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Design Optimization of Linear Induction Motor

Conference Paper · December 2015

DOI: 10.1109/PESA.2015.7398889


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5 authors, including:

md Hasan S.K. Parida

Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra Indian Institute of Technology Patna


Ranjan Kumar Behera

Indian Institute of Technology Patna


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Design Optimization of Linear Induction Motor

Abhay Kumarl M.A.Hasan2 Md. Junaid Akhta? S.K.Parida2 RK.Behera2

I Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, llT Guwahati, Guwahati, India
2 Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, ITT Patna, Patna, India
E-mail: skparida@ iitp.ac.in

Abstract-This paper presents the design optimization of platform to design various parameters of the electrical
linear induction motor. Application of linear induction motor machine by providing performance characteristics of
includes various industrial processes like conveyor belt, motor for a set of stator and rotor dimensions. By varying
vertical movement, steel power plant, induction heating and
these dimensions, a suitable design can be obtained.
automated material handling. All these applications require
Optimization provides an optimum solution for design
an efficient and high torque providing linear induction motor.
Objective function of the optimization problem discussed in
problem. An optimized design of the motor gives stator
this paper includes efficiency, output thrust and machine and rotor dimension values for which machine gives
weight. Various machine design parameters have been used optimum performance. Various optimization techniques
as constraint variables. Optimization done with Quasi­ are available in the literature [7]. This paper uses Quasi­
Newton process shows significant improvement in machine Newton optimization process to perform the design
efficiency and output torque compared to the results optimization.
reported in literature. Machine design and optimization is Paper is organized as follows. Section 2 presents linear
carried out using RMxprt software.
induction motor modeling. Section 3 discusses Quasi
Newton optimization technique used in this paper. Results
Keywords-Linear Induction Motor, Design Optimization,
Quassi-Newton Technique
obtained for optimized machine is presented in section 4.
Finally conclusion discusses the significance of presented
I. INTRODUCTION work and results obtained.

Certain merits of linear induction motor like high starting II. LINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR MODELING
torque, simple structure, reduction in mechanical losses
and smaller size make it an attractive choice as motor in Fig. 1 presents the cross-sectional view of the rotor and
motor driven systems [1]. There are various applications in stator section of the LIM. Non-uniform airgap causes an
industries where vertical motion of the machine is required. effective airgap ge different from physical airgap gm
For example, robotic machines made for building Relation between physical and effective airgap is given in
constructions, rope-less lifts in super-skyscrapers, material (1-2).
transport for underground constructions etc. Linear
induction motor can be used for all these purposes being (1)
able to facilitate linear upward and downward motion. One
of the advantages of linear induction motor is its non­
go =gm+d (2)
contact motion and quick response [2]. In steel power
plants, for high quality and high productivity, linear
where d is the thickness of the conducting layer and kc is
induction motor has been researched and practically used
Carter's coefficient given by (3),
for transporting thin steel plates during reheating and
galvanization process [3]. Basic principle of operation of
linear induction motor also facilitates eddy current (3)
generation by travelling magnetic field. This can help in
induction heating [4].

In coal plants, conveyor belt is used to carry the coal Parameter A is the slot pitch which is the distance between
blocks from one place to other for further processing. the centers of the two consecutive teeth. Stator slot depth
Conventional induction motors used for rotating conveyor hs can be calculated from (4).
belts provide forces at relatively smaller area. Due to
stretching or mismatch of forces at two ends, belt faces A,
danger of getting slipped. Linear induction motor can h, (4)
provide such a provision where a belt of conducting W,
material passes between a pair of linear stator blocks
carrying poly-phase system of coils [5]. where As is the cross sectional area of the slot and Ws is
the slot width. A relation for the slot cross sectional area
Design of linear induction motor demands preparation of with number of turns per slot and conductor cross section
data sheet for stator and rotor dimensions. Number of area is given in (5).
stator and rotor slots, inner and outer dimensions, tooth
and slot dimensions and conductor size requirement are A, (5)
some of the design parameters require to manufacture a
linear induction motor [6]. RMxpert software provide
Here Nc is the number of turns per slot. Yoke height of the
stator core hy is the portion of the core below teeth. If it (13)
assumed that the flux in the yoke is one half of the flux in
air gap, it can be expressed as,


r-- �
Solution of an optimization problem follows an iterative
process which starts with an initial point xc, producing a
sequence of points Xk that converges at an optimum point
I I x*. If x is a vector of design variables with constraints
-- I I Xmin< X < Xmax and f is a function to be optimized, then
second order Taylor expansion around Xk is given by (15)

Fig. 1: Cross section of linear induction motor

Where P=X-Xk, and Bk denotes the Hessian matrix (second

(6) order partial derivatives of x). In this paper following
design variable constraints have been used.

A linear induction motor of the specification given in table Slot width: 10 mm < Ws < 25 mm
I is designed using RMxpert software. Complete datasheet Slot height: 20 mm < hs < 35 mm
is presented in table II. Mathematical model is extended Primary height: 45 mm < hy < 60 mm
to obtain the electrical equivalent circuit model of LIM. Secondary sheet thickness: 2.5 mm < d < 7.5 mm
Electrical equivalent circuit of LIM consists of series Air gap: 0 mm < gm < 7 mm
elements Rl and Xl, core reactance component Xm in Current density: 3 A/mm2 < J 1 < 6 A/mm2
parallel with a variable resistance Rs/s representing
mechanical load. Equations representing equivalent circuit Objective function for the optimization used in this paper
components are given in (7-11). includes efficiency, electromagnetic torque and weight of
the machine. Objective function is built so as to maximize
efficiency and torque and minimize weight of the machine.
(7) Objective function is given by (16).

2flo1if [( ( !J ) ;: }
A, 1 + + A,, + AJ, ,'
J(x) (T(x)*ry(x))/W(x)

Where T(x), �(x) and W(x) represent torque, efficiency


Xl = (8)
P and weight function respectively.
24 J.1o JifW,.ekwNi2r
Table 1: Linear induction motor specification
Xm (9)
J[ 2 pge Specification Value

(10) Rated Power 3.73 kW
ge Rated Voltage 440V
Number of poles 4
2J.1o Jr2
G = (11) Rated frequency 50 Hz
nge Rated speed 1428

where Pw, lw and AWl are volume resistivity, length and

cross sectional area of stator winding copper wire. Kp is
pitch factor, Kw is winding factor and ge is equivalent air Table 2: Complete Datasheet
gap. Based on the electrical equivalent circuit, Design Parameter Design value
performance parameters of LIM like electromagnetic
torque, power output and efficiency can be obtained as
Number of stator slots 36
given in (12-14).
Stator outer diameter 213 mm
Stator inner diameter 119 mm
Number of rotor slots 30
Inner diameter of rotor 6l.8 mm
As given in table 3 and 4, a theoretical design of Linear
IV. SIMULATION AND RESULTS Induction motor of efficiency 67 percent, power factor
0.87 and electromagnetic torque of 24 N-m is produced.
Electrical machine design is an iterative process. Search of Flux density and magnetic field distribution shows the end
a machine design with desired output require repetitive effect in LIM. Red color closed loop lines at extreme left
calculations to satisty all the constraints. Help of software end shows that due to end effect, flux density is more than
based platform in this work is highly appreciated. ANSYS elsewhere.
RMxprt is a design tool which calculates the performance
of a hypothetical machine based on electrical equivalent As we increase the load, the load current changes.
circuit. It helps in making decision regarding machine Corresponding change in speed and input power is given
dimensions and material selection. User provides a set of in fig. 4-5. For full load condition, full load current of
initial machine dimensions. Software does rigorous approx. 10 A is drawn at rated speed of 1428 rpm. As load
electromagnetic transient analysis to produce possible is increased, output power requirement increases and
performance of the machine. hence secondary current increases. Since magnetizing
reactance remains constant, primary side current increases.
This characteristic is shown in fig. 4-5. As we increase
Table 3: Design of LIM
speed of the motor, input power has to be increased if
Design parameter Design value constant torque operation is desired. This is presented by
(in mm) fig. 6. In low speed range, torque is directly proportional
to the speed. As speed increases, slip decreases. When
Stator top tooth width 5.98 speed is increased beyond full load speed, voltage drop
Stator bottom tooth 5.96 across magnetizing reactance becomes significant. If the
width load is increased beyond breakdown point, decrease in
Length of the stator core 140 rotor power factor becomes significant and torque
Diameter of the 1.151 decreases. This is presented by fig. 7-8.
Stator resistance 4.12 ohms
Air gap 0.3
Length of the rotor 140
Rotor stacking factor 0.96

Table 4: Optimum Design of LIM

Design parameter Design value
(in mm)
Fig. 2: Flux density distribution

Primary current density 5.6

Primary width 140
Primary height 49.5
Secondary sheet 5
Air gap 5
Motor length 1090
Tooth width 12
Slot width 18
Fig. 3: Magnetic field distribution
Efficiency 71.47
Weight 50 kg
Output torque 43.74
ClJ..,. lofo
- Input Currentt


g10.00 �-

Based on iterative process, a machine design for the

specification given in table I and 2 is prepared. Table 3 u 7.50 -

presents complete stator and rotor dimensions for the LIM �

design. Performance of this machine is given in Table 4.
ANSYS RMxprt also generates the magnetic field and flux
density distribution in the air gap. Magnitude of air gap

1 -------
,::::::j I I
flux and magnetic field is shown through different color 0.00 2000.00 4000. 00 6000.00 8000. 00 10000. 00 12000. 00
Qrtput Paw.r (W)
lines. Fig. 2-3 gives magnetic field and flux representation.
Fig. 4: Current Vs output power

'---�---:-- I �":t'
::-;:; ,."t. I ·
: ::-=l I I� I 0.0000313




5.00 I

Fig. 9: Cost Vs iteration
� ::-----::
0.00 �
250 .00::----=:!'::
500 .00
7':':' 50."::
1000 .00--1-:: 250
:!"-:: .00

Fig. 5: Current Vs speed Above discussed theoretical machine has a very high
efficiency but lower electromagnetic torque. For
applications discussed in this paper where LIM's are
3750.00 ,- .. ----:----..,--;:::::-;:;:---"'1
-----....,.----:- employed, there is need of high starting and full load
torque. Also a low weight machine is preferred for
dynamic operation. In order to achieve these requirements,
optimization is done. An initial setting of efficiency,
weight and torque is fed to Quasi-Newton algorithm.
Based on results obtained and cost Vs iteration relation,
initial settings may be required to be changed. Finally an
optimized design is obtained.

Accuracy and closeness of desired output in optimization

varies with number of iterations. Fig. 9 presents the cost
1000.00 2000.00 3000.00 4000.00 4500.00
Vs iteration curve. Cost signifies the closeness of result to
Speedi'pm) the desired value. For higher accuracy, more number of
iteration is required. Optimization presented in this paper
Fig. 6: Power Vs speed
use 50 iterations. Table 4 presents the optimized machine
design. [t was found that different design constraints affect
motor performance in different ways. Study of
87.50 ,-----:----....,---;;::::;:;:1
independent effect of each constraint is analyzed by
varying a particular constraint keeping others constant.

An increase in secondary sheet thickness increases the

primary weight and decreases the torque. Power factor and
efficiency increases first then starts decreasing. Thus
27.50 design optimization requires a compromise. In this work
power factor is compromised which allows a higher value
7.50 --- -- -t-- - 1- - - --- of air gap.

·12.50 ±---=:---"":'::'-::----:::r: ---:-::r.::--

:- -c::r-::---:::\ An increase in current density keeping output torque
0.00 250.00 500.00 750.00 1000.00 1250.00 1 500 .00
Speedi,pm) constant decreases conductor wire diameter and increases
the winding resistance. This results in reduction in weight
Fig. 7: Torque Vs speed
and efficiency. Since both weight and efficiency
optimization is desired, so the results may vary with
different number of iterations. This work has presented the
result obtained for 50 iterations. Objective function is
optimized for a value of 3.1 *l0-5.


�040 This paper has presented an optimized design of linear
� induction motor for better efficiency, weight and torque. A
conventional design based on electrical equivalent circuit
is prepared in RMxprt software. Optimization of the
machine design has been carried out using Quasi-Newton
� ::---....,::
0.00 2 50 r:: : .00:----:c50
::-- --:::b-
:: ---:::!".::--
1000 00 12 :-:c50.00:---�1500 .00
....,::1 optimization technique. All design parameters affect
performance of the machine in a different way. Their
Fig. 8: Power factor Vs speed independent effects have been discussed in this paper.
Optimized machine achieves better desired output as
compared to the conventional design


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