Research paper on Linear Induction motor

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Research paper on Linear Induction motor

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DOI: 10.1109/PESA.2015.7398889

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Design Optimization of Linear Induction Motor

I Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, llT Guwahati, Guwahati, India

2 Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, ITT Patna, Patna, India

E-mail: skparida@ iitp.ac.in

Abstract-This paper presents the design optimization of platform to design various parameters of the electrical

linear induction motor. Application of linear induction motor machine by providing performance characteristics of

includes various industrial processes like conveyor belt, motor for a set of stator and rotor dimensions. By varying

vertical movement, steel power plant, induction heating and

these dimensions, a suitable design can be obtained.

automated material handling. All these applications require

Optimization provides an optimum solution for design

an efficient and high torque providing linear induction motor.

Objective function of the optimization problem discussed in

problem. An optimized design of the motor gives stator

this paper includes efficiency, output thrust and machine and rotor dimension values for which machine gives

weight. Various machine design parameters have been used optimum performance. Various optimization techniques

as constraint variables. Optimization done with Quasi are available in the literature [7]. This paper uses Quasi

Newton process shows significant improvement in machine Newton optimization process to perform the design

efficiency and output torque compared to the results optimization.

reported in literature. Machine design and optimization is Paper is organized as follows. Section 2 presents linear

carried out using RMxprt software.

induction motor modeling. Section 3 discusses Quasi

Newton optimization technique used in this paper. Results

Keywords-Linear Induction Motor, Design Optimization,

Quassi-Newton Technique

obtained for optimized machine is presented in section 4.

Finally conclusion discusses the significance of presented

I. INTRODUCTION work and results obtained.

Certain merits of linear induction motor like high starting II. LINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR MODELING

torque, simple structure, reduction in mechanical losses

and smaller size make it an attractive choice as motor in Fig. 1 presents the cross-sectional view of the rotor and

motor driven systems [1]. There are various applications in stator section of the LIM. Non-uniform airgap causes an

industries where vertical motion of the machine is required. effective airgap ge different from physical airgap gm

For example, robotic machines made for building Relation between physical and effective airgap is given in

constructions, rope-less lifts in super-skyscrapers, material (1-2).

transport for underground constructions etc. Linear

induction motor can be used for all these purposes being (1)

able to facilitate linear upward and downward motion. One

of the advantages of linear induction motor is its non

go =gm+d (2)

contact motion and quick response [2]. In steel power

plants, for high quality and high productivity, linear

where d is the thickness of the conducting layer and kc is

induction motor has been researched and practically used

Carter's coefficient given by (3),

for transporting thin steel plates during reheating and

galvanization process [3]. Basic principle of operation of

linear induction motor also facilitates eddy current (3)

generation by travelling magnetic field. This can help in

induction heating [4].

In coal plants, conveyor belt is used to carry the coal Parameter A is the slot pitch which is the distance between

blocks from one place to other for further processing. the centers of the two consecutive teeth. Stator slot depth

Conventional induction motors used for rotating conveyor hs can be calculated from (4).

belts provide forces at relatively smaller area. Due to

stretching or mismatch of forces at two ends, belt faces A,

danger of getting slipped. Linear induction motor can h, (4)

provide such a provision where a belt of conducting W,

material passes between a pair of linear stator blocks

carrying poly-phase system of coils [5]. where As is the cross sectional area of the slot and Ws is

the slot width. A relation for the slot cross sectional area

Design of linear induction motor demands preparation of with number of turns per slot and conductor cross section

data sheet for stator and rotor dimensions. Number of area is given in (5).

stator and rotor slots, inner and outer dimensions, tooth

and slot dimensions and conductor size requirement are A, (5)

some of the design parameters require to manufacture a

linear induction motor [6]. RMxpert software provide

Here Nc is the number of turns per slot. Yoke height of the

stator core hy is the portion of the core below teeth. If it (13)

assumed that the flux in the yoke is one half of the flux in

air gap, it can be expressed as,

(14)

r-- �

I I

Solution of an optimization problem follows an iterative

I I

process which starts with an initial point xc, producing a

I I

I I

sequence of points Xk that converges at an optimum point

I I x*. If x is a vector of design variables with constraints

-- I I Xmin< X < Xmax and f is a function to be optimized, then

second order Taylor expansion around Xk is given by (15)

(15)

Fig. 1: Cross section of linear induction motor

(6) order partial derivatives of x). In this paper following

design variable constraints have been used.

A linear induction motor of the specification given in table Slot width: 10 mm < Ws < 25 mm

I is designed using RMxpert software. Complete datasheet Slot height: 20 mm < hs < 35 mm

is presented in table II. Mathematical model is extended Primary height: 45 mm < hy < 60 mm

to obtain the electrical equivalent circuit model of LIM. Secondary sheet thickness: 2.5 mm < d < 7.5 mm

Electrical equivalent circuit of LIM consists of series Air gap: 0 mm < gm < 7 mm

elements Rl and Xl, core reactance component Xm in Current density: 3 A/mm2 < J 1 < 6 A/mm2

parallel with a variable resistance Rs/s representing

mechanical load. Equations representing equivalent circuit Objective function for the optimization used in this paper

components are given in (7-11). includes efficiency, electromagnetic torque and weight of

the machine. Objective function is built so as to maximize

efficiency and torque and minimize weight of the machine.

(7) Objective function is given by (16).

2flo1if [( ( !J ) ;: }

A, 1 + + A,, + AJ, ,'

J(x) (T(x)*ry(x))/W(x)

=

(16)

Xl = (8)

P and weight function respectively.

24 J.1o JifW,.ekwNi2r

Table 1: Linear induction motor specification

Xm (9)

J[ 2 pge Specification Value

R

_Xm

2-

(10) Rated Power 3.73 kW

ge Rated Voltage 440V

Number of poles 4

2J.1o Jr2

G = (11) Rated frequency 50 Hz

nge Rated speed 1428

cross sectional area of stator winding copper wire. Kp is

pitch factor, Kw is winding factor and ge is equivalent air Table 2: Complete Datasheet

gap. Based on the electrical equivalent circuit, Design Parameter Design value

performance parameters of LIM like electromagnetic

torque, power output and efficiency can be obtained as

Number of stator slots 36

given in (12-14).

Stator outer diameter 213 mm

Stator inner diameter 119 mm

(12)

Number of rotor slots 30

Inner diameter of rotor 6l.8 mm

As given in table 3 and 4, a theoretical design of Linear

IV. SIMULATION AND RESULTS Induction motor of efficiency 67 percent, power factor

0.87 and electromagnetic torque of 24 N-m is produced.

Electrical machine design is an iterative process. Search of Flux density and magnetic field distribution shows the end

a machine design with desired output require repetitive effect in LIM. Red color closed loop lines at extreme left

calculations to satisty all the constraints. Help of software end shows that due to end effect, flux density is more than

based platform in this work is highly appreciated. ANSYS elsewhere.

RMxprt is a design tool which calculates the performance

of a hypothetical machine based on electrical equivalent As we increase the load, the load current changes.

circuit. It helps in making decision regarding machine Corresponding change in speed and input power is given

dimensions and material selection. User provides a set of in fig. 4-5. For full load condition, full load current of

initial machine dimensions. Software does rigorous approx. 10 A is drawn at rated speed of 1428 rpm. As load

electromagnetic transient analysis to produce possible is increased, output power requirement increases and

performance of the machine. hence secondary current increases. Since magnetizing

reactance remains constant, primary side current increases.

This characteristic is shown in fig. 4-5. As we increase

Table 3: Design of LIM

speed of the motor, input power has to be increased if

Design parameter Design value constant torque operation is desired. This is presented by

(in mm) fig. 6. In low speed range, torque is directly proportional

to the speed. As speed increases, slip decreases. When

Stator top tooth width 5.98 speed is increased beyond full load speed, voltage drop

Stator bottom tooth 5.96 across magnetizing reactance becomes significant. If the

width load is increased beyond breakdown point, decrease in

Length of the stator core 140 rotor power factor becomes significant and torque

Diameter of the 1.151 decreases. This is presented by fig. 7-8.

conductor

Stator resistance 4.12 ohms

Air gap 0.3

Length of the rotor 140

Rotor stacking factor 0.96

Design parameter Design value

(in mm)

Fig. 2: Flux density distribution

Primary width 140

Primary height 49.5

Secondary sheet 5

thickness

Air gap 5

Motor length 1090

Tooth width 12

Slot width 18

Fig. 3: Magnetic field distribution

Efficiency 71.47

Weight 50 kg

Output torque 43.74

:

I I

ClJ..,. lofo

15.00

- Input Currentt

12.50

g10.00 �-

�

I

specification given in table I and 2 is prepared. Table 3 u 7.50 -

£

5.00

design. Performance of this machine is given in Table 4.

ANSYS RMxprt also generates the magnetic field and flux

density distribution in the air gap. Magnitude of air gap

2.50

1 -------

,::::::j I I

0.00

flux and magnetic field is shown through different color 0.00 2000.00 4000. 00 6000.00 8000. 00 10000. 00 12000. 00

Qrtput Paw.r (W)

lines. Fig. 2-3 gives magnetic field and flux representation.

Fig. 4: Current Vs output power

0.0000317

�"

30.00

25.00

I I

'---�---:-- I �":t'

---""--;:::

---:------:-

r--:==I===::::::=;=-o--._

::-;:; ,."t. I ·

: ::-=l I I� I 0.0000313

1n

o

uO.0000307

0.0000302

5.00 I

�eration

0.00

Fig. 9: Cost Vs iteration

� ::-----::

0.00 �

250 .00::----=:!'::

500 .00

:----::

7':':' 50."::

00---::

1000 .00--1-:: 250

:!"-:: .00

:!'C::--""'1-::i

500.00

Speedl'pm)

Fig. 5: Current Vs speed Above discussed theoretical machine has a very high

efficiency but lower electromagnetic torque. For

applications discussed in this paper where LIM's are

3750.00 ,- .. ----:----..,--;:::::-;:;:---"'1

-----....,.----:- employed, there is need of high starting and full load

torque. Also a low weight machine is preferred for

dynamic operation. In order to achieve these requirements,

optimization is done. An initial setting of efficiency,

2500.00

weight and torque is fed to Quasi-Newton algorithm.

Based on results obtained and cost Vs iteration relation,

initial settings may be required to be changed. Finally an

1250.00

optimized design is obtained.

varies with number of iterations. Fig. 9 presents the cost

1000.00 2000.00 3000.00 4000.00 4500.00

Vs iteration curve. Cost signifies the closeness of result to

Speedi'pm) the desired value. For higher accuracy, more number of

iteration is required. Optimization presented in this paper

Fig. 6: Power Vs speed

use 50 iterations. Table 4 presents the optimized machine

design. [t was found that different design constraints affect

motor performance in different ways. Study of

87.50 ,-----:----....,---;;::::;:;:1

independent effect of each constraint is analyzed by

varying a particular constraint keeping others constant.

67.50

47.50

primary weight and decreases the torque. Power factor and

efficiency increases first then starts decreasing. Thus

27.50 design optimization requires a compromise. In this work

power factor is compromised which allows a higher value

7.50 --- -- -t-- - 1- - - --- of air gap.

:- -c::r-::---:::\ An increase in current density keeping output torque

0.00 250.00 500.00 750.00 1000.00 1250.00 1 500 .00

Speedi,pm) constant decreases conductor wire diameter and increases

the winding resistance. This results in reduction in weight

Fig. 7: Torque Vs speed

and efficiency. Since both weight and efficiency

optimization is desired, so the results may vary with

different number of iterations. This work has presented the

result obtained for 50 iterations. Objective function is

0.80

optimized for a value of 3.1 *l0-5.

0.60 V. CONCLUSION

5

...�

�040 This paper has presented an optimized design of linear

� induction motor for better efficiency, weight and torque. A

0.20

conventional design based on electrical equivalent circuit

is prepared in RMxprt software. Optimization of the

machine design has been carried out using Quasi-Newton

0.00

� ::---....,::

0.00 2 50 r:: : .00:----:c50

:!C

0.OO

::-- --:::b-

:: ---:::!".::--

1000 00 12 :-:c50.00:---�1500 .00

....,::1 optimization technique. All design parameters affect

performance of the machine in a different way. Their

Fig. 8: Power factor Vs speed independent effects have been discussed in this paper.

Optimized machine achieves better desired output as

compared to the conventional design

REFERENCES

induction motors in industry," in Electrical Engineers,

Proceedings of the Institution of, vo1.118, no.6, pp.765-776,

June 1971

[2] Morizane, T.; Masada, E., "Study on the feasibility of

application of linear induction motor for vertical movement,"

in Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on , vo1.29, no.6, pp.2938-2940,

Nov 1993

[3] Fujisaki, K., "Application of electromagnetic force to thin

steel plate," in Industry Applications Conference, 2002. 37th lAS

Annual Meeting. Conference Record of the, vol.2, no., pp.864-

870 vol.2, 13-18 Oct. 2002

[4] Yamada, Takahiro; Fujisaki, K., "Basic Characteristic of

Electromagnetic Force in Induction Heating Application of

Linear Induction Motor," in Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on,

vo1.44, no.ll, pp.4070-4073, Nov. 2008

[5] Laithwaite, E.R.; Tipping, D.; Hesmondhalgh, D.E., "The

application of linear induction motors to conveyors,"

in Proceedings of the lEE - Part A: Power Engineering, vo!'107,

no.33, pp.284-294, June 1960

[6] Shiri, A.; Shoulaie, A., "Design Optimization and Analysis

of Single-Sided Linear Induction Motor, Considering All

Phenomena," in Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on,

vo1.27, no.2, pp.5l6-525, June 2012

[7] Xian Liu; Wilsun Xu, "A Global Optimization Approach for

Electrical Machine Designs," in Power Engineering Society

General Meeting, 2007. IEEE, vol., no., pp.I-8, 24-28 June 2007

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