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Rostam_EC2_ACI_TR43_15

021009

DESIGN EXAMPLE

T-BEAM

based on

ACI 318-08

IBC 2009

EC2(EN 1992-1-1:2004)

BS 8110: Part 1:1997

and

TR-43

Dr Bijan O Aalami

Structural Engineer, California

Professor Emeritus, San Francisco State University

Principal, ADAPT Corporation

www.adaptsoft.com

info@adaptsoft.com www.adaptsoft.com

ADAPT Corporation, Redwood City, California, USA, Tel: (650) 306-2400 Fax (650) 306 2401

ADAPT International Pvt. Ltd, Kolkata, India, Tel: 91 33 302 86580 Fax: 91 33 224 67281

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Foreword

The example selected represents a frame of a one-way slab and beam construction – typical of parking structures.

The beam frame selected has three spans, each with a different length. The third span is purposely selected to be

short, compared to the other two. Also, the optimum post-tensioning for the design is one with different number

of strands along the length of the structure, and variable profile from span to span.

The objective in selecting a complex structure is to expose you to the different design scenarios that you may en-

counter in real life structures – in particular, when spans in a continuous member are widely different. Aspects of

design conditions that are not covered in the design of the example selected, but are important to know, are intro-

duced and discussed as comments or inserted added examples.

Routine operations considered prerequisite knowledge, such as the calculation of moments and shears, once the

geometry of a structure, its material and loading are known, are not covered in detail. Your are referred to your

in-house frame programs.

The common method of analysis for beam frames and one-way slabs is the Simple Frame Method (SFM). While

it is practical to use SFM in the environment of consulting firms for design of one-way slabs and beam frames, it

becomes laborious if an optimum design for the post-tensioning is sought. The iterative nature of optimization for

post-tensioning lends itself well to the application of computer programs, such as ADAPT-PT for expediency in

design.

Two text fonts are used in the following. The numerical work that forms part of the actual calculations uses the

font shown below:

This font is used for the numerical work that is part of the design.

The following text font is used, wherever comments are made to add clarification to the calculations:

Where the design is to be checked against a building code, the example uses ACI 318-08, followed by EC2 -2004,

BS8110 -97, and TR-43.

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DESIGN STEPS

1. GEOMETRY AND STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

1.1 Dimensions and Support Conditions

1.2 Effective Width

1.3 Section Properties

2. MATERIAL PROPERTIES

2.1 Concrete

2.2 Nonprestressed Reinforcement

2.3 Prestressing

3. LOADS

3.1 Dead Load

3.2 Live Load

4. DESIGN PARAMETERS

4.1 Cover to Rebar and Prestressing Strands

4.2 Allowable Stresses

4.3 Crack Width Limitation

4.4 Allowable Deflection

5. ACTIONS DUE TO DEAD AND LIVE LOADING

6. POST-TENSIONING

6.1 Selection of Design Parameters

6.2 Selection of Post-tensioning Values

6.3 Selection of Number of Strands

6.4 Calculation of Balanced Loads

6.5 Determination of Actions due to Balanced(post-tensioning)Loading

7. CODE CHECK FOR SERVICEABILITY

7.1 Load Combinations

7.2 Stress Check

7.3 Crack Width Control

7.4 Minimum Reinforcement

7.5 Deflection Check

8. CODE CHECK FOR STRENGTH

8.1 Load Combinations

8.2 Determination of Hyperstatic Actions

8.3 Calculation of Design Moments

8.4 Strength Design for Bending and Ductility

8.5 One Way Shear Design

9. CODE CHECK FOR INITIAL CONDITION

9.1 Load Combinations

9.2 Stress Check

10. DETAILING

REFERENCES

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EXAMPLE

ROSTAM1 PARKING

Figure 1-1

The parking structure floor consists of a one-way slab supported on parallel beams as shown in Fig. 1-1.

1.1 Dimensions and Support Conditions:

• Geometry is as shown in Figure 1-1(a) and (b)

• Beam cross section as shown in Figure 1-1(c)

• Total tributary width = 17’ (5.18 m) typical

• Columns extend below the deck only; first and last columns are assumed hinged at the bottom

End columns are assumed hinged and detailed as hinged at the connection to the footing, in order to reduce

stresses and potential of cracking due to shrinkage and creep of concrete.

1

A good natured legendary strongman of Persian culture

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Tributary width = 17*12 = 204” (5182 mm)

(i) Sixteen times flange thickness plus stem width

= 16 * 5” + 18” = 98” (2489 mm)

(ii) One quarter of span

For span 1 = (64*12)/4 = 192” (4877 mm)

For span 2 = (55*12)/4 = 165”(4191 mm)

For span 3 = (17*12)/4 = 51” (1295 mm)

(iii) Tributary width

For all spans = 204” (5182 mm)

Spans 1 and 2 98” (2489 mm)

Span 3 51” (1295 mm)

ACI-318 code is mute on the effective width of prestressed flanged beams. For an interior nonprestressed flanged

beam under bending alone, it specifies the least of (i) eight times the flange thickness on each side of the stem, (ii)

one quarter of the span, or (iii) the beam’s tributary. For prestressed flanged beams the precompression spreads un-

iformly over the entire cross section. Hence the entire flange width will be fully effective. As a result, when design-

ing a prestressed flanged beam, two values of effective flange width must be used - one for bending effects and one

for axial loads [Aalami 1989, 1993]. The procedure is detailed in this design example.

The section properties for the axial effects are the same for all spans. For bending effects, however, due to

different effective widths, the section properties differ. The section properties calculated are listed in Table

1-1

TABLE 1-1 SECTION PROPERTIES

Spans 1 and 2 Span 3

Axial effects Bending effects Axial effects Bending effects

Area in2 (mm2) 1470 940 (6.065e+5) 1470 (9.484e+5) 705 (4.548e+5)

(9.484e+5)

I in.4 (mm4) ----- 77238 (3.215e+10) ----- 60591

(2.522e+10)

Yt in. (mm) 7.09 9.68 7.09 12.07

(180) (246) (180) (307)

Yb in. (mm) 22.91 20.32 22.91 17.93

(582) (516) (582) (455)

Stop in.3 ----- 7979 ------ 5020

(mm3) (1.31e+8) (8.23e+7)

Sbot in.3 ------ 3801 ------- 3379

(mm3) (6.23e+7) (5.54e+7)

I = moment of inertia;

Yt = distance of centroid to top fiber of section;

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Stop = section modulus for top fiber; (I/Yt); and

Sbot = section modulus for bottom fiber; (I/Ybot).

2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES:

2.1 Concrete:

Cylinger strength f’c ,fck = 4000 psi (27.58 MPa)

Weight = 150 pcf (2403 kg/m3)

Material factor, γc = 1 — ACI, 1.50 [EC2, BS, TR-43]

Modulus of Elasticity = 57000√f’c = 3605 ksi (24,855.75 MPa) [ACI]

= 22* 103* [(fck +8)/ 10] 0.3 2 [EC2, TR-43] ;

= 32194.71 MPa

= 5500√(fcu/ γc) [BS]

= 5500* √(27.58/0.8*1.50) = 26367.51 MPa

Creep Coefficient = 2

fy = 60 ksi (413.69 MPa)

Elastic Modulus = 29000 ksi (199,949.20 MPa)

Material factor, γc = 1 - ACI, 1.15 - EC2, TR-43 1.05 - BS

Strength reduction factor, φ = 0.9 — ACI, 1 — EC2, BS, TR-43

2.3 Prestressing:

Material - Low Relaxation, Seven wire ASTM 416 strand

Strand Diameter = ½ in. (13 mm)

Strand Area = 0.153 in.2 (99 mm2)

Elastic Modulus = 28000 ksi (193,054.40 MPa)

Ultimate Strength of Strand (fpu) = 270 ksi (1861.60 MPa)

Average effective stress (fse) = 175 ksi (1206.59 MPa)

Material factor, γc = 1 - ACI, 1.15 — [EC2, BS, TR-43]

System Unbonded ; Bonded

System unbonded

Angular Coefficient of Friction (μ) = 0.07

Wobble Coefficient of Friction (K) = 0.001 rad/ft (0.003 rad/m)

Anchor Set (Wedge Draw-in) = 0.25 inch (6mm)

Stressing force = 80% of specified ultimate strength

Effective stress after all losses = 175 ksi (1200 MPa)

2

EN 1992-1-1:2004(E) Table 3.1

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Use flat ducts 20x800mm; 0.35 mm thickness metal sheet housing up to five strands

Angular Coefficient of Friction (μ) = 0.02

Wobble Coefficient of Friction (K) = 0.025 rad/ft (0.003 rad/m)

Anchor Set (Wedge Draw-in) = 0.25 inch (6mm)

Offset of strand to duct centroid (z) = 1/8 inch (3mm)

Effective stress after all losses = 160 ksi (1100 MPa)

3 LOADING:

3.1 Dead Load:

Selfweight:

Slab = (5/12’) * 0.150 kcf * 17’ = 1.063 klf (15.51 kN/m)

Stem = (25/12’) x (18/12’) x 0.150 pcf = 0.469 klf (6.84 kN/m)

Total dead load due to self weight = 1.532 klf (22.36 kN/m)

Superimposed Dead Load due to Mechanical, Sealant and Overlay:

0.010 ksf x 17’ = 0.170 klf (2.48 kN/m)

Total Dead Load = 1.702 klf(24.84 kN/m)

1st Span:

Reduction = 0.08 * ((64’ * 17’) — 150) = 75.04% > 40% max

Live Load = (1.0-0.40) * 0.05 ksf * 17’ = 0.510 klf (7.44 kN/m)

2nd Span:

Reduction = 0.08 * ((55’ * 17’) — 150) = 62.8% > 40% max

Live Load = (1.0-0.40) * 0.05 ksf * 17’ = 0.510 klf (7.44 kN/m)

3rd Span:

Reduction = 0.08 * ((17’ * 17’) — 150) = 11.12%

Live Load = (1.0-0.1112) * 0.05 ksf * 17’ = 0.755 klf (11.02 kN/m)

∴Do Not Skip Live Loading

The following relationships were used for the reduction of live loading IBC (International Building Code):

R = 0.861(A – 13.94) (SI)

Where, R = reduction factor equal to less than 40%; and

A = tributary in square feet (m2).

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Strictly speaking, live loading must be skipped to maximize the design values. But, when the ratio of live to

dead loading is small (less than 0.75), it is adequate to determine the design actions based on live loading on all

spans.

4 DESIGN PARAMETERS:

4.1 Applicable Codes

The design is carried out according to each of the following codes. Further, reference is made to the Com-

mittee Report TR43, where appropriate.

o ACI 318-2008; IBC-2009

o EC2(EN 1992-1-1:2004)

o BS 8110: Part 1:1997

4.2 Cover to rebar and prestressing strands

Unbonded and Bonded System

Minimum rebar cover = 2.00 in. (51 mm) Top and Bottom

The cover selected is higher than the minimum code requirement to allow for installation of top bars over

the beam cage in the transverse direction.

The cover and hence distance to the CGS (Center of Gravity of Strand) is determined by the requirements

for fire resistivity. The distance 2.75” (70 mm) selected is slightly higher than the minimum required. Its

selection is based on ease of placement.

A. Based on ACI 318-08/IBC 20093

Allowable stresses in concrete are the same for bonded and unbonded PT systems

For sustained load condition

Compression = 0.45 * f’c = 1800 psi (12.41 MPa)

For total load condition

Compression = 0.60 * f’c = 2400 psi (16.55 MPa)

Tension (Transition condition of design is selected)

= 9*√f’c , (0.75*√f’c) Tension, Top

= 12*√f’c , (1.00*√f’c ) Tension, Bottom

For initial condition:

Compression = 0.60 * f’ci = 0.6* 3000 = 1800 psi (12.41 MPa)

Tension = 3 * √f’c = 164 psi (1.13 MPa)

For one-way systems, ACI-318 [ACI-318, 2008] defines three conditions of design, namely uncracked (U),

transition (T) and cracked (C). The three conditions are distinguished by the magnitude of the maximum hypo-

thetical tension stress in concrete at the farthest tension fiber. For the current design example the transition (T)

3

ACI-318-08, Sections 18.3 and 18.4

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condition is selected. For this condition, hypothetical tension stresses can exceed 6 f’c0.5 but not larger than 12

f’c0.5 (1.0f’c0.5). However, since the surface of the parking structure being designed is exposed, the design exam-

ple uses a stress limit of 9 f’c 0.5 (0.75f’c0.5) for the top surface and the maximum value allowed by the code for

the bottom surface. This is not a code requirement. Based on code, 12 f’c0.5 (1.0f’c0.5) would have been accepta-

ble. The selection of a lower value for the top surface is based on good engineering practice.

_________________________________________________________________________________________

B. Based on EC2 4

Allowable stresses are the same for both bonded and unbonded systems

For “frequent” load condition

Concrete:

Compression = 0.60 * fck = 16.55 MPa (2400 psi)

Tension (concrete) = fct,eff = fctm5

= 0.30 * fck (2/3) (Table 3.1, EC2)

= 0.30 * 27.58(2/3) = 2.74 MPa (397.20 psi)

Tension (prestressing steel) = 0.75 * fpk = 1395 MPa (202330.80 psi)

Compression = 0.45 * fck = 12.41 MPa (1800 psi)

Tension (concrete) = 2.74 MPa (397.20 psi)

Crack control provision in EC2 overrides the hypothetical tension stress in concrete as a limiting factor.

For “initial” load condition

Tension (Unbonded) = fct,eff = fctm

= 0.30 * fci (2/3) (Table 3.1, EC2)

= 0.30 * 20.69 (2/3)

= 2.26 MPa (327.79 psi)

6

Compression = 0.60 * fci = 0.6*20.69

= 12.41 MPa (1800 psi)

For all post-tensioning and floor systems, EC27 stipulates a limit of fct,eff for hypothetical tensile stress.

For initial condition fci is used.

________________________________________________________________________

C. Based on BS:81108

BS8110 specifies allowable stresses in concrete for bonded PT systems, but is mute for unbonded sys-

tems. In practice, the same values are used for both systems.

Compression = 0.33 * fcu = 0.33*27.58/0.8

= 11.38 MPa (1650 psi)

4

EN 1992-1-1:2004(E), section 7.2

5

EN 1992-1-1:2004(E) , section 7.3.2(4)

6

EN 1992-1-1:2004(E) , section 5.10.2.2(5)

7

EN 1992-1-1:2004(E) , section 7.3.2(4)

8

BS 8110: Part 1:1997, Section 4.3.4.2 and 4.3.4.3.

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Tension — None specified for unbonded tendons. Used values for grouted (Assumed class 3 members

with 0.1 mm allowable crack width)

Allowable tension stress = 2.62 MPa (380 psi) [Table 4.2 and 4.3]

Tension (with bonded reinforcement) = 0.25fcu = 0.25*27.58/0.8

= 8.62 MPa (1250 psi)

9

For “initial” load condition

Tension = 0.36 *√ fcui

= 0.36 *√(20.69/0.8) = 1.83 Mpa (265.50 psi)

Compression = 0.50 * fcui = -12.93 Mpa (-1875 psi)

________________________________________________________________________

D. Based on TR-4310

Unbonded Tendon:

For “frequent” load combination.

Tension = 1.35 fctm,fl

fctm,fl = larger of (1.6- h/1000) fctm or fctm 11

= larger of (1.6- 0.762) fctm or fctm

= larger of 0.84*fctm or fctm

fctm = 0.30 * fck (2/3) (Table 3.1, EC2)

= 0.30 * 27.58 (2/3) = 2.74 MPa (397.20 psi)

Allowable tension stress = 1.35* 2.74 = 3.70 MPa (536.50 psi)

Bonded Tendon:

For “frequent” load combination.

For the members with 0.1 mm allowable crack width, allowable tension stress without bonded rein-

forcement is the same as the unbonded system.

Tension = 1.35 fctm,fl

Allowable tension stress = 1.35* 2.74 = 3.70 MPa (536.50 psi)

Tension (with bonded reinforcement) = 0.3fck = 0.30*27.58

= 8.27 MPa (1200 psi)

Compression = 0.6* fck = 0.6*27.58 = 16.55 MPa (2400 psi) —TR-43 specifies allow-

able concrete compressive stresses for bonded PT systems, but is mute for unbonded systems. In

practice, the same values are used for both systems.

For “quasi-permanent” load combination.

Compression = 0.45* fck = 0.45*27.58 = 12.41 MPa (1800 psi)

12

For “initial” load condition

Tension = 0.72 fctm

9

BS 8110:Part 1:1997, Section 4.3.5, class 3 member is assumed

10

TR-43 Second Edition, Table 4. For tensile stress, stress limit without bonded reinforcement is considered.

11

EN 1992-1-1:2004(E) , Eqn.3-23

12

TR-43 Second Edition, Table 5.

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= 0.30 * 20.69 (2/3) = 2.26 MPa (327.93 psi)

Allowable tension stress = 0.72*2.26 = 1.63 Mpa (236 psi)

Compression = 0.50 * fci = -10.34 Mpa (1500 psi)

A. Based on ACI 318-08/IBC 2009

Crack width control and limitation applies when member is designed for the “cracked” regime. No require-

ments are stipulated, if as in this example, the stresses are kept within the transition regime. In the tran-

sition regime, the calculated deflections must be magnified with a magnification factor to account for li-

mited cracking. This is further explained in the section on deflections.

________________________________________________________________________

B. Based on EC2 13

Frequent load condition:

For prestressed members with bonded tendons = 0.2 mm (0.008 in)

Quasi-permanent load condition:

For prestressed members with unbonded tendons = 0.3 mm (0.01 in)

________________________________________________________________________

C. Based on BS:811014

Type1 and Type2 members - no cracking

Type 3 members

For aggressive environment - 0.1 mm (0.004 in)

For all other - 0.2 mm (0.008 in)

________________________________________________________________________

D. Based on TR-4315

For all members = 0.2 mm (0.008 in)

A. Based on ACI 318-08/IBC 200916

In the American codes, the allowable deflection is tied to the impact of the amount of vertical displacement of

a member on the occupants or the installed objects such as partitions, glass, or floor covering. For perception

of displacement by sensitive persons, IBC specifies a limit of L/250, where L is the span. It is important to

note that this is the displacement that can be observed by a viewer. For example, if a concrete floor is topped

with grout and covered with tile or stone, it is the deflection subsequent to the installation of floor cover

(stone in this instance) that can be perceived by an occupant and is subject to L/250 allowance. For this rea-

son, it is important to know, whether a floor is leveled prior to the application of the topping, and the age of

the floor when the topping is applied, since the information enables a designer to determine the deflection

subsequent to the installation of the floor finish.

The allowable values are:

13

EN 1992-1-1:2004(E), Table 7.1N

14

BS 8110:Part 1:1997,Section 2.2.3.4.2

15

TR-43 Second Edition, Section 5.8.3.

16

ACI-318-08, Sections 18.3.5

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The Long-term deflection subsequent to installation of floor cover. Since in this case the floor cover is

carpet placed directly on the finished floor, the applicable vertical displacement is the total deflection

subsequent to the removal of forms.

Total deflection - L/250

The second deflection check is for the potential damage to the construction, such as partitions, that are likely

to be damaged, due to deflection subsequent to the installation of the brittle construction. The value recom-

mended by ACI-318 is L/480 due to the full application of live load and the total of long-term deflection sub-

sequent to the installation of construction likely to be damaged by deflection. Such installations are applica-

tion of plaster on concrete masonry unit partitions or installation of dry wall (gypsum boards). Raw framing

or masonry units that are not finished are not considered to be subject to the deflection limitations.

Total deflection subsequent to finish on partitions together with application of live load

- L/480

Where, L is the length of the span and partitions are assumed to have been installed/finished

60 days after the floor is cast.

________________________________________________________________________

B. Based on EC217

The interpretation of allowable deflection in EC2 is very much in line with what that of ACI in regards to the

allowable limits. The impact of the vertical displacement on the function of the installed structure and the vis-

ual impact on occupants determine the allowable value. As a guide the suggested values are as follows:

Deflection subsequent to finishing of floors from Quasi-permanent combination: L/250

Where, L is the length of the span.

Deflection subsequent to installation of construction that can be damaged from load combination Qu-

asi-permanent L/500.

________________________________________________________________________

C. Based on BS:811018

Similarly to ACI and EC2, the British code states a limit of L/250 for “sag in structural members that are visi-

ble.”This translates to “total long-term deflection” subsequent to the installation of finished floor. Since in

this project the slab is not covered by a layer of mortar and stone/tile cover, the allowable deflection applies

to the entire age of the slab. For floors supporting brittle construction, the deflection is limited to L/500. This

is interpreted to apply to increment of deflection subsequent to the installation of brittle construction, for the

current project the timeline for installation of brittle partitions is assumed 60 days subsequent to casting the

slab.

Total deflection from Quasi Permanent load combination - L/250

Where, L is the length of the span.

Deflection subsequent to installation of construction that can be damaged from load combination

Quasi-permanent L/500

________________________________________________________________________

D. Based on TR-4319

TR43 refers to EC2 for allowable deflections.

17

EN 1992-1-1:2004(E) , section 7.4.1

18

BS 8110:Part 2:1985, Section 3.2.1.1

19

TR-43 Second Edition, Section 5.8.4.

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In summary, the allowable deflection from the three codes and the committee report are essentially the same

as stated below:

Total deflection from Quasi Permanent load combination - L/250

Where, L is the length of the span.

Deflection subsequent to installation of construction that can be damaged from load combination

Quasi-permanent L/500

Brittle partitions are assumed to have been installed 60 days subsequent to date of casting the slab.

The structural system of the frame and its dead and live loading is shown in Fig. 5-1

Actions due to dead and live loads are calculated for this example using a generic frame analysis program. The

members are assumed prismatic and of uniform cross section throughout the length of each span. Spans 1 and 2

have the same geometry. Centerline to centerline distances are used for span lengths. No allowance is made in

the hand calculation for stiffening of members over support. Some software accounts for this stiffening and in-

crease the moment of inertia of the beam over the support region [ADAPT-PT, 2008]. The centerline moments

calculated are reduced to the face-of-support using the static equilibrium of each span.

The critical design moments are not generally at midspan. But, for hand calculation, the midspan location is se-

lected. The approximation is acceptable when spans and loads are essentially uniform.

The computed moments from the frame analysis are reduced to the face of the support using statics of each

span. The face-of-support moments and the moments at midspan are summarized in Table 5-1. The distribution of

moments for the condition of “total load” is shown in Fig. 5-2

Span 1 Span 2 Span 3

Left Mid Right Left Mid Right Left Mid Right

MD kip-ft -81.4 458.6 -670.9 -583.5 196.9 -240.5 -199.1 -46.2 4.5

(kN-m) (-110.4) (621.8) (-909.6) (-791.1) (267.0) (-326.1) (-269.9) (-62.6) (6.10)

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ML kip-ft -24.4 137.6 -200.7 -174.2 58.3 -74.2 -61.8 -7.2 1.8

(kN-m) (-33.1) (186.6) (-272.1) (-236.2) (79.0) (-100.6) (-83.8) (-9.76) (2.44)

MD + ML

Total load -105.8 596.2 -871.6 -757.7 255.2 -314.7 -260.9 -53.4 6.3

kip-ft (-143.4) (808.3) (-1181.7) (-1027.3) (346.0) (-426.7) (-353.7) (-72.4) (8.54)

(kN-m)

MD + 0.3ML

Sustained load -88.7 499.9 -731.1 -635.8 214.4 -262.8 -217.6 -48.4 5.0

kip-ft (-120.3) (677.8) (-991.2) (-862.0) (290.7) (-356.3) (-295.0) (-65.6) (6.78)

(kN-m)

6 POST-TENSIONING

6.1 Selection of Design Parameters

Unlike conventionally reinforced slabs, where for a given geometry, boundary conditions, material proper-

ties and loads result in a unique design, for post-tensioned members a minimum of two input assumptions

are required, before a design can be concluded. A common practice is (i) to assume a level of precompres-

sion and (ii) target to balance a percentage of the structure’s dead load. In this example, the level of pre-

compression assumed is larger than the minimum required by ACI-318 code (125 psi; 0.79 MPa).

1. Minimum Avgerage Precompression = 150 psi (1.03 MPa)

2. Maximum Avgerage Precompression = 300 psi (2.07 MPa)

3. Target Balanced Loading = 60 % of Total Dead Load

Based on experience for economy of design, a minimum precompression of 150 psi (1.03 MPa) over the en-

tire section is assumed. ACI 318 stipulates a minimum of 125 psi (0.86 MPa). In the manual calculation, the

minimum precompression is used as an entry value (first trial) for design.

For deflection control, the selfweight of the critical span is balanced to a minimum of 60%. Other spans

need not be balanced to the same extent. As it will become apparent farther in the calculations, for the cur-

rent beam it is beneficial if the tendon exerts a downward force on the third span, as opposed to an upward

force in the critical (first) span.

fse =175 ksi (1207 MPa)

The design of a post-tensioned member can be based either on the “effective stress” of tendons, or the “ten-

don selection” procedure. In the effective stress procedure, the average stress in a tendon after all losses is

used in design. This includes losses due to friction, seating of tendon, creep, shrinkage and relaxation in

prestressing force. The procedure provides an expeditious and simple design method for hand calculations.

It is valid if used for:

(ii) Tendons equal or less than 125 ft (38.10 m) long stressed at one end or for tendons up to 250 ft (76.20

m) when stressed at both ends;

(iii) Generic 0.5 inch (13 mm) extruded tendons with industry common friction coefficients are used; and,

(iv) Tendons are stressed to 0.8fpu

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For the conditions expressed in the preceding, the effective stress (fse) is assumed as 175 ksi (1206.59

MPa) for unbonded tendons and 160 ksi (1103.14 MPa) for bonded tendons, since friction loss in grouted

tendons is larger. For other conditions, a lower effective stress may have to be used. In the current design,

the total length of the tendon is 136 ft (41.45 m). It is stressed at both ends. Detail calculations indicate that

the effective tendon stress is actually 182 ksi( 1254.85 MPa) for unbonded tendons and larger than the value

assumed for bonded tendons.

The design prestressing force in each span is chosen based upon the following assumptions:

1. A constant effective force is assumed for each tendon. The design prestressing force is cho-

sen as a multiple of the effective force in each tendon.

For unbonded tendons

Force per tendon = 175 ksi * 0.153 in2 = 26.77 kips/ tendon (119 kN/ tendon)

Use multiples of 26.77 kips (119 kN) when selecting the post-tensioning forces

for design.

Force per tendon =160 ksi * 0.153 in2 = 24.48 kips/ tendon (109 kN/ tendon)

Use multiples of 24.48 kips (109 kN) when selecting the post-tensioning forces

for design.

2. Tendon profiles are chosen to be simple parabola. The parameters selected for the parabolas

are such that in each span a uniform upward force will result.

For ease of calculation the tendon profile in each span is chosen to be concave upward, simple parabola

from centerline to centerline of supports (Fig. C6-1). The position of the low point is selected so that the

upward force generated by the tendon is uniform, using the relationship given in Fig. C6-1. For exterior

spans, where the tendon high points are not usually of the same value, the resulting low point will not be at

midspan. For interior spans, where tendon high points are the same, the tendon low point falls at midspan.

Obviously, the chosen profile is an approximation of the actual tendon, since the sharp kinks at the supports

in the tendon profile used in the hand calculation would be impractical. The installed profile of a tendon is

close to a reversed parabola (Fig. C6-2).

Tendon Force Based on Minimum Precompression of critical span:

Unbonded Tendon:

150 psi * 1470 in.2 / 1000 = 220.5 kips (980.83 kN)

Number of strands = 220.5 k/ 26.77 k (980.83 kN / 119 kN)

= 8.24, ∴ say 9 strands

Force in 9 strands = 240.93 kips (1072 kN)

Bonded Tendon:

150 psi * 1470 in.2 / 1000 = 220.5 kips (980.83 kN)

Number of strands = 220.5 k/ 24.48 k (980.83 kN / 109kN)

= 9.01, ∴ say 10 strands

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Figure C6-1

Figure C6-2

Span 1:

The tendon profile of span 1 is chosen to generate a uniform (Fig. C6-1) upward force. Span 1 is the long-

est span; it is considered the critical span.

Try maximum drape and force based upon P/A above

a = 22.91” — 2.75” = 20.16” (512 mm)

b = 27.25” — 2.75” = 24.50” (622 mm)

L = 64’ (19.5 m)

= 30.44’ (9.28 m)

= 0.874 klf (12.76 kN/m)

% DL balanced = (0.874/1.702)* 100

= 51% < 60% No Good

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Wb = (321.24 kips / 240.93 kips) x 0.874 ft.

= 1.165 klf ↑ (17.00 kN/m ↑)

% DL balanced = (1.165/1.702)*100 = 68.4% OK

= 35.46 k ↓ (157.73 kN↓)

Balanced Load Reaction, Right = 1.165 klf * (64-30.44’)

= 39.10 k ↓ (173.92 kN↓)

Span 2:

Continuous Tendons:

This span is shorter and not the critical span. Therefore, the 9 tendons necessary for the assumed minimum pre-

compression of 150 psi (1.03 MPa) is used. In addition, recognizing that balancing a lower percentage of selfweight

will be beneficial to the critical span (span 1), the minimum 60% used as guideline is waved for this span. A small-

er percentage for balanced loading is acceptable. The dead load in span 2 reduces the design moment of span 1.

Hence, balancing more dead load in span 2 will not be beneficial to the design. Also note that the tendon low point

is located at midspan.

Wb = 50% * 1.702 klf = 0.851 klf ↑ (12.42 kN/m ↑)

2

a = Wb * L /(8 * P)

= [(0.851 * 552) / (8 * 240.93)] * 12”

= 16.03”; assume 17” (407.16 mm; assume 432 mm)

CGS = 27.25 — 17.0 = 10.25” (260 mm); assume 10” (254mm)

Hence,

a = 17.25” (438 mm)

Wb = (17.25/12) x 8 x 240.93/552 = 0.916 klf (13.37 kN/m ↑)

= 25.19 k ↓ (112.05 kN ↓) (Left and Right)

Added Tendons:

Reduction of tendons from 12 in span 1 to 9 in span 2 means that 3 tendons from span 1 terminate in span 2. The

terminated three tendons are dead-ended in span 2. The dead-end is located at a distance 0.20*L from the left sup-

port, at the centroid of the beam section. The tail of the terminated tendons is assumed to be in the shape of a half

parabola with its apex horizontal over the support and concave downward to the dead end. Hence, the vertical ba-

lanced loading of these tendons will be downward, with a concentrated upward force at the dead end (Fig. 6-2). The

magnitude of the downward vertical force Wb is:

Wb = (2aP)/L2

a = 27.25” — 22.91” = 4.34” (110 mm)

L = 0.20 * 55’ = 11.0’ (3.4 m)

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= 0.480 klf ↓ (7.01 kN/m ↓)

Concentrated force at dead end = 0.480 klf * 11.0’

= 5.28 k ↑ (23.49 kN ↑)

Span 3:

The tendon profile in this span is chosen to be straight from the high point at the interior support, to the centroid of

the section at the exterior support. The objective is to avoid uplift in the short span. As a matter of fact, for this

beam a downward force in the 3rd span would have been beneficial to the design of the interior span.

CGS Right = 22.91” (582 mm)

CGS Center = (27.25 + 22.91)/2 = 25.08” (637 mm)

Vertical Balanced Loading forces are concentrated forces acting at the supports only, they are equal and

opposite. Using the tangent of the tendon slope for the small angle.

Wb = 240.93 k * (27.25 — 22.91) / (17’ * 12”)

= 5.13 kips (22.82 kN ) ↑(right); ↓ (left)

The complete tendon profile, effective force and balanced loading diagram is shown in Fig. 6-2

Figure 6-1

Figure 6-2

(i) Sum of vertical forces must add up to zero:

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-5.13 + 5.13 - 35.46 - 39.10 + 1.165*64 - 25.19 + 5.28 - 0.480*11 + 0.916*55 - 25.19 =

0.00 (0.00) OK

(ii) Sum of moments of the forces must be zero. Taking moments about the first support gives:

-39.10*64 + 1.165*642 / 2 — 25.19*64 -0.480*11*69.5 + 5.28*75 + 0.916*55*91.5 — 25.19*119 —

5.13*119 + 5.13*136 = -0.23k-ft (-0.31kN-m) OK

It is essential to verify that the balanced loading constructed satisfies static equilibrium. And, that the con-

centrated forces over the supports are correctly computed and accounted for. In particular, the force due to

the short length of the terminated strands in the second span must be included to satisfy equilibrium. If

equilibrium is not satisfied, it becomes imperative to ensure that the results err on the conservative side.

Many engineers use the expression given below to compute hyperstatic (secondary) moments due to pre-

stressing. To obtain reliable outcome from the following relationship, you must make sure that the ba-

lanced loads used for the calculation of post-tensioning values are in “static equilibrium.”

Where Mhyp is the secondary moment, P is the post-tensioning force, and e is the eccentricity of the post-

tensioning.

Actions due to post-tensioning are calculated using a standard frame analysis program. The same frame

geometry used for dead and live loading (Fig. 5-1) is subjected to the balanced loading shown in Fig. 6-2(c).

The results are shown in Fig. 6-3. The moments shown in the figure are those reduced to the face-of-

support. Midspan moments are also shown in the figure.

Figure 6-3

7.1 Load Combinations

[ACI, IBC]

Total load condition 1*DL + 1*LL + 1*PT

Sustained load condition 1*DL + 0.3*LL + 1*PT

[EC2, TR43]

Frequent load condition 1*DL + 0.5*LL + 1*PT

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BS

Specifies one load combination only 1*DL + 1*LL + 1*PT

For serviceability, the actions from the balanced loads from post-tensioning (PT) are used. These are due

to “balanced loading.” The background for this is explained in detail in reference [Aalami, 1990].

Critical Locations for Stress Check:

By inspection, locations marked in Fig. 7-1 as sections A through E are considered critical for design. These

are the midspan locations and the face-of-support locations of the first interior column.

Figure 7-1

The moment diagrams due to the combined action of dead and live loading (Fig. 5-2) and the moment distribu-

tion due to post-tensioning (Fig. 6-3) are used to determine the design values at the selected locations.

Stresses:

σ = (MD + ML + MPT) / S + P/A

S = I/Yc

Where, MD, ML, and MPT are the moments across the entire tributary of the design strip. S is the section mod-

ulus of the cross-sectional area reduced through effective width defined for bending action; A is the area of the

entire tributary; I is the moment of inertia of the portion of the cross-section that is defined by the effective

width for bending; and Yc is the distance of the centroid of the reduced section (defined for bending) to the far-

thest tension fiber of the section.

Stress checks are performed for the two load conditions of total load and sustained load.

The area A is the tributary area. It is the same for all spans. Values used in the stress formula for

critical points selected are listed in Table 7.1.

A = 1470 in2. (948385 mm2)

Bottom Tension = 12 * √4000 = 759 psi (5.23 MPa)

Compression

For Total load condition

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For sustained load condition

0.45 * 4000 = -1800 psi (-12.41 MPa)

Point A:

YT = 9.68” (245.87 mm)

YB = 20.32” (516.13 mm)

Stop = 77238/9.68 = 7979 in3 (1.31e+8mm3)

Sbot = 77238/20.32 = 3801 in3 (6.23e+7mm3)

MD + ML + MPT = (458.6 + 137.6 — 320.5)

= 275.70 k-ft (373.80 kN-m)

P/A = -321.24*1000/1470

= -219 psi (-1.51 MPa)

Bottom fiber:

σ = (275.70 * 12 * 1000 / 3801) — 219

= 651 psi (4.49 MPa ) Tension < 759 psi (5.23 MPa) OK

Top:

σ = (-275.70*12*1000/7979) — 219

= -634 psi (-4.37 MPa) Compression < -2400 psi (-16.55 MPa) OK

MD + 0.3 ML + MPT = (458.6 + 0.3 *137.6 — 320.5)

= 179.38 k-ft (243.21 KN-m)

Top fiber:

σ = -179.38 * 12 * 1000 / 7979 — 219

= -488 psi (-3.37 Mpa) Compression <-1800 psi (-12.41 Mpa) OK

_________________________________________________________________________

B. Based on EC2:

Stress checks are performed for the two load conditions of frequent load and quasi-permanent load.

σ = (MD +0.5 ML + MPT)/S + P/A

Point A:

A = 948385 mm2(1470 in2)

S = I/Yc where I = 3.215e+10 mm4 (77238 in4)

YT = 246 mm (9.68 in)

YB = 516 mm (20.32 in)

Stop = 3.215e+10/246 = 1.307e+8 mm3 (7979 in3 )

Sbot = 3.215e+10/516 = 6.231e+7 mm3 (3801 in3 )

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Stress Limits:

Compression = 0.60 * 27.58 = -16.55 MPa (2400 psi)

Tension (concrete) = fct,eff = fctm = 2.74 MPa (397.41 psi)

= 280.57 kN-m (206.94 k-ft)

P/A =-1429 *1000/948385 = -1.51 MPa (219 psi)

Top:

σ = -280.57 *10002/1.307e+8 — 1.51

= -3.66 MPa (-530.36 psi) Compression < -16.55 MPa (2400 psi)

OK

Bottom:

σ = 280.57 *10002/6.231e+7 — 1.51

= 2.99 MPa (433.67 psi) Tension > 2.74 MPa (397.41 psi) NG

20

Hence check and control crack width .

Quasi-Permanent Load Condition:

σ = (MD +0.3 ML + MPT)/S + P/A

Stress Limits:

Compression = 0.45 * 27.58 = -12.41 MPa (1800 psi)

Tension (concrete) = fct,eff = fctm = 2.74 MPa (397.41 psi)

Point A:

MD + 0.3ML + MPT = (621.8+0. 3*186.60 — 434.53)

= 243.25 kN-m (179.41 k-ft)

P/A = -1429 *1000/948385 = -1.51 MPa(219 psi)

Top:

σ = -243.25*10002/1.307e+8 — 1.51

= -3.37 MPa (-488.94 psi) Compression <-12.41 MPa (1800psi) OK

Bottom:

σ = 243.25 *10002/6.231e+7 — 1.51

= 2.39 MPa (347.30 psi) Tension < 2.74 MPa (397.41 psi) OK

_________________________________________________________________________

C. Based on BS-8110:

Service load condition:

σ = (MD +ML + MPT)/S + P/A

At Point A:

Compression = 0.33 * fcu = 0.33*27.58/0.8

= 11.38 MPa (1650 psi)

20

EN 1992-1-1:2004(E) , Section 7.3.4

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Tension — None specified for unbonded tendons. Used values for grouted (Assumed class 3 mem-

bers with 0.1 mm allowable crack width)

Allowable tension stress = 2.62 MPa (380.12 psi) [Table 4.2 and 4.3]

Tension (with bonded reinforcement) = 0.25fcu = 0.25*27.58/0.8

= 8.62 MPa (1250.24 psi)

S = I/Yc where I = 3.215e+10 mm4 (77238 in4)

YT = 246 mm (9.68 in)

YB = 516 mm (20.32 in)

Stop = 3.215e+10/246 = 1.307e+8 mm3 (7979 in3 )

Sbot = 3.215e+10/516 = 6.231e+7 mm3 (3801 in3 )

= 373.87 kN-m (275.75 k-ft)

P/A =-1429 *1000/948385 = -1.51 MPa (219 psi)

Top:

σ = -373.87 *10002/1.307e+8 — 1.51

= -4.37 MPa (-633.90 psi) Compression < -16.55 MPa (2400 psi) OK

Bottom:

σ = 373.87 *10002/6.231e+7 — 1.51

= 4.49 MPa (651.25 psi) Tension > 2.62 MPa (380 psi) and

< 8.62 MPa (1250.24 psi)

OK with bonded reinforcement.

_________________________________________________________________________

D. Based on TR-43:

Frequent load condition:

σ = (MD +0.5 ML + MPT)/S + P/A

At point A:

Stress limits:

Compression = 0.6* fck = 0.6*27.58 = 16.55 MPa (2400 psi)

Tension = 1.35 fctm,fl = 1.35* 2.74 = 3.70 MPa (536.50 psi)

S = I/Yc where I = 3.215e+10 mm4 (77238 in4)

YT = 246 mm (9.68 in)

YB = 516 mm (20.32 in)

Stop = 3.215e+10/246 = 1.307e+8 mm3 (7979 in3 )

Sbot = 3.215e+10/516 = 6.231e+7 mm3 (3801 in3 )

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= 280.57 kN-m (206.94 k-ft)

P/A =-1429 *1000/948385 = -1.51 MPa (219 psi)

Top:

σ = -280.57 *10002/1.307e+8 — 1.51

= -3.66 MPa (-530.36 psi) Compression < -16.55 MPa (2400 psi)

OK

Bottom:

σ = 280.57 *10002/6.231e+7 — 1.51

= 2.99 MPa (433.67 psi) Tension < 3.70 MPa (536.50psi)

OK

Load Point A Point B Point C Point D Point E

Combination MD k-ft 458.6 -670.9 -583.5 196.9 -46.2

(kN-m) (621.8) (-909.6) (-791.1) (267.0) (-62.6)

ML k-ft 137.6 -200.7 -174.2 58.3 -7.2

(kN-m) (186.6) (-272.1) (-236.2) (79.0) (-9.76)

MPT k-ft -320.5 443.8 375 -99.9 45.3

(kN-m) (-434.5) (601.7) (508.4) (-135.4) (61.4)

Stop in3 7979 7979 7979 7979 5020

(mm3) (1.31e+8) (1.31e+8) (1.31e+8) (1.31e+8) (8.23e+7)

(mm3) (6.23e+7) (6.23e+7) (6.23e+7) (6.23e+7) (5.54e+7)

Area in2 1470 1470 1470 1470 1470

(mm2) (9.484e+5) (9.484e+5) (9.484e+5) (9.484e+5) (9.484e+5)

P kips 321.24 321.24 321.24 240.93 240.93

(kN) (1429) (1429) (1429) (1072) (1072)

P/A psi -219 -219 -219 -164 -164

(MPa) (1.51) (1.51) (1.51) (1.13) (1.13)

Based on ACI 08/IBC 2009

Sustained ft psi -488 NA NA -336 -157

(MPa) (-3.37) (-2.32) (-1.08)

load fb psi NA -1126 -1042 NA -175

(MPa) (-7.76) (-7.18) (-1.21)

Fc psi -1800 -1800 -1800 -1800 -1800

(MPa) (-12.4) (-12.4) (-12.4) (-12.4) (-12.4)

OK OK OK OK OK

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(MPa) (-4.37) (2.92) (2.46) (-2.74) (-1.0)

(MPa) (4.49) (-10.82) (-9.84) (2.25) (-1.33)

Ft psi -2400 569 569 -2400 -2400

(MPa) (-16.55) (3.92) (3.92) (-16.55) (-16.55)

Fb psi 759 -2400 -2400 759 -2400

(MPa) (5.23) (-16.55) (-16.55) (5.23) (-16.55)

OK OK OK OK OK

Based on EC2

Frequent ft (MPa) -3.66 1.88 1.55 -2.44 -1.06

Load (psi) (-530.36) (272.68) (224.75) (-353.33) (-153.18)

fb (MPa) 2.99 -8.64 -7.94 1.62 -1.24

(psi) (433.67) (-1252.57) (-1152.11) (234.44) (-179.85)

Ft (MPa) -16.55 2.74 2.74 -16.55 -16.55

(psi) (-2400) (397.41) (397.41) (-2400) (-2400)

Fb (MPa) 2.74 -16.55 -16.55 2.74 -16.55

(psi) (397.41) (-2400) (-2400) (397.41) (-2400)

NG OK OK OK OK

Quasi- ft (MPa) -3.37 1.46 1.19 -2.32 -1.08

Permanent (psi) (-488.94) (212.27) (172.44) (-335.84) (-156.62)

Load

fb (MPa) 2.39 -7.77 -7.19 1.36 -1.21

(psi) (347.30) (-1125.87) (-1042.13) (197.66) (-174.70)

Ft (MPa) -12.41 2.74 2.74 -12.41 -12.41

(psi) (-1800) (397.41) (397.41) (-1800) (-1800)

Fb (MPa) 2.74 -12.41 -12.41 2.74 -12.41

(psi) (397.41) (-1800) (-1800) (397.41) (-1800)

OK OK OK OK OK

Based on BS-8110

Service Load ft (MPa) -4.37 2.92 2.46 -2.74 -1.0

(psi) (-633.90) (423.52) (356.80) (-397.41) (-145.04)

fb (MPa) 4.49 -10.82 -9.84 2.25 -1.33

(psi) (651.25) (-1569.33) (-1427.19) (326.34) (-192.90)

Ft (MPa) -16.55 2.62 2.62 -16.55 -16.55

(psi) (-2400) (380) (380) (-2400) (-2400)

Fb (MPa) 2.62 -16.55 -16.55 2.62 -16.55

(psi) (380) (-2400) (-2400) (380) (-2400)

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NG NG OK OK OK

Based on TR-43

Frequent ft (MPa) -3.66 1.88 1.55 -2.44 -1.06

Load (psi) (-530.36) (272.68) (224.75) (-353.33) (-153.18)

fb (MPa) 2.99 -8.64 -7.94 1.62 -1.24

(psi) (433.67) (-1252.57) (-1152.11) (234.44) (-179.85)

Ft (MPa) -16.55 3.70 3.70 -16.55 -16.55

(psi) (-2400) (536.50) (536.50) (-2400) (-2400)

Fb (MPa) 3.70 -16.55 -16.55 3.70 -16.55

(psi) (536.50) (-2400) (-2400) (536.50) (-2400)

OK OK OK OK OK

Note: Ft and Fb are the respective top and bottom allowable stresses

Fc is allowable compressive stress

Since the tensile stresses at one or more locations exceed the allowable limit, rebar has to provide in order to

limit the crack width.

A. Based on ACI 318-08/IBC 2009:

None required, since the design stresses were kept in the transition regime. Deflections must be mag-

nified, if stresses exceed the cracking values. This is discussed in the section on deflections.

_________________________________________________________________________

21

B. Based on EC2 and TR-43 :

The allowable crack width for unbonded tendon (quasi-permanent load combination) is 0.3 mm, and for

bonded tendon (frequent load combination) is 0.2 mm. Since the maximum tensile stress for frequent

load exceeds the allowable stress, crack width calculation is required based on section 7.3.4.

If the calculated crack width exceeds the allowable, use the recommended bar diameter or spacing from

the Table 7.2N or 7.3N to limit the crack width.

Point A:

Crack width, Wk = Sr, max ( εsm — εcm) 22

εsm — εcm = [σs — kt *(fct,eff/ρp,eff)(1 + αe ρp,eff)] / Es ≥ 0.6 σs / Es

Where,

αe = Es / Ecm = 199,949.20/ 32194.71 = 6.21

A’p = area of tendons within Ac,eff =12 *99 =1188 mm2 (1.84 in2)

As = 0 mm2

21

EN 1992-1-1:2004(E) , Section 7.3.3, and TR-43 2nd Edition, Section 5.8.3

22

EN 1992-1-1:2004(E) , Section 7.3.4

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ξ1 = √ (ξ* φs / φp)

ξ = 0.5 (From Table 6.2)

φs = largest diameter of bar =22 mm (# 7)

φp = 1.75* 13 = 23 mm (0.90”)

ξ1 = √ (0.5* 22 / 23) = 0.70

Ac,eff = hc,eff * bw

hc,eff = lesser of (2.5*(h-d), (h-x)/3 , (h/2))

x = 2.99* 762/(2.99+3.66) = 343 mm (13.49 in)

d = 762- 51-22/2 = 700 mm ( 27.56 in)

hc,eff = lesser of (2.5*(762-700), (762-343)/3 , (762/2))

= 140 mm (5.51”)

Ac,eff = 140 * 457 =63980 mm2 (99.17 in2)

ρp,eff = (0 + 0.702*1188)/ 63980 =0.0091

σs = (f/Ec)*Es

f = tensile stress due to DL+0.5LL = (MD+0.5 ML)/s

= (621.8+0.5*186.6)*10002/6.23*107

= 11.48 MPa (1665 psi)

σs = (11.48/32194.71)* 199,949.20 =71.30 MPa (10341 psi)

kt = 0.4 (coefficient for long-term loading)

fct,eff = fctm = 0.3 *(27.58)(2/3) = 2.74 MPa (397.20 psi)

= [71.30— 0.4 *(2.74/0.0091)(1 + 6.21*0.0091)]/ 199,949.20

= -0.0003 ≤ 0.6 * 71.30 / 199,949.20 =0.000214, use 0.000214

Crack width, Wk = 545 * 0.000214

= 0.12 mm < 0.2 mm OK

Provide minimum reinforcement for cracking.

EXAMPLE 1 =========================================================

To illustrate the procedure, as an example let the calculated crack width exceeds the allowable value

Given: computed stress in concrete f = 30MPa

Required : reinforcement design for crack control

Calculate σs = (f/Ec)*Es

Where f is the tensile stress in concrete due to dead and live combination.

σs = (f/Ec)*Es = (30/32194.71)* 199,949.20 =186.32 MPa

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Crack spacing can be limited by either restricting the bar diameter or bar spacing.

Here use the maximum bar spacing from Table 7.3 N for the σs of 186.32 MPa.

From Table, for 160 MPa - 300 mm

200 MPa - 250 mm

By interpolation, maximum spacing for 186.32 MPa is 267 mm.

Limit the spacing of reinforcement to 267 mm or less (265 mm) in order to control the cracking.

_________________________________________________________________________

C. Based on BS-811023:

BS code does similar to ACI-318 controls the crack width through limitations on the value of hypothetical

tensile stresses and the reinforcement that must be provided accordingly. For class 3 members, if the hypo-

thetical tensile stress exceeds the threshold values, rebar needs to be added to limit the cracking based on

prestressing system as follows:

For grouted post-tensioned and pre-tensioned members, 0.0025At rebar in tension zone is added

for every 1MPa of stress above the allowable up to the stress of 0.25fcu.

For other members, 0.0033At rebar in tension zone is added for every 1MPa of stress above the

allowable up to the stress of 0.25fcu.

Since the calculated tensile stresses at A and B exceed stress limit, rebar needs to be added. The follow-

ing shows the rebar calculation.

Unbonded Tendon:

At point A:

fb = 4.49 MPa (651.25 psi)

ft = -4.37 MPa (-633.90 psi)

Allowable stress = 2.62 MPa (380 psi)

Allowable stress with rebar = 0.25fcu = 8.62 MPa (1250.24 psi)

As = 0.0033*At*(4.49-2.62)

Where, At = area of tension zone

Depth of neutral axis, x = 4.49* 762/(4.49+4.37) = 386.16 mm (15.20 in)

At = 386.16*457 = 1.765e+05 mm2 (273.58 in2)

As = 0.0033*1.765e+05*(4.49-2.62)

= 1090 mm2 (1.69 in2)

No.of Bars = 1090 /387 = 2.82 Use 3- 22 mm (3 # 7) bars

As = 3 *387 = 1161 mm2 (1.80 in2 )

At point B:

ft = 2.92 MPa (423.52 psi)

fb = -10.82 MPa (-1569.33 psi)

Allowable stress = 2.62 MPa (380 psi)

Allowable stress with rebar = 0.25fcu = 8.62 MPa (1250.24 psi)

23

BS 8110: Part 1:1997, Section 4.3.4.3

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As = 0.0033*At*(4.49-2.62)

Where, At = area of tension zone

Depth of neutral axis, x = 2.92* 762/(2.92+10.82) = 161.94 mm (6.38 in)

At = 161.94*2.489*1000 = 4.031e+05 mm2 (624.76 in2)

As = 0.0033*4.031e+05*(2.92-2.62)

= 399 mm2 (0.62 in2)

No.of bars = 399/387 = 1.03 Use 2- 22 mm (2 #7 ) bars

As = 2*387 =774 mm2 (1.20 in2 )

Bonded Tendon:

At point A:

fb = 4.49 MPa (651.25 psi)

ft = -4.37 MPa (-633.90 psi)

Allowable stress = 2.62 MPa (380 psi)

Allowable stress with rebar = 0.25fcu = 8.62 MPa (1250.24 psi)

As = 0.0025*At*(4.49-2.62)

Where, At = area of tension zone

Depth of neutral axis, x = 4.49* 762/(4.49+4.37) = 386.16 mm (15.20 in)

At = 386.16*457 = 1.765e+05 mm2 (273.58 in2)

As = 0.0025*1.765e+05*(4.49-2.62)

= 825 mm2 (1.28 in2)

No.of Bars = 825 /387 = 2.13 Use 3- 22 mm (3 # 7) bars

As = 3 *387 = 1161 mm2 (1.80 in2 )

At point B:

ft = 2.92 MPa (423.52 psi)

fb = -10.82 MPa (-1569.33 psi)

Allowable stress = 2.62 MPa (380 psi)

Allowable stress with rebar = 0.25fcu = 8.62 MPa (1250.24 psi)

As = 0.0025*At*(4.49-2.62)

Where, At = area of tension zone

Depth of neutral axis, x = 2.92* 762/(2.92+10.82) = 161.94 mm (6.38 in)

At = 161.94*2.489*1000 = 4.031e+05

As = 0.0025 * 4.031e+05*(2.92-2.62)

= 303 mm2 (0.47 in2)

No.of bars = 303 /387 = 0.78 Use 1- 22 mm (1 #7 ) bars

As = 1*387 =387 mm2 (0.60 in2 )

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D. Based on TR-4324

The allowable crack width for all members is 0.2 mm. Since the maximum tensile stress is within the al-

lowable stress, crack width calculation is not required. If the tensile stress exceeds, the crack width calcula-

tion should be performed based on EC2 code.

For bonded tendon, if the hypothetical tensile stress exceeds the threshold values, rebar needs to be added to

limit the cracking as follows:

0.0025At rebar in tension zone is added for every 1MPa of stress above the allowable up to the

stress of 0.30fck.

The addition of the above rebar for excess stress satisfies the limitations on crack width.

Since the calculated tensile stresses at A and B are within the stress limit, rebar need not be added. If

needed, the procedure as in BS code should follow.

Use # 7 (22 mm) bars (Area = 0.60 in2 (387 mm2); Diameter = 0.875 in. (22 mm))

A. Based on ACI 318-08/IBC 200925:

Unbonded Tendon:

Minimum Required, Top:

As = 0.004 * ATens

The minimum requirements are taken from ACI-318-08 code. Atens is the area of the section between the

tension fiber and the section centroid. The minimum rebar is required for members reinforced with un-

bonded tendons. The added rebar is to reduce the in-service crack width and enhance the ductility of the

member for ultimate strength condition. Since the minimum rebar is intended to address the flexural per-

formance of the member, the cross-sectional properties associated with the flexure are used for the determi-

nation of its area.

Top bars at supports 1, 2 and 3

= 0.004 * [5” * 98” + (9.68” — 5”) * 18”]

= 2.30 in2 (1484 mm2)

No.of Bars = 2.30/0.6 = 3.83; Use 4 - #7 (4- 22 mm) bars

2

As = 4 *0.6 = 2.4 in (1548 mm2)

= 0.004 * [5” * 51” + (12.07” — 5”) * 18”]

= 1.53 in2 (987 mm2)

No.of Bars = 1.53/0.6 = 2.55; Use 3 - #7 (22 mm) bars

2

As = 3 *0.6 = 1.8 in (1161 mm2)

As = 0.004 * ATens

24

TR-43, Second edition, Section 5.8.1 and 5.8.3

25

ACI 318-08, Section 18.9

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= 1.46 in2 (942mm2)

No.of Bars = 1.46/0.6 = 2.44; Use 3-#7 (22 mm) bars

2 2

As = 3 * 0.6 = 1.8 in (1161 mm )

As = 0.004 * (18” * 17.93”) = 1.29 in2 (832 mm2)

Use 3#7

As = 3 * 0.6 = 1.8 in2 (1161 mm2)

Since at midspan, the tension is at the top, the area of minimum reinforcement calculated for the top will

be used. In this case, 3 #7 (22mm) will be adequate. Hence

As = 1.8 in2 (1161 mm2); use 3-#7 (22 mm) bars at top of midspan

Bonded Tendon: There is no minimum top bar requirement for members reinforced with bonded tendons.

__________________________________________________________________

B. Based on EC226 : EC2 uses the same equations of minimum reinforcement for both supports and spans

and also for both unbonded and bonded tendons.

At section A (Fig. 7-1):

a) Minimum overall reinforcement:

(i) As ≥ (0.26* fctm *bt*d / fyk)

But not less than 0.0013* bt *d

bt = 457 mm (18 in)

d = 762- 51-22/2 = 700 mm ( 27.56 in)

(2/3)

fctm = 0.3 *27.58 = 2.74 Mpa (397.41 psi)

As = 0.0013*bt*d = 0.0013 *457 * 700 = 416 mm2 (0.64 in2 )

Therefore, As = 551 mm2 (0.85 in2)

Aps *(fpk/fyk) = 12* 99*1861.60/413.69 = 5346 mm2 (8.23 in2)> 551 mm2 (0.85 in2)

Hence, no minimum reinforcement needed to provide.

Since the tensile stress of the concrete exceeds the allowable limit at point A, cracking rein-

forcement need to be provided.

Point A:

Asmin = kc k fct,eff Act /σs

26

EN 1992-1-1:2004(E) , Section 9.2.1 and 7.3.2

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ft = -3.66 MPa (-530.36 psi)

fb = 2.99 MPa (433.67 psi)

σs = fyk = 413.69 MPa (60 ksi)

fct,eff = fctm = 0.3 *(27.58)(2/3) = 2.74 MPa (397.20)

k = 0.677 (interpolated for h=762 mm)

Distance of neutral axis from bottom = 2.99*762/ (2.99+3.66)

= 343 mm (13.49 in)

Act = 343*457 =156751 mm2 (242.96 in2)

kc = 0.4* [1-( σc /( k1 (h/h*) fct,eff)]

σc = NED /bh = 1.51 MPa

h* = 762 mm

k1 = 1.5

= 0.25

Asmin = 0.25* 0.677* 2.74* 156751 /413.69

= 176 mm2 (0.27 in2)

Provide one 22mm bar (As,prov = 1* 387 =387 mm2)

Asmin,crack = 387 mm2

__________________________________________________________________

C. Based on BS: There are no specific requirements for minimum reinforcement for PT members. The mini-

mum reinforcement is indirectly controlled through the level of prestressing and the non-prestressed

reinforcement needed when tensile stresses in concrete exceed a specified threshold.

__________________________________________________________________

D. Based on TR-43:

Unbonded Tendon:

i. Flexural un-tensioned reinforcement27:

According to TR-43, additional un-tensioned reinforcement should be provided if the tensile stress

exceeds the allowable limit, for the full tension force generated by the hypothetical flexural tensile

stresses in the concrete. At all points tensile stress is within the limit, therefore no calculation is ne-

cessary.

EXAMPLE 2 =========================================================

For the demonstration purpose, the associated calculation for the un-tensioned reinforcement will

be as follows.

At point A:(Frequent Load Combination)

h-x = -fct*h/(fcc-fct)

fct = tensile stress (-ve) = -2.99MPa (-433.67psi)

fcc = compressive stress = 3.66 MPa (530.36 psi)

27

TR-43 2nd Edition, Section 5.8.7

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b = width of the section = 457 mm (18 in)

x = depth of the compression zone

h-x = -(-2.99)*760/(3.66+2.99) = 341.71 mm (13.45 in)

fcc

fct

FIGURE 8-1

As = Ft /(5*fyk /8)

Ft = -fct*b*(h-x)/2 = -(-2.99)*457 *341.71/2 = 233.46 kN(52.48 kips)

As = 233.46*1000/(5*413.69/8) =903 mm2(1.40 in2)

Provide three 22mm bar (As,prov = 3* 387 =1161 mm2 (1.80 in2)

Bonded Tendon:

There are no minimum rebar requirements for one-way spanning floors with bonded tendons.

The deflections are calculated from the frame analysis program for each of the load cases of dead, live,

and post-tensioning, using the gross cross-sectional area and linear elastic relationships. Since the

stress level for which the design was carried out falls in the transition zone, the elastically calculated

stresses must be adjusted to allow for cracking at locations where cracking stresses are exceeded.

The critical location is in span 1. The values for span 1 are as follows:

Span 1 Deflection:

Dead Load 1.01” (26 mm)

Post-Tensioning -0.71” (-18 mm)

Dead Load + PT 0.30” (8 mm)

The maximum stress under total loading at midspan is 651 psi (4.49 MPa). Since this is greater than 6*

√f’c = 379 psi (2.61 MPa), adjustment to the calculated deflection is necessary.

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There are several options available to adjust elastically calculated deflection values, if the computed tensile

stresses exceed cracking value. Among the most commonly used are: (i) substitution of the gross moment

of inertia (Ig), by an equivalent moment of inertia (Ie), followed by the magnification of the elastically cal-

culated deflection by the ratio of (Ig/Ie); and (ii) use of a bilinear deflection calculation, in which the amount

of deflection prior to cracking is calculated using Ig and the elastic solution, the deflection after the initia-

tion of crack is calculated for the overage of load, using the cracked moment of inertia (Icr).

For prestressed sections the equivalent moment of inertia is calculated using the following relationship [PTI

design manual, 1990].

f’c is in psi

Ie = [1 – 0.30 * (fmax – 0.5 * √f’c )/ 0.5 * √f’c ]* Ig (SI)

f’c is in MPa

Where, Ie is the effective moment of inertia and Ig is the moment of inertia based on the gross cross-

sectional area. The upper value applicability of fmax for this relationship is not clarified in relation to the

changes in 2002 code. In prior codes, 12 * √f’c was used as an upper bound, for other reasons than deflec-

tion calculation.

The calculated maximum tensile stress fmax = 651 psi (4.49 MPa).

Ie = [1 – 0.30 * (fmax – 6 * √f’c) / 6 * √f’c) * Ig

= [1 – 0.30 * (651-379) / 379] *Ig = 0.78 * Ig

Hence deflection due to dead load and PT = 0.30 / 0.78 = 0.38” (10 mm)

Long-term deflection due to creep = (1 + 2) * 0.38 = 1.14” (30 mm)

Ratio of deflection to span = 1.14 / (64 * 12) = 1/674 OK

Live load deflection = 0.30” (8 mm) from frame analysis

Live load deflection with cracking allowance = 0.30 / 0.78 = 0.38” (10 mm)

Total long-term deflection due to total dead, live and prestressing:

=1.14” + 0.38 = 1.52” (32 mm)

Deflection ratio = 1.52” / (64*12) = 1 / 505 OK

Deflection does not generally govern the design for members dimensioned within the limits of the recom-

mended tables [PTI 1990] and balanced within the recommended range, and when subject to loading

common in building construction. For such cases, deflections are almost always within the permissible

code values, when design is performed within U or T stress values.

8.1 Load Combinations

ACI-318/IBC

1.2*DL + 1.6*LL + 1*HYP

1.4*DL + 1*HYP

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EC2

1.35*DL + 1.5*LL + 1 * Hyp

BS

1.4*DL + 1.6* LL+ 1* Hyp

TR43

1.35*DL + 1.5*LL + 0.9 * Hyp

For strength combination, the hyperstatic (Hyp) actions (secondary) due to prestressing are used. The

background for this is explained in detail in reference [Aalami, 1990].

The hyperstatic moments are determined from the reactions of the frame analysis when the frame is sub-

jected to balanced loading (Loading shown in Fig. 6-2). The reactions obtained from a standard frame

analysis program are shown in Fig. 8-1(a). The reactions shown result in hyperstatic moments in the

frame as shown in Fig. 8-1(b).

Figure 8-1

The hyperstatic (secondary) reactions must be in self-equilibrium, since the applied loading (balanced

loading) was in self-equilibrium.

ΣVertical Forces = 4.45 — 8.87 + 3.76 + 0.66 = 0 OK

ΣMoments about Support 1 = -75.11 + 78.94 + 30.27 — 3.90 -(8.87*64) + (3.76*119) +

(0.66*136)

= -0.28 k-ft (0.38 kN-m) ≈ 0 OK

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Support reactions due to post-tensioning are applied to the beam in order to construct the hyperstatic mo-

ment diagram shown 8-1(b). The support reactions are shown in part (a) of the figure.

For right Face-of-Support (FOS) of span 1:

MHYP = 359.91 — [(359.91 — 75.11) / 64’] * 9/12

= 356.57 k-ft (483.44 kN-m)

The design moment (Mu) is the factored combination of dead, live and hyperstatic moments.

For ACI, the design moments are obtained from two load combinations.

MU1 = 1.2 * MD + 1.6 * ML + 1.0 * MHYP

MU2 = 1.4 * MD + 1.0 * MHYP

The second combination governs, when the values from dead load are eight times or more of those of

live loading. This is a rare condition. The moments shown in Fig. 8-1 are centerline moments. These are

reduced to the face-of-support in Table 8-1.

By inspection, the second load combination does not govern, and will not be considered in the following.

Design Moments are compiled in Table 8-1

Point A Point B Point C Point D Point E

MD k-ft 458.6 -670.9 -583.5 196.9 -46.2

(kN-m) (621.8) (-909.6) (-791.1) (267.0) (-62.6)

ML k-ft 137.6 -200.7 -174.2 58.3 -7.2

(kN-m) (186.6) (-272.1) (-236.2) (79.0) (-9.8)

MHYP k-ft 217.5 356.6 277.4 159.2 1.71

(kN-m) (294.9) (483.5) (376.1) (215.8) (2.3)

MU k-ft 987.9 -769.6 -701.5 488.8 -65.3

(kN-m) (1339.4) (1043.4) (951.1) (662.7) (-88.5)

EC2 : 1.35DL+1.5LL+1Hyp

MU kN-m 1414.2 -1152.6 -1046.2 694.8 -96.9

(k-ft) (1043.1) (-850.1) (-771.6) (512.4) (-71.5)

BS 8110: 1.4DL+1.6LL+1Hyp

MU kN-m 1464.0 -1225.3 -1109.4 716.0 -101.0

(k-ft) (1079.8) (-903.7) (-818.2) (528.1) (-74.5)

TR 43 : 1.35DL+1.5LL+0.9Hyp

MU kN-m 1384.7 -1201.0 -1083.8 673.2 -97.1

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For hand calculation, the capacity of a post-tensioned member can be approximated for common sections

by assuming a conservative ultimate stress for the prestressing tendons. The approximated solution is vali-

dated by ensuring that the depth of the neutral axis does not exceed a given threshold as detailed below.

The approximate procedure is based on the following limitations. The following applied for both unbonded

and bonded tendons:

• P/A ≤ 250 psi (1.72 MPa)

• c/dt ≤ 0.375 , where dt is the distance from the compression fiber to the farthest location designat-

ed for reinforcement

• Tendon Length ≤ 125’ (38.10 m) for single end stressing

≤ 250’ (76.20 m) for double end stressing

• fps is conservatively assumed to be 215 ksi (1482.38 MPa) if span is less than 35’ (10.67 m) in

slabs

fps is conservatively assumed to be 195 ksi (1344.49 MPa) if span is greater than 35’ (10.67 m) in

slabs

fps is conservatively assumed to be 205 ksi (1413.43 MPa) if span is less than 35’ (10.67 m) in

beams

fps is conservatively assumed to be 190 ksi (1310.01 MPa) if span is greater than 35’ (10.67 m) in

beams

Figures C8-1 and C8-2 below illustrates the forces and dimensional parameters used in the calculations be-

low.

In most instances, the design capacity ( ΦMn) available at a section from the available post-tensioning and min-

imum rebar exceeds the design moment (Mu). For this reason, the common procedure is to first calculate the de-

sign capacity of the section. If the design capacity is not adequate, nonprestressed reinforcement is added. If a

computer program is used, the design capacity is normally based on a rigorous algorithm, such as strain compa-

tibility. For hand calculation, the approximate but conservative procedure outlined herein, is used.

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Unbonded tendon:

At Point A (Midspan of Span 1):

h = 30” (762 mm)

Aps = 12 * 0.153 = 1.84 in2 (1187 mm2)

dp = 30” — 2.75 = 27.25” (692 mm)

2 2

As = 1.8 in (1161 mm ) from minimum computation

dr = 30” — 2.0” — 0.875 / 2 = 27.56” (700 mm)

Span > 35.0’ (10.67 m) fps = 190 ksi (1310 MPa)

= 1.84 * 190 ksi + 1.8 * 60 ksi

= 349.60 + 108.0 = 457.60 kips (2035.50 kN)

c = 0.66/0.85 = 0.78 “ (20 mm) < flange thickness 5” (127mm) OK

dt = 27.56” (approximately 700 mm)

c/dt = 0.78/27.56 = 0.028 < 0.375 to use approximation

φ = 0.90

= 926.41 k-ft (1256.03 kN-m) < Mu =987.90 k-ft (1339.40 kN-m) No Good

Since supplemental rebar must be added the depth of compression zone must be prorated to approximate the

added compressive stress in the section.

Prorated a = 0.66” * 987.9/ 926.41 = 0.70” (18 mm)

Msupplemental = 987.9 — 926.41 = 61.49 k-ft (83.37 kN-m)

Asupplemental = 61.49 k-ft*12 / [0.9*60ksi*(27.56-0.70/ 2)]

= 0.50 in2 + 0.05 (10% more for conservatism) = 0.55 in2 (355 mm2)

Since this is an approximate method for expeditious hand calculation, add 10% more rebar in lieu of iterating

the solution.

No.of Bars = 2.35/ 0.6 = 3.92; Say 4-#7 (4-22 mm) bars

As = 4 * 0.6 = 2.4 in (1548 mm2)

2

φMn = 0.9*[349.60*(27.25 — 0.70/ 2) + 144*(27.56-0.70/ 2)]/12

= 999.19 k-ft (1354.70 kN-m) > Mu = 987.90 k-ft (1339.39 kN-m) OK

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Aps = 12 * 0.153 = 1.84 in2 (1187 mm2)

dp = 27.25” (692 mm)

As = 2.40 in2 (1548 mm2) available for minimum requirements

dr = 30” — 2.0” — 0.875 / 2 = 27.56” (700 mm)

Span > 35.0’ (10.67 m) fpu = 190 ksi (1310.01 MPa)

= 1.84 * 190 ksi + 2.4 * 60 ksi

= 349.60 + 144 = 493.60 kips (2195.63 kN)

a = 493.60 kips / (18” * 0.85 * 4ksi) = 8.07” (205 mm)

c = 8.07/0.85 = 9.49 “ (241 mm)

dt = 27.56” (700 mm)

c/ dt = 9.49 / 27.56 = 0.344 < 0.375 Hence, φ = 0.9

φMn = 0.9*[349.60*(27.25-8.07/ 2) + 144*(27.56-8.07/ 2)]12

= 862.77 k-ft (1169.74 kN-m) > Mu = 769.6 k-ft (1043.42 kN-m) OK

No supplemental rebar is necessary

Same number of tendons and bars continue over the column to the other side of the support. Since the

geometry of the beam cross-section is also the same, the design moment capacity at the left and right of

the support will be the same.

Aps = 9 * 0.153 = 1.38 in2 (890 mm2)

dp = 30” — 10.00 = 20.00” (508 mm)

2 2

As = 1.8 in (1161 mm ) (3#7 available from minimum requirements)

dr = 30”-2.0”-0.875 / 2 = 27.56” (700 mm)

Span > 35.0’ (10.67 m) fps = 190 ksi (1310.01 MPa)

= 1.38 * 190 ksi + 1.8 * 60 ksi

= 262.20 + 108.00 = 370.20 kips (1646.72 kN)

a = 370.20 kips / (204” * 0.85 * 4 ksi) = 0.53” (13 mm)

c = 0.53/0.85 = 0.62” (16 mm)

dt = 27.56 “ (700 mm)

c/dt = 0.62/27.56 = 0.02 < 0.375

Hence, φ = 0.90

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= 609.18 k-ft (825.93 kN-m) > Mu = 488.80 k-ft (662.72 kN-m) OK

By inspection point E is OK.

Bonded tendon:

At Point A (Midspan of Span 1):

h = 30” (762 mm)

Aps = 12 * 0.153 = 1.84 in2 (1187 mm2)

dp = 30” — 2.75 = 27.25” (692 mm)

2

As = 0 in from minimum computation

dr = 30” — 2.0” — 0.875 / 2 = 27.56” (700 mm)

Span > 35.0’ (10.67 m) fps = 190 ksi (1310 MPa)

= 1.84 * 190 ksi +0* 60 ksi

= 349.60 + 0 = 349.60 kips (1555.09 kN)

a = 349.60 kips / (204” * 0.85 * 4 ksi) = 0.41” (11 mm)

c = 0.41/0.85 = 0.48 “ (12 mm) < flange thickness 5” (127mm) OK

dt = 27.56” (approximately 700 mm)

c/dt = 0.48/27.56 = 0.017 < 0.375 to use approximation

φ = 0.90

= 709.12 k-ft (961.42 kN-m) < Mu =987.90 k-ft (1339.40 kN-m) No Good

Since supplemental rebar must be added the depth of compression zone must be prorated to approximate the

added compressive stress in the section.

Prorated a = 0.41” * 987.9/ 709.12 = 0.57” (15 mm)

Msupplemental = 987.9 — 709.12 = 278.78 k-ft (377.97 kN-m)

Asupplemental = 278.78 k-ft*12 / [0.9*60ksi*(27.56-0.57/ 2)]

= 2.27 in2 + 0.23 (10% more for conservatism) = 2.50 in2 (1613 mm2)

Since this is an approximate method for expeditious hand calculation, add 10% more rebar in lieu of iterating

the solution.

No.of Bars = 2.5/ 0.6 = 4.17; Say 5-#7 (5-22 mm) bars

As = 5 * 0.6 = 3.0 in2 (1936 mm2)

Ts = 3.0 * 60 = 180 kips (800.68 kN)

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= 1075.23 k-ft (1457.80 kN-m) > Mu = 987.90 k-ft (1339.39 kN-m) OK

Aps = 12 * 0.153 = 1.84 in2 (1187 mm2)

dp = 27.25” (692 mm)

As = 0 in2 available for minimum requirements

dr = 30” — 2.0” — 0.875 / 2 = 27.56” (700 mm)

Span > 35.0’ (10.67 m) fpu = 190 ksi (1310.01 MPa)

= 1.84 * 190 ksi + 0 * 60 ksi

= 349.60 + 0 = 349.60 kips (1555.09 kN)

a = 349.60 kips / (18” * 0.85 * 4ksi) = 5.71” (145 mm)

c = 5.71/0.85 = 6.72 “ (171 mm)

dt = 27.56” (700 mm)

c/ dt = 6.72 / 27.56 = 0.244 < 0.375 Hence, φ = 0.9

= 639.64 k-ft (867.22 kN-m) < Mu = 769.6 k-ft (1043.42 kN-m) No Good

Since supplemental rebar must be added the depth of compression zone must be prorated to approximate the

added compressive stress in the section.

Prorated a = 5.71” * 769.60/ 639.64 = 6.87” (175 mm)

Msupplemental = 769.60 — 639.64 = 129.96 k-ft (176.20 kN-m)

Asupplemental = 129.96 k-ft*12 / [0.9*60ksi*(27.56-6.87/ 2)]

= 1.20 in2 + 0.12 (10% more for conservatism) = 1.32 in2 (850 mm2)

Since this is an approximate method for expeditious hand calculation, add 10% more rebar in lieu of iterating

the solution.

No.of Bars = 1.32/ 0.6 = 2.2; Say 3-#7 (3-22 mm) bars

As = 3 * 0.6 = 1.8 in2 (1162 mm2)

Ts = 1.8 * 60 = 108 kips (480.41 kN)

φMn = 0.9*[349.60*(27.25 — 6.87/ 2) + 108*(27.56-6.87/ 2)]/12

= 819.84 k-ft (1111.54 kN-m) > Mu = 769.6 k-ft (1043.42 kN-m) OK

Same number of tendons and bars continue over the column to the other side of the support. Since the geo-

metry of the beam cross-section is also the same, the design moment capacity at the left and right of the

support will be the same.

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Aps = 9 * 0.153 = 1.38 in2 (890 mm2)

dp = 30” — 10.00 = 20.00” (508 mm)

2

As = 0 in

dr = 30”-2.0”-0.875 / 2 = 27.56” (700 mm)

Span > 35.0’ (10.67 m) fps = 190 ksi (1310.01 MPa)

Total Tension Force = TP + TS

= 1.38 * 190 ksi + 0 * 60 ksi

= 262.20 + 0 = 262.20 kips (1166.32 kN)

a = 262.20 kips / (204” * 0.85 * 4 ksi) = 0.38” (10 mm)

c = 0.38/0.85 = 0.45” (12 mm)

dt = 27.56 “ (700 mm)

c/dt = 0.45/27.56 = 0.02 < 0.375 , Hence, φ = 0.90

= 389.56 k-ft (528.17 kN-m) < Mu =488.80 k-ft (662.72 kN-m) No Good

Since supplemental rebar must be added the depth of compression zone must be prorated to approximate the

added compressive stress in the section.

Msupplemental = 488.80 — 389.56 = 99.24 k-ft (134.55 kN-m)

Asupplemental = 99.24 k-ft*12 / [0.9*60ksi*(27.56-0.48/ 2)]

= 0.77 in2 + 0.08 (10% more for conservatism) = 0.85 in2 (548 mm2)

Since this is an approximate method for expeditious hand calculation, add 10% more rebar in lieu of iterating

the solution.

No.of Bars = 0.85/ 0.6 = 1.42; Say 2-#7 (2-22 mm) bars

As = 2* 0.6 = 1.2 in2 (775 mm2)

Ts = 1.2* 60 = 72 kips (320.27 kN)

φMn = 0.9*[262.20*(20.00 — 0.48/2) + 72*(27.56-0.48/ 2)]/12

= 536.11 k-ft (726.86 kN-m) > Mu= 488.80 k-ft (662.72 kN-m) OK

_________________________________________________________________________________

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B. Based on EC2:

Unbonded and Bonded Tendon:

At Point A (Midspan of Span 1):

h = 762 mm (30”)

Aps = 12 * 99 = 1188 mm2 (1.84 in2)

dp = 762— 70 = 692 mm (27.25”)

As = 387 mm (0.60 in2) from minimum computation

2

Span > 10.67 m (35.0’) fps =1310 MPa (190 ksi) < 0.9fpk =1675.44 Mpa, OK

Total Tension Force = TP + Tsr

= 1188* 1310/1.15 + 387 *413.69/1.15

= 1353.29 + 139.22 = 1492.51 kN (335.53 kips)

x = 16/0.80 = 20 mm (0.78“) < flange thickness 127 mm (5”) OK

dt = 700 mm (27.56”)

x/dt = 20/700 = 0.029 < 0.45 OK

= 1022 kN-m (753.78 k-ft) < Mu = 1414.20 kN-m (1043.1 k-ft) No Good

Since supplemental rebar must be added the depth of compression zone must be prorated to approximate the

added compressive stress in the section.

Prorated a = 16 * 1414.20/ 1022 = 23 mm (0.87”)

Msupplemental = 1414.20 — 1022 = 392.20 kN-m (289.27 k-ft)

2

Asupplemental = 392.20*1000 / [413.69/1.15*(700-23/ 2)]

= 1584 mm2 + 158 (10% more for conservatism) = 1742 mm2 (2.70 in2)

Since this is an approximate method for expeditious hand calculation, add 10% more rebar in lieu of iterating

the solution.

No.of Bars = 2129/ 387 = 5.50; Say 6-22 mm (6- #7) bars

As = 6 * 387 = 2322 mm2 (3.6 in2)

Ts = 2322 * 413.69/1.15 = 835.29 kN (187.78 kip)

Mn = [1353.29*(692 — 23/ 2) + 835.29*(700-23/ 2)]/ 1000

= 1496 kN-m (1103.40 k-ft) > Mu = 1414.20 kN-m (1043.1 k-ft) OK

Aps = 12 * 99 = 1188 mm2 (1.84 in2)

dp = 762— 70 = 692 mm (27.25”)

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dr = 762- 51- 22/2 = 700 mm (27.56”)

Span > 10.67 m (35.0’) fps =1310 MPa (190 ksi) < 0.9fpk =1675.44 Mpa, OK

= 1188* 1310/1.15 + 0 *413.69/1.15

= 1353.29 + 0 = 1353.29 kN (304.23 kips)

a = 1353.29 *1000 / (457* 1 * 27.58/1.5) = 161 mm (6.34”)

x = 161/0.80 = 201 mm (7.92“)

dt = 700 mm (27.56”)

x/dt = 201/700 = 0.29 < 0.45 OK

= 827.54 kN-m (610.36 k-ft) < Mu = 1152.60 kN-m (850.10 k-ft) No Good

Since supplemental rebar must be added the depth of compression zone must be prorated to approximate the

added compressive stress in the section.

Prorated a = 161 * 1152.60/ 827.54 = 224 mm (8.83”)

Msupplemental = 1152.60 — 827.54 = 325.06 kN-m (239.75 k-ft)

2

Asupplemental = 325.06*1000 / [413.69/1.15*(700-224/ 2)]

= 1537 mm2 + 154 (10% more for conservatism) = 1691 mm2 (2.62 in2)

Since this is an approximate method for expeditious hand calculation, add 10% more rebar in lieu of iterating

the solution.

No.of Bars = 1691/ 387 = 4.37; Say 5-22 mm (5- #7) bars

As = 5 * 387 = 1935 mm2 (3.0 in2)

Ts = 1935 * 413.69/1.15 = 696.08 kN (156.49 kip)

Mn = [1353.29*(692 — 224/ 2) + 696.08 *(700-224/ 2)]/ 1000

= 1194.20 kN-m (880.80 k-ft) > Mu = 1152.60 kN-m (850.10 k-ft) OK

Same number of tendons and bars continue over the column to the other side of the support. Since the

geometry of the beam cross-section is also the same, the design moment capacity at the left and right of

the support will be the same.

Aps = 9 * 99 = 891 mm2 (1.38 in2)

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2

As = 0 mm

dr = 762-51 -22 / 2 = 700 mm (27.56”)

Span > 10.67 m (35.0’) fps = 1310 MPa (190 ksi) < 0.9fpk =1675.44 Mpa, OK

= 891 * 1310/1.15 + 0 * 413.69/1.15

= 1014.97 + 0 = 1014.97 kN (228.17 kN)

a = 1014.97*1000 / (5180 * 1* 27.58/1.5) = 11 mm (0.42”)

x = 11/0.80 = 14 mm (0.55”)

dt = 700 mm (27.56“)

x/dt = 14/700 = 0.02 < 0.45 OK

= 510 kN-m (376.17 k-ft) < Mu = 694.8 kN-m (512.4 k-ft) No Good

Since supplemental rebar must be added the depth of compression zone must be prorated to approximate the

added compressive stress in the section.

Prorated a = 11 *694.8/ 510 = 15 mm (0.59”)

Msupplemental = 694.80 — 510 = 184.80 kN-m (136.30 k-ft)

2

Asupplemental = 184.80*1000 / [413.69/1.15*(700-15/ 2)]

= 742 mm2 + 74 (10% more for conservatism) = 816 mm2 (1.26 in2)

Since this is an approximate method for expeditious hand calculation, add 10% more rebar in lieu of iterating

the solution.

No.of Bars = 816/ 387 = 2.11 ; Say 3-22 mm (3- #7) bars

As = 3* 387 = 1161 mm2 (1.80 in2)

Ts = 1161 * 413.69/1.15 = 417.65 kN (93.89 kip)

Mn = [1014.97*(508 — 15/2) + 417.65 *(700-15/ 2)]/ 1000

= 797.22 kN-m (587.99 k-ft) > Mu = 694.8 kN-m (512.4 k-ft) OK

By inspection point E is OK.

_________________________________________________________________________________

C. Based on BS 8110:

At Point A (Midspan of Span 1):

Unbonded and Bonded Tendon:

h = 762 mm (30”)

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dp = 762— 70 = 692 mm (27.25”)

As = 1161 mm (1.80 in2) from minimum computation

2

Span > 10.67 m (35.0’) fps =1310 MPa (190 ksi)

= 1188* 1310/1.15 + 1161 *413.69/1.05

= 1353.29 + 457.42 = 1810.71 kN (407.07 kips)

a = 1810.71*1000 / (5180* 0.67 * 27.58/(0.8*1.5)) = 23 mm (0.89”)

x = 23/0.90 = 26 mm (1 “) < flange thickness 127 mm (5”) OK

dt = 700 mm (27.56”)

x/dt = 23/700 = 0.03 < 0.50 OK

= 1235.85 kN-m (911.51 k-ft) < Mu = 1464.0 kN-m (1079.8 k-ft) No Good

Since supplemental rebar must be added the depth of compression zone must be prorated to approximate the

added compressive stress in the section.

Prorated a = 23 *1464.0/ 1235.85 = 27 mm (1.07”)

Msupplemental = 1464.0 — 1235.85 = 228.15 kN-m (168.27 k-ft)

2

Asupplemental = 228.15*1000 / [413.69/1.05*(700-27/ 2)]

= 844 mm2 + 84 (10% more for conservatism) =928 mm2 (1.44 in2)

Since this is an approximate method for expeditious hand calculation, add 10% more rebar in lieu of iterating

the solution.

No.of Bars = 2089/ 387 = 5.40; Say 6-22 mm (6- #7) bars

As = 6 * 387 = 2322 mm2 (3.6 in2)

Ts = 2322 * 413.69/1.05 = 914.85 kN (205.67 kip)

Mn = [1353.29*(692 — 27/ 2) + 914.85*(700-27/ 2)]/ 1000

= 1546.25 kN-m (1140.45 k-ft) > Mu = 1464.0 kN-m (1079.8 k-ft) OK

Unbonded tendon:

Aps = 12 * 99 = 1188 mm2 (1.84 in2)

dp = 762— 70 = 692 mm (27.25”)

As = 774 mm (1.20 in2) from minimum computation

2

Span > 10.67 m (35.0’) fps =1310 MPa (190 ksi)

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= 1188* 1310/1.15 + 774 *413.69/1.05

= 1353.29 + 304.95 = 1658.24 kN (372.79 kips)

a = 1658.24 *1000 / (457*0.67* 27.58/(0.8*1.5)) = 236 mm (9.28”)

x = 236/0.90 = 262 mm (10.32“)

dt = 700 mm (27.56”)

x/dt = 262/700 = 0.37 < 0.5 OK

= 954.27 kN-m (703.83 k-ft) < Mu = -1225.3 kN-m (-903.7 k-ft) No Good

Since supplemental rebar must be added the depth of compression zone must be prorated to approximate the

added compressive stress in the section.

Prorated a = 236 * 1225.3/ 954.27 = 303 mm (11.93”)

Msupplemental = 1225.3 — 954.27 = 271.03 kN-m (199.90 k-ft)

2

Asupplemental = 271.03*1000 / [413.69/1.05*(700-303/2)]

= 1255 mm2 + 125 (10% more for conservatism) = 1380 mm2 (2.14 in2)

Since this is an approximate method for expeditious hand calculation, add 10% more rebar in lieu of iterating

the solution.

No.of Bars = 2154/ 387 = 5.57; Say 6-22 mm (6- #7) bars

As = 6 * 387 = 2322 mm2 (3.6 in2)

Ts = 2322 * 413.69/1.05 = 914.85 kN (205.67 kip)

Mn = [1353.29*(692 — 303/2) +914.85 *(700-303/2)]/ 1000

= 1233.25 kN-m (909.59 k-ft) > Mu = -1225.3 kN-m (-903.7 k-ft) OK

Bonded tendon:

Aps = 12 * 99 = 1188 mm2 (1.84 in2)

dp = 762— 70 = 692 mm (27.25”)

As = 387 mm2 (0.60 in2) from minimum computation

dr = 762- 51- 22/2 = 700 mm (27.56”)

Span > 10.67 m (35.0’) fps =1310 MPa (190 ksi)

= 1188* 1310/1.15 + 387 *413.69/1.05

= 1353.29 + 152.47 = 1505.76 kN (338.51 kips)

a = 1505.76 *1000 / (457*0.67* 27.58/(0.8*1.5)) = 214 mm (8.42”)

x = 236/0.90 = 238 mm (9.36“)

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dt = 700 mm (27.56”)

x/dt = 236/700 = 0.34 < 0.5 OK

= 882.09 kN-m (650.59 k-ft) < Mu = -1225.3 kN-m (-903.7 k-ft) No Good

Since supplemental rebar must be added the depth of compression zone must be prorated to approximate the

added compressive stress in the section.

Prorated a = 214 * 1225.3/ 882.09 = 297 mm (11.70”)

Msupplemental = 1225.3 — 882.09 = 343.21 kN-m (253.14 k-ft)

2

Asupplemental = 343.21*1000 / [413.69/1.05*(700-297/2)]

= 1580 mm2 + 158 (10% more for conservatism) = 1738 mm2 (2.69 in2)

Since this is an approximate method for expeditious hand calculation, add 10% more rebar in lieu of iterating

the solution.

No.of Bars = 2125/ 387 = 5.49; Say 6-22 mm (6- #7) bars

As = 6 * 387 = 2322 mm2 (3.6 in2)

Ts = 2322 * 413.69/1.05 = 914.85 kN (205.67 kip)

Mn = [1353.29*(692 — 303/2) +914.85 *(700-303/2)]/ 1000

= 1233.25 kN-m (909.59 k-ft) > Mu = -1225.3 kN-m (-903.7 k-ft) OK

Unbonded and Bonded tendon:

Same number of tendons and bars continue over the column to the other side of the support. Since the

geometry of the beam cross-section is also the same, the design moment capacity at the left and right of

the support will be the same.

Unbonded and Bonded tendon:

Aps = 9 * 99 = 891 mm2 (1.38 in2)

dp = 762 — 254 = 508 mm (20.00”)

2

As = 0 mm

dr = 762-51 -22 / 2 = 700 mm (27.56”)

Span > 10.67 m (35.0’) fps = 1310 MPa (190 ksi)

= 891 * 1310/1.15 + 0 * 413.69/1.05

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a = 1014.97*1000 / (5180 * 0.67* 27.58/(0.8*1.5)) =13 mm (0.50”)

x = 13/0.90 = 14 mm (0.55”)

dt = 700 mm (27.56“)

x/dt = 14/700 = 0.02 < 0.5 OK

= 509 kN-m (375.42 k-ft) < Mu = 716.0 kN-m (528.10 k-ft) No Good

Add Supplemental Rebar:

Since supplemental rebar must be added the depth of compression zone must be prorated to approximate the

added compressive stress in the section.

Prorated a = 13 *716/ 509 = 18 mm (0.72”)

Msupplemental = 716 — 509 = 207 kN-m (152.67 k-ft)

2

Asupplemental = 207*1000 / [413.69/1.05*(700-15/ 2)]

= 759 mm2 + 76 (10% more for conservatism) = 835 mm2 (1.29 in2)

Since this is an approximate method for expeditious hand calculation, add 10% more rebar in lieu of iterating

the solution.

No.of Bars = 835/ 387 = 2.16 ; Say 3-22 mm (3- #7) bars

As = 3* 387 = 1161 mm2 (1.80 in2)

Ts = 1161 * 413.69/1.05 = 457.42 kN (102.83 kip)

Mn = [1014.97*(508 — 18/2) + 457.42 *(700-18/ 2)]/ 1000

= 822.55 kN-m (606.68 k-ft) > Mu = 716.0 kN-m (528.10 k-ft) OK

By inspection point E is OK.

________________________________________________________________________________

D. Based on TR-43 :

Unbonded and Bonded Tendon:

At Point A (Midspan of Span 1):

h = 762 mm (30”)

Aps = 12 * 99 = 1188 mm2 (1.84 in2)

dp = 762— 70 = 692 mm (27.25”)

2

As = 0 mm from minimum computation

dr = 762- 51- 22/2 = 700 mm (27.56”)

Span > 10.67 m (35.0’) fps =1310 MPa (190 ksi) < 0.9fpk =1675.44 Mpa, OK

= 1188* 1310/1.15 + 0 *413.69/1.15

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a = 1353.29*1000 / (5180* 1 * 27.58/1.5) = 14 mm (0.56”)

x = 14/0.80 = 18 mm (0.69“) < flange thickness 127 mm (5”) OK

dt = 700 mm (27.56”)

x/dt = 18/700 = 0.03 < 0.45 OK

= 927 kN-m (683.72 k-ft) < Mu = 1384.70 kN-m (1021.30 k-ft) No Good

Add Supplemental Rebar:

Since supplemental rebar must be added the depth of compression zone must be prorated to approximate the

added compressive stress in the section.

Prorated a = 14 * 1384.70/ 927 = 21 mm (0.82”)

Msupplemental = 1384.70 — 927 = 457.70 kN-m (337.587 k-ft)

2

Asupplemental = 457.70*1000 / [413.69/1.15*(700-21/ 2)]

= 1845 mm2 + 185 (10% more for conservatism) = 2030 mm2 (3.15 in2)

Since this is an approximate method for expeditious hand calculation, add 10% more rebar in lieu of iterating

the solution.

No.of Bars = 2030/ 387 = 5.25; Say 6-22 mm (6- #7) bars

As = 6 * 387 = 2322 mm2 (3.6 in2)

Ts = 2322 * 413.69/1.15 = 835.29 kN (187.78 kip)

Mn = [1353.29*(692 — 21/ 2) + 835.29*(700-21/ 2)]/ 1000

= 1498.20 kN-m (1105.01 k-ft) > Mu = 1384.70 kN-m (1021.30 k-ft) OK

Aps = 12 * 99 = 1188 mm2 (1.84 in2)

dp = 762— 70 = 692 mm (27.25”)

2

As = 0 mm from minimum computation

dr = 762- 51- 22/2 = 700 mm (27.56”)

Span > 10.67 m (35.0’) fps =1310 MPa (190 ksi) < 0.9fpk =1675.44 Mpa, OK

= 1188* 1310/1.15 + 0 *413.69/1.15

= 1353.29 + 0 = 1353.29 kN (304.23 kips)

a = 1353.29 *1000 / (457* 1 * 27.58/1.5) = 161 mm (6.34”)

x = 161/0.80 = 201 mm (7.92“)

dt = 700 mm (27.56”)

x/dt = 201/700 = 0.29 < 0.45 OK

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= 827.54 kN-m (610.36 k-ft) < Mu = 1201 kN-m (885.8 k-ft) No Good

Since supplemental rebar must be added the depth of compression zone must be prorated to approximate the

added compressive stress in the section.

Prorated a = 161 * 1201/ 827.54 = 234 mm (9.20”)

Msupplemental = 1201 — 827.54 = 373.46 kN-m (275.45 k-ft)

2

Asupplemental = 373.46*1000 / [413.69/1.15*(700-234/ 2)]

= 1781 mm2 + 178 (10% more for conservatism) = 1959 mm2 (3.04 in2)

Since this is an approximate method for expeditious hand calculation, add 10% more rebar in lieu of iterating

the solution.

No.of Bars = 1959/ 387 = 5.06; Say 6-22 mm (6- #7) bars

As = 6 * 387 = 2322 mm2 (3.0 in2)

Ts = 2322 * 413.69/1.15 = 835.29 kN (187.78 kip)

Mn = [1353.29*(692 — 234/ 2) + 835.29 *(700-234/ 2)]/ 1000

= 1265.11 kN-m (933.10 k-ft) > Mu = 1201 kN-m (885.8 k-ft) OK

Same number of tendons and bars continue over the column to the other side of the support. Since the

geometry of the beam cross-section is also the same, the design moment capacity at the left and right of

the support will be the same.

Aps = 9 * 99 = 891 mm2 (1.38 in2)

dp = 762 — 254 = 508 mm (20.00”)

2

As = 0 mm

dr = 762-51 -22 / 2 = 700 mm (27.56”)

Span > 10.67 m (35.0’) fps = 1310 MPa (190 ksi) < 0.9fpk =1675.44 Mpa, OK

= 891 * 1310/1.15 + 0 * 413.69/1.15

= 1014.97 + 0 = 1014.97 kN (228.17 kN)

a = 1014.97*1000 / (5180 * 1* 27.58/1.5) = 11 mm (0.42”)

x = 11/0.80 = 14 mm (0.55”)

dt = 700 mm (27.56“)

x/dt = 14/700 = 0.02 < 0.45 OK

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= 510 kN-m (376.17 k-ft) < Mu = 673.2 kN-m (496.5 k-ft) No Good

Since supplemental rebar must be added the depth of compression zone must be prorated to approximate the

added compressive stress in the section.

Prorated a = 11 *673.2/ 510 = 15 mm (0.59”)

Msupplemental = 673.2 — 510 = 163.20 kN-m (120.37 k-ft)

2

Asupplemental = 163.20*1000 / [413.69/1.15*(700-15/ 2)]

= 655 mm2 + 66 (10% more for conservatism) = 721 mm2 (1.12 in2)

Since this is an approximate method for expeditious hand calculation, add 10% more rebar in lieu of iterating

the solution.

No.of Bars = 721/ 387 = 1.86 ; Say 2-22 mm (2- #7) bars

As = 2* 387 = 774 mm2 (1.280 in2)

Ts = 774 * 413.69/1.15 = 278.43 kN (62.59 kip)

Mn = [1014.97*(508 — 15/2) + 278.43 *(700-15/ 2)]/ 1000

= 700.81 kN-m (516.89 k-ft) > Mu = 673.2 kN-m (496.5 k-ft) OK

By inspection point E is OK.

________________________________________________________________________________

Chosen bars:

Bar lengths for minimum rebar are based on ACI-318-08. Bars at midspan shall be 1/3 of clear span. Bars over

supports, shall extend 1/6 of the respective clear span length each side of the support. When needed for the

strength requirements of the code, one third of bars at exterior spans, and one-fourth at interior spans must ex-

tend to the supports.

Point A:

Clear span = 64 — 0.5(14 + 18)/12 = 62.67 ‘ (19.10 m)

bar length = 62.67/3 = 20.89’ (6.37 m); say 21’ (6.4 m)

Chose bars at midpoint span 1:

ACI - 5 - #7 x 21’ — 0” (5 — 22 mm x 6.4 m)

3 - #7 (3 — 22 mm) continuous

EC2, BS, TR-43 - 6 — 22 mm x 6.4 m (6 - #7 x 21’ — 0”)

3 — 22 mm (3 - #7) continuous

Points B and C:

Clear span 2 = 55 — 18/12 = 53.50’ (16.30 m)

bar length = (62.67 + 53.50)/6 +18/12 = 20.86’ (6.36 m) use 21’ (6.40 m)

Chosen bar at support 2:

ACI - 4 - #7 x 21’ — 0” (4 — 22 mm x 6.4 m)

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BS, TR-43 - 6 — 22 mm x 6.4 m ( 6 - #7 x 21’ — 0”)

Points D :

Clear span 2 = 55 — 18/12 = 53.50’ (16.30 m)

bar length = 53.5/3 = 17.83’ (5.44 m) use 18’ (5.50 m)

Chosen bar at support 2:

ACI - 3 - #7 x 18’ — 0” (3 — 22 mm x 5.5 m)

EC2, BS - 3 — 22 mm x 5.5 m ( 3 - #7 x 18’ — 0”)

TR-43 - 2 — 22 mm x 5.5 m (2 - #7 x 18’ — 0”)

Other bar lengths are obtained similarly

Location Top Bars Bottom Bars

Support 1 4#7 x 11’-0” --

(4 — 22 mm x 3.35 m) --

Span 1 -- 6#7 x 21’-0”

-- (6 — 22 mm x 6.40 m)

-- 3#7 continuous

-- (3 — 22 mm continuous)

Support 2 6#7 x 21’-0” --

(6 — 22 mm x 6.40 m) --

Span 2 -- 3#7 x 18’

-- (3 — 22 mm x 5.50 m)

Support 3 4#7 x 13’ --

(4 — 22 mm x 4 m) --

Span 3 3#7 x 6’-0” --

(3 — 22 mm x 1.80 m) --

Support 4 3 #7 x 4’-0” --

(3 — 22 mm x 1.2 m) --

To complete the rebar cage in the beam, the #7 (22 mm) bars at the corner will be made continuous through

the entire length of the beam.

Strength computations performed herein were limited to points considered critical by inspection. When

spans and loading are not regular, the selection of critical points by inspection becomes difficult. In such

cases, stress and strength checks must be performed at a greater number of locations. Also, note that due to

the contribution of tendon to ultimate strength, and change in drape of tendon along the length of a member,

the most critical location for design is not necessarily the location of maximum moment.

Distribution of design shear is shown in Figure 8-2. The design shear (Vu) is computed from the results of

the standard frame analysis performed for the loading conditions D, L and PT. The following combination

was used:

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Figure 8-2

Span 1:

point of zero shear = 79.9*64’ / (79.9 + 103.1) = 27.94’ (8.52 m)

Design at distance = (column width + h) / 2

= (14” + 30) / 2 = 22” (559 mm) for exterior column

= (18” + 30) / 2 = 24” (610 mm) for interior column

For the left support:

Vu = -79.9*(27.94 - 1.83) / 27.94

= -74.67 k (-332.15 kN)

For the right support:

Vu = 103.1*(64 - 27.94 - 2.00) / (64 - 27.94)

= 97.38 k (433.17 kN)

Hence, the right support governs

The shear design for the right support of span 1 will be followed in detail, since this is the most critical loca-

tion. The procedure for the shear design of other locations is identical. The design starts with the calculation

of vc, the code allowable shear stress contribution of concrete over the shear area of the section. Depending

on the value of φvc compared to that of the computed average design shear stress vu, in the general case, up

to three regions along the length of a member can be identified for design. These are shown schematically in

Figure 8-3 for the right region of span 1.

d = 0.8*h = 0.8*30” = 24” (610 mm)

dp = 27.25” > 0.8h = 24”

conservatively assumed 24”

vcmin = 2*√4000 = 127 psi (0.88 Mpa)

vcmax = 5*√4000 = 316 psi (2.18 Mpa)

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Vu*d/ Mu = 97.38*24 / (769.6*12) = 0.253 < 1 OK

vc = 0.6 * √4000 + 700 * 97.38 * 24 / (769.6 * 12)

= 215 psi (1.48 MPa) > vc min = 127 psi (0.88 Mpa)

< vc max = 316 psi (2.18 MPa)

Hence vc = 215 (1.48 MPa) governs the design.

For this example the ultimate moment was taken at the face-of-support for brevity of the example, even though

the shear check is done at a distance h/2 away from the support. This assumption is conservative and does not

have a significant effect on the outcome of the calculation. In the general case, the value of Vu*d/ Mu varies

along the length of the member. But, it is assumed constant for this example.

vu = 225 psi (1.55 MPa) > φ vc = 0.75 * 215 = 161 psi (1.11 MPa)

Hence shear reinforcement is required by calculation,

Assume #4 (13 mm) stirrups with two legs: Av = 2 * 0.2 in2 = 0.40 in2 (258 mm2)

The spacing, s, between the stirrups is given by:

s = φ * Av * fv / [bw (vu — φ*vc)] [US, SI]

= 0.75 * 0.40 * 60000 / [18 * (225 — 161)] = 15.63 “ (397 mm)

but, s<= 0.75 * h = 0.75 * 30 = 22.5 “ (572 mm) ; and

s <= 24“ (610mm)

select s = 15“ (381 mm) for the entire region where stirrups by calculation governs.

Using similar triangles, the three regions for the calculation of shear reinforcement are worked out and shown

graphically in Fig. 8-3.

Figure 8-3

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For the first region Vu > = φ*Vc = 18 * 24 * 161 / 1000 = 69.55 k (309.37 kN)

Use stirrups at 15” (381 mm) spacing.

= 34.78 k (154.71 kN)

Use the minimum value specified by code.

No web shear reinforcement required by code. Conservatively, use the same stirrups at 22” (559

mm) spacing (s <= 0.75 h = 22.5” (572 mm))

For the region governed by the minimum rebar, the spacing shall be the smallest of the following:

In the following the three applicable code relationships are re-arranged to express them in terms of “s” stirrup

spacing. The format of the relationships in the code is in terms of “Amin .” In this case, since the stirrups are al-

ready selected as two-legged #4 bars, the required spacing is worked out.

(i) s = Av fv / (50 bw) (US)

= Av fv / (0.33 bw) (SI)

= 0.4 * 60000 / (50*18) = 26.67 “ (677 mm)

0.5

= 80*0.4 *( 60/270) * 24 * (18/24) / 1.84 = 80.33 “(2040 mm)

0.5

= 16*Av * fv / (bw * f’ c ) (SI)

0.5

= 0.4 * 60000 / (0.75 * 18 * 4000 ) = 28.11 “(714 mm)

At the same time, spacing “s” shall not be more than 24” (610 mm), nor 0.75*h=22.5” (572 mm).

Use #4 (13 mm) two-legged stirrups at 22” (559 mm) on spacing for this region.

_____________________________________________________________________________

B. Based on EC2

Span 1:

bw = 457 mm (18 in)

d = 760 —51-22/2 = 698 mm (27.48 in)

point of zero shear = 355.41*19.51 / (355.41 + 458.61) = 8.52 m (27.95 ft)

Design at distance = column width/2 + d

= 356/2 + 698 = 876 mm (34.49 in) from exterior column CL

= 457/2 + 698 = 927 mm (36.48 in) mm from interior column CL

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VED = -355.41*(8.52-0.876) / 8.52

= -318.87 kN (71.69 k)

For the right support:

VED = 458.61*(20-8.52-0.927) / (20-8.52)

= 421.58 kN (94.78 k)

Hence, the right support governs.

The shear design for the right support of span 1 will be followed in detail, since this is the most critical location.

The procedure for the shear design of other locations is identical. The design starts with the calculation of VRd,c,

the design shear resistance of the member without shear reinforcement.

but not less than (vmin + k 1* σcp) bw *d

Where,

fck = 27.58 MPa (4000 psi)

k = 1+ (200/d)1/2 = 1+(200/698)1/2 = 1.54 < 2.0

ρ1 = Asl/ (bw d) = 4* 387/(457* 698) = 0.0049

σcp = NED/AC = 1429*103 / 94840 = 1.51 MPa < 0.2*18.39 = 3.68 MPa

CRd,c = 0.18 / γc = 0.18 / 1.50 = 0.12

k1 = 0.15

vmin = 0.035* k3/2* fck 1/2 = 0.035* 1.543/2* 27.581/2 = 0.34 MPa

= 212.66 kN (47.81 k)

VRd,cmin = (0.34 + 0.15* 1.51) 457 *698

= 180.71 kN (40.62 k)

VRd,c = 212.66 kN (47.81 k)

VED > VRd,c , Shear reinforcement is required by calculation.

Assume 13 mm(#4) stirrups with two legs: Asw = 2*129 mm2 = 258 mm2 (0.40 in2)

The spacing29, s, between the stirrups is given by:

Where,

Assume θ = 400, cot θ = 1.20

VRd,s = VED - VRd,c = 421.58— 212.66 = 208.92 kN (46.97 k)

z = 0.9 d = 0.9 * 698 = 628 mm (24.73 in)

28

EN 1992-1-1:2004 (E ) Section 6.2.2

29

EN 1992-1-1:2004 (E ) Eq: 6.8

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= 335 mm (13.18 in)

Where,

ν131 = 0.6[1-(fck/250)] = 0.53 since fywd > 0.8fyk

fcd = 18.39 MPa (2667.29 psi)

αcw 32

= (1+ σcp / fcd) for σcp = 1.51 MPa < 0.25fcd = 0.25*19 =4.75 MPa

= (1+ 1.51/18.39) = 1.08

> 208.92 kN (46.97 k) OK

Select s = 330 mm (13 in) (s <= 0.75 d (1+cotα)= 0.75* 698 = 524 mm(20.63 in)) for the entire region

where stirrups by calculation governs.

For the region governed by the minimum rebar, the spacing shall be the following:

In the following the applicable code relationship is re-arranged to express them in terms of “s” spacing. The

format of the relationships in the code is in terms of “Amin .” In this case, since the stirrups are already selected

as two-legged 13 mm( #4 )bars, the required spacing is worked out. Hence, Amin = Av = 2 * 129 = 258 mm2

(0.40 in2).

s = Asw * fyk/(0.08*√fck *bw)

= 258* 413.69 /(0.08*√27.58 *457)

= 556 mm (21.89 in)

At the same time, spacing “s” shall not be more than 524 mm (20.63 in).

Use 13 mm two-legged stirrups at 520 mm (20.47 in) spacing for this region.

_____________________________________________________________________________

C. Based on BS:

Span 1:

bw = 457 mm (18 in)

d = 760 —51-22/2 = 698 mm (27.48 in)

point of zero shear = 355.41*19.51 / (355.41 + 458.61) = 8.52 m (27.95 ft)

Design at distance = column width/2 + d

= 356/2 + 698 = 876 mm (34.49 in) from exterior column CL

= 457/2 + 698 = 927 mm (36.48 in) mm from interior column CL

30

EN 1992-1-1:2004 (E ) Eq: 6.9

31

EN 1992-1-1:2004 (E ) Eq: 6.6N

32

EN 1992-1-1:2004 (E ) Eq: 6.11aN

33

EN 1992-1-1:2004 (E ) Eq: 6.9

34

EN 1992-1-1:2004 (E ) Eq: 9.4 and9.5(N)

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V = -355.41*(8.52-0.876) / 8.52

= -318.87 kN (71.69 k)

For the right support:

V = 458.61*(20-8.52-0.927) / (20-8.52)

= 421.58 kN (94.78 k)

Hence, the right support governs.

The shear design for the right support of span 1 will be followed in detail, since this is the most critical loca-

tion. The procedure for the shear design of other locations is identical. The design starts with the calculation

of Vc, the code allowable shear resistance of concrete without shear reinforcement. BS code recommends the

different equations for cracked and uncracked sections35.

Allowable stress, Vc:

1. Vco36 = 0.67*bv*h *(ft2+0.8fcp*ft)1/2

fcp = 1.51 MPa (219 psi)

Vco = 0.67*457*760 *(1.412+0.8*1.51*1.41)1/2 = 447.09 kN (100.51 k)

fpea = PTF/ (Aps +(fy/fpu)*As)

PTF = prestressing force = 1429 kN (321.24 k)

fpe = 1206.59 MPa (175 ksi)

Aps = 12*99 = 1188 mm2 (1.84 in2)

As = 4*387 = 1548 mm2 (2.40 in2)

fpea = 1429/ (1188 +(413.69/1861.60)*1548) = 932.77 MPa

< 0.6* 1861.60 =1116.96 MPa (162 ksi)

38 1/3 0.25 1/3

vc = 0.79(100ρ) (400/d) (fcu/25) *(1/γm)

100ρ = 100As/bd < 3 and >0.15

100ρ = 100* (1548 +1188)/457*698 = 0.86 > 0.15 and <3

400/d = 400/698 =0.57 <1, so use 1

γm= design strength factor =1.25

vc = 0.79(0.86)1/3(1)0.25(27.58/(0.8*25))1/3*(1/1.25)

= 0.67 MPa (97 psi)

35

BS 8110: Part 1: 1997, Section 4.3.8.3

36

BS 8110: Part 1: 1997, Equation 54

37

BS 8110: Part 1: 1997, Equation 55

38

BS 8110: Part 1: 1997, Table 3.8

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M0 = moment necessary to produce zero stress in the concrete at the extreme tension fiber,

in this calculation only 0.8 of the stress due to prestress should be taken into account.

M0 = 0.80*fptop*St

fptop = 6.10 MPa (885 psi) compression

st = 1.31e+8 mm3 (7979 in3)

M0 = 0.80*6.10*1.31e+8 = 639.28 kNm (471.51 k-ft)

M/Mo = 1043.4/ 639.28 =1.63

=413.46 kN (92.95 k)

In the following the applicable code relationship is re-arranged to express them in terms of “s” spacing. The

format of the relationships in the code is in terms of “Amin .” In this case, since the stirrups are already selected

as two-legged 13 mm( #4 )bars, the required spacing is worked out. Hence, Amin = Av = 2 * 129 = 258 mm2

(0.40 in2).

= 258*0.95*413.69/(0.4*457)

= 555 mm (21.84 in)

V < 1.8Vc smax = min{0.75d, 4bv} = 524 mm(20.63 in)

Use 13 mm two-legged stirrups at 520 mm (20.47 in) spacing for this region.

__________________________________________________________________________________

D. Based on TR-4339

TR-43 refers EC2 for one-way shear design. But TR-43 includes the safety factor, γp, in the calculation of

σcp. Where γp equals 0.9 if the prestress effect is favorable and 1.1 when it is unfavorable.

______________________________________________________________________________

9 CODE CHECK FOR INITIAL CONDITION

At transfer of post-tensioning to the member, also referred to as “initial condition,” the superimposed dead load,

if any, and live load are absent. The prestressing force is larger than its final value, since time-dependent stress

losses in prestressing tendons have not yet taken place. In the absence of more detailed information about the

construction, the initial condition is checked for the load combination used in this design example.

39

TR-43, Second Edition, Section 5.9.1 and 5.9.2.

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Load Case: 1.0*DL + 1.15*PT

f’ci = ¾*4000 = 3000 psi (20.68 MPa)

9.2 Stress Check

σ = ±(MD + 1.15*MPT)/S + 1.15*P/A

S = I/Yc

Stress Limits: Tension = 3 * √3000 = 164 psi (1.13 MPa)

Compression = 0.60 * 3000 = -1800 psi (-12.41 MPa)

Point A Point B Point C Point D Point E

MD k-ft 458.6 -670.9 -583.5 196.9 -46.2

(kN-m) (621.8) (-909.6) (-791.1) (267.0) (-62.6)

MPT k-ft -320.5 443.8 375 -99.9 45.3

(kN-m) (-434.5) (601.7) (508.4) (-135.4) (61.4)

Stop in3 7979 7979 7979 7979 5020

(mm3) (1.31e+8) (1.31e+8) (1.31e+8) (1.31e+8) (8.23e+7)

Sbot in3 3801 3801 3801 3801 3319

(mm3) (6.23e+7) (6.23e+7) (6.23e+7) (6.23e+7) (5.54e+7)

Area in2 1470 1470 1470 1470 1470

(mm2) (9.484e+5) (9.484e+5) (9.484e+5) (9.484e+5) (9.484e+5)

P kips 321.24 321.24 321.24 240.93 240.93

(kN) (1429) (1429) (1429) (1072) (1072)

P / A psi -219 -219 -219 -164 -164

(MPa) (-1.51) (-1.51) (-1.51) (-1.13) (-1.13)

ft psi -387 -10 -23 -312 -203

(MPa) (-2.67) (0.07) (-0.16) (-2.15) (-1.40)

fb psi 32 -759 -733 70 -168

(MPa) (0.22) (-5.23) (-5.05) (0.48) (-1.16)

ACI-08/IBC 2009

Ft psi -1800 -1800 -1800 -1800 -1800

(MPa) (-12.41) (-12.41) (-12.41) (-12.41) (-12.41)

Fb psi 164 -1800 -1800 164 -1800

(MPa) (1.13) (-12.41) (-12.41) (1.13) (-12.41)

OK OK OK OK OK

EC2

Ft MPa -12.41 -12.41 -12.41 -12.41 -12.41

(psi) (-1800) (-1800) (-1800) (-1800) (-1800)

Fb MPa 2.26 -12.41 -12.41 2.26 -12.41

(psi) (327.79) (-1800) (-1800) (327.79) (-1800)

OK OK OK OK OK

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BS-8110

Ft MPa -12.93 -12.93 -12.93 -12.93 -12.93

(psi) (-1875) (-1875) (-1875) (-1875) (-1875)

Fb MPa 1.83 -12.93 -12.93 1.83 -12.93

(psi) (265.50) (-1875) (-1875) (265.50) (-1875)

OK OK OK OK OK

TR-43

Ft MPa -10.34 -10.34 -10.34 -10.34 -10.34

(psi) (-1500) (-1500) (-1500) (-1500) (-1500)

Fb MPa 1.63 -10.34 -10.34 1.63 -10.34

(psi) (236) (-1500) (-1500) (236) (-1500)

OK OK OK OK OK

Note: Ft and Fb are allowable stresses at top and bottom respectively.

If in any of the above locations the stresses exceeded the allowable values the following would have been done.

If compression stresses exceed the allowable value, the design parameters must be modified to bring the stresses

within the code limits. If tensile stresses exceed the allowable value, bonded additional reinforcement (nonpre-

stressed, or prestressed) shall be provided in the tensile zone to resist the total tension force in concrete com-

puted with the assumption of an uncracked section.

10 DETAILING

The final tendon and reinforcement layout for the parking structure beam is shown in figures 10-1 through 10-

3 below.

Figure 10-1

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Figure 10-2

Figure 10-3

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REFERENCES

Aalami, B.O.(1998), “Hyperstatic (Secondary) Actions in Prestressing and Their Computation”, Post-

Tensioning Institute, Phoenix, PTI-TN6, pp10, December 1998.

Aalami, B.O.(1993), “One-Way and Two-Way Post-Tensioned Floor Systems ”, Post-Tensioning Insti-

tute, Phoenix, PTI Technical Note 3, pp10, October 1993.

Aalami, B.O.(1989), “Design of Post-Tensioned Floor Slabs ”, Concrete International, ACI, June

1989, Vol.11, No 6, pp 59-67.

ACI-318 (2008), “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete ”, American Concrete Insti-

tute, Farmington, MI, pp 430.

dization.

TR-43, “Post-Tensioned Concrete Floors Design Handbook-Second Edition”, The Concrete Society

2005.

ADAPT-PT (2008), “Software for Design of Floor Systems and Beam Frames”, ADAPT Corporation,

Redwood City, CA, www.adaptsoft.com, 2008.

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