add power at the bass end  - to remove dullness of guitars Recording software 
• Be subtle!  Mastering software 
  3kHz + to add “pluck” to bass, attack on guitars/low
 

Optional 
Limiting:  octave piano, clarity and hardness on vocals Internet access  Headphones 
• Set to –0.5 dB  - to increase breathy soft sound on backing vocals, CD Writer 
disguise out of tune vocals/guitars Computer 
 
Timing:  5kHz + to add vocal presence, attack on foot drums /
• Make sure there is at least 100‐150ms of space at  toms, “finger sound” on bass, brightness on guitars Microphone Placement: 
the beginning of each song so CD player plays  and piano
song properly  - to make background parts sound distant, soften
• The first track must have a 2 second space at the  “thin” guitar
beginning of the song for proper CD player       7kHz + to add attack to percussion instruments, brighten
indexing and playback.  vocals, more “finger sound” on bass, sharpness to
  synths/guitars/piano
CD Burning:  - to decrease sibilance on vocals
• Burn audio CDs at as slow a speed as possible so  Close mike  Mid range  Far range 
10kHz + to brighten vocals, “light brightness” in acoustic
there are less errors. 
guitar/piano, hardness on cymbals Detail 
• Play the CD mixes on as many devices as possible 
- to decrease sibilance on vocals
before duplication e.g. headphones, stereos, car 
CD players, monitors.  15kHz + to brighten breath sound on vocals, cymbals/ Room ambiance 
strings/flutes, make synths sound more real
Recording and Mastering Tips
Stages of Recording:  Example compressor settings:  Levels: 

RECORDING • Set up audio levels  Sound Attack Release Ratio Hard / Gain An individual track’s level should be between –1 


and mics to suit  Soft reduction and –6 dB—NOT IN THE RED ZONE!! 
• Use compression 
Vocal Fast 0.5 sec 2:1— Soft - 3-8 db
• Use level and pan 
controls only  STATIC MIX
8:1
FINAL MIX (3D MIX)
(2D MIX) Loud Fast 0.3 sec 4:1— Hard - 5-15db
• No processing or  vocal 10:1
effects!  Reverb: 
• Add reverb for  Acous- 5-10ms 0.5 sec 5:1— Soft / 5-15db
depth  tic gui- 10:1 Hard Reverb is added to increase the depth of an       
• EQ each track to  tar instrument. For some instruments (foot drum, bass 
FINAL MIX
(3D MIX) make instruments  guitar) little or no reverb should be used. 
Electric 2-5ms 0.5 sec 8:1— Hard 5-15db
stand out   
guitar 10:1
• Start by listening to the snare drum recording in 
Foot 1-3ms 0.2 sec 5:1— Hard 5-15db isolation. Find the level where reverb starts to 
RECORDING drum &
snare
10:1 sound obvious and then reduce the level back 
slightly. TAKE A NOTE OF THIS (LEVEL A). 
Compression:  Bass 1-10ms 0.5 sec 4:1— Hard 5-15db • Now listen to the whole mix. Find the level 
12:1 where reverb on the snare drum starts to sound 
A compressor evens out the difference between  obvious. Again, reduce the level back slightly. 
Mix Fast 0.4 sec 2:1— Soft 2-10db TAKE NOTE OF THIS (LEVEL B). 
loud and quiet parts of a recording. It crushes the 
6:1 • Set the final level of reverb on the snare drum at 
audio if it gets too loud and raises the audio in the 
quiet sections.  General Fast 0.5 sec 5:1 Soft 2-10db some point between LEVEL A and LEVEL B. 
  • Apply reverb to other instruments as appropri‐
INPUT:   Sets the input level  ate between LEVEL A and LEVEL B. 
THRESHOLD: Sets how high the signal must reach 
before compression takes place 
STATIC MIX (2D MIX)  
The more reverb you add to an instrument, the 
further back in the mix it appears to be. 
RATIO:   Sets how much compression is ap‐ Panning of instruments & vocals in stereo field:   
plied to any signal above the thresh‐
NB: Drums should sound bigger with reverb than 
old 
tom 1  foot drum  tom 2  without but the reverb should not be obvious. 
ATTACK:   Sets how fast the compressor kicks in 
to any signal above the threshold  cymbals  snare  cymbals 

DECAY:   Sets how fast the compressor lets go  rhythm  bass  hi hat 


guitar 
once any signal has dropped under 
the threshold 
other instruments & vocals  should be panned evenly, working 
OUTPUT:   Sets the output level  IN from full pan left / right 

L          C                R