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Since the partition of British India in 1947 and creation of modern states

of India and Pakistan, the two countries have been involved in a number of wars,
conflicts and military stand-offs. The Kashmir issue has been the main cause of all
major conflicts between the two countries.

First War Between the two nations:


The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir
War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Jammu
and Kashmir from 1947 to 1948. It was the first of four Indo-Pakistan Wars fought
between the two newly independent nations. Pakistan precipitated the war a few
weeks after independence by launching tribal Lashkar (militia) from Waziristan, in
an effort to capture Kashmir, the future of which hung in the balance. The
inconclusive result of the war still affects the geopolitics of both countries.
The Maharaja faced an uprising by his Muslim subjects in Poonch, and lost control
of the western districts of his kingdom. On 22 October 1947,
Pakistan's Pashtun tribal militias crossed the border of the state. These local tribal
militias and irregular Pakistani forces moved to take Srinagar, but on
reaching Baramulla, they took to plunder and stalled. Maharaja Hari Singh made a
plea to India for assistance, and help was offered, but it was subject to his signing
an Instrument of Accession to India.
The war was initially fought by the Jammu and Kashmir State Forces and by tribal
militias from the Frontier Tribal Areas adjoining the North-West Frontier
Province. Following the accession of the state to India on 26 October 1947, Indian
troops were air-lifted to Srinagar, the state capital. The British commanding
officers initially refused the entry of Pakistani troops into the conflict, citing the
accession of the state to India. However, later in 1948, they relented and the
Pakistani armies entered the war after this. The fronts solidified gradually along
what came to be known as the Line of Control. A formal cease-fire was declared
at 23:59 on the night of 31 December 1948 and became effective on the night of
1 January 1949.The result of the war was inconclusive. However, most neutral
assessments agree that India was the victor of the war as it was able to
successfully defend about two-thirds of the Kashmir including Kashmir
Valley, Jammu and Ladakh.
The India-Pakistan War of 1965
The 1965 war between India and Pakistan was the second conflict between the
two countries over the status of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The clash did
not resolve this dispute, but it did engage the United States and the Soviet Union
in ways that would have important implications for subsequent superpower
involvement in the region.

The dispute over this region originated in the process of decolonization in South
Asia. When the British colony of India gained its independence in 1947, it was
partitioned into two separate entities: the secular nation of India and the
predominantly Muslim nation of Pakistan. Pakistan was composed of two
noncontiguous regions, East Pakistan and West Pakistan, separated by Indian
territory. The state of Jammu and Kashmir, which had a predominantly Muslim
population but a Hindu leader, shared borders with both India and West Pakistan.
The argument over which nation would incorporate the state led to the first India-
Pakistan War in 1947–48 and ended with UN mediation. Jammu and Kashmir, also
known as “Indian Kashmir” or just “Kashmir,” joined the Republic of India, but the
Pakistani Government continued to believe that the majority Muslim state
rightfully belonged to Pakistan.

Conflict resumed again in early 1965, when Pakistani and Indian forces clashed
over disputed territory along the border between the two nations. Hostilities
intensified that August when the Pakistani Army attempted to take Kashmir by
force. The attempt to seize the state was unsuccessful, and the second India-
Pakistan War reached a stalemate. This time, the international politics of the Cold
War affected the nature of the conflict.

After Pakistani troops invaded Kashmir, India moved quickly to internationalize


the regional dispute. It asked the United Nations to reprise its role in the First
India-Pakistan War and end the current conflict. The Security Council passed
Resolution 211 on September 20 calling for an end to the fighting and
negotiations on the settlement of the Kashmir problem, and the United States
and the United Kingdom supported the UN decision by cutting off arms supplies
to both belligerents. This ban affected both belligerents, but Pakistan felt the
effects more keenly since it had a much weaker military in comparison to India.
The UN resolution and the halting of arms sales had an immediate impact. India
accepted the ceasefire on September 21 and Pakistan on September 22.

The ceasefire alone did not resolve the status of Kashmir, and both sides accepted
the Soviet Union as a third-party mediator. Negotiations in Tashkent concluded in
January 1966, with both sides giving up territorial claims, withdrawing their
armies from the disputed territory. Nevertheless, although the Tashkent
agreement achieved its short-term aims, conflict in South Asia would reignite a
few years later.

Current Event:
On 14 February 2019, a convoy of vehicles carrying security personnel on
the Jammu Srinagar National Highway was attacked by a vehicle-borne suicide
bomber at Lethpora (near Awantipora) in the Pulwama district, Jammu and
Kashmir, India. The attack resulted in the deaths of 40 Central Reserve Police
Force (CRPF)[a] personnel and the attacker. The responsibility for the attack was
claimed by the Pakistan-based Islamist militant group Jaish-e-Mohammed. The
attacker was Adil Ahmad Dar, a local from Pulwama district, and a member of
Jaish-e-Mohammed. India has blamed Pakistan for the attack. Pakistan
condemned the attack and denied any connection to it