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2k + 5 k − 1

3k + 2 k + 1

Consider =

2k + 5 k − 1

Cross multiplying (3k + 2) (k – 1) = (2k + 5) (k + 1)

3k2 + 2k – 3k – 2 = 2k2 + 5k + 2k + 5

3k2 – 1k – 2 – 2k2 – 7k – 5 = 0

3k2 – 1k – 2 – 2k2 – 7k – 5 = 0

On simplification k2 – 8k – 7 = 0

This is in form of ax2 + bx + c = 0

The co-efficients are a = 1, b = –8, c = –7

− b + (− b) 2 − 4ac

The roots of the equation x=

2a

∴ k =

2 x1

+ 8 ± 64 + 28

∴ k =

2

8 ± 92

k =

2

k =

8 ± 2 23

=

(

2 4 ± 23 )

2 2

k = 4 ± 23

y 3

Example 5 : Solve the equation − =1

4 2y

y 3

Consider − =1

4 2y

y2 − 6

Taking L.C.M. =1

4y

By cross multiplication y2 – 6 = 4y

y2 – 4y – 6 = 0

135

this is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0

comparing coefficients a = 1, b = –4, c = –6

y =

2(1)

4 ± 16 + 24

the roots of the equation are =

2

4± 40

y =

2

y =

4 ± 2 10

=

(

2 2 ± 10 )

2 2

y = 2 + 10 or y = 2 − 10

4 1 4

Example 6 : Solve − =

m + 2 m + 3 2m + 1

4(m + 3) − 1(m + 2) 4

=

(m + 2)(m + 3) 2m + 1

4m + 12 − m − 2 4

=

m + 2m + 3m + 6 2m + 1

2

3m + 10 4

=

m + 5m + 6 2 m + 1

2

4m2 + 20m + 24 – 6m2 – 23m – 10 = 0

–2m2 – 3m + 14 = 0

This is in the Standard form 2m2 + 3m – 14 = 0

2m2 + 7m – 4m – 14 = 0

m(2m + 7) –2 (2m + 7) = 0

(2m + 7) (m – 2) = 0

Either (2m + 7) = 0 or (m – 2) = 0

−7

m= or m=2

2

136

mn =

(

b 2 − b 2 − 4ac )

4a 2

b 2 − b 2 + 4ac

mn =

4a 2

4ac c c

∴ mn = 2 = ∴ mn =

4a a a

x2 + 2x + 1 = 0

This is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0

The coefficients are a = 1, b = 2, c = 1

Let the roots be m and n

−b −2

i) Sum of the roots m + n = =

a 1

∴ m + n = –2

c 1

ii) Product of the roots mn = =

a 1

∴ mn = 1

Example 2 : Find the sum and product of the roots of equation 3x2 + 5 = 0

3x2 + 0x + 5 = 0

This is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0

The coefficients are a = 3, b = 0, c = 5

Let the roots are p and q

−b 0

i) Sum of the roots p + q = =

a 3

∴ p+q = 0

c 5 5

ii) Product of the roots pq = = ∴ pq =

a 3 3

147

Example 3 : Find the sum and product of the roots of equation 2m2 – 8m = 0

2m2 – 8m + 0 = 0

The coefficients are a = 2, b = –8, c = 0

Let the roots be α and β

−b − (−8)

i) Sum of the roots α+β = = = 4

a 2

c 0

ii) Product of the roots αβ = = = 0

a 2

Example 4 : Find the sum and product of the roots of equation x2 – (p+q)x + pq = 0

x2 – (p + q) x + pq = 0

The coefficients are a = 1, b = –(p + q), c = pq

−b

i) Sum of the roots m + n =

a

− [− (p + q )]

m + n =

1

∴ m + n = (p + q)

c pq

ii) Product of the roots mn = =

a 1

∴ mn = pq

Exercise : 5.7

Find the sum and product of the roots of the quadratic equation :

1) x2 + 5x + 8 = 0 2) 3a2 – 10a – 5 = 0 3) 8m2 – m = 2

4) 6k2 – 3 = 0 5) pr2 = r – 5 6) x2 + (ab) x + (a + b) = 0

Let ‘m’ and ‘n’ are the roots of the equation

∴ x = ‘m’ or x = ‘n’

i.e., x – m = 0, x – n = 0

(x – m) (x – n) = 0

∴ x2 – mx – nx + mn = 0

x2 – (m + n) x + mn = 0

148

Exercise : 5.8

A. Form the equation whose roots are

3 2 3

1) 3 and 5 2) 6 and –5 3) –2 and 4) and

2 3 2

5) 2 + 3 and 2 – 3 6) –3 + 2 5 and –3 – 2 5

B.

1) If ‘m’ and ‘n’ are the roots of the equation x2 – 6x + 2 = 0 find the value of

1 1

i) (m + n) mn ii) +

m n

2) If ‘a’ and ‘b’ are the roots of the equation 3m2 = 6m + 5 find the value of

a b

i) + ii) (a + 2b) (2a + b)

b a

3) If ‘p’ and ‘q’ are the roots of the equation 2a2 – 4a + 1 = 0 Find the value of

i) (p + q)2 + 4pq ii) p3 + q3

p q

4) Form a quadratic equation whose roots are and

q p

5) Find the value of ‘k’ so that the equation x2 + 4x + (k + 2) = 0 has one root equal

to zero.

6) Find the value of ‘q’ so that the equation 2x2 – 3qx + 5q = 0 has one root which

is twice the other.

7) Find the value of ‘p’ so that the equation 4x2 – 8px + 9 = 0 has roots whose

difference is 4.

8) If one root of the equation x2 + px + q = 0 is 3 times the other prove that 3p2 = 16q

Let us solve the equation x2 – 4 = 0 graphically,

x2 – 4 = 0

∴ x2 = 4

let y = x2 = 4

∴ y = x2

and y = 4

153

Step 1: Form table of

corresponding values y = x2

of x and y x=0 y = 02 y=0

Satisfying the equation x=1 y = 12 y=1

y = x2 x=2 y = 22 y=4

Step 2: Choose the scale on x = –1 y = (–1)2 y=1

x axis, 1 cm = 1 unit x = –2 y = (–2)2 y=4

y axis, 1 cm = 1 unit.

Step 3: Plot the points (0, 0);

(1, 1); (–1, 1); (2, 4)

and (–2, 4) on graph

sheet.

Step 4: Join the points by a

smooth curve.

Step 5: Draw the straight line

y = 4 Parallel to x-axis

Step 6: From the intersecting

points of the curve and

the line y = 4, draw

perpendiculars to the

x axis

Step 7: Roots of the equations are x = +2 or x = –2

Example 1 : Draw a graph of y = 2x2 and find the value of 3 , using the graph.

Step 1: Form the table of

corresponding values of

x and y satisfying the

equation y = 2x2

Step 2: Choose the scale on x x 0 1 –1 2 –2 3

y 0 2 2 8 8 6

axis, 1 cm = 1 unit and

(x, y) (0, 0) (1, 2) (–1, 2) (2, 8) (–2, 8) ( 3 ,6)

y axis, 1 cm = 1 unit

Step 3: Plot the points (0, 0);

(1, 2) (–1, 2); (2, 8) and

(–2, 8) on graph sheet.

154

Method II : x 0 1 –1 2 –2

Step 1: Form the table of y –2 –2 0 0 4

corresponding values of (x, y) (0, –2) (1, –2) (–1, 0) (2, 0) (–2, 4)

x and y satisfying

equation y = x2 – x – 2.

Step 2: Choose the scale on x

axis 1 cm = 1 unit and

y axis 1 cm = 1 unit.

Step 3: Plot the points (0, –2);

(1 –2); (–1, 0); (2, 0)

and (–2, 4) on the graph

sheet.

Step 4: Join the points to form

a smooth curve

Step 5: Mark the intersecting

points of the curve and

the x – axis.

Step 6: Roots of the equations are x = –1 or x = 2

Exercise : 5.9

A. 1) Draw the graph of y = x2 and find the value of 7

2) Draw the graph of y = 2x2 and find the value of 3

1 2

3) Draw the graph of y = x and find the value of 10

2

B. 1) Draw the graph of y = x2 and y = 2x + 3 and hence solve the equation

x2 – 2x – 3 = 0

2) Draw the graph of y = 2x2 and y = 3 – x and hence solve the equation

2x2 + x – 3 = 0

3) Draw the graph of y = 2x2 and y = 3 + x and hence solve the equation

2x2 – x – 3 = 0

C. Solve graphically

1) x2 + x – 12 = 0 2) x2 – 5x + 6 = 0 3) x2 + 2x – 8 = 0

4) x2 + x – 6 = 0 5) 2x2 – 3x – 5 = 0 6) 2x2 + 3x – 5 = 0

157

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