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NEBOSH Revision Guide

M Exam Year/Question
S/N QUESTION ANSWER
k No
The scope and nature of occupational health and safety (1.1.)
The moral, social and economic reasons for maintaining and promoting good standards of health and safety in the workplace (1.2.)
The role of national governments and international bodies in formulating a framework for the regulation of health and safety (1.3.)
The employer has the legal duty to put in place suitable arrangements for health and safety at the workplace
ensuring it is safe and free of health risks. They are morally required to provide safe and healthy working condition;
6 December 2012: 3a
socially/legally required to provide safe place of work (safe and without risk to health), safe plant & equipment (well
4 September 2012: 1a Outline the main health
serviced and inspected), safe systems of work (safe procedures for all activities), instruction, information & training
4 June 2010; 7a and safety
1 (to improve workers awareness of hazards and risks associated with their work), supervision and competent staff (for
6 March 2010; 8a responsibilities of an
adequate levels of supervision).
4 December 2010; 10a employer.
The employer via management is expected to provide a written health and safety policy, asses and manage risk to
4 March 2009; 8a
employees and other who may be affected by the company’s activities and consult with employees about their risks
at work and current preventive and protective measures.
Identify actions an Failure of an employer to fulfil its obligations constitutes a breach of the health and safety legislation and can lead to
December 2012: 3b enforcement authority the following: The enforcement agency may:
2
September 2012: 1c might take if it finds that • Issues advice or warning either verbally or in writing requiring that an improvement
2 4
March 2010; 8b an employer is not is made within a given period of time;
2
fulfilling their • Require the cessation of the activity or shut down the work place until improvements are made.
responsibilities. • Prosecute the organization in criminal courts which might result in punishment in the form of a fine.
Accident in a work place is likely to be caused by inadequate standards of workplace health and safety. The
associated cost to the organisiation can be direct or indirect.
 Direct costs are those measurable cost directly arising from the accident such as those arising from lost
production and time, dealing with the subsequent investigations; cost of plant damage and replacement,
8 December 2012: 6 Identify possible costs to
paying those involved during absences as a result of the accident or ill-health, having to recruit and train
4 September 2012: 1d an organisation
3 replacement labour; costs arising from the possibility of action by the enforcement authorities or by a civil
8 June 2010; 2 following an accident in
claim from the injured parties and the inevitable rise in insurance premiums.
8 March 2010; 10 the workplace.
 The indirect costs arises indirectly as a consequence of the accident and includes a reduction in staff
morale which could lead to industrial unrest and
high staff turnover, damage done to the organisation’s reputation which could
lead to a loss of orders and a subsequent decrease in its profitability.
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Article 19 of C155 outlines the responsibilities of the worker to include the following:
 Workers have the responsibility to cooperate with their employer to fulfill their safety obligations
4 September 2012: 1b Outline the main health
 Workers are to take reasonable care for their own safety and that of their fellow workers as well as those
4 June 2010; 7b and safety
4 who may be affected by their actions or omission.
4 December 2010; 10b responsibilities of a
 Workers are to report accidents and any dangerous situations at the workplace.
4 March 2009; 8b worker
 Workers are expected to safely use any equipment provided for them and not tamper with it.
 Workers are to adhere to safety rules, instructions and procedures.
The number of
Sources of information which could be used in investigating the situation described in
absences due to work-
the question include :
related upper limb
Internal Sources
disorders in an
 Risk assessments and job safety analyses where the need for repetitive action has been identified;
organisation is
 Accident and ill-health data/reports together with an analysis of records of absenteeism;
increasing.
5 8 June 2010; 8  Worker records which would provide information on age and any reported disability;
 Relevant information from safety committee meetings and from supervisors particularly of the complaints
Identify the possible
they have received; the results of surveys, questionnaires and interviews with workers;
sources of information
External Sources
that could be used when
 Published information such as guidance from the enforcing authority and/or manufacturers and that
investigating this
available from trade bodies and other employers.
problem.
A serious accident has
Insured costs:
occurred to a worker
 Damage to plant, buildings and equipment
and there will be costs
 Compensation paid to workers
to the organisation as a
 Medical cost
result.
 Legal costs and third party cost
6 6 September 2010; 3a (i) Identify THREE costs
Uninsured cost:
which are likely to be
 Production downtime and delays
insured.
 Hiring and training new employees
(ii) Identify THREE costs
 Loss of goodwill and business reputation
which are likely to be
 Accident investigation time
uninsured.
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Outline reasons why it is
It is important that an organisation maintains employers’ liability insurance because it may be a legal requirement
important that an
which is compulsory in most countries and apart from promoting the morale of the workforce by giving them some
7 2 September 2010; 3b organisation maintains
comfort from a financial point of view, it is important to cover some losses that may foreseeable occur following an
employer’s liability
accident.
insurance.
Outline why it is
important that all This is important so every party will be aware of their duties in relation to health and safety. Ensuring that all persons
persons in an in an organisation are aware of their roles for health and safety will assist in defining their individual responsibilities
8 8 September 2010; 10 organisation are aware and will indicate the commitment and leadership of senior management. A clear delegation of duties will assist in
of their roles and sharing out the health and safety workload, set up clear lines of reporting and communication and will assist in
responsibilities for defining individual competencies and training needs particularly for specific roles such as first aid and fire.
health and safety.
There are three basic reasons for maintain g and promoting good standards of health and safety in the work place.
These are
1. Moral expectation of good standard of health and safety, the need to provide a reasonable standard of care
and to reduce the injuries, pain and suffering caused to workers by accidents and ill-health. It is morally
unacceptable that workers are injured or killed at work and society demand that workers are safe while at
work.
2. Social/Legal requirement by law governing the conduct of businesses and organizations in respect to health
Explain the reasons for and safety of the workplace. Organizations are required to comply with these laws which are primarily
8 December 2010; 2 maintaining and concerned with concerned with the need for the employer to provide a safe place of work, safe plant and
9 8 September 2009; 1a promoting good equipment, safe systems of work, competent workers and a high standard of training and supervision.
8 March 2008; 3 standards of health and 3. Economic and financial reasons: because accidents and ill health has direct and indirect cost to the
safety in the workplace. organisation, promoting good standards of health and safety in the work place will prevent accidents and in
turn avoid these cost such as avoidance of criminal penalty and compensation claims, avoidance of costs
associated with accident investigations, avoidance of costs associated with accidents such as the hiring or
training of replacement staff and the possible repair or replacement of plant and equipment.
4. Other reasons include to maintain a more highly motivated workforce resulting in an
improvement in the rate of production and product quality; and maintaining the image and reputation of the
organisation with its various stakeholders.
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These sources could be internal or external.


External sources include:
 legislation including directives and regulations; ILO codes of practice, conventions, guidelines and
recommendations together with those produced nationally which are usually country specific;
Identify sources of
 Information produced by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the European Agency for Safety and
information that an
Health at Work;
organisation may use to
6 September 2009; 1b  International standards such as those from ISO and BSI;
10 help maintain and
4 September 2012: 1d  Guidance produced by the various enforcement agencies; manufacturers’ data; information produced by
promote good standards
trade associations, trade unions and professional bodies; safety journals and magazines
of health and safety in
Internal sources include:
the workplace.
 Accident, ill-health data and information emanating from completed risk assessments,
inspections and audits
 Medical records, maintenance reports, safety committee meeting minutes

Reasons why good standards of health and safety may not be achieved in the
workplace include:
 A lack of management commitment;
 Poor morale among the workforce and a lack of motivation;
Outline possible
 Frequent changes in the organisation;
reasons why good
6 September 2009; 1c  The need to comply with different and conflicting standards.
11 standards of health and
8 September 2012: 6  Lack of resources possibly due to a harsh economic climate; conflicting demands with priority being given to
safety in the workplace
production targets and meeting deadlines;
may not be achieved
 Poor communication and consultation with the workforce;
 Failure to provide adequate training leading to a lack of awareness amongst workers;
 Failure to complete risk assessments and to produce safe systems of work and method statements
 Behavioral issues; when workers sometimes make mistakes or deliberately act unsafely.
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Key elements of health and safety management systems (2.1)
The purpose and importance of setting policy for health and safety (2.2.)
The key features and appropriate content of an effective health and safety policy (2.3.)

Outline why it is The statement of intent section of the health and safety policy may set quantifiable targets for the organisation. This
important for an is important because
12 4 September 2012: 5a organisation’s health  It allows performance to be measured and progress assessed over time
and safety policy to  It provides a tangible goal for staff to aim for
include targets  It helps to drive continual improvement in the work place.

Give the meaning of the Benchmarking is the process of comparing current performance targets or setting targets against past performance
13 2 September 2012: 5a
term ‘benchmarking’. or against the performance of other similar organisation/industry.

Give TWO examples of


Health and safety performance information that can be used for benchmarking include:
health and safety
 Accident rates
14 2 September 2012: 5a performance information
 Active monitoring
that can be used for
 Lost time injuries
benchmarking.

During a review of an organisation’s health and safety management system, documents that may be examined
include:
Identify documents that  The health and safety policy
may be examined when  Completed risk assessments and safe systems of work;
8 June 2010; 9 reviewing an  Health and safety monitoring records such as of inspections, audits and surveys that have been carried out;
15
8 September 2012: 7 Organisation’s health accident and incident data including accident investigation reports and reports on near misses;
and safety management  Health surveillance records;
system.  Records of the maintenance of equipment together with information on any failures that have occurred;
 Details of the emergency procedures in place and records of any complaints made by workers
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Compliance by the organisation with the requirements of relevant legislation;
Identify a range of
 A reduction in the number of accidents and cases of ill-health;
health and safety
 The completion of an assessment of all risks in the workplace and its review within a defined time scale;
targets that may be
 The provision to all workers of the necessary information, instruction and training to ensure their
16 4 June 2010; 11a included in the
competence;
‘statement of intent’
 The maintenance of exposure levels below defined limits
section of a health and
 Full consultation with the workforce on health and safety issues and the provision of sufficient resources to
safety policy.
achieve health and safety targets.
The arrangement sections of the Health & Safety policy deals with the general arrangements that exists to manage
health and safety. issues that are typically included in the arrangements section are:
1. Risk assessments and safe systems of work including those operations where a permit to work might be
needed;
2. Specific hazards within the organisation such as the presence of hazardous substances or working alone;
Outline the issues that
3. Safety monitoring procedures and those associated with the environment such as noise and waste
are typically included in
8 December 2010; 1b disposal;
17 the arrangements
8 December 2012: 8 4. Arrangements for the provision of safety equipment and personal protective equipment;
section of a health and
5. Arrangements for the control of contractors and visitors; the provision of safety training to workers;
safety policy
Procedures for the reporting and investigation of accidents and incidents;
6. Procedures to be followed in the event of fire or other emergencies;
7. Arrangements for the provision of welfare facilities including first aid; medical arrangements and health
surveillance Arrangements for communicating with and consulting workers
8. Arrangement for proper house keep and compliance monitoring
Outline the It is generally good practice to review the safety policy to ensure it is up to date and accurate, however Safety Policy
circumstances that may can be reviewed when:
require a health and 1. There are significant changes in the structure of the organisation, the type of work it does and/or a change
8 September 2009; 4
safety policy to be of premises;
18 6 December 2010; 1c
reviewed. 2. There is introduction of new or changed processes or work methods due to new technology or newly
8 December 2012: 4
implemented systems.
Outline reasons why an 3. There are major changes in key personnel and changes to the organizational management structure
organization should (MD/CEO)
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review its health and 4. There has been a change in legislation;
safety performance 5. Following consultation with the workforce
6. Following an enforcement action by a regulatory/enforcement agency
7. Audits, risk assessments, monitoring exercises or accident investigations show that the policy is no longer
effective or relevant;
8. A sufficient period of time has elapsed since the previous review to suggest that another one is due.
1. Policy: a clear statement of intent, setting the main health and safety aims and objectives of the company
and the commitment of management.
2. Organisation for health and safety: a strategy adopted to ensure the allocation of responsibility to
appropriate members of staff, with the emphasis on achieving competency, control, communication and
Outline the key
consultation.
8 March 2009; 2 elements of a health
19 3. Planning and implementation: Involving carrying out risk assessments, the setting of standards and targets
8 September 2010; 11 and safety management
and the introduction of appropriate control measures to achieve them.
system.
4. Evaluation: proactive and reactive monitoring systems to provide data on the achievement or non-
achievement of the objectives and targets set.
5. Action for Improvement/Review and audit: carried out to check whether what was planned was actually
taking place, to consider options for improvement and to set new targets where necessary
 The ‘statement of intent’ section demonstrates management’s commitment to health and safety and sets
the safety goals and objectives for the organisation
6 March 2008; 2a Outline the general  The ‘organisation’ section allocates health and safety responsibilities within the company, to ensure
6 March 2010; 2a content/purpose of the effective delegation and to set up lines of communication. It helps to clearly define responsibilities for
20
6 December 2010; 1a THREE sections of a fulfilling safety obligations.
4 June 2010; 11b health and safety policy.  The ‘arrangements’ section sets out in detail the systems and procedures to implement the policy covering
issues such as controlling hazards, monitoring compliance and arrangements for consultation and
communication with employees
 The signature of the most senior person in the organisation would demonstrate management commitment
Explain why the health
to health and safety.
and safety policy should
2 March 2008; 2b  The signature also authorizes and enforces the policy and signifies that the person has the ultimate
21 be signed by the most
2 March 2010; 2b responsibility for health and safety in the organisation.
senior person in an
organisation.
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Organizational health and safety roles and responsibilities of employers, directors, managers, supervisors, workers and other relevant parties (3.1)
Concept of health and safety culture and its significance in the management of health and safety in an organization (3.2)
Human factors which influence behavior at work (3.3)
They have responsibilities relating to the health and safety of their products to:
 Ensure for plants and equipment that they are adequately designed, constructed and tested to be safe and
Outline the health and
fit for their intended purpose
safety duties of
 Ensure their products come with sufficient and appropriate instructions for easy, safe use and operation
designers,
22 5 December 2012: 9a  Ensure they are well packaged and labeled
manufacturers and
 Ensure that for chemicals and substances, that they come with appropriate information such as the Material
suppliers of articles and
Safety and Data Sheet (MSDS)
substances.
 Ensure that for chemicals and substances that they are appropriately tested and their hazardous properties
understood.
If those in the supply
chain fail to carry out
Failure to carry out their duties could lead to the production of unsafe plants, equipment and insufficient information
their duties, outline
23 3 December 2012: 9b on chemicals and substances. This can lead to injury (from burns, shocks etc.) in the work place from unsafe
health and safety
operation of equipment,
consequences in the
workplace.
 SELECTING THE RIGHT CONTRACTOR: One of the first steps the organisation should take is to select a
competent contractor taking into account previous involvement in similar types of work, references provided
Contractors are carrying by former clients and the quality of the risk assessments and method statements produced.
out a major building  PLANNING THE WORK VIA INFORMATION EXCHANGE: The organisation should also ensure that the
project for an contractor has adequate resources and has allowed sufficient time to enable the work to be completed
8 June 2010; 3 organisation. Outline safely.
24 8 September 2012 : 11 how this organisation  it would be necessary to share information on the particular risks in the working area for instance the
8 March 2008; 7 could reduce the risks to presence of vehicles including fork lift trucks and the danger of falling materials; the presence of hazardous
contractors both materials such as asbestos and the location of services such as electricity, water and gas; general site
before and during the safety rules such as a smoking policy and reference to the host employer’s safety policy; requirements for
building project. permits to work for certain work activities; accident reporting procedures; emergency procedures; and the
location of welfare facilities including first aid.
 A period of induction training for the contractor’s workers would be a useful method for alerting them to
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these matters.
 COORDINATING AND MONITORING THE WORK TO ENSURE CONTRACTOR IS WORKING TO
AGREED SAFETY STANDARD: It is also important to have an ongoing cooperation and coordination with
the contractor, with regular monitoring of performance in ensuring the health and safety of both the
contractor’s and the organisation’s workers and this can best be done by the appointment of a responsible
contact person.
 Involving workers in risk assessments, accident investigations and the development of safe systems and
Outline ways in which
procedures;
an organisation could
 Setting up suggestion schemes and acting on the ideas and recommendations put forward;
encourage workers to
 Organising training courses and information programmes on the benefits of good safety standards;
25 8 March 2010; 5 be involved in setting
 Supporting active involvement in safety committee meetings;
and maintaining high
 Introducing an effective two-way communication system
standards of health and
 Introducing a system of award and reward to recognize achievement;
safety.
 importantly ensuring that management set a good example for the workforce to follow
In order to achieve good health and safety standards in the workplace, the two organisations could:
1. Hold regular meetings, share information and risk assessments and avoid carrying out incompatible
Two organisations share
processes; prepare and agree joint site rules for the workplace for example for assembly points and
the same worksite.
smoking areas;
Outline how the
8 September 2010; 4 2. set up joint procedures for the management of visitors and contractors and agree on procedures for the
26 organisations could
8 March 2009; 4 management of traffic and the movement of vehicles;
work together to help
3. Carry out joint inspections and monitoring of the workplace;
ensure the workplace is
4. Draw up and jointly emergency procedures
safe and healthy.
5. Agree on a policy for the management of waste and obtain advice on health and safety matters from a
shared consultant.
The culture of an organisation is the product of individual and group values, attitudes, perceptions, competencies
Give the meaning of the
2 December 2010; 3a and patterns of behaviour that determine the commitment to, and the style and proficiency of, the organisation’s
27 term ‘health and safety
2 March 2008; 5a health and safety management. It is the organizational shared attitude, values, beliefs and behavior relating to health
culture’.
and safety.
Identify the factors that Factors that could have contributed to the deterioration of health and safety culture include:
6 December 2010; 3b
28 could have contributed  Poor management system and procedures especially relating to health and safety
6 March 2008; 5b
to the deterioration of  Lack of management commitment to safety
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the health and safety  Organizational changes and deterioration in welfare facilities.
culture within the  High staff turnover and external influences
organisation.  Presence of blame culture
 Interpersonal issues among workers
 Lack of workers consultation and involvement
 Lack of resources resulting in overload
 health and safety was not given the same priority as other objectives such as production or quality
Explain the difference
between consulting and
2 December 2010; 6a “Informing” is a one way process involving the provision of relevant information by management to workers whereas
29 informing workers on
2 March 2008;4a “Consulting” is a two way process where account is taken of the views of workers before any decision is taken.
health and safety
issues.
Arrangements for consultation with workers might be made more effective by:
1. The establishment of safety committees; consultation with elected representatives; planned direct
consultation at departmental meetings, team meetings, tool box talks and staff appraisals; consultation as
part of an accident or incident investigation or as part of a risk assessment;
Explain how
2. Day to day informal consultation by supervisors with their team at the workplace; discussion as part of
arrangements for
6 December 2010; 6b safety circles or improvement groups; questionnaires and suggestion schemes and the provision of
30 consultation with
6 September 2009; 9b consultation training to both management and workers.
workers may be made
3. If formal meetings are to be held, it is important to ensure that there is a correct balance between
more effective.
management and worker representation; that an agenda is set and the meeting is well managed by the
chair; that the business of the meeting is not side tracked by discussion of non-health and safety issues;
that minutes of and report back from the meeting are made available to the workforce as a whole and that
actions agreed are carried out without undue delay
Outline why it is
important that all This is important so every party will be aware of their duties in relation to health and safety. Ensuring that all persons
persons are aware of in an organisation are aware of their roles for health and safety will assist in defining their individual responsibilities
31 8 March 2009; 3 their roles and and will indicate the commitment and leadership of senior management. A clear delegation of duties will assist in
responsibilities for sharing out the health and safety workload, set up clear lines of reporting and communication and will assist in
health and safety in an defining individual competencies and training needs particularly for specific roles such as first aid and fire.
organisation.
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 The reports of Risk assessment carried out
 Use of personal protective equipment
 the introduction of any measure at the workplace that may substantially affect workers health and safety
Outline the health and
such as a change in the materials being used;
safety issues on which
32 4 March 2008;4b  Planned or implemented changes in organizational structure;
employers should
The arrangements for appointing and/or nominating competent persons to assist in complying with the
consult their workers.
health and safety requirements;
 The introduction of emergency procedures; welfare issues; incentive schemes and the introduction of
policies on smoking, alcohol and substance misuse.
How health and safety behavior at work can be improved (3.4)
Principles and practice of risk assessment (3.5)
Preventive and protective measures (3.6)
 Task and work analysis information
Identify possible sources
 Health and safety legislations
of information that might
33 5 December 2012: 5a  Manufacturers information and data sheets
help the manager carry
 Incidents and accident records
out the risk assessment.
 Formal inspection report of a work place
 Reduces the accident and absence rates
Identify the benefits of
 Increases awareness on health and safety
health and safety
 Reduces number of workers complaints
34 4 December 2012: 11a training to:
 Boost staff morale
(i) The employer; (ii)
 Improves compliance with safe system of work
The worker.
 Improves workers productivity
1. When a worker changes job
2. When there is a process change. i.e the way in which the work is done changes there by exposing the
Identify when health and worker to new hazards
35 4 December 2012: 11b safety training would be 3. New technology: when the organization adopts a new technology that the worker may be unfamiliar with.
provided to workers. 4. When there are changes in law governing health and safety and creates the need for training
5. When the worker is newly employed in the organisation.
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Identify how induction
1. It allows the worker to obtain knowledge about the organisation in a safe manner
training programmes for
2. Improves the safety behavior and habit of the worker
new workers can help to
36 8 September 2012 : 3 3. Makes the worker aware of the safe systems of work and the various report procedures for incidents
reduce the number of
4. helps the worker improve on their perception of risk
accidents in the
5. improves workers competence in relation to health and safety
workplace.
Outline why it is important
1. To understand and obtain information about the trends and patterns of the accidents
for an organisation to
2. To enable update of risk assessment
consider the number and
37 4 September 2012 : 8a 3. To identify corrective and preventive actions
type of accidents that
4. To analyze for immediate and root causes of the accidents
have occurred at its
5. To meet regulatory requirements requesting that accidents are recorded
workplace.
Common immediate causes of accidents are:
Unsafe acts and unsafe conditions – these will occur at the time and place of the accident e.g slippery floor, poorly
Outline common
connected power cables.
immediate causes of
Common underlying causes of accidents are:
38 4 September 2012 : 8b accidents; (ii) common
Failures in management system such as :
root (underlying) causes
Failure to provide adequate levels of supervision
of accidents.
Failure to provide appropriate PPE
Failure to provide training.
Risk is the probability/likelihood that the potential of harm would be realized or will occur and its possible consequence and
Give the meaning of the
severity in terms of injury, damage or harm.
39 3 June 2010; 4a term ‘risk’ AND give a
Example: Risk of and a shopping mall collapsing is for example medium (6). Probability of its collapse = 2 (Low) x
workplace example.
the Severity of the collapse = 3 (High)
1. IDENTIFY: Identifying the hazards associated with a particular activity or task performed at the workplace;
2. IDENTIFY WHO MAY BE HARMED: deciding who might be harmed including operators, maintenance staff and
Identify the key stages of cleaners and groups especially at risk including young workers and the disabled;
5 June 2010; 4b
40 a risk assessment. 3. EVALUATE THE RISK: evaluating the likelihood and probable severity of the harm that might be caused;
10 March 2010; 1c
assessing the adequacy of existing control measures and deciding whether additional controls should be
introduced;
4. RECORD: recording the significant findings of the assessment
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5. REVIEW AND UPDATE: reviewing it at a later date and revising the findings when necessary.
Identify reasons why 1. Lack of knowledge, experience or training;
4 June 2010; 6a young workers could be 2. The individual’s stage of physical development
41
4 September 2009; 2b at a greater risk of 3. immaturity; underdeveloped communication skills; over enthusiasm
accidents at work. 4. the tendency for young workers to take more risks and to respond more readily to peer group influences
 Induction training, careful supervision and mentoring by an experienced fellow worker;
Outline control measures
 The completion of risk assessments with young person’s specifically in mind;
4 June 2010; 6b that could be taken to
42  The provision of clear lines of communication with young workers;
6 September 2012 : 10b minimise risks to young
 placing restrictions on the types of work and the number of hours to be worked
workers.
 Introducing a programme of specific health surveillance for young workers.
Give the meaning of the
3 March 2010; 1a term ‘hazard’ AND give A ‘hazard’ is something with the potential to cause harm or loss.
43
2 September 2012 : 10a an example of a Example is a trailing cable across the hall way constitutes a hazard as it can cause a trip/fall
workplace hazard.
1. For a risk assessment, to be deemed suitable and sufficient, it should
indicate the competence of the assessor together with any specialist advice that has been sought;
2. identify all significant hazards and risks arising from or connected with the activity to be carried out;
Outline the criteria 3. identify all the persons at risk including workers, other workers and members of the public with reference to
4 March 2010; 1d
which must be met for those who might be particularly at risk;
44 4 March 2008; 1b
the assessment to be 4. Evaluate the adequacy and effectiveness of existing control measures and identify other protective
4 December 2012: 5b
‘suitable and sufficient’. measures that may be required to control the risk to an acceptable level;
5. Enable the organisation identify and prioritize measures that must be taken to protect people from harm;
6. Record the significant findings of the assessment;
7. Identify and set the period of time for which the assessment is likely to remain valid.
Give the meaning of the
A compilation of procedures designed to control risks which are considered in order of significance, effectiveness or
45 2 March 2010; 4a term ‘hierarchy of
priority, from elimination to wearing personal protective equipment
control’.
Outline, with examples, Elimination – altering the design or changing the process to completely remove the risk.
the general hierarchy Substitution – replacing harmful and hazardous chemicals with less hazardous substances.
46 6 March 2010; 4b
that should be applied Engineering controls – isolation from hazard, separation/segregation, and partial enclosure and safety devices e.g.
with respect to interlock switches.
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controlling health and Administrative control – safe systems of work, reducing exposure, reducing time of exposure, information, training
safety risks in the and supervision.
workplace. PPE – for example ear plugs, gloves, eye protection and respiratory masks.
Perception is defined as the way that people interpret and make sense of information detected and presented by
their senses, in relation to their surroundings.
Give the meaning of the
term ‘perception’. And Perception can be improved by
Outline ways in which  Increasing awareness in the individual by safety campaigns, toolbox talk or posters and to increase
47 8 March 2010; 11 workers’ perceptions of knowledge by means of training.
hazards in the  Developing training programmes to increase awareness of the hazard and its consequences.
workplace might be  identify, perhaps by the use of surveys, the reasons for workers’ misperceptions in order to increase
improved. awareness and challenge currently held views
 Making hazards more obvious (for example, by the use of signs) and addressing environmental factors,
such as lighting and noise, which might cause distraction or otherwise hinder the perceptual processes.
1. The completion of a training needs analysis is an important first step in the development of any programme
of training and for the scenario described this would have to take into account the work activities of the
An organisation needs organisation, the hazards and risks involved and the organisation’s accident history.
to review its provision of 2. An assessment of the workers’ existing knowledge, taking into account their previous experience, the levels
health and safety and types of training already received and any indications of any deficiencies such as from incident data or
training to workers and by observation.
managers. 3. Consideration should be given to the content of the additional training needed including that which may be
48 8 September 2010; 1a
Identify the factors that required by legislation, the number of workers to be trained and the resources involved in terms of financial
should be considered costs, time and facilities.
when developing a 4. A further factor would include the competence and expertise of in-house staff to provide the required
programme of health training, the possible need to involve external sources and the benefits and disadvantages of using
and safety training. classroom or on the job presentation.
5. Consultation with workers and their representatives in order to seek their commitment to, and their views on
the proposed programme
Identify measures that 1. Post training assessment and evaluation by trainers, the trainees themselves and their supervisors;
49 4 September 2010; 1b might be used to assess 2. Monitoring accident rates and sickness absences;
the effectiveness of 3. Monitoring levels of compliance with laid down procedures such as the wearing of personal protective
NEBOSH Revision Guide
health and safety equipment;
training. 4. The results of attitude surveys; and the number of concerns raised by workers with respect to health and
safety.
Some jobs require that
work is carried out by a  Check the qualifications and the possession of a specific license such as for driving a heavy goods vehicle;
competent person.  Check employment history and experience;
50 4 September 2010; 1c Identify what checks  Check for and verify membership of a professional body;
could be made to  Check for previous training and success in any relevant examination and/or test; and any references and
assess whether a recommendations that might be available
person is competent.
1. To provide proof of a worker’s expected level of competence;
Give reasons why it is
2. To identify when additional or refresher training might be needed;
important for an
3. To enable a review of the effectiveness of any training to be carried out;
employer to keep a
51 4 September 2010; 1d 4. To assess the progress of the training programme against targets;
record of the training
5. To provide evidence to be used in any future accident investigations or legal actions and to demonstrate
provided to each
compliance with legal obligations
worker.
requirements.
Identify the four  Prohibition Signs – for example, no smoking or no pedestrians;
categories of workplace  Warning or Hazard Signs – for example, toxic or flammable;
52 8 September 2010; 5
safety signs AND give  Mandatory Signs– for example, hearing protection or hard hat must be worn;
an example of EACH.  Safe condition Signs – for example, first aid or fire exit.
1. Ergonomic risk arising from the manual handling of waste and heavy floor cleaning machines which could
be inadequate for the task to be performed.
2. Cuts/Dust: Contact with hazardous substances such as cleaning materials, and sharps or broken glass in
Identify EIGHT possible the waste and could be exposed to dust during the cleaning process.
risks to the health and 3. Electric Shock: Some of the equipment to be used would be electrically driven and this would involve
53 8 September 2010; 6
safety of a cleaner in an electrical hazards particularly if the equipment was faulty, not subjected to regular maintenance and was not
office. used in conjunction with a residual current device.
4. Falls: If the cleaner needs to carry out some work at height to clean windows or high surfaces and there
would be the danger of falling.
5. Risks arising from the working environment would include the temperature of the office particularly if the
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heating or air conditioning was turned off
6. Security Risk: if working alone and unsupervised, with little means of communication with a nominated
person and no security procedures in place, there would always be the risk of him/her being subjected to
violence from an intruder.
Give the meaning of the
1. A ‘hazard’ is something with the potential to cause harm or loss.
4 September 2010; 7a term ‘hazard’. And Give
54 2. Risk is the probability/likelihood that the potential of harm would be realized or will occur and its possible
4 September 2009; 2a the meaning of the term
consequence and severity in terms of injury, damage or harm.
‘risk’.
1. Carrying out inspections, observations and safety audits;
Identify FOUR means of
2. Completing task and/or job analyses and risk assessments;
hazard identification that
55 4 September 2010; 7b 3. The study of data on accidents and near miss incidents including the investigation reports;
may be used in the
4. Reference to legislation and its accompanying guidance and manufacturers’ documents such as safety data
workplace.
sheets; Carrying out health surveillance and consulting with members of the workforce.
5. PPE does not remove the hazard but attempts to minimize the impact on the user.
Due to its limitations 6. PPE may not provide adequate protection because of such factors as poor selection, poor fit because of
personal protective facial features such as beards, incompatibility with other types of PPE, contamination, and misuse or non-
equipment (PPE) should use by workers.
8 December 2010; 4
56 only be considered after 7. PPE is likely to be uncomfortable and relies for its effectiveness on a conscious action by the user which
8 September 2009; 7
other control measures. raises issues such as training and supervision.
Outline the limitations of 8. In certain circumstances, its use can actually create additional risks, for instance, impaired vision by
using PPE. googles and warning sounds masked by hearing protection.
Its initial supply and subsequent cleaning, maintenance and replacement cost money.
1. The duration of the journey, the hours of driving with the possibility of fatigue;
issues connected with the route to be followed and the different road conditions (Isolated route or traffic
Identify EIGHT health congested route);
and safety hazards 2. The weather and other environmental factors (rain, snow or sunny);
8 December 2010; 8
57 relevant to the role of a 3. inadequate vehicle maintenance and the possibility of breakdown;
8 March 2009; 9
long distance delivery 4. the manual and/or mechanical handling of the goods being carried and other hazards associated with them
driver. such as exposure to chemicals;
physical hazards such as exposure to noise and vibration;
5. the possibility of accidents or collisions;
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6. lone working with a possible absence of communication and supervision;
7. the lack of emergency procedures including the provision of first aid and inadequate welfare facilities;
8. security hazards including the possibility of violence and psychological hazards such as stress
1. Unfamiliarity with the processes carried out at the workplace, the hazards they present and their associated
Give TWO reasons why risks
visitors to a workplace 2. They may not have been issued with personal protective equipment;
58 2 September 2009; 5a
might be at greater risk 3. Lack of knowledge of the site layout and the fact that pedestrian routes might be inadequate and unsigned;
of injury than workers 4. Unfamiliarity with the emergency procedures and their vulnerability particularly if they were disabled, very
young or had language problems.
1. Use of visitor identification, for example, by the issue of badges with a routine for signing in
Identify precautions that and out;
could be taken to 2. Prior notification to those members of staff to be involved in the visit;
59 6 September 2009; 5b reduce the risk of injury 3. The provision of information to the visitors in suitable languages on hazards and emergency procedures;
to visitors to a 4. An explanation of specific site rules, for example, restricted areas and the wearing of personal protective
workplace. equipment; Clear marking of pedestrian routes and the need for visitors to be escorted by a member of
management or supervisory staff
1. People respond differently to different stimuli, and using a variety of communication methods will prevent
over-familiarization with one method and helps to reinforce a message.
Give reasons why it is 2. Use of different method of communication will overcome language barriers and the inability of some
important to use a workers to read;
variety of methods to 3. Different communication methods will address the need to motivate, stimulate interest and gain involvement
60 8 September 2009; 6
communicate health and and feedback;
safety information in the 4. The acceptance that different types of information require different methods of communication for example
workplace. emergency signs;
5. The policy of the organisation may require certain information to be in a specified format; and that on
occasions evidence that the message was given may need to be kept.
1. Inadequate resources such as tools, equipment or employees;
Identify reasons why
2. Poor system of work and unrealistic or ill-considered procedures;
workers may fail to
61 8 March 2009; 10 3. Perceived lack of commitment to health and safety by management and emphasis on other priorities such
comply with safety
as production;
procedures at work.
4. Lack of adequate information and training
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5. Perceived lack of consultation with staff by management;
6. A poor safety culture within the organisation;
7. Fatigue, illness and stress; lack of concentration because of boredom and repetitive work tasks; poor
working conditions;
8. Mental and/or physical capabilities not taken into account;
9. Inadequate supervision and a failure to enforce compliance with the procedures; peer group pressure; a
failure to recognize risks and ultimately a willful disregard of the safety procedures.
outline the key stages of
the risk assessment a. The initial step would be to identify the hazards followed by identifying the individuals who could be harmed and
process, how. This includes the members of staff, contractors, visitors, clients, disabled, pregnant women and young children.
identifying the issues Then the next stage would be to evaluate the risk, which means taking into account the likelihood and severity of the
that would need to be harm and decide appropriate precautions to take. Followed by recording the findings and implementing them, then
considered at finally, review the risks and update if required.
EACH stage;
62 16 March 2008; 1a & c
(c) Outline the factors c. They need to consider the individuals training in hazard identification in conducting risk assessment and their
that the employer previous experience. The individual’s experience with the particular processes or activities being carried out in the
should take into account workplace. Their ability to interpret and understand standards and regulations. Their level of understanding or
when selecting familiarity of the plant equipment or machinery being used. Their communication and effective reporting skills
individuals to assist in are also important and whether they are aware of their own limitations. Finally their commitment and attitude toward
carrying out the required the task at hand.
risk assessment.
1. Elimination: The possibility of eliminating the risks either by designing them out, changing the process or
contracting the work out.
Outline, with examples,
2. Substitution: reduction of the risks by, for example, the substitution of hazardous substances with others
the general hierarchy
which were less hazardous reducing exposure time for example by job rotation.
that should be applied in
63 8 March 2008; 6 3. Engineering Control: The application of engineering controls such as guarding, the provision
order to control health
of local exhaust ventilation systems, the use of reduced voltage systems or residual current devices
and safety risks in the
4. Administrative Controls: use of permit to work systems etc.
workplace.
5. Personal Protective Devices (PPE): provision of personal protective equipment such as ear defenders or
respiratory protective equipment.
Sources of health and safety information (3.7)
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Factors that should be considered when developing and implementing a safe system of work for general work activities (3.8)
Role and function of a permit-to-work system (3.9)
 Sewer
Identify FOUR examples  Tank
of a confined space that  Chamber
64 4 December 2012: 1a
may be found in a  Pit
workplace.  Pipe
 Silo
A safe system of work for confined space entry will identify the following:
Level of supervision required
Competency requirement of the workers
Atmospheric testing and monitoring requirements
Outline the typical Permit to work control requirements
content of a safe system Ventilation that may be required
65 10 December 2012: 1b
of work for entry into a PPE requirements for workers
confined space. Safe and quick access and egress methods
Fire prevention methods
Emergency and rescue arrangements
Suitable lighting for the confined space environment
Isolation and lock off of mechanical hazards
Outline the emergency
arrangements that might
66 6 December 2012: 1c
be required for entry into
a confined space.
Give the meaning of the
A safe system of work is a formal procedure based on a systematic examination of work in order to identify the
67 2 December 2012: 10a term ‘safe system of
hazards. It defines a safe method of working that eliminates or minimizes hazards associated with the work.
work’
Outline what is meant 1. Technical or engineering control are applied directly to the hazard in order to minimize the risk, this may
68 6 December 2012: 10b by the following types of involve the use of barriers to isolate the worker from the hazard.
controls within a safe
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system of work AND 2. Behavioral controls include general good practice and aims at how the individual worker acts in relation to
give a practical example the hazard
for EACH:
(i) Technical; (ii) 3. Procedural controls focuses on the way in which work should be carried out in relation to the hazard, it
Behavioral; (iii) specifies the exact task and the sequence, safety action and checks to be carried out.
Procedural.
1. It is important for an organisation to consult with its workers on health and safety issues as it may be a legal
requirement and part of the organisation’s health and safety policy.
Explain why it is 2. Consultation will help to raise the profile of health and safety, improve the perception of its value and
important for an importance.
organisation to consult 3. Consultation will assist in improving the health and safety culture of the organisation.
69 4 September 2009; 9a
with its workers on 4. Consultation is useful in developing ownership amongst the workers of health and safety measures,
health and safety obtaining their commitment, inviting their ideas for improvement and allowing them to contribute to health
issues. and safety decision making.
5. Consultation ensures that workers views would also be useful in ensuring that suggested improvements
would be workable in practice
 Entry into confined spaces,
Identify THREE types of
 Hot work for example welding and cutting,
70 3 June 2010; 1b work activity that may
 Working at height
require a permit to-work.
 Work on high voltage electrical equipment
1. A description and assessment of the work to be performed including the plant involved, its location and
the possible hazards associated with the task.
Outline the general
2. The need for, and nature of the isolation of sources of energy and product inlets,
details that should be
71 8 June 2010; 1c 3. Additional precautions required such as atmospheric monitoring and frequency of monitoring, the provision
included in a permit to-
and use of personal protective equipment, the emergency procedures to be followed and the duration of the
work.
permit.
4. Signature of authorized person, permit holder and competent person
Identify the factors 1. The information provided on the permit which should be based on a full recognition of the hazards
72 7 June 2010; 1d which may influence the associated with the work that is to be carried out.
effectiveness of a 2. Failure by those carrying out the work to comply with the terms of the permit will lead to ineffectiveness of
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permit-to-work system. the permit to work system.
3. The competency of staff performing the task
4. The standard of the management and monitoring of the system and the complexity of the system that
has been introduced
5. Environmental considerations and human factors such as stress or fatigue
6. The acceptance of the system by those involved.
1. It is important to involve workers in the development of a safe system of work because of their knowledge of
why it is important to the particular working environment involved and what will work in practice.
4 March 2010; 6a involve workers in the 2. Their involvement will also encourage and establish their ownership of the system and will compel them to
73
4 September 2012 : 2a development of a safe use and follow it once it has been implemented.
system of work; 3. Their involvement will emphasise management’s commitment to health and safety and help to raise its
profile within the organisation.
1. Writing provides a clear method of communicating procedures to the workforce.
2. The procedures may contain complex information that will need to be consulted on more than one occasion
to ensure the correct sequence of operations is followed.
Why it is important for
3. It is preferable to procedures written down rather than pass them on by word of mouth, a method that may
4 March 2010; 6b safe systems of work to
74 not always guarantee consistency in their presentation.
4 September 2012 : 2a have written
4. A written document will also be needed for audit purposes and could be used as evidence in defending an
procedures.
enforcement action or a civil claim.
5. The use of written procedures may well be a requirement of the organisation’s quality assurance
procedures.
1. Nature and details of the task or activity to be performed, such as might be provided by a job safety
analysis;
2. The equipment and materials to be involved or used for the various job;
Outline the factors that 3. Information or guidelines provided by manufacturers;
should be considered 4. The number of workers who will carry out the activity, their level of their competence and training and the
75 8 December 2010; 9
when developing a safe possibility that some may be vulnerable;
system of work 5. The inherent and contingent hazards and risks taking into account the particular environment where the
tasks are to be carried out;
6. The adequacy of the control measures in place;
7. Relevant legal requirements or international standards related to health and safety;
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8. The need for consultation with and involvement of workers; emergency procedures and the systems for
monitoring and supervision.
2 March 2009; 6a Give the meaning of the A permit-to-work (PTW) system is a formal, documented safety procedure, forming part of a safe system of work,
76
2 June 2010; 1a term ‘permit-to-work’. which ensures that all necessary actions are taken before, during and after particularly high-risk work.
Identify THREE types of
Working on live electrical systems, where there is a high danger of electrocution. Working at heights, where there is
work that may require a
a chance of falling from a great high which could lead to severe injuries. Working in confined spaces where there is
77 2 March 2009; 6b permit-to-work, AND
chance of limited ventilation or exit points for example in the case of toxic fumes being released. Others include
give the reasons why in
machinery maintenance and hot work e.g. welding.
EACH case.
1. Induction training programmes will help by:
2. Making the workers aware of the hazards and risks in the workplace;
3. Introducing them to the safe systems of work and the various procedures including those for emergencies
that must be followed;
Outline how induction 4. Making them aware of any restricted areas;
training programmes for 5. Training them in the correct use of tools and equipment and ensuring they are fully conversant with the use,
new workers can help to maintenance and arrangements for reporting deficiencies of any personal protective equipment that has
78 8 March 2008; 11
reduce the number of to be used.
accidents in the 6. Informing new workers on the procedures for reporting hazards and incidents, the sources of help, advice
workplace. and
mentoring that are available to them and of their own responsibility for ensuring accidents and incidents are
kept to a minimum.
7. Encourage workers to adopt a positive attitude to health and safety and to counter the negative attitude that
can often be created by peer pressure
Emergency procedures and the arrangements for contacting emergency Services (3.10)
Requirements for, and effective provision of, first-aid in the workplace (3.11)
Active and reactive monitoring (4.1.)
Outline reasons why it is
important for first aiders Refresher training is important because first aid skills tend to fade over time though lack of practice. The training will
79 2 September 2012 :2b
to receive refresher therefore help to ensure the first aiders remain competent.
training.
80 4 June 2010; 5a Outline what is meant 1. Active (proactive) monitoring involves taking the initiative/action before things go wrong within an
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by the terms: organisation in respect of health and safety issues and ensuring appropriate health and safety systems and
(i) ‘active (proactive) procedures are in place.
monitoring’; 2. Reactive monitoring is concerned with looking at events that have occurred in order to learn from mistakes
(ii) ‘reactive monitoring’ and establishing what systems and procedures can and should be put in place to prevent a recurrence.
within an organisation.
1. Inspections – regular scheduled activities identifying existing conditions and comparing them with agreed
performance objectives;
2. Surveys – which focus on a particular activity such as manual handling or workers’ attitudes towards safety;
Explain TWO active 3. Audits – involving a comprehensive examination of all aspects of an organisation’s health and safety
(proactive) monitoring performance against stated objectives;
4 June 2010; 5b
methods that can be 4. Sampling – which targets specific areas of occupational health and safety such as unsafe work practices;
81 4 September 2009; 3b
used when assessing 5. Tours – unscheduled workplace checks on issues such as housekeeping or the use of personal protective
4 March 2008; 9b
an organisation’s health equipment;
and safety performance 6. Health surveillance – involving health screening by the use of techniques such as audiometry;
7. Benchmarking – where the performance of an organisation in certain areas of health and safety is
compared
with that of other organisations with similar processes and risks.
Active means:
1. Inspections – regular scheduled activities identifying existing conditions and comparing them with agreed
performance objectives;
2. Surveys – which focus on a particular activity such as manual handling or workers’ attitudes towards safety;
Identify:
3. Audits – involving a comprehensive examination of all aspects of an organisation’s health and safety
(a) FOUR active
performance against stated objectives;
8 March 2010; 3 (proactive); (b) FOUR
4. Sampling – which targets specific areas of occupational health and safety such as unsafe work practices;
81 4 December 2010; 11a reactive means by
5. Tours – unscheduled workplace checks on issues such as housekeeping or the use of personal protective
4 December 2010; 11b which an organisation
equipment;
can monitor its health
Reactive means:
and safety performance.
1. accident and ill-health statistics and reports;
2. incidents of reported near-misses and dangerous occurrences;
3. Property damage;
4. Actions taken by the enforcement authorities;
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5. The number of civil claims;
6. Analysis of absences and lost time; complaints by workers
1. The number of trained first-aid personnel and first-aid facilities available
2. The size of the organisation; the distribution and composition of the workforce including the special needs of
workers such as trainees, young workers and the disabled;
Outline the factors to be 3. The types of hazard and level of risk present;
6 September 2010; 2b considered when 4. The past history of accidents and their type, location and consequences;
83 6 March 2009; 7b making an assessment 5. The proximity of the workplace to emergency medical services;
6 September 2012 : 2a of first-aid requirements 6. The special needs of travelling for remote or lone workers and the provision of personal first aid kits or
in a workplace. mobile phones;
7. The need to train the first aid personnel in special procedures;
8. The ability to provide continued cover over different shifts and for sickness, leave and other absence;
9. Comparison of the facilities provided with those required by law.
1. Compliance with statutory and regulatory requirements and International Labour Organisation (ILO)
guidelines;
2. The nature of activities undertaken at the workplace and their associated level of risk;
Outline factors that 3. The distribution of the workforce which could include vulnerable members such as the young and/or
would determine the disabled where high standards of health and safety would have to be maintained;
frequency with which 4. The results from previous inspections and audits and the company’s record of compliance with established
84 8 December 2010; 7 health and safety standards;
inspections should be 5. Recommendations made following risk assessments;
undertaken in a 6. Records of accident history and the outcomes of accident investigations;
workplace. Records of enforcement action taken or advice given by the enforcement authority;
7. The introduction of new equipment, processes or safe systems of work;
8. Manufacturers’ recommendations and requirements from insurance companies;
9. Outcome of consultation with or as a result of complaints from workers.
Explain how accident
data can be used to Accident data could be used to identify trends and problem areas and give the opportunity for remedial
4 September 2009; 3a
85 improve health and action; to enable improvement in resource allocation; to make comparisons with others; to inform and stimulate
4 March 2008; 9a
safety performance discussion at joint consultation meetings with the workforce; to identify the costs of accidents and to set new targets
within an organisation.
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1. A workplace inspection is a general examination of health and safety performance at a particular point in
time. It demonstrates management commitment to health and safety.
2. it helps to identify workplace hazards; implement immediate corrective action where possible; to ensure
Outline the role of compliance with the law and with laid down standards;
4 September 2009; 10a
86 workplace health and 3. It also helps to recommend improvements and further controls when these are seen to be necessary;
4 September 2012 :2b
safety inspections. 4. it serves as a means to observe employee behaviour, for example, in the use of personal protective
equipment; and to listen to and consult with workers on health and safety issues;
5. It provides opportunity to review previous findings and recommendations and to provide a summary report
to individual managers on standards in their areas of control
1. Using a checklist to complete a health and safety inspection of a workplace enables prior preparation and
planning to be made so that the inspection is structured and systematic;
Give TWO strengths of
2. Reduces the chance that important areas or issues might be missed;
2 September 2009; 10b using a checklist when
87 3. Provides an immediate record of findings on a pre-defined template
2 September 2012 :2b carrying out an
Ensures a consistent approach by those carrying out the inspection;
inspection.
4. The checklist cab be easily adapted or customised for different areas; and provides an easy method for
comparison and audit.
1. Over reliance on a checklist may lead to a blinkered approach by “inspectors” with the possibility that
significant risks might be missed;
Give TWO weaknesses 2. The checklist may not be reviewed and updated to account for changes to work processes or equipment;
2 September 2009; 10c of using a checklist 3. Inspections may become routine with no follow up questions being asked;
88
2 September 2012 :2b when carrying out an 4. The system/checklist may be too objective and restrictive with no scope for peripheral issues to be
inspection. considered;
5. Untrained persons might be tempted to conduct inspections and that the procedure is subject to human
error and/or abuse
Identify THREE types of 1. Fire or explosion,
emergency in the 2. Accidental release of toxic chemicals or gases,
89 3 September 2009, 11a workplace that may 3. Bomb alerts or other terrorist activities,
require the evacuation 4. Weather related emergencies (Storm, Floods, Huricanes)
of workers. 5. Earthquakes.
Explain why it is 1. The need to comply with legal requirements;
90 5 September 2009; 11b
important to develop 2. The need to be prepared for foreseeable emergencies;
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emergency procedures 3. The need to ensure the safety and protection of the workers including those dealing with the emergency,
in the workplace. and to assist the safe evacuation of persons including those with specific needs such as visitors and the
disabled;
4. To provide information on the action to be taken, not only by workers but also by neighbours and others
who might be affected by the emergencies such as in a shared or joint occupancy premises;
5. To allocate specific responsibilities to certain workers in the event of an evacuation being necessary;
6. To be able to mitigate the effects of adverse events and to restore the situation to normal;
7. To ensure the procedures are made available to any relevant emergency services and to ensure business
continuity
1. The nature of the hazard may not be well understood as for example with those arising from contact with
biological agents;
Give the reasons why 2. Lack of measuring equipment such as for noise;
hazards to the health of 3. The effects may be chronic rather than immediate;
91 8 March 2009; 5 workers may not be 4. The hazard not being visible as with certain gases or that arising from radiation;
identified during a 5. Unwillingness of individuals to admit there are problems with their health;
workplace inspection. 6. Health is given a low priority in the organisation;
7. The person carrying out the inspection concentrating on the more immediate and often safety hazards;
8. Lack of competency of the inspector
Identify TWO main 1. The preservation of life and/or the minimisation of the consequences of injury until medical help is obtained
2 March 2009; 7a
92 purposes of first-aid 2. The treatment of minor injuries that would not receive or do not need medical attention.
2 September 2010; 2a
treatment. 3. First aiders are have the basic role to preserve life, preserve deterioration and promote recovery.
Identify FOUR types of
1. Fire or explosion,
emergency that would
2. Accidental release of toxic chemicals or gases,
require an organisation
3. Bomb alerts or other terrorist activities,
to have an emergency
4. Weather related emergencies (Storm, Floods, Huricanes)
93 8 March 2008; 10 procedure.
5. Earthquakes
(b) Explain why visitors
b. So that in the event of an emergency they know how to react accordingly and calmly so that they don’t put workers
to a workplace should
at higher risk or cause greater obstruction. The organization has a moral responsibility to keep the visitors safe plus it
be informed of its
is their duty of care by law.
emergency procedures.
Investigating incidents (4.2)
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Recording and reporting incidents (4.3)
Health and safety auditing (5.1)
Give the meaning of the
1. Injury Accident is an unplanned , unwanted event that leads to a personal injury
following different types
2. Damage only accident is an unplanned , unwanted event that leads to a damage of equipment or property
of incident AND identify
3. Work related ill health is a disease or medical condition caused by a person’s work e.g. noise induced
94 8 December 2012: 7 a relevant example for
hearing loss
EACH: Injury, Ill-heal,
4. Dangerous occurrence are events that have to be reported to relevant authorities by law even though no
Dangerous Occurrence
injury or ill health may have resulted. E.g – failure of the load bearing part of a crane.
& Damage Only
A workplace accident
has occurred and an
investigation is to take The immediate causes of an accident are physical symptoms which can be seen or sensed such as unsafe acts by
95 2 June 2010; 10a
place. Give the meaning individuals or unsafe conditions in the workplace.
of the term ‘immediate
causes’.
Give TWO examples of 1. Failure or breakdown of equipment
immediate causes that 2. The use of incorrect tools and the involvement of incompetent or unauthorised personnel
96 2 June 2010; 10b could have 3. The failure to replace guards on machinery;
contributed to a 4. Failure to wear personal protective equipment
workplace accident 5. Poor standard of housekeeping.
Give the meaning of the
97 2 June 2010; 10c term ‘underlying (root) Underlying/root cause refers to failures in the management system or lack of management control.
causes’
1. Failure to complete risk assessments and introduce safe systems of work;
Give TWO examples of
2. Inadequate procedures for routine maintenance operations;
root causes that could
98 2 June 2010; 10d 3. Poor and inadequate level of supervision; a failure to provide an acceptable level of training for operations
have contributed to a
where competence was required; and a failure to recognise and manage the presence of stress in
workplace accident.
operatives.
A machine has leaked 1. The investigation of ‘near-miss’ incidents and the identification of their underlying causes might allow
99 8 March 2010; 7 hot liquid into a work preventive action to be taken before something more serious occurs.
area. No-one has been 2. It also gives the right message that all failures are taken seriously by the employer and not just those that
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injured. Outline reasons lead to injury
why it is important for an 3. It allows for greater understanding of the deficiencies in existing management systems such as risk
organisation to assessments and safe systems of work can be identified and rectified.
investigate ‘near miss’
incidents.
• To find out if the organization is on target and if not, to identify the reason
Outline reasons why an
• To set out what should be done changed to continually improve. For eg. What can be done if there were risk that
organisation should
100 8 March 2010; 9 were not properly controlled.
review its health and
• Review is necessary, because monitoring is an essential part of management system.
safety performance.
• Reviews are a requirement of ISO certification, an accreditation to a management system such as OHSAS 18001
A health and Safety Audit is a systematic critical examination of a health and safety management system, involving a
Explain the meaning of
structured process for the collection of independent information with the aim of assessing the effectiveness and
101 2 September 2010; 8a the term ‘health and
reliability of the system, identifying its strength and weaknesses and suggesting corrective action when this was
safety audit’.
thought to be necessary
The possible advantages of using an internal auditor for a safety audit would include familiarity with the workplace,
its tasks and processes and an awareness of what might be practicable for the industry; ability to see improvements
(b) Identify the or a deterioration from the last audit; familiarity with the workforce and an individual’s qualities and attitude;
advantages of: The workforce might be more at ease with someone who was part of the organisation; and an audit which was
(i) an internal auditor; relatively less costly and easier to arrange.
102 4 September 2010; 8b
(ii) an external auditor.
In carrying out a health An external auditor on the other hand is more likely to possess the necessary auditing skills and credibility; will not
and safety audit. be inhibited from criticising members of management or the workforce; is more likely to be up to date with legal
requirements and best practice in other companies and will view the organisation’s performance through a fresh pair
of eyes.
They have the authority both to require appropriate action to be taken and to authorise the resources that might be
Outline why the audit necessary;
findings should be To enable them to demonstrate leadership and commitment from the top;
103 3 September 2010; 8c presented to the senior To enable them to give praise or reward where this has been earned but also to take disciplinary action against
management of an workers in cases where this is thought to be necessary;
organisation. To enable them to consider and reset their goals and objectives for the future and to comply with their personal
responsibilities either under legislation or under international standards and best practice
NEBOSH Revision Guide
The personal details of the injured person including his/her work history and training records; the date, time and
Identify the information location of the accident and whether it was reportable or not; the nature and type of injury sustained; a description of
that should be included the activity that was being carried out at the time of the accident; the immediate and root causes of the accident;
104 8 September 2010;9
in an accident an assessment of any breaches of the legislation that have been committed; the names of witnesses to the accident
investigation report. and their statements; any relevant drawings and photographs; recommendations for the remedial action that should
be taken to prevent a recurrence and an estimation of the cost implications of the accident for the organisation.
1. The implementation of initial action such as the provision of first aid and the preservation of the accident
scene;
2. To enable an investigation to be carried out to prevent a recurrence
Identify FOUR reasons
3. To identify weaknesses in the safety management system;
why accidents should be
105 4 December 2010; 5a 4. To aid the compilation of accident statistics and the identification of trends providing some measure of
reported and recorded
health and safety performance;
within a workplace.
5. To meet the national reporting requirements and/or company rules;
6. For use in civil claims or to satisfy insurance requirements;
7. To help in the identification and reduction of loss; and to inform the review of risk assessments.
ignorance or lack of understanding of the reporting procedures if such procedures did in fact exist;
Outline factors that A culture of non-reporting often enforced through peer pressure;
might discourage A reluctance to lose time from the job in hand; the possibility of retribution by management; to preserve the
106 4 December 2010; 5b
workers from reporting company’s or department’s safety record particularly when an incentive scheme is in operation; to avoid receiving
workplace accidents. first aid or medical treatment for whatever reason; overcomplicated reporting procedures and an aversion to form
filling and apathy caused by lack of obvious management response to earlier reported accidents.
Outline the immediate isolating services and making the area safe; administering first aid treatment and contacting the emergency services;
AND longer term actions informing the next of kin and offering counselling and support; notifying the regulatory authority if appropriate;
that should be taken collecting initial evidence such as photographs and sketches and the names of witnesses; setting up the
8 September 2009; 8
107 following an accident at accident investigation team and investigating the accident; determining the root and underlying causes of the
8 March 2008; 8
work that has caused accident; making and implementing recommendations to prevent a recurrence of the accident and ensuring feedback
serious injury to a is provided to the workforce; collecting evidence to be used in any possible litigation following the accident and
worker. managing the provision of information to the media.
Outline the key features A workplace inspection involves the straightforward physical inspection of a workplace, and/or the activities or
108 8 March 2009; 1a of: equipment within it. It is carried out by supervisors and/or safety representatives at regular intervals and checklists
(i) a health and safety are often used. The inspection looks for unsafe acts and conditions and results in a short report of its
NEBOSH Revision Guide
inspection; findings suggesting remedial action that should be taken.
(ii) a health and safety
audit. A safety audit, on the other hand, is a systematic critical examination of an organisation’s health and safety
management system, involving a structured process including the use of a series of questions and the examination
of documentation, to collect independent information with the aim of assessing the effectiveness and reliability of the
system and suggesting corrective action when this is thought to be necessary. It is carried out by trained auditors,
who may be internal or external to the organisation.

The findings of a safety audit may be used in a number of ways to improve health and safety performance such as:
Explain how the findings identifying strengths and weaknesses in the management system; identifying compliance and non-compliance and
of an audit may be used the reasons for the latter thus informing and enabling remedial actions; enabling comparison and benchmarking with
109 12 March 2009; 1b to improve other similar organisations; assisting with the allocation and prioritisation of resources; communicating its findings to
12health and safety management and staff and so giving an indication of the organisation’s commitment to health and safety and finally,
performance by means of subsequent audits at regular intervals, assisting in the continual improvement of the management
system.

Outline why an For the compilation of accident statistics and the identification of trends;
organisation should To satisfy legal requirements;
110 4 March 2009; 11a have a system for the To aid investigation and prevent a recurrence or to identify weaknesses in the safety management system;
internal reporting of For use in civil claims or to satisfy insurance requirements;
accidents. To help in the identification and reduction of loss; and to inform the review of risk assessments

The employee may not be aware of the companies reporting procedure. Peer pressure from other employees or
Identify the reasons why family and not willing to take time off work. The fear of getting blame from management. To keep the department’s
4 March 2009; 11b
111 workers might not report safety record clean or low especially if there is an incentive scheme. To avoid receiving any medical treatment or
4 December 2010; 5b
accidents at work. first-aid for any reason. The reporting procedure can be over-complicated or too tedious so it discourages
employees. Lack of involvement from managers and having no responses to previously reported incidents.