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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ АВТОНОМНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

« Московский государственный институт международных отношений Министерства иностранных дел Российской Федерации» (УНИВЕРСИТЕТ )

Кафедра английского языка 3

Лексико -грамматическое пособие по АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЫКУ Для студентов факультета международной журналистики УРОВЕНЬ В 2+, С 1

Конколь М. М., Буйлова И . В., Станковская А. А. Под общей редакцией Конколь М. М.

МГИМО

« Лексико-грамматическое пособие по английскому языку для студентов

факультета международной журналистики. Уровни В 2+, С 1.» предназначено для использования в рамках программы обучения практике иностранного языка ; предназначен для студентов, изучающих английский язык как первый и второй иностранный в группах продолжающего уровня . Задания данного сборника упражнений направлены на развитие лексико-грамматической составляющей языковой компетенции : закрепление грамматических знаний, развитие навыков перевода , активизация лексики . – 325 с.

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

Предисловие Методическая записка

 

5

 

9

UNIT 1 The Continuous Aspect. The Perfect Aspect. UNIT 2

 

11

 

26

Articles. Modal Verbs (present, past, future) UNIT 3

 

58

Modal Verbs: perfect. Relative Clause UNIT 4

 

88

Linking

 

Words

and

Phrases.

Expressions

with

Future

Meaning.

 

UNIT 5

 

109

Future in the Past. Emphatic Structures. UNIT 6

 

142

Passive Voice. Have/Get Something Done. UNIT 7

 

162

Conditionals.

 

UNIT 8

 

183

ING Forms and Infinitives. Prepositional Verbs. UNIT 9

 

214

Adverbs of Degree. Reporting Using Nouns. UNIT 10

 

242

Non-finite Clauses. UNIT 11

 

261

Alternatives to If. UNIT 12

 

283

Types of Text Reference (substitution, ellipsis). Список литературы

 

303

Принципы измерения навыков экзаменуемых Образцы зачетных /экзаменационных материалов

305

312

Предисловие

Учебное пособие « Лексико-грамматическое пособие по английскому языку для студентов факультета международной журналистики . Уровни В2+, С 1.» предназначено для использования в рамках программы обучения практике иностранного языка ( модуль : Речевая практика ). Данное пособие является дополнительным учебным материалом к учебно-методическому комплексу New Language Leader Advanced Coursebook by Cotton D., Falvey D., Kent S., Lebeau I., Rees G. (Pearson Education Limited, 2015). Предметно -лексические темы данного пособия охватывают следующие области : образование и трудоустройство, туризм и охрана окружающей среды , международные отношения , здравоохранение , мода и потреб ительство, технологии и изменения , люди и идеи, журналистика и СМИ, закон и общество, искусство и развлечение , бизнес и экономика , наука и природа . Грамматический материал включает основные направления : система времен глагола , употребление артиклей, модальные глаголы , страдательный залог , герундий и инфинитив, виды прилагательных и их порядок в предложении, придаточные предложения и правила пунктуации при их использовании, косвенная речь, сослагательное наклонение , стилистические приемы . Лексические и грамматические упражнения отражают материал , представленный во всех главах вышеупомянутого учебника . New Language Leader Advanced был выбран автора ми предлагаемого учебного пособия в качестве опорного материала , поскольку в настоящее время он является одн им из самых популярных УМК и широко используется для обучения английскому языку студентов уровней «независимого и профессионального владения » (В 2+, C1) не только в России , но и во всем мире . Рекомендован издательством для использования в вузах. Сочетает в себе насыщенное информационное содержание и систематическую работу по развитию аналитических навыков и

коммуникативной компетенции. Направлен на развитие критического мышления благодаря тщательно продуманным сценариям , дающим возможность активно использовать язык. По этой причине он удовлетворяет требованию обеспечения академической мобильн ости студентов, предусмотренн ому рамками Болонского процесса . В соответствии с о статьей 1274 Гражданского кодекса Российской Федерации все материалы средств массовой информации используются в данном учебном пособии в качестве иллюстраций ( в широком смысле ) учебного характера ; в об ъёме , оправданном поставленной целью или методикой, и с указанием имени автора , разработка которого используется , и источника заимствования . В конце пособия приводятся принципы измерения навыков экзаменуемых, экзаменационные требования и критерии оценки ответа испытуемого, также предлагаются образцы экзаменационных заданий. Учебное пособие пре дназначено для студентов второго курса программ Бакалавриата , изучающих английский язык как основной и второй иностра нный на факультете межд ународной журналистики МГИМО МИД России (продолжающие и коррекционные группы ), а также для сборных групп четвертого курса (начинающие группы ). Он рекомендован для обучения в третьем и четвертом семестрах продолжающего потока , в седьм ом и восьм ом семестрах групп начинающего потока в рамках модулей « Речевая практика 3, 4» и « Речевая практика 7, 8» соответственно. Пособие нацелено на подготовку бакалавров в рамках единого европейского пространства высшего образования . Прохождение всех упражнений сборника рассчитано на 116 аудиторных часа (58 занятий). Работа над одним дидактическим блоком занимает 8-10 академических часов (4-5 аудиторных занятий). Материалы сборника подобраны , приведены в соответствие с програ м мными требованиями и подготовлены к работе М . М . Конколь, И. В .

Буйловой, А . А . Станковской. В каждом уроке сборника а вторами составлены упражнения на перевод с использованием активной лексики. Теоретический блок сборника заимствован из :

Unit 1 - Side R., Wellman G. Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced

and Proficiency. Pearson Education Limited, 2000; Cotton D., Falvey D., Kent S. Lebeau I., Rees G. Advanced New Language Leader Coursebook + LAB. Pearson Education Limited, 2015. Unit 2 - Foley M., Hall D. Advanced Learners’ Grammar. Pearson Education Limited, 2008; Бармина Л. А ., Верховская И. П. Learning to Use Articles. М :

Высшая школа , 1989. Unit 3 - Side R., Wellman G. Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency. Pearson Education Limited, 2000; Foley M., Hall D. My Grammar Lab Advanced (C1/C2) + E-LAB. Pearson Education Limited, 2012. Unit 4 - Side R., Wellman G. Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency. Pearson Education Limited, 2000; Cotton D., Falvey D., Kent S. Lebeau I., Rees G. Advanced New Language Leader Coursebook + LAB. Pearson Education Limited, 2015; Vince M. Advanced Language Practice. Heinemann ELT,

1994.

Unit 5 - Foley M., Hall D. Advanced Learners’ Grammar. Pearson Education Limited, 2008; Hewings M. Advanced Grammar in Use. A self-study reference and practice book for advanced learners of English. Cambridge University Press, 2013. Unit 6 - Side R., Wellman G. Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency. Pearson Education Limited, 2000; Unit 7 - Foley M., Hall D. Advanced Learners’ Grammar. Pearson Education Limited, 2008. Unit 8 - Vince M. Advanced Language Practice. Heinemann ELT, 1994. Unit 9 - Foley M., Hall D. Advanced Learners’ Grammar. Pearson Education Limited, 2008; Vince M. Advanced Language Practice. Heinemann ELT, 1994.

Unit 10 - Haines S., Nettle M. Advanced Grammar in Use. Supplementary Exercises. Cambridge University Press, 2007. Unit 11 - Foley M., Hall D. Advanced Learners’ Grammar. Pearson Education Limited, 2008; Haines S., Nettle M. Advanced Grammar in Use. Supplementary Exercises. Cambridge University Press, 2007. Unit 12 - Foley M., Hall D. Advanced Learners’ Grammar. Pearson Education Limited, 2008.

Методическая записка

Задания данного сборника упражнений направлены на развитие лексико-грамматической сос тавляющей языковой компетенции : закрепление грамматических знаний, развитие навыков перевода , активизация лексики . Языковой уровень студентов, для которых предназначен настоящий сборник упражнений, характеризуется в рамках Европейского языкового портфеля (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages) как уровень « независимого (В 2+) и профессионального (С 1) владения ». Этот уровень включает следующие навыки : обучаемые понимают большие сложные общественно -политические , социокультурные , лингвострановедческие тексты, специальные статьи и технические инструкции; способны решать предложенные коммуникативные задачи в социально -культурных и общественно-полити ческих сферах общения ; подробно высказываться по широкому кругу вопросов (спонтанно и аргументированно ). Для достижения поставленных учебных целей, которые включают освоение студентами лекс ико-грамматических структур и развитие навыков перевода , автор ы сб орника разработал и методический комплекс , состоящий из двух блоков упражнений. Первый блок заданий направлен на закрепление изучаемых грамма тических структур . Он включает 10-13 грамматических упражнений различного характера (раскрытие скобок, выбор правильного варианта из ряда предложенных, заполнение пробелов, творческие задания и др .) Г рамматические задания снабжены четкими инструкциями по выполнению и подробными разъяснениями изучаемой грамматической темы , которые дополняют и углубляют грамматические знания , полученные студентами из учебника New Language Leader Advanced Coursebook.

Второй блок упражнений каждого урока (3-4 упражнения ) с формулировкой задания «Translate the following sentences, using active vocabulary» направлен на закрепление активной лексики и изучаемых грамматических структур посредством перевода с русского языка на английский . Упражнения снабжены списком активных лексических единиц с отсылко й на конкретную страницу и к определенному заданию из учебника New Language Leader Advanced Coursebook, где данные лексические единицы впервые упоминаются . Лексические единицы необходимо перевес ти с учетом их контекстуального значения . Для удобства работы с упражнениями активные лексические единицы в них подчеркнуты , что позволяет правильно соотносить значения английского выражения и его русского эквивалента . Упражнения из обоих блоков задаются на дом и отрабатываются в класс е фронтально.

UNIT 1

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

THE CONTINUOUS ASPECT

Use the continues aspect to talk about:

- An action or situation which is/was in progress at a particular time. He was researching into gene therapy at the time.

- An unfinished action or situation. He had been working in the lab when I met him.

- A temporary action. I’m using Jo’s laptop while mine is being repaired.

- A trend, changing action or situation. Scientists say the weather is getting hotter.

Use the present continuous to talk about actions or situations currently in progress. They’re conducting a series of experiments into genetic mutation at the moment. Also use the present continuous to describe future arrangements. I’m giving the lecture on Thursday. Use the past continuous to talk about an ongoing action in the past, often unfinished. I was working on the genome project the whole of last year. (= The project hadn’t finished by the end of the year.) Use the present perfect continuous to talk about an ongoing action or situation in the past that is still continuing into the present or has just finished but has a result in the present. The doctor has been waiting for you for ages. I’ve been running to get here on time. That’s why I’m out of breath. Use the past perfect continuous to talk about an ongoing action or situation in the past that is still continuing up to another time in the past.

The researchers had been focusing too narrowly – that’s why we stopped them. Use the future continuous to talk about temporary actions in progress at a particular time in the future. We’ll be working on the project all next week.

THE PERFECT ASPECT

Use the perfect aspect to look back from one time to another. Present Perfect This looks back from now to a time before now. It often focuses on completed actions or situations. We’ve already interviewed ten people for this post. NOTE! With the time adverb just meaning ‘a short time ago’ (American English uses Past Simple here):

She's just gone out. The present perfect continuous focuses on the duration of the action. We’ve been interviewing all morning. Past Perfect The past perfect looks back from a time in the past to another time before that. She’d applied for ten jobs before she got this one. The past perfect continuous focuses on duration. She’d been applying for jobs for months before she got this one. Future Perfect The future perfect looks back from a time in the future to another time before that. Lucas will have finished the job by 6.00 p.m. The future perfect continuous focuses on duration. Lucas will have been working on it for three hours by then. OTHER FORMS The perfect has an infinitive form: to + have + past participle.

I

expected you to have completed the questionnaires by now.

The –ing form is having + past participle. Having arrived at the laboratory, we were shown to Professor Dalton’s office.

TIME WORDS - FOR, SINCE, ALREADY, YET, STILL, OFTEN, ETC. We often use Perfect tenses with these time words. Note important variations in their position:

We still haven't heard from Olga. We'd still not heard from her by the time evening arrived. (= more formal)

I haven't heard a convincing explanation of her absence yet. She's phoned

already. Has she phoned already? She's already phoned. She hasn't already phoned, has she?

NOTE! We don't use Present Perfect when an exact past time is mentioned and there is no connection with the present:

We’ve been to London in 1997. We went to London in 1997.

But we can use the Present Perfect if the period mentioned includes the past and present:

We've been here since half past six.

I haven't done much work today. It's been raining for ages.

We use Past Perfect for something that happened before something else. We can only use it with another Past tense:

I went to see him because his wife had asked me to.

We omit will in time clauses:

I’ll phone you as soon as we will have arrived. I’ll phone you as soon as we have arrived.

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Supply the correct form of the verbs given in brackets. Read through the whole text before you begin as you may need to use passive voice forms and used to/would in your answers. Treasure Island is one of the best known and most loved children’s adventure stories. It (1) ……… (be) first published in 1883 but remains popular to this day. People (2) ……… (think) that the story was solely the work of Stevenson’s imagination, but recent research has uncovered the true origin of this thrilling tale of hidden treasure and bloodthirsty pirates. Treasure Island’s author, Robert Louis Stevenson, (3) ……… (be) a Scotsman born in Edinburgh in 1850. Although he (4) ……… (live) abroad for many years, in 1881 he returned to the land of his birth for a holiday. With him (5) ……… (be) his American wife Fanny, whom he (6) ……… (meet) five years earlier in France, and his stepchildren from Fanny’s first marriage. The location of their holiday was Braemar in the rugged Scottish Highlands. The family soon settled into a relaxing routine. Each morning Stevenson (7) ……… (get up) early and take them out for long walks over the hills. They (8) ……… (enjoy) this for several days when the weather suddenly took a turn for the worse. Trapped indoors by heavy rain, Robert’s 12-year-old stepson, Lloyd, (9) ……… (become) increasingly bored and restless. Desperate to keep the boy amused, Robert (10) ……… (get out) some drawing paper and asked the boy to do some painting. After he (11) ……… (paint) for several hours the boy (12) ……… (return) to his stepfather with a beautiful coloured map of a tropical island. Robert noticed that his stepson (13) ……… (draw) a large cross in the middle of the island. ‘What’s that?’ he asked. ‘That’s the buried treasure,’ said the boy. The 31-year-old author suddenly had a flash of inspiration. He (14) ……… (recently, ask) to contribute to a children’s magazine published by his friend W E Henley and he (15) ……… (begin) to see the germ of an adventure story in the boy’s picture. While the rain (16) ……… (beat down) on the roof of his rented holiday cottage the author (17)

……… (sit down) by the fire to write a story. He would make the hero a 12-year- old-boy, just like his own stepson. But who would be the villain of the piece? For the last four years Henley (18) ……… (publish) Robert’s stories in his magazine, and the two had become good friends. But there was something unusual about Henley; as a young man one of his legs (19) ……… (amputate) and he walked around with the aid of an artificial wooden leg. Robert (20) ……… (always, want) to include such a character in a story and thus Long John Silver, the pirate with a wooden leg, was born.

Exercise 2. Complete the text with one of the verbs from the list. Use the correct past or present tenses.

contain, exist, find(x2), allow, dig, produce, try, be, unearth, perish, discover(x2), walk

Paleontologists in New Mexico (1) ……… the remains of at least one dinosaur from the late Jurassic period. The paleontologists, from Canada, (2) ……… in a formerly unexplored part of the Morrison Formation – a vast fossil bed – for the last eight months. Early last week one of the group (3) ……… a section of rock which (4) ……… a number of bones from one, or possibly more, large herbivorous dinosaurs. Since then, the group (5) ……… to release the bones from the rock and piece them together. The paleontologists believe that the bones may form a whole dinosaur family. It is possible that the whole family (6) ……… while trying to protect the young from predators. According to Bryce Larson, the group’s leader, the bones are from a large brachiosaurus. These animals (7) ……… approximately 150 million years ago and are counted amongst the largest dinosaurs that ever (8) ……… the Earth. Other brachiosaurus remains (9) ……… in the Morrison, but these latest bones are very large and may prove to come from the largest dinosaur anyone (10) ……… to date. For a long time the Morrison Formation (11) ……… one of the most productive fossil beds in the world. Since the first bones (12) ……… there in 1877, it (13)

……… tons of material. The Morrison, more than any other fossil bed, (14) ……… us an insight into the late Jurassic period in North America. It seems that the latest find could reveal even more about the giants of the Jurassic.

Exercise 3. Supply the correct form of the verbs given in brackets. Use past simple or present perfect (simple or continuous). Mel Gibson (1) ……… (be) a major film star now for more than twenty years. In this time, he (2) ……… (become) one of the most respected Hollywood actors and he (3) ……… (now/start) a successful career in film directing, as well. Gibson (4) ……… (be born) in the United States in 1956 but his family (5) ……… (move) to Australia in 1968. He (6) ……… (complete) his school education in Sydney and (7) ……… (begin) his acting career there, in the National Institute of Dramatic Art. He (8) ……… (appear) in several Australian TV series, but (9) ……… (get) his big break in 1979, in a film called Mad Max. He (10) ……… (since/make) two more ‘Max’ films. He (11) ……… (go on) to make several other successful films in Australia, for example, Gallipoli, before he (12) ……… (move) to Hollywood. Gibson (13) ……… (make) more than thirty films, many of which (14) ……… (be) great commercial successes. He (15) ……… (never/be) afraid to take on challenging roles, such as Hamlet and The Man without a Face, which also (16) ……… (mark) his directorial debut. He (17) ……… (direct) films for the last few years. To date he (18) ……… (direct) three successful films.

Exercise 4. Supply the correct form of the verbs given in brackets. A: What (1) ……… (do) this time next year? B: Well, that’s difficult to say but I hope that I (2) ……… (travel) round the world. Before then I (3) ……… (hopefully/save up) enough money for the ticket. I plan to end up in Australia and when I (4) ……… (get) there I’ll get a job and some money. So, in a year’s time I (5) ……… (probably/travel) for a few months already. I hope that I (6) ……… (visit) quite a lot of different countries by then too.

A: What do you plan to do when you graduate? B: Well, my plans have changed a bit. I (7) ……… (do) a journalism course, but I didn’t get accepted. So, I’ve sorted something else out and I (8) ……… (start) a hospitality course tomorrow. It’s for six months, so I (9) ……… (not finish) in time to go travelling next spring, unfortunately. However, as soon as I (10) ……… (find out) if I’ve passed the course, I can apply for a job in a hotel in Australia.

Exercise 5. Complete the text with one of the verbs from the list. Use the correct past tense.

do, hope, step, approach, take off, prepare, walk, feel, hear, arrange, always/be, manage, not/burn, do, not/feel, expect, learn, come, arrive

Last year my friends (1) ……… for us to try fire-walking, which is when you walk on hot coals. I (2) ……… fascinated by it and I (3) ……… people say it was an unforgettable experience. I was very excited when I (4) ……… on the day, although beforehand I (5) ……… a little frightened! My friends and I (6) ……… in the hope that by the end of the day we would be able to say we (7) ……… across hot, burning coals. Our teacher was very good, and by teatime we (8) ……… a great deal and (9) ……… the fires. I (10) ……… to be terrified when the time came to walk, but as I (11) ……… my shoes and socks I (12) ……… afraid. I (13) ……… the coals as all my friends before me (14) ………, and started walking! I could feel the heat, but as I (15) ……… back onto the grass at the other end I knew the coals (16) ……… my feet at all. As I (17) ………, all my friends (18) ……… the walk and none were burnt. The whole experience was amazing, and I just wished I (19) ……… it sooner.

Exercise 6. Complete the text with one of the verbs from the list. Use the correct past tense.

1.

She (1) ……… as a waitress for five years when he met her.

2. The lecture (2) ……… by the time they got there.

3. In the supermarket, he (3) ……… all the ingredients he needed and then went home to make her birthday cake.

4. Holly did well in her exam, which was a shock because she (4) ……… (never) an exam before.

5. They went on a big tour of Britain. First, they (5) ……… in London for a few days. Then they (6) ……… Cambridge, York and Edinburgh, and then Bath. They (7) ……… to Bath before, but they (8) ……… it so much that they (9) ……… to go back again.

6. Scientists announced the launch of the new drug last week. They (10) ……… it for five years.

7. By the time I got to the meeting they (11) ……… (already) the important issues and they (12) ……… the big decisions without me. I (13) ……… from my mobile to tell them the train was late and I (14) ……… annoyed that they (15) ……… (not) for me.

8. I looked terrible when I saw Joe last night because I (16) ……… for over an hour and I was exhausted.

Exercise 7. Supply the correct form of the verbs given in brackets. Use the most natural form of the future and the verb in brackets. Two students are discussing their plans for the weekend.

A:

I’m so glad the week has finished. I’m exhausted.

B:

Me too. I (1) ……… (enjoy) this weekend, and make sure I will forget all

A:

about college! What (2) ……… (you, do) then?

B:

Well, I (3) ……… (meet) some friends tonight and I expect we (4) ……… (get) something to eat, and then go clubbing – so I (5) ……… (need) a really long lie-in tomorrow! Then if there’s enough time, I (6) ……… (go) shopping in the new mall. How about you?

A: Well, my sister and I wanted to go to a new dry ski slope that’s just opened near us, but it looks like it (7) ……… (be) cold and wet so I bet we (8) ……… (end up) doing something else, probably staying indoors! What (9) ……… (you, do) on Sunday?

I haven’t planned anything for Sunday. I probably (10) ……… (not have) any money left by then! I (11) ……… (give) you a call if you like, and we could go out or something.

A: Oh, that’s nice of you, but it’s OK. I (12) ……… (finish) this term’s

coursework if I can. Well done, you! You (13) ……… (not want) to be disturbed then! Hey, look at the time – I’d better go. I (14) ……… (be) late if I’m not careful. Have a good weekend and see you on Monday!

A: Yeah, you too. Enjoy yourself! Bye!

B:

B:

Exercise 8. Complete the text with one of the verbs from the list. Use the appropriate past form of the verbs from the list.

wait, live, give, need, take, go, accompany, lose, have, be(x2), drive, develop, come out, not eat or drink, prepare, stop, break down, check, start, run out, reopen, turn out, begin

On 30 th January, people in south-east England were thrilled as the first flakes of white snow (1) ……… to fall. But within two hours, mass chaos (2) ……… . That day (3) ……… to be the second worst day for traffic on record, with motorists trapped in their cars on the M11 motorway for up to 11 hours. Gary Barnicott (4) ……… one of the first breakdown vehicles to arrive on the scene when police (5) ……… the motorway. His first priority was to deal with a vehicle stranded near one of the junctions. ‘The guy (6) ……… in his car all night with a wife and three young children and (7) ……… also diabetic. He (8) ……… the car heater on all night and the car (9)

……… of fuel and (10) ……… all battery power. I (11) ……… his car for him, (12) ……… him to a service station and (13) ……… he was OK’. Barnicott (14) ……… back to work, helping other drivers, many of whose cars (15) ……… for quite basic reasons such as overheating of flat batteries. ‘It (16) ……… a while to reach people because of the conditions,’ he says. ‘I (17) ……… regularly to check if people (18) ……… help. I (19) ……… flasks of coffee and tea, which I (20) ……… to people who (21) ……… anything for hours. Actually, I was pleasantly surprised because people who (22) ……… near to that stretch of the motorway (23) ……… of their homes early to give refreshments to motorists who (24) ……… in their cars all night.’

Exercise 9. Look at the underlined verb tenses in this phone conversation between a mother and her daughter. Correct the mistakes. D: Hi Mum, I’m sorry (1) I hadn’t phoned earlier in the week, but (2) I’ve been really busy. M: (3) I’m wondering if everything was OK. D: The thing is, something pretty exciting (4) happened. Charlie’s manager (5) was telling him to apply for a job in Washington. M: Washington? You mean you’re moving to America? D: No, Washington near Newcastle in the north of England. M: Oh, that’s OK. But I thought you (6) were starting a new job at the local school next term. D: Well, that (7) has been the idea, but this Washington job would be perfect for Charlie. It’s exactly what he (8) is wanting to do. (9) He’d been getting more and more fed up with the job (10) he’s doing at the moment. One of his friends, an ex-colleague, who (11) has moved to the Washington office about a year ago, (12) is thinking that Charlie is exactly the kind of person (13) they’re looking for. But the problem is that Charlie’s in two minds about living in that part of the country. He (14) still tries to decide whether he (15) wants the job or not.

M: (16) That’s sounding very interesting for Charlie, but what about you? D: I’m sure I’ll find work in a school in Washington, but I’m not going to start worrying about that now because Charlie (17) doesn’t even fill in the application form yet!

Exercise 10. In about half of the lines of the following text there is an error in the use of the present forms. For each line underline the error and write the correct forms. Some lines are correct.

0.

Every year more and more tourists are visiting the Ionian Islands, and most are

00.

enchanted by these lush green islands in a turquoise sea. Many now think

1.

about the possibility of owning property in this warm, unspoiled corner of

2.

Europe. Appeals the idea to you? If so, read on!

3.

Imagine yourself standing on a wide terrace high on a cliff above the

4.

clear Ionian Sea, the island of Zakynthos in the distance. The sun is beating

5.

down and you are hearing the cicadas and the sound of waves lapping

6.

gently against the golden sand below. You can smell the heady scent of

7.

jasmine. You walk down a steep, stony path to the beach and there is lying

8.

the turquoise sea, right in front of you. We’re inviting you to share this

9.

experience with us.

10.

We currently develop a complex of luxury apartments just outside

11.

Lourdas, in the south of Cephalonia. Cephalonia is the largest and the

12.

most varied of the Ionian Islands, and Lourdas is a traditional Greek

13.

village with a variety of shops and tavernas. Behind the village, the

14.

mountains are rising steeply and goats roam freely. From the village, a

15.

road winds down to Lourdas Bay. The wide sweep of the bay shelter a

16.

long sandy beach which is almost totally uncommercialised, although

17.

local developers build a range of bars and tavernas on a strip of land

18.

behind the beach.

19.

We have completed our apartment and we now show prospective

20.

purchasers the apartment, either in person at the site, or at our

21.

London office, on video. To take part in this once-in-a-lifetime offer,

22.

phone us now and talk to one of our sales representatives.

VOCABULARY FOR UNIT 1

1.1

Basic vocabulary – see V1 p.126 Additional vocabulary Ex.1a p.6: a reliable way of measuring sth, to enable sb to do sth, to encourage inequality in society, to get good grades Ex.3 p.6: a scientific formular/formula, mental arithmetic, excerpts from literature Ex.6 p.6: to put knowledge into practice Text p.7: to be compared with/to sth, a rounded education, to facilitate, to store

datum/data, to be accessible electronically, rumblings, to stir controversy, to require knowledge of sth, to further understanding, to undermine the need, to revive, hard/tedious work, to drill in grammar, to challenge, to diminish, the application of knowledge Ex.8 p.7: to bring to sb’s attention Exercise 1. Translate the sentences using the active vocabulary.

1. Джек студент Оксфордского университета , но во время летних каникул он препода е т навыки межличностного общения . Это да е т ему возможность применять университетские знания на практике .

2. Вы вс е время перебиваете меня , когда мы обсуждаем традиционное обучение , в частности, метод , основанный на запоминании фактов и цифр.

3. Ник пош е л на прогулку после того, как написал статью о методе обу чения , основанном на погружении. Он сделал вс е возможное , чтобы избежать плагиата .

4.

- Они обсуждали учебный план 2 часа , поэтому они чувствовали себя измученными. -Такие обсуждения не могут проводиться с быстротой молнии.

5.

Когда Мэри вошла в комнат у , Джон что- то искал в справочнике . Он готовился к выступлению и хотел показать все свои познания (= всю свою эрудицию).

6.

Завод сократит выбросы углекислого газа на 20% к 2025 году . Это говорит о том , что директор завода думает о защите окружающей сред ы .

7.

К концу следующего года миссис Уайтбридж будет составлять учебные планы уже в течение 7 лет.

8.

Я думаю вы не правы , поддерживая неравенство в обществе .

9.

Едва я справился с этим тяже лым и скучным заданием , как начальник дал мне новое поручение . Он не давал мне возможности бездельничать на работе .

10.

Несколько над е жных способов определения уровня шума было разработано за последние три года .

1.2

Basic vocabulary – see V2 p.126 Additional vocabulary Ex.3 p.8: hard-working, innovative, highly educated, creative, business-minded, self-disciplined Ex.4 p.8: to overcome difficulties Text p.8-9: a Bachelor’s degree, a Master’s degree in sth, to have a reputation for being…, to rouse sb to do sth, to conduct negotiations, to reinvent a business model, to serve on the board of a company, to found a company, classical refinement, to delight audiences worldwide, an allergic reaction to sth, an organic skincare line/products, to have a degree in sth, to seek (sought) advice from sb, to go through sth, to win the Nobel Prize in, to make a breakthrough in, to struggle, self-esteem, to get into graduate school

Ex.10 p.9: the key to sth

Exercise 2. Translate the sentences using the active vocabulary.

1. Впервые я встретила такого трудолюбивого, высокообразованного, обладающего самоконтролем человека . Он меня очень воодушевил .

2. - Едва он получил степень бакалавра в Московском университете , как решил получить степень магистра в университете Кембриджа . - Сколько же степеней он хочет иметь по биохимии?

3. Господин Джойс работает в правлении компании четыре года . Я никогда не встречал человека , проявляющего такой интерес к бизнесу .

4. Завтра я встречаюсь с господином Стэнли. Мы будем обсуждать его новаторские предложения с 10 до 12 часов.

5. Певица восхищала публику по всему миру в течение 15 лет, прежде чем она решила основать свой собственный театр .

6. Этот молодой ученый очень трудолюбив и обладает самоконтролем . Он наверняка получит Нобелевскую премию.

7. Сара руководит бутиком , продающим натуральную косметику. Завтра к 11 часам утра я завезу тебе новый крем для лица . Надеюсь, у тебя не будет аллергической реакции на него.

8. Когда я вошла в комнату, она просила совет у своей старшей сестры , которая только что поступила в аспирантуру. У не е уже есть степень магистра по химии, но ей этого недостаточно.

9. Я не предполагала , что он имеет склонность к занятию бизнесом . На днях я узнала , что он основал свою собственную компанию.

10. Не проработали они и часа , как поняли, что им прид е тся просить совет у

господина

Клема .

Хоть

он и был выскочкой, но умел работать в

команде .

1.3

Basic vocabulary- see V3 p.126 Additional vocabulary Ex.1 p.10: curriculum vitae = CV, to work for a company, internship

Ex.3b p.10: to be suitable for…job Ex.4 p.10: to apply for a job CV p.10: to grasp new ideas, on one’s own initiative, to have a(an) (il)logical approach to sth, to meet the deadline, to be on some exchange programmes Ex.6b p.11: to highlight sb’s strengths Ex.8 p.11: hopefully, to lose sb’s references, to write a doctoral thesis Ex.9 p.11: to be out of work, to meet the requirements, it’s no use doing sth, to look for a job in finance Exercise 3. Translate the sentences using the active vocabulary.

1. Господин К лод позвонил , прежде чем я проче л его резюме . Надеюсь, этот кандидат будет отвечать нашим требованиям .

2. Это был единственный раз , когда я участвовал в программе по обмену студентов. Тогда мне удалось усвоить много новых идей.

3. Завтра в это время Клиффорд будет обращаться за работой. Он без работы уже целый год .

4. - Я не понимаю, почему она такая вспыльчивая . Обычно она очень

сдержанна . - Она должна успеть к крайнему сроку со статье й.

5. Сэнди очень честолюбив. Едва он начал читать аналитическую статью американского уче ного, как понял , что и сам может написать статью. Ведь он работает в финансовой сфере 12 лет.

6. Он проходит практику уже три месяца .

К концу этого месяца он

приобрете т бесценный опыт и станет подходящим кандидатом для этой работы .

7. Ваш подход к решению этой проблемы нелогичен. Это не первый раз , когда вам об этом говорят.

8.

Нет смысла пересматривать образовательные стандарты . Мы сделали это уже два раза . Кроме того, ваши доводы неубедительны .

9. Виола не переносит (= у нее аллергия ) кошек. Я думаю о том , чтобы подарить ей канарейку. Она может полюбить птичку .

10. Он пишет свою докторскую диссертацию уже два года . Потом он будет искать работу в финансовой сфере .

UNIT 2

GRAMMAR REFERENCE 1

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE ‘A’/’AN’ – ONE/ONES

A/AN

1. With singular countable nouns when we talk about them in general:

I want to buy a dress. (any dress)

2. With the verbs to be and have (got):

Mary has (got) a dog. It’s a German Shepherd.

3. Before Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms when we refer to an unknown person:

A Mrs Jones called you this morning. (A person that we don’t know)

4. To show: a) price in relation to weight (two pounds a kilo), b) distance in relation to speed (80 km an hour), c) frequency (twice a week).

5. When we refer to one example of a class or a species:

An African elephant has larger ears than an Indian elephant.

6. When the topic (noun) is not known to our listener/reader:

A new travel guide has advised would-be tourists to Morecambe that it is a place to avoid.

7. When we talk about: a) jobs (I am a structural engineer), b) nationalities (Helmut is an Austrian), c) beliefs (Jack Stevens became a Christian), d) numbers (a hundred thousand).

A(N)/ONE

1. We use a/an to refer to an unspecified thing with the meaning ‘any one’. We use one when we are counting, to put emphasis on number:

He bought a tie. (We are not talking about a specific tie.)

He bought one tie. (He didn’t buy two ties.)

2. We use one with the words day, week, month, year, winter, morning, night, etc. or with a specific day or month to say when something happened, usually in narration:

One summer, the family decided to go to Tahiti. We can use one day to refer to the future:

One day, you will regret this.

3. We use one or one of … when we mean one person/thing out of many. It usually contrasts with another/other(s):

One bus was full, but the others were empty. One of my colleagues is from Italy.

4. We use a/an or one with no difference in meaning when counting or measuring distance, weight, time, etc.:

I paid a/one hundred pounds for this bracelet.

ONE/ONES

1. We use one in the singular and ones in the plural to avoid repeating the noun when it is clear what we mean:

My house is the one with the red front door.

2. We use a/an with one when there is an adjective before one:

I want to buy a jacket. I want a leather one.

BUT: I want to buy a jacket. I want one with a fur collar.

3. We use one/ones with this/that:

I don’t like this pair of shoes, but I like that one.

4. We use which one(s) in questions:

I like the yellow blouse best. Which one do you like?

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

We use the:

1.

With nouns when we are talking about something specific, that is, when the noun is mentioned for a second time or is already known:

I bought a shirt and a dress. The dress is blue and the shirt is green.

2.

With nouns which are unique:

the sun, the Eiffel Tower

1.

With the names of cinemas (the Rex), hotels (the Carlton), theatres (the Globe), museums (the British Museum), newspapers/magazines (the Times but: Time magazine), ships (the Mary Rose), organizations (the EU), galleries (the Tate Gallery).

4.

With the names of rivers (the Nile, and the River Nile), lakes (the Ontario, but Lake Ontario) seas (the Caspian Sea), groups of islands (the Canary Islands), mountain ranges (the Alps), deserts (the Sahara Desert), oceans (the Atlantic), canals (the Panama Canal), countries when they include words such as state, Kingdom, republic, etc. (the United Kingdom), and names or nouns with ‘of’ (the Leaning Tower of Pisa). NOTE! the equator, the North/South Pole, the north of England, the south/west/north/east, the Arctic, the Antarctic, the Far East.

5.

With the names of musical instruments and dances:

the piano, the tango

6.

With the names of families (the Windsors), and nationalities ending in -sh, - ch or -ese (the French, the Scottish, the Japanese, etc.).

7.

With titles (the King, the Prince of Wales, the President). But: the is omitted before titles with proper names (Queen Victoria).

8.

With adjectives/adverbs in the superlative form:

He’s the most respected man in the firm. But: when ‘most’ is followed by a noun, it does not take ‘the’:

Most children like cartoons.

9.

With the words morning, afternoon, evening and night:

We eat dinner in the evening. But: at night, at noon, at midnight, by day/night, at 4 o’clock, etc.

10. With historical periods/events: the Middle Ages, the Crimean War. But:

World War II.

11. With the words first, last, next, only, same, right, wrong:

the last time, the only one.

12. In some comparative phrases: the more the merrier, all the better.

13. In measurements:

You can buy saffron by the gram.

14. When you talk about physical environments:

I prefer the town to the country.

15. With dates when spoken:

the tenth of May.

16. To refer to the whole class or species:

The rose is one of the few flowers that look better picked than growing.

17. When the context makes it ‘known’:

‘Has Edward arrived yet?’ ‘Yes, he’s in the dining-room’. (=the dining-room of the house we are in)

18. When a defining phrase makes it ‘known’:

Oasis is the Manchester band that shot to fame in the early 1990s.

19. When a prepositional phrase makes it ‘known’:

Meet me in the cafe next to the underground station near my house.

20. With the noun sea in the general sense:

The sea was calm without the reef.

21. With names of mountain passes:

the Saint Gotthard Pass

22. With geographic names having the plural forms:

the Midlands, the Netherlands, the Yorkshire Forests.

23.

With names of clubs (the National Tennis Club), concert halls (the Carnegie Hall), monuments (the Washington Monument).

24. With names of parties and institutions:

the Conservative Party, the Democratic Party, the London City Council, the House of Commons, the British Parliament.

WE DO NOT USE THE:

1. With uncountable and plural countable nouns when talking about something in general:

Fish live in water.

2. With proper nouns:

Mark lives in Brighton.

3. With the names of sports, games, activities, days, months, celebrations, colours, drinks, meals and languages (when they are not followed by the word ‘language’):

I often play chess. We speak German. But: The German language is difficult to learn.

4. With the names of countries: (Italy, but: the Lebanon, the Sudan, the Vatican City, the Argentine (but Argentina)), cities (Paris, Florence, but: the Hague), streets (Oxford Street, but: the High Street, the Strand, the Mall, the London road, the A19 ,the M6 motorway), squares (Trafalgar Square), bridges (Tower Bridge, but: the Bridge of Sighs, the Humber Bridge), parks (Hyde Park), railway stations (Victoria Station), mountains (Ben Nevis, but: the Matterhorn), individual islands (Cyprus), continents (Africa), waterfalls (Niagara Falls), bays (Hudson Bay), peninsulas (Labrador, but the Balkan Peninsula), capes (Cape Horn), universities (Harvard University), colleges (Hertford College), buildings (Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey, St. Paul’s Cathedral, but: the White House, the Tower, the Old Bailey).

5. With possessive adjectives or the possessive case:

This is my car.

6.

With two-word names when the first word is the name of a person or place:

Gatwick Airport, Windsor Castle.

7. With names of pubs, restaurants, shops, banks and hotels named after the people who started them and end in –s or –’s:

Lloyds Bank, Harrods, Dave’s Pub, but the Red Lion (pub).

8. With the words bed, church college, court, hospital, prison, jail, school, university, class, table and sometimes market when we refer to the purpose for which they exist:

Sarah went to school. (She is a student.) Her father went to the school to see her teacher yesterday. (He went to the school as a visitor.)

9. With the word work (=place of work):

Mr. Sanders is at work.

10. With the words home, father, mother, aunt, uncle, nurse, cook, sister, brother, cousin, baby when we talk about our home/father/mother, etc.:

Mother is at home.

11. With by + means of transport:

She travelled by bus. But: She left on the 8 o’clock bus this morning.

12. With the names of illnesses:

He’s got malaria. But: flu/the flu, measles/the measles, mumps/the mumps.

13. We use the with the words beach, station, cinema, theatre, coast, country (side), ground, jungle, seaside, weather, world, shop, library, city:

Let’s go to the beach.

14. We usually don’t use the with the word television:

I like watching television in the evenings. But: Turn on the television, please. (the television set)

15. The is optional with seasons:

My favourite season is (the) spring.

16.

We use the + adjectives to refer to a group of people usually with the words:

poor, rich, sick, injured, elderly, homeless, disabled, young, old, dead, blind, deaf, handicapped, mentally ill:

The young are usually impatient.

SUPPLEMENTARY EXAMPLES AND EXCEPTIONS

the Taj Mahal the Bundestag the Pyramids the Sphinx Pluto (the) Earth the Moon the sky the universe the atmosphere the world the ground the horizon the cosmos space the Mongolian plain the Jordan valley the Bering strait the Persian Gulf the Middle East the Crimea the Caucasus the Ruhr Taiga, Tundra

the Riviera the Stone Age the Cold War the Lincoln Memorial Parliament (in Britain) the Titanic the Millennium Bridge (the) Baikal Stonehenge the Whispering Gallery the George Inn the Balkan peninsula the Levant the Arctic the Bronx San Francisco Bay the Rocky Mountains Mount Everest Niagara Falls the Christmas Holiday Staten Island the Grand Canyon Arlington National Cemetery the Parthenon

the Saar the State Hermitage Museum the Winter Palace (in St. Petersburg)

the Odyssey the Iliad the Bank of Scotland

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Fill in the blanks with articles. 1. He went into … house by … back door and sneaked up … stairs as though he had something to hide. 2. We’ll never get him … second time. 3. … silent house gave him … feeling of being there without leave. 4. ‘Oh,’ he said, ‘you’d have to go back through all … records, all … way back to … end of … 18 th century even, to make any kind of … guess.’ 5. ‘What do you mean?’ But what he meant was quite obvious. … quickly beating heart gave him away. 6. It was … third time that year he had fallen asleep driving at night. 7. He was glad that he had been born in … most important city of … United States. 8. … light in … next room came from … lamp hanging from … ceiling. 9. But one way or … other it’s not bothering me. 10. Before … first year had passed I had saved … thousand dollars and we had lived in comfort. 11. Now in … shade of this cool green bush he looked about him with … fancy of … lover. 12. … police are still on it, and they won’t let up, you know. 13. Beyond … lighted decks … harbour was … sheet of … sparkling silver under … full moon. 14. She was never at … loss with … new topic and could be trusted immediately to break … awkward silence with … suitable observation. 15. She taught her to wear … flannel all … year round. 16. I’m sorry for you because you’re such … child, dear, … child crying for … moon. 17. ‘Buryats are … expert riders and remarkably accurate archers,’ wrote Rainier of Switzerland who worked as … teacher in Siberia in … last century. 18. Probably nine tenth of all … people of … United States are disposed to doubt when they hear it asserted that … future can be predicted. 19. James and Andrew listened to his story patiently but they gave him … little encouragement. 20. With … deep hunger of … Irishman who has been …

tenant on … lands his people once had owned and hunted, he wanted to see his own acres stretching green before his eyes.

Exercise 2. Fill in the blanks with articles before names of continents, countries, states, provinces, cities and some other cases if necessary.

1. In his youth Mr. Curry had been abroad … great deal, had lived in … Ceylon, …

Singapore and … India. 2. It was not … Monte Carlo I had known, or perhaps … truth was that it pleased one better. 3. … Chimney Corner was … name of … bar. Michael had liked hanging around there. … photographs of famous skiers of… past hanging above … great fireplace now looked like mementos of … much earlier America. 4. He made… England too hot to hold him; fled to … Central America, and died there of yellow fever. 5. …wealth of Mary’s husband flowed from his being ruler-owner of manganese deposits in … Southwest Asia. 6. I hear he’s off to

… Central Africa. 7. He decided to take his profit and buy … house on … Riviera.

8. Next morning, back from shopping in … Cannes, Nicole found … note saying

that Dick had taken … small car and gone up into… Provence for … few days by himself. 9. Your advice, then, as I understand it, is that … young man will be as safe in … Devonshire as in … London. 10. That evening he glanced at… tape for any news about … Transvaal. 11. My great-grand-father was Governor of … North Carolina. 12. Several show cases are devoted to … reunification of … Ukraine with Russia. 13. We drove up from … Valencia. 14. Here are some of his belongings such as … sword given him in … Caucasus and many historical documents. 15. One of … most striking of …many unique exhibits is … marble sarcophagus - … relic of ancient art found in excavations on … Taman Peninsula in … Crimea.

Exercise 3. Fill in the blanks with articles before names of oceans, seas, straits, channels, rivers, lakes, bays and some other cases if necessary.

1. How ill she was when there was … storm in… Indian Ocean. 2. I was promoted

to be … major and every allied government gave me … decoration – even Montenegro, little Montenegro down on … Adriatic Sea! 3. Every ferryboat that

crosses … East River brings or takes away girls from Long Island. 4. New York, …largest city in … USA, is situated at … mouth of … Hudson River, sometimes called … North River. 5. He had grown up at … shores of … Lake Superior and had sailed small boats ever since he was … kid. 6. They sent us … postcard of … Lake of Geneva. 7. His large grey eyes were sun-veined from rowing on … Lake Geneva.

8. We travelled … lot that year – from … Woolloomooloo Bay to Biskra. 9. They

were in… Mediterranean passing … Gibraltar, but…weather, if anything, was worse. 10. … Potomac flows from West Virginia into … Chesapeake Bay. 11. Warm air began to move from… Gulf of Mexico across Texas into New Mexico. 12. Isabel had caused … house, … replica of … palace on … Grand Canal at Venice, to be furnished by … English expert in … style of Louis XV. 13. He said he was … Dane, but in … Torres Straits he was known as German Harry. 14. Had it

not been my custom to run up to see him every Saturday afternoon and to stop over till Monday morning, this particular January Monday morning would not have found me afloat on … San Francisco Bay. 15. Wisconsin was on … Wisconsin River, on … north bank, … matter of seven miles above … junction with … Mississippi.

Exercise 4. Fill in the blanks with articles before names of peninsulas, deserts, mountains, islands, falls, passes and some other cases if necessary.

1. She’s lived on … Long Island twenty years and never saw New York City before.

2. He told stories to beautiful girls about his fighting in … Solomon Islands, in

Casablanca. 3. … Rocky Mountains extend from Mexico to Canada. 4. We were going to climb … Monte Solaro, dine at … tavern we favoured, and walk down in … moonlight. 5. He took her for … ride on … river under … Niagara Falls and held her hand lovingly when they walked in… sunlight of… northern summer. 6. We could very well have done … Mount Everest … rate we were doing. 7. On … edge of … Sahara we ran into … plague of locusts and … chauffeur explained kindly that they were bumble-bees. 8. In December Nicole seemed well-knit again; when … month had passed without tension, without … tight mouth, … unmotivated smile,

unfathomable remark, they went to … Swiss Alps for … Christmas holidays. 9.

Symbolically she lay across his saddle-bow as surely as if he had wolfed her away from Damascus and they had come out upon … Mongolian plain. 10. Here was another item detailing … wrecking of … vessel in ice and snow off Prince’s Bay on

… Staten Island. 11. He had … small house in … Bermudas. 12. … shell was found overturned, … next day, near … Bear Mountain. 13. … photographer gave us …

picture of me, my hair limp over … rail on … boat to … Capri. 14. No one should leave … park without visiting … outlook station on … rim of … Great Canyon for

… view of … Lower Falls of … Yellowstone River. 15. … Kilimanjaro is … snow

covered mountain of 19,700 feet high and is said to be … highest mountain in Africa.

Exercise 5. Fill in the blanks with articles before geographic names and some other cases if necessary. 1. … Manhattan is … name of … island which forms … heart of New York. 2. … Switzerland was … island washed on one side by … waves of thunder around … Gorizia and another by … cataracts along … Somme and … Aisne. 3. Do you know what it’s like when there’s sixty degrees of frost in … Arctic – and it still doesn’t freeze? 4. In 1919 I happened to be in … Chicago on my way to … Far East. 5. ‘She came from … Bavaria,’ she said. 6. On … pleasant shore of … French Riviera, about half way between … Marseilles and … Italian border, stands … large, proud,

rose-coloured hotel. 7. I thought if … test turned out to be good I could take it to … California with me. 8. I had, indeed, … mind to see … city of Peking, which I had heard so much of. 9. After all it was … completest thing, and perhaps … deadest in

… London of today. 10. He had agencies in many of … islands of … Pacific. 11.

Descending to another ledge she reached … low curved wall and looked down seven hundred feet to … Mediterranean Sea. 12. He came to … Seine, crossed it, and entered one of … less reputable quarters of … Paris. 13. … Bancrofts are at present living at their summer home on … Lake Metilico. 14. … region around …

Great Lakes doesn’t have … excessive humidity. 15. It may be in … Coney Island or … Pelham Bay, but I’ll find … room.

Exercise 6. Fill in the blanks with articles before miscellaneous proper names and other cases if necessary. 1. When they put out from … port in … hired launch it was already summer dusk and lights were breaking out in spasms along … rigging of … Levant. 2. Well, tomorrow then. I’m living at … Chelsea now. 3. On … other bank of … Potomac lies … Arlington National Cemetery, where… President Kennedy was buried. 4. Tom and Miss Baker sat at either end of … long couch and she read aloud to him from … Saturday Evening Post. 5. Sensation at … London airport. Attempt to smuggle 12 jewels worth three quarters of … million. 6. His own ideas of … riotous holiday meant picnicking on … grass of … Green Park with his family and half … dozen paper bags full of food. 7. After that, if … night was mellow, I strolled down … Madison Avenue past … old Murray Hotel, and over … 33 rd Street to … Pennsylvania Station. 8. Why, yes, didn’t you know that? Why, he’s manager of … Grand Opera House. 9. Then still keeping … hundred years behind, we followed into … Oxford Street and down … Regent Street. 10. It was close on midnight when… man crossed … Place de la Concorde. 11. I graduated from … New Haven in 1915, just … quarter of … century after my father. 12. I meant it might be nice for you to take … house in … London for … spring season – I know … dove of …house in … Talbot Square you could get furnished. 13. … Jefferson Memorial was built in memory of … third President of … USA, Thomas Jefferson, who was also … author of … Declaration of Independence. 14. …White House is … President’s residence. 15. At half past six on … Friday evening in January, … Lincoln International Airport, Illinois, was functioning, though with difficulty.

Exercise 7. Fill in the blanks with articles before geographic names and some other cases if necessary. v RUSSIA Russia, officially known as … Russian Federation is … largest country in … world. It occupies about one seventh of … earth’s surface. It covers … eastern part of … Europe and … northern part of … Asia. Its total area is about 17 million square kilometres. The country is washed by 12 seas and 3 oceans (… Pacific, … Arctic and … Atlantic). In … south Russia borders on … China, … Mongolia, … Korea,

… Kazakhstan, … Georgia and … Azerbaijan. In … west it borders on … Norway,

… Finland, … Baltic States, … Belorussia, … Ukraine. It also has a sea border with

… USA. Russia is also the world’s ninth most populous nation with nearly 144 million people as of 2014. Despite its comparatively high population, Russia has a low average population density due to its enormous size. … Russian Federation is home to 160 different

ethnic groups and indigenous peoples. … Russian language is … only official state language, but … individual republics have often made their native language co- official next to … Russian. Extending across … entirety of … Northern Asia and much of … Eastern Europe, Russia spans nine time zones and incorporates … wide range of environments and landforms. There is hardly … country in the world where such … variety of scenery and vegetation can be found. We have steppes in … south, … plains and … forests in … midland, … tundra and … taiga in … north, highlands and deserts in … east. There are several … mountain chains on … territory of … country: … Urals, … Caucasus,

… Altai and others. … largest mountain chain, … Urals, separates … Europe from

… Asia.

On … vast territory of the country there is … variety of climate, from … arctic in …

north to … subtropical in … south. It is very cold in … north even in summer. … central part of the country has mild climate: winters are cold, springs and autumns

are warm or cool, summers are hot and warm. In … south … temperature is usually above zero all year round, even in winter. Summer is really hot, … climate is very favourable. … climate of … Siberia is continental: summers are hot and dry, winters are very cold. There are over two million rivers in Russia. … Europe’s biggest river, … Volga, flows into … Caspian Sea. … main Siberian rivers - … Ob, … Yenisei and … Lena – flow from … south to … north. … Amur in … Far East flows into … Pacific Ocean. Russia is rich in beautiful lakes. The world’s deepest lake (1.600 meters) is … Lake Baikal. It is much smaller than … Baltic Sea, but there is much more water in it than in … Baltic Sea. The water in … lake is so clear that if you look down you can count the stones on the bottom. Russia has one-sixth of the world’s forests. They are concentrated in … European north of the country, in … Siberia and in … Far East. … capital of Russia is Moscow. It is its largest political, scientific, cultural and industrial centre. It is one of … oldest Russian cities. The population of this great city consists of about fifteen million locals plus several millions of foreign people, who work, travel and vacation in this city constantly or only for a few days. There are also big cities in … Russian Federation besides … Moscow and … Saint Petersburg with … population of about five million people and … Novosibirsk with … population of two million people. v Welcome to visit … Russia and appreciate its rich history, culture and wonderful nature!

Exercise 8. Fill in the blanks with articles before these famous landmarks of London.

Tate Britain Westminster Abbey Tate Modem

Regent’s Park Hampton Court Palace Coliseum

National Portrait Gallery Leicester Square National Gallery Whispering Gallery Museum of London Changing the Guard ceremony Buckingham Palace Science Museum Natural History Museum Tower of London St. Katharine’s Dock London Eye Madam Tussauds London Zoo British Museum Kew Gardens Kenwood House Hampstead Heath Harrods Shakespeare’s Globe Marble Arch London Aquarium London Dungeon (prison) British Library Crown Jewels Charles Dickens Museum Wallace Collection City West End

Royal Opera House Geffrye Museum Imperial War Museum NationalTheatre Kensington Gardens Cenotaph Cleopatra’s Needle Embankment Westminster Bridge Big Ben Savoy (hotel) Southwark Cathedral Tower Tower Bridge Design Museum Piccadily Circus Hoxton Hotel Kings Road Oxford Street Selfridges (shopping mall) London Symphony Orchestra Odeon (cinema) Whitechapel Gallery Cartoon Museum Serpentine Galleries Victoria and Albert Museum Barbican Centre

Royal Mews Royal Academy of Arts Victoria Embankment Gardens Mall Nelson’s Column Wellington Arch Speaker’s Comer Lido Cafe Bar Lemon Tree Cafe Old Royal Naval College in … Greenwich Great Conservatory at Syon House Eton (school) Diana Princess of Wales Memorial Playground Leadenhall Market

London City Airport Somerset House Millennium Bridge Monument Trotters (store) Knightsbridge Hamleys (a toy store) Wembley Stadium Richmond Park Royal Botanic Gardens Prime Meridian Royal Observatory in Greenwich Cutty Sark (ship) Royal Albert Hall Albert Memorial Serpentine (lake)

Exercise 9. Underline the correct words. CRISIS There are quite a few/a few quite charities for the homeless/homeless in the UK. One of the best known/best known is the organisation Crisis. Homelessness/The homelessness is such a/a such complex issue. Many homeless people sleep on the streets/streets of London every night and often find it difficult to get help/the help they need. It’s not easy for them to find the place/a place to live. A charity/The charity Crisis aims to transform lives/the lives of homeless people and prevent the people/people from losing their homes in the first place.

Exercise 10. Fill in the gaps with the correct articles (fixed common uses). My name is … James Franklin. I am from … United States. I was born in … New

York City and I studied … French at … Yale University. When I graduated, I worked as … journalist for … International Herald Tribune. They sent me to … France and I lived in … Paris for five years. I earned $100 … week and I loved it! I enjoyed going to … theatre and … opera. I also learned to play … guitar. Paris is where I met my wife. She was studying … politics at … Sorbonne. We met on … tenth of … May – a date I shall never forget. After we got married, I got a job with … United Nations as … translator. My wife teaches at … Columbia University and we live in an apartment not far from … Central Park.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE 2

MODAL VERBS: present, past and future

1. Ability

She can speak Spanish but she can’t speak Italian. (present) Despite his handicap, he is able to drive a car. (present)

Mozart could play the piano at the age of five. (past) Mike’s car broke down but he was able to repair it. (past) Don’t you think she’ll manage to get a visa? (future, informal) She succeeds in creating a positive atmosphere in every meeting. (present, more formal) Will I be able to speak fluently by the end of the course? (future) The dentist might be able to see you later tonight. (future)

2. Possibility

There may be life on Mars. (present) Mike isn’t home yet – he might/may/could be working late at the office. (present) We might be a little late. (future) The rash could be a symptom of something more serious. (present) We’ll be able to travel to the moon but we won’t be able to travel to Mars. (future) This road can get very busy. (it is generally possible)

Wealthy Victorian families might employ as many as a dozen indoor servants. (academic and scientific English)

3. Arrangements

The doctor could see you at six; he can’t see you before then as he’s too busy.

(future)

4. Permission

Can I use your phone?’ ‘No, I’m afraid you can’t.’ (present/future; informal) I was allowed to leave early yesterday. (past) You may park your car in this area. (present/future; formal)

5. Obligation

Students have (got) to wear school uniform here. (present; someone else has decided) I must get up earlier. (present; I have decided) We really must get to the dentist next week. (future) You should pat the amount due by 25 th October. (future) Do we need to get a visa for the USA? (present) You should/ought to respect your neighbours. (present, formal) We had to report to reception by four. (past) We’ll have to/need to get our visas sorted out. (future) The members of the jury are to report to the judge’s chambers immediately. (an

order from a person in authority; formal) We’re supposed to leave our textbooks at school, but we often take them home. (a lesser obligation and one that is frequently ignored) Anyone causing damage will be liable to pay for all necessary repairs. (a legal context) We’re obliged/obligated to contribute 25% of the costs of the repairs. (formal) Motorists are required by law to wear seat belts in the EU. (formal)

6. Necessity

All human beings must/have to/need to have enough sleep. (present)

Cave dwellers had to/needed to hunt in order to survive. (past) You’ll have to/need to work harder than that. (future) With this food processor, you won’t have to/won’t need to/needn’t peel or chop any more. (future)

NEEDN’T DO vs DON’T NEED TO DO They are interchangeable when we talk about the PERMISSION not to do something. Needn’t

when the decision on the necessity to do sth comes from the speaker himself

You needn’t cut the grass. I’ll do it later. (= I permit you not to cut the grass.; don’t

need to is also possible) As you worked late yesterday you needn’t come in until ten tomorrow morning. (= the decision comes from the speaker) Don’t need to

then the situation is considered in general

when the decision on the necessity to do sth comes from a third person or depends on external rules You don’t need to be over 18 to get into a night club. (= the situation in general) We’ve been told that we don’t need to at work until ten tomorrow. (= the decision comes from the third person)

7. Prohibition and Criticism

You mustn’t touch that kettle! (present/future) Guests can’t/ may not use the pool after 11 p.m. (present/future; may - formal) Doctors can’t/are not allowed to give drugs to shorten life. (present, general) Smoking is prohibited/forbidden on the premises. (present, general) You shouldn’t speak to me like that! (present/future) We couldn’t go because we were too young. (past) They couldn’t watch the film because they were too young. (past)

In those days, women couldn’t/weren’t allowed to vote. (past)

8. Absence of obligation or necessity

You don’t have to/don’t need to pay to visit most museums in Britain. (present)

You didn’t have to/didn’t need to finish the job. (past; the action was not necessary but we don’t know if the action happened or not) You won’t have to/won’t need to ask the doctor to sign this form. (future)

9. Advice and Recommendation

You really must read ‘Birdsong’! (present/future)

You should/ought to consider a private pension. (present/future) You had better change the locks straight away. (present/future)

10. Logical deduction

This must/has to be the place. (present/future) This amount can’t be correct. (present/future)

11. Probability

The plane should/ought to be landing now. (present/future)

12. Certainty

It won’t be warm at this time of year. (present) He knows she’s having a hard time on the job. (present) We had to hurry, otherwise it would be too late. (future in the past)

Jim’s coming. He’ll be on his way now. (present)

13. Routines and Habits

He will come in and he will start giving instructions. (present)

He would come in and he would start giving instructions. (past) The public will always side with the nurses. (= the public always sides, present) Jack would always tell me how to run my life. (past) The dominant male in this species does not tolerate the presence of other males. (present)

14. Characteristics

The stadium will hold about 110,000 people. (present) The car wouldn’t start on cold mornings. (past)

15. Willingness and Refusal

The doctor will act as a witness. (present)

The shop wouldn’t change this jumper. (past) The guide was very helpful. She was willing to contact the Consulate for me when I lost my passport. (past) The Director’s secretary won’t book my flights. She says it isn’t in her job description. (future)

16. Speculation

This must be the place – it’s the only restaurant in the street. This can’t be the place – there’s no one inside and there are no lights on.

Who can/could that be at this time of night? There has (got) to be some mistake! I didn’t order the furniture.

He couldn’t be the senior doctor, he is far too young! (=I’m certain he isn’t …) Might the losses be due to currency fluctuations? Let’s call the hospital. There may well be some news now. (well (informal) stronger speculation) Sarah can’t be working at the moment – I see her in the garden every morning.

17. Expectation

The plane took off on time so it should/ought to be landing about now and there shouldn’t/ought not to be any delays. (present/future) There shouldn’t/ought not to be problems with traffic at that time of the evening. (present/future)

There will be problems with the traffic at that time. The roads will be awful. (future)

18. Desire, Preference and Disagreement

We’d love to come to your wedding on 6 th September. (desire)

I’d prefer to lose weight by a tried and tested method than by a new trendy diet. (preference)

I would like you to listen to me when I’m talking! (desire)

Our delegates would rather/sooner not stay at the conference center. (preference)

I wouldn’t say that. I wouldn’t go that far. (polite disagreement)

19. Other functions

Now the children have left, we might as well sell the house and get something smaller. (there’s no better choice available)

I will wash up this evening. (an offer; present/future)

Shall I wash up this evening? (a more tentative offer; present/future) Shall we go out for a curry? (a suggestion; present/future) Will you give me a call? (a request; present/future)

Would you fill in this form, please? (a more tentative request) You could lose a little weight, perhaps. (a more tentative suggestion) We could always go to the Italian place. (an alternative; future)

You will/shall all stay after school tonight. (an order/instruction; present/future)

I wouldn’t say that. (a polite disagreement; present/future)

Your dog had better not dig up my rose bust again! (a threat) If the burglars took your keys, you’d better change the locks. (a warning)

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Underline the correct words.

1. In my office, you have to/don’t have to wear a suit but lots of people do.

2. These pills must not/don’t have to be taken if you are under twelve years old.

3. I must/have to leave now because I have a meeting.

4. I didn’t need to go/needn’t have gone to the station to pick her up because she decided to get the bus, so I finished my essay instead.

5. Notice to all conference participants: Please note that you must/have got to register before entering the conference hall.

6. You mustn’t/don’t have to smoke inside but you can smoke outside.

7.

When I was at university I must/had to write my assignments by hand because there weren’t any computers then.

8. British dog-owners have to/must have passports for their dogs when they travel abroad.

9. Next year I’ll have to/’ll must get a job to pay back all the money I’ve borrowed from the bank for my university fees.

10. You don’t have to/must not leave the room before the end of the test.

Exercise 2. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of (not) have to, must, (not) need or should and the corresponding verb: tell, go(x2), pay (x2), pass, turn, buy (x2), forget, wear (x4)

1. A: I’m going to Florence next week so I ……… a guidebook. B: Ah, well, you’re in luck. You ……… a book because I’ve got a small guide to Florence I can lend you.

2. A: What’s Mike doing these days? B: He’s studying really hard. He ……… his exams in order to get the promotion his company has promised him.

3. A: ……… (you) a uniform at work? B: Yes, and I find it strange because I’ve never worn one before. When I was at school we ……… a uniform although the girls ……… skirts and not trousers.

4. A: The rules for university fees have just changed. I was really lucky because I ……… for my education, but unfortunately my brother ……… when he goes to university next year. B: Yes, I know. My sister will be affected too.

5. A: The bread is in the oven. Can you remind me to get it out in 20 minutes? I ……… like last time when I burnt the loaf. B: I’m sorry. I’m afraid I ……… now, so I won’t be able to remind you. Can’t you set a timer?

A: Oh, ……… (you/really)? I’d hoped you’d stay to lunch and have some of my bread!

6. A: I’ve just joined the tennis club. They’ve got all sorts of rules, you know. B: Really? Like what? A: Well, you ……… white clothes on the courts, of course. But the really silly rule is that you ……… your mobile off as soon as you arrive at the club.

I don’t want to do that – what if I’m needed at work or something? B: Perhaps they don’t know you’re a doctor. You ……… them.

Exercise 3. Put one suitable word in each space.

1. Quite honestly, you ……… as well not bother.

2. It’s odd that you ……… know Wendy too!

3. You ……… better not take any more medicine now.

4. All students ……… report to the registrar’s office on arrival.

5. How about going to the lake? We ……… take a cold lunch with us.

6. If I say you have to do it, you ……… do it!

7. I’m not sure about my application. ……… I send two copies or three?

8. ……… that really be Paula’s husband? He looks too young.

9. This ……… be the place I suppose, but it doesn’t look like it.

10. Both the clocks say 4.30, so that ……… be the time.

Exercise 4. Change each sentence so that the meaning stays the same.

1. Although you are in charge, it doesn’t give you the right to be rude. You may ……………………………………………………………….

2. recommend going to Bath for a week or two.

I

I

think ………………………………………………………………….

3. It’s typical of Frank to lose his keys! Frank would……………………………………………………………………

4. suppose Kate is quite well off.

I

I

should …………………………………………………………………

5.

I

am as happy as possible at the moment.

I couldn’t ……………………………………………………………….

6. Although I tried hard, I couldn’t lift the suitcase. Try ……………………………………………………………………

7. I’m sure that Henry will be on time. Henry is ………………………………………………………………

8. Fancy you and I having the same surname! It’s odd ………………………………………………………………….

9. If I were you I’d take up jogging.

I think …………………………………………………………………

10. Do we have to leave so early? Need …………………………………………………………………….

Exercise 5. Change each sentence so that it contains the word in capital, and so that the meaning stays the same.

1.

SHOULD ……………………………………………………………………

2. This climb is possibly dangerous.

COULD ……………………………………………………………………….

3. Jack is sometimes really irritating!

CAN …………………………………………………………………………

4. You can’t borrow my car!

WON’T ……………………………………………………………………….

5. How about going to the theatre instead?

COULD ………………………………………………………………………

6. Do you want me to turn off the oven, or not?

SHOULD …………………………………………………………………….

7.

WOULD ………………………………………………………………………

8. I’m sure this is not the way to Norwich.

I expect this beach will be deserted.

I do not think Harry is likely to resign.

CAN’T ………………………………………………………………………

9. It would be all the same if we gave up now.

MIGHT ……………………………………………………………………….

10. Please turn off the light before leaving.

SHOULD ……………………………………………………………………

Exercise 6. Underline the correct words. THE LONDON MARATHON Last year, I ran the London marathon for the first time. I was quite pleased that I was able to/couldn’t/can/could finish the race! I was only able to/can/could/couldn’t do it in five hours and forty-seven minutes, but this year I hope I’ll be/could/can/couldn’t/able to finish in under four hours. I able to/couldn’t/can/could really do enough training last year because I was too busy at work, so I wasn’t able to/could/couldn’t/can pace myself that well. After the first half of the race, I able to/could/can/couldn’t keep up with the other runners and by the end of the marathon, I was hardly couldn’t/could/able to/can walk at all. But I’ve been training a lot this year and I think I able to/couldn’t/could/can do a lot better next time. I did a practice run last month and I could/couldn’t/able to/can have gone faster, but my pacing and energy levels had improved and I was can/able to/could/couldn’t maintain a steady speed. I’m hoping to raise £3,000 for a cancer charity, too.

Exercise 7. Complete the advert below with suitable modal verbs. > Open day at martial arts studio – free workshops and training sessions < Come and visit our martial arts training studio on Saturday and try out karate, judo

and taekwondo.

o

You ……… register before the open day by completing this form.

o

Forms ……… to be completed before 15 May.

o

You ……… to have any experience of martial arts – all classes are for beginners.

o

You ……… to pay for the workshops – the open day is free.

o

You don’t have to wear special martial arts clothing, but you ……… wear loose, comfortable clothes.

o

You ……… wear any watches or jewellery.

o

Children under sixteen ……… have a signed consent form from a parent or guardian and ……… to be accompanied by an adult.

o

If you ……… to check about anything, please contact openday@martialarts.org.

o

Places are filling up quickly, so you will ……… to register soon.

Exercise 8. Choose the correct words.

oughtn’t, won’t, mustn’t, to, allowed, prohibited, may, not, are

SWIMMING POOL RULES

You ……… run in the pool area.

You are not ……… to swim unless a lifeguard is on duty.

Swimmers are ……… allowed to dive or jump into the pool.

It is forbidden ……… bring food or drink into the pool area.

The use of mobile phones is strictly ……… .

Shouting and pushing ……… not allowed at any time.

Swimmers ……… not use the sauna after 6 p.m.

To avoid disturbing others, swimmers ……… to splash water when swimming in the pool.

From 1 January next year, swimming caps will be compulsory – those without swimming caps ……… be allowed to swim in the pool.

Exercise 9. Choose the correct words (other uses of modals).

might, will, rather, let’s, prefer, would, ought to, better, could, shall

Dear Emma, Are you busy next weekend? If not, ……… go to the badminton championship,

……… we? I think we ……… get tickets in advance, don’t you? ……… you like me to buy some for you? I ……… get them from the ticket office on my way to work. I’m going to get some tickets for myself, so I ……… as well get yours at the same time. I’d ……… go on Saturday than Sunday. What about you? When would you ……… to go? You’d ……… give me a ring this evening. Phone me around seven, ……… you? Lucy

Exercise 10. Find some mistakes in the text and correct them. Pollution is causing enormous problems all over the world these days. Governments need to act quickly to stop this problem before it is too late. The first thing I believe we absolutely should do is reduce the amount we use our cars. Our governments must to encourage us to use public transport. In my country, public transport is not very reliable, so the first thing that governments have to do is to ensure that buses and trains are a viable alternative to the car. They also should reduce the cost to the public of travelling on public transport. However, it is not only the government that needs to make an effort. All of us should make some effort to reduce pollution. First of all, we ought try to walk or cycle if we can, rather than using our cars. In the past people must walk or cycle because they did not have cars. It is a shame that we have become so dependent on cars now. Secondly, we should trying to share car use with our friends and colleagues. All of us will must make some changes to our lives if we want to reduce pollution. Fortunately, we mustn’t make big changes to make big improvements in the situation.

VOCABULARY FOR UNIT 2

2.1

Basic vocabulary – see V1 p.128

Additional vocabulary

Text p.17: a state-of-the-art vessel, to retain a unique atmosphere, awe-inspiring views, gastronomic delights, a comprehensive range of sth, to pamper oneself with sth, to sample culinary skill, a bustling capital, glacier hiking, to be rich in sth, to indulge in local delicacies, carbon emission, to set off sb’s carbon footprint, a sophisticated traveller, sustainable development, to unwind on secluded beaches, stunning views/flora and fauna, to spend time under canvas, an off-road vehicle Ex.7a p.17: to blow money, to be keen on doing sth, to avoid doing sth Exercise 1. Translate the sentences using the active vocabulary.

1. Ты думаешь, ты сможешь перенести палящие температуры Сахары ? - Да , в прошлом году я был в пустыне Гоби и чувствовал себя хор ошо.

2. Нам не нужно проводить ночь в палатке на берегу озера Байкал . Организаторы поездки сняли нам домик на берегу озера .

3. Вы обязательно должны полюбоваться пейзажами, вселяющими чувство благоговения на севере Уэльса . – Я предпочитаю посетить муз ей Шерлока Холмса , музей Лондона и музей естественной истории.

4. Он всегда носит модные костюмы . Он может быть бизнесменом и может позволить себе транжирить деньги.

5. Вы не можете курить, даже если отдыхаете на уединённом пляже . Это может нанести уще рб флоре и фауне .

6. Завтра я должен встать пораньше . – Почему