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A Marketing concept that encompasses a customer‟s impression ,awareness about a

company or its offerings . customer‟s perception is typically affected by advertising ,
reviews , public relations , social media , personal experiences and other channels.

Consumer perception theory attends to explain consumer behaviour by analyzing

motivations for buying – or not buying – particular items three areas of consumer
perception theory relate to cosumer perception theory : self perception , price perception
and perception of a benefit to quality of a life.


Consumer perception applies the concept of sensory perception to marketing advertising



Marble is a non-foilated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized,carbonate

minerals,most commonly calcite and dolomite.geologists use the term to refer to
metamorphosed limestone; however stone masons use the term more broadly to
encompass unmetamorphosed limestone. Marble is commonly used for sculpture as a
building material.

No one really knows when the game of marbles first began , or when the first marble was
made. It is probably fair to say that in one form or another they have been around almost
as long as mankind. Archaeologists have found game boards and playing pieces in the
earliest excavated graves in Egypt and the middle East and in most other parts of the
world. Little white marbles and round pebbles were found in Austria in cavesinhabited
by our palaeolithic ancestors . They were not made of local stone so had obviously been
imported . one can only speculate about their use, but they must have been of some value
to their owners to have been kept and carried with them. Stone balls and pillars to form
an arch were found in a child‟s grave in Egypt which was dated around 4000BC.

The early Greeks played various games with nuts . one of these , called omilla , was very
similar to the game of ring taw which is still played today. There are frequent references
to marbles and marble type games played with nuts throughout Roman literature. Ovid
describes various nut games in his poem “The Walnut Tree”. It is probably fair to assume
the Romans took this popular form of entertainment with them to all parts of their
empire. Children playing marbles appear in Roman murals in bath,England . clay
marbles have been found in a settlement influenced by Roman culture in North Western
India dating from the second century AD.

A marble made of pure , ground marble or other suitable stone is highly prized and
regarded as being the most accurate for shooting , but the most beautiful marbles and the
most sought – after for collectors are the best handmade glass marbles.


The set of articles or physical resources serving to equipt a thing.

The process of supplying something with necessary equipment.
The equipment used in an activity is tangible [ other than land and building]
that is used in the operation of business.

Example: Machines, Tools etc

\ The introduction of computer technology has transformed the lives of the humanity in
general with the speed, quality and density with which the information is being transferred,
retrieved and stored resulting in enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness. Following the
success of desktop computers, laptop computers have become highly popular as portable
versions of desktops with the full functionality of desktop computing and the portability
that allows users to carry them anywhere. A laptop is a personal computer designed for
mobile use and is small and light enough to sit on a personal‟ lap while in use. To survive
and grow in this challenging and highly competitive environment, companies need to have
a highly innovative approach, keep a keen eye on the changing needs and expectations of
the consumers and at the same time, build strong relationships with all the stakeholders,
including the consumers who prove to be valuable contributors to new ideas, product
improvements to meet the ever changing needs of the consumers. Portable computers have
continued to evolve in terms of portability, battery life, network connectivity and graphics.
The popular tablet computers like Apple‟s iPad are even further evidence of the
progression of portable computing. Tablets are new, but the concept and idea is anything
but new. The market is no longer a monopoly where there is only one seller the market is
filled with compitors who are ready to capture that market by providing that same product
at a lesser price of add new functions to the same product and sell it at the same cost,
therefore it becomes very important for the companies to review the market anf to know
the taste and prefrances of the consumers and make a product that will best suit the
majority of the consumers.

Significance of study

The project is entitled focuses on perception of the customers towards the various laptop
brands. The laptop product category has achieved the highest degree of standardization of
components, features and attributes. The study helps the company to understand the
consumer‟s perception of laptop brands in order to keep up the customer satisfaction levels.
This product specialty has lost the ability of the consumers to differentiate in its

Product offering given by the manufactures. This study may provide the laptop companies
with a launch pad and acts as a guide that can help the same in chalking out strategies to
enlarge the market share and also enhance the level of awareness among consumers. The
study also helps the management to obtain suggestion regarding product improvement and
services as technology as ever-changing and the companies need to provide the latest
technology available in the market. The study helps to understand the consumer‟s needs
from various dealers of the brand HP. In short, it can be claimed to be an accurate report
that may help them to gain a competitive edge over their competitors.


As we are being different individuals tend to see the world in our own special ways.
Individual act and react on the basis of their thinking, nature and philosophy of life not on
the basis of reality. For understanding consumer behavior, one must try to understand his

 Every individual perceives the world through his own perception. “Because
individual make decision and take action based on what they perceive to be
reality, it is important that marketers should understand the whole implication of
perception and its related concepts. So that can more readily determine what
factors influence consumers to buy.
 The world as we see is different than what it is in reality. Once year as per ones
perception, not what really set?
 People working in an organization differ in their action due to difference of
 It is a source of one’s knowledge about the world.

 Every individual perceives the world through his senses like hearing, touch, smell,
and sight, awareness of heat, cold, pain and pleasure.

People working in an organization differ in terms of physical feature like age and sex,
background characteristics like training and education and one‟s personality traits like
aggressiveness, submissions, optimistic. All these factors help in the formation of one‟s
Meaning of Perception:

“Perception includes all those process by which an individual receives information about
his environment – seeing, hearing, tasting, feeling and smelling”.

Nature of Perception:

In fact perception refers to the manner in which an individual experiences the world as
every individual approaches the life differently. One hears, as per ones perception, what
really said. People buy what is best to them, not what is best. It is due to perception that a
particular job may appear good to one and bad to another.
An individual‟s own needs, objectives, problems, interests and background controls his
perception in each situation. Every individual has a perceptual world that he‟s selective and
partially concentrating on his interest and likings.

 Understanding the difference between the perpetual world and real world is
important to the study of consumer behavior as well as human relations.
 People’s perception is determined by their needs as for instance mirrors at
amusement park distort the world in relation to their tension.
 In fact perception is more important for the manager who wants to avoid making
errors. While dealing with people and events in the work policies. In order to deal
subordinates effectively, a manager must understand their perceptions properly.
 There is difference between perception and sensation. Sensation is the response of
a physical sensory organ but perception is more than just a sensation.



A) Need and desire: Prof. Maslow has given needs hierarchy what effects individual
perception like basic need, safety and security needs, love and affection needs, ego
and esteem needs and finally self-fulfillment needs.
B) Personality: One’s personality has got deep impact on one’s perception like:-

 Individuals who have strong and secure personality perceive others as warm and
 Individual weak in certain aspects tends to find faults in others.

 Self-accepting individuals perceive themselves as liked, wanted and accepted by

 Person having confidence and faith in their individuality perceive things favorably.


a) Size: Size takes that larger the object, the more likely it will be perceived. Bigger
machine, larger building and pictures get more attention than smaller ones.
b) Intensity: Intensity normally attracts to increase selective perception. Strong and
high intensity likes leads to high perception while doing “neon signs
c) Motion: The principle of motion states that people will pay more attention to
moving objectives in the field of vision.

d) Repetition: Generally repeated external stimulus attracts more attention than a
single time.
e) Status: It is seen that one’s perception is also influenced by the status of perceiver.

f) Contrast: The contrast principle states that external stimuli which stand out
against the background will attract more attention.


a) Similarity: The principle of similarity states that the greater the similarity of the
stimuli, the greater tendency to perceive them as a common group.

b) Proximity: Things being equal, things near to each other tend to be perceived as
belonging together.
c) Principal of Continuity: The principle of closure and continuity emphasis that an
individual tends to fill gaps in complete pattern of stimuli in ways that make them

Perceptual process is a complex concept through which people process information into
decisions and attention. It is a way of impression about oneself, other people and daily life
experience. It is process through which people receive, organize and interpret information
from their surroundings and environment. The perceptual process has got mainly 4 stages.
They are:-
 Input stage

 Processing stage

 Output stage

 Behavior stage

1) INPUT STAGE: There are many things in the environment through which perceiver are
effected like information, objects, events and people and this is known as input.

2) PROCESSING STAGE: It involves:

a) Confrontation

b) Registration

c) Interpretation

d) Feedback

3) OUTPUT STAGE: Due to perceptual input and processing mechanism there is

perceptual output which an individual gets in the form of changes in one’s attitude,
opinion, beliefs, feelings, etc.

4) BEHAVIOR STAGE: The perceiver behavior is shaped by the perceived outputs i.e.
change in attitude, behavior, opinions, belief and approach.


 One’s needs and motives: Perceiver’s needs and motives effect his perception. A
need is a feeling of tension when one thinks he is missing something.
 One’s beliefs: An individual’s beliefs have got a deep effect on one’s perception.
A fact is conceived not on what it is but what a person believes it to be.
 One’s past experience: One’s past experience good or bad, effects the one’s
 One’s expectations: It is the expectations which effect the perceptio n of a person.
In an organization technical, non-technical, financial and non- financial people
have got different expectations and perception.

 Current psychological state: An individual psychological and emotional and mental
setup may influence how he perceives the things.
 One’s Self-concept: In fact one’s self concept plays an important role in perceptual
 Situation: The situation in which an individual sees the objects deeply effects
one’s perception.


The most crucial issue for the marketers is to identify the needs of the consumers. Only the
identification of needs is of no value unless and until this is transformed in to a meaningful
and appropriate satisfiers. For this whole process of converting needs into actual
satisfaction one needs to understand the complete make up of consumer‟s mind, and this
process is known as consumer behavior. Let‟s also discuss some of the definitions of
consumer behavior.

According to Schiffman and Kanuk “Consumer behavior encompasses all of the behaviors
that consumers display in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of
products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs”. Hawkins, Best and Coney
describes “The field of consumer behavior is the study of individuals, groups, or
organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and dispose of products,
services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on
the consumer and society”.

On the basis of above definitions, it can be concluded that consumer behavior is the study
of consumers regarding what they buy, when do they buy, from where they buy, how
frequently they buy, and how they use certain products. But the study does not stop here as
it also goes further to study the post purchase and evaluations of the consumers. So, it
addresses all the issues related from pre-purchase to post purchase behavior of the


Perception is the process by which an individual selects stimuli, organizes information

about those stimuli, and interprets the information. Perception poses powerful implications
for marketers. What is perceived by an individual, it determines how he or she behaves?
No consumer purchase can take place unless a consumer perceives that the product or
service will offer the benefits he or she needs. Accordingly, marketers must understand
how perception works in order to communicate successfully a product‟s benefits.
Regardless of the fact that a product is innovative or advertisement is effective, it will fail
if it is not perceived favorably by the potential consumers.


Learning is a continuous process by which individual acquires knowledge so that it causes

a permanent change in behavior. Learning is a kind of process that evolves over a time and
cannot be directly observed. When a person perceives new stimuli in the environment, it is
related with the existing pond of knowledge. Therefore, learning reflects both current
experiences and past back ground. Learning is essential to the consumption process. In
fact, consumer behaviour is largely learned behavior. We acquire most of our attitudes,
values, tastes, preferences, symbolic meanings and feeling through learning. Human
culture and social class, institutions such as schools and religious organizations, family,
friends, mass media and advertising provide learning experiences that influence the kind of
life style the consumers seek and the products they consume. Marketers spend considerable
effort to ensure that consumers learn of their existence as well as about their products.
Companies that make their consumers learn about their products and services in an
effective and efficient manner often obtain a long-term competitive advantage them that of
their competitors.


Personality is defined as those inner psychological characteristics that both determine and
reflect how a person responds to his environmental stimuli. Personality is enduring and
ensures that a person‟s responses are consistent over time. But personality cannot be
considered as a unified whole, for that purpose different personality traits are to be studied
by the marketers. For example, dogmatism is a personality trait that measures the degree of
rigidity among individuals. If a person is highly dogmatic, it‟s very difficult to convenience
him regarding the innovative products and brands. They are move likely to choose well
established brands and can not be convinced by celebrities in the advertisements. Rather
these kinds of people are influenced by the authoritative appeals. On the contrary, those who
possess the trait of innovativeness are move receptive to new products, new services and
new practices. They are prone to newer experiments. There could be some other personality
traits like inner directed consumes and other directed consumers. So, on the basis of these
personality traits, the process of segmentation can effectively be performed.

Before the 1920s, computers (sometimes computors) were human clerks that performed
computations.Many thousands of computers were employed in commerce, government, and
research establishments. Most of these computers were women. Some performed
astronomical calculations for calendars, others ballistic tables for the military.

After the 1920s, the expression computing machine referred to any machine that performed
the work of a human computer, especially those in accordance with effective methods of the
Church-Turing thesis. The thesis states that a mathematical method is effective if it could be
set out as a list of instructions able to be followed by a human clerk with paper and pencil,
for as long as necessary, and without ingenuity or insight.

The phrase computing machine gradually gave way, after the late 1940s, to
just computer as the onset of electronic digital machinery became common. These
computers were able to perform the calculations that were performed by the previous human


Marble stone flooring is not a latest trend in flooring.We are using it from long
time.Marble is very durable and its shining remains for a long time.

Process of flooring:

1. Location of its temporary storage area.

2. Within the control range.
3. Within the fabrication tolerances.
4. Free from cracks,broken corner,chipped arises,scrathes or defects.
5. Color matching.


1.To know needs wants and demand of customer.

2.To analize the different types of customer.

3. To know whether the customers are satisfied or not.

4.To study demand pattern of the customer about the product.

5.To study various customer segments of various products.

6. To study the delivery system of the product.




Year of establishment : 1990

Address : Pachpedi Naka,Ring Road,Raipur

Pin Code : 492001

Area : 25000 sq.ft


Founder : Late Mr. Prakash Nanjiani

Mr. Ashok Nanjiani

Telephone : 0771-4053109, 4053108

List of Products which are sold in Ashok Marble :

1. Granite

2. Marble

3. Tiles
Wooden Look

4. Kota Stone
5. Black Stone
6. Glass Highlighters
7. Plumbery Items
8. Sanitary Items


A tile is a manufactured piece of hard – wearing material such as ceramic , stone , metal
or even glass , generally used for covering roofs , floors , walls , showers or other objects
such as tabletops . alternatively , tile can sometimes refer to similar units made from
lightweight materials such as perlite , wood and mineral wool, typically used for wall and
ceiling applications .

Tiles are often used to form wall and floor coverings and can range from simple square
tiles to complex mosaics. Tiles are most often made of ceramic , typically glazed for
internal uses and unglazed for roofing , but other materials are also commonly used, such
as glass , cork , concrete and other composite materials , and stone . tiling stone is
typically marble , onyx , granite or slate . thinner tiles can be used on walls than on floors
, which require more durable surfaces that will resist impacts.

Tiles are categorized into following :

a. Certified Tiles
b. Vitrified Tiles
c. Porcelain Tiles
d. Wooden Tiles
e. Digital Tiles


1. Ceramic tile is water resistant and this is one of its biggest advantages.
2. Durability is another advantage of ceramic tile.
3. Ceramic tile is fairly easy to maintain and this can be counted as another benefit of
using it.
4. Ceramic tile for flooring are available in a number of designs and options and this
is another advantage.


1. It is very hard material which may be uncomfortable to stand on for very long.
2. Installation process of ceramic tile flooring is a tough procedure and may take a lot
of time.


1. The sheen is not lost very soon.

2. The staining offered by vitrified tiles is better compared with ceramics.
3. The performance of vitrified tiles is better than ceramics.
4. The consistency in size, shade and thickness will be maintained through the
machine made vitrified tiles.


1. They are expensive when compared to ceramic tiles.

2. In order to ensure the steadiness , high quality adhesives are used.


1. DURABILITY : These are some of the toughest flooring options available.

2. RESISTANT : They are resistant, which means you can drop things on them and
they won‟t scratch.

3. CLEAN :They are easy to clean.


1. They are harder to fix onto mortar, they need extra pressure to be forced into


1. Wooden flooring gives a rich look to your home interior.

2. Wooden floor improves it grace over a period of time due to ageing.
3. Wooden flooring is known to last for a life time.
4. Wooden floors are healthiest floors .


1. The wooden floors require regular polishing every 3 – 4 years to maintain its
2. They also require regular maintainance to prevent termite attack.
3. Wooden flooring is advised against for usage in Indian kitchen and bathroom.


The word “granite” comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse –
grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. By definition , granite is an igneous rock
with at least 20%quartz and upto 65% alkali feldspar by volume.

The term “granitic” means granite – like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive
igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin. These
rocks mainly consist of feldspar , quartz , mica and amphibole minerals, which form an
interlocking , some what equigranular matrix of feldspar and quartz with scattered darker
biotite mica and amphibole peppering the lighter color minerals . ocationally some
individual crystals are larger than the ground mass , in which case the texture is known as
porphyritse . granitic rock with a porphyritse texture is known as a granite porphyry .

Granite has poor primary permeability , but strong secondary permeability.

The rock known as “black granite” is usually gabbro.

Granite is categorized into two namely :

a. Indian Granite.
b. Imported Granite.


Marble starts its existence as a limestone compound, then it transforms into marble by a
process of intense heating at high temperatures within the core of the earth which changes
its mineral composition to form marble‟s unique coloring and decorative character ,
which is the reason for marble pavers popularity . natural stones such as travertine ,
limestone and onyx may be polished up and are categorized as marbles too.

Marble is commonly used for internal and external wall cladding purposes , landscaping
applications such as patio, swimming pool and walkway tiles or pavers . marble tile is
also used to decorate residential fireplaces and bathrooms. Commercial applications of
marble are , hotel foyer decoration , table tops , counter tops, bathrooms and kitchens.

Marbles are categorized two namely :

a. Indian Marble
b. Italian Marble

Indian marble:

Vision and mission of Ashok Marble:


They aim that,all their customers dealers and distributiors franchisees and shops
employees and promoters,should say,feel and belive in.


To become a quality brand within this decade through sheer character of innovation
and excellence by bringing maximum range within reach of maximum people at
minimum cost and thus maximize joy for all.


1. Good and widely accepted quality.

2. Prompt dispatch.
3. Company Promoters arelocally based.
4. Old network of relations and professional relations.
5. Scope of increasing profit by launching profitable items.

1. Lack of effective advertising .
2. Low geographical reach.

Logo of Ashok Marble:


“ A Place Where You Can Realize Your Dream”

The firm makes itself very clear with its simple yet meaningful tagline that we want our
consumer to satisfy and fulfill their needs.

Quality control or quality assurance :

Main focus of the company is on quality control and quality assurance.

In order to improve and control product quality it is essential to fully understand the
meaning of the term quality. A common definition is “ Achieving and agreed customer
ecpectations or specifications”.

In other words , the customer defines the quality criteria needed in a product . to meet this
standard the manufacturer puts in a quality control system to ensure that the product
meets these criteria on routine basis.


Ashok marble is a leading position in the market is underpinned by the company‟s

dedication to supply continuously high quality products , whilst investing in innovation
and new product development . every organization has to plan for the future.

The key areas of Ashok Marble Long term plans are:

1. Focus on quality.
2. Run efficient shops.
3. Manage costs.
4. Invest in people working within the business.

To do this Ashok Marble has taken a sustainable approach to run the business. This
means that Ashok Marble adopts practice that can continue long into the future by
managing the supply chain to meet consumer needs. This involves such things as using
sources that minimize the impact on the environment for future generations.

However , for Ashok Marble, it also includes developing long term reletionships with its
stakeholders to ensure the supply of quality product for the foreseeable future.




Research Methodology:

This project is prepared with the help of theoretical knowledge as well as practical
knowledge & a crumb of advises & suggestions from the concerned professors. As
far as practical is concerned, all the information about the companies information
available on internet. The theoretical pert taken from the various books & magazines
available on this subject.

Research methodology refers to search for knowledge. Redman and Mory define
research as a “Systematized effort to gain new knowledge. Research is an
academic activity and such the term should be used in technical sense.
According to Clifford Woody, Research comprises defining and redefining problem,
formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating
data; making deductions and research conclusions; and at last carefully testing the
conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis

Research is thus an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making

for its advertisement. It is pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation,
comparison and experiment. In short the search for knowledge through objective and
systematic method of finding solution to problem is research.


A Research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in
a manner that aims to combine relevance to the Research purpose with economy in
procedure. In fact the Research design is the conceptual structure within which Research
is conducted: it constitutes the blueprint for the collection measurement and analysis of

It must be able to define clearly what they want to measure and must find adequate
methods for measuring it along with a clear cut definition of population wants to study.
Since the aim is to obtain complete and accurate information in these studies, the
procedure to be used must be carefully planned. The research design must make enough

provision for protection against bias and must maximize reliability with due concern for
the economical completion of the search study.

Descriptive research is adopted for this study. It includes surveys and fact finding enquires of
different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state affairs as it
exists at present. The main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control
over the variables. He can only report what has happened or what is happened.


A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from the sampling frame, it refers
to the technique or procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting some sampling units
from which interferences about the population is drawn. Sampling type used is Simple
Random sampling technique.


A decision has to be taken concerning sampling unit before selecting sample. The population
for this study includes the employees from Ajay Tech Express.


For achieving the specific objectives of this study, data were gathered from both primary and
secondary sources.

Primary Sources:

 Direct conversation with the Staffs.

 Employee‟s opinion towards recruitment and selection procedure of the Firm.

Secondary Sources:

 Various records of the Firm.

 Different Types of system information.

 Different newsletters.

Importance Of Knowing How To Conduct Research:

The importance of knowing how to conduct research are listed below:

i. The knowledge of research methodology provides training to new researchers and enables
them to do research properly. It helps them to develop disciplined thinking or a „bent of mind‟ to
objectively observe the field;

ii. The knowledge of doing research inculcates the ability to evaluate and utilize the research
findings with confidence;

iii. The knowledge of research methodology equips the researcher with the tools that help
him/her to make the observations objectively; and

iv. The knowledge of methodology helps the research consumers to evaluate research and make
rational decisions.

Qualities Of A Researcher:

It is important for a researcher to possess certain qualities to conduct research. First and
foremost, he being a scientist should be firmly committed to the „articles of faith‟ of the
scientific methods of research. This implies that a researcher should be a social science person in
the truest sense. Sir Michael Foster cited by (Wilkinson and Bhandarkar, 1979) identified a few
distinct qualities of a scientist. According to him, a true research scientist should possess the
following qualities:

(1) First of all, the nature of a researcher must be of the temperament that vibrates in unison with
the theme which he is searching. Hence, the seeker of knowledge must be truthful with
truthfulness of nature, which is much more important, much more exacting than what is
sometimes known as truthfulness. The truthfulness relates to the desire for accuracy of
observation and precision of statement. Ensuring facts is the principle rule of science, which is
not an easy matter. The difficulty may arise due to untrained eye, which fails to see anything
beyond what it has the power of seeing and sometimes even less than that. This may also be due
to the lack of discipline in the method of science. An unscientific individual often remains
satisfied with the expressions like approximately, almost, or nearly, which is never what nature
is. A real research cannot see two things which differ, however minutely, as the same.

(2) A researcher must possess an alert mind. Nature is constantly changing and revealing itself
through various ways. A scientific researcher must be keen and watchful to notice such changes,
no matter how small or insignificant they may appear. Such receptivity has to be cultivated
slowly and patiently over time by the researcher through practice. An individual who is ignorant
or not alert and receptive during his research will not make a good researcher. He will fail as a
good researcher if he has no keen eyes or mind to observe the unusual changes behind the
routine. Research 10 demands a systematic immersion into the subject matter by the researcher
grasp even the slightest hint that may culminate into significant research problems. In this
context, Cohen and Negal cited by (Selltiz et al, 1965; Wilkinson and Bhandarkar, 1979) state
that “the ability to perceive in some brute experience the occasion of a problem is not a common
talent among men… it is a mark of scientific genius to be sensitive to difficulties where less
gifted people pass by untroubled by doubt”.

(3) Scientific enquiry is pre-eminently an intellectual effort. It requires the moral quality of
courage, which reflects the courage of a steadfast endurance. The process of conducting research
is not an easy task. There are occasions when a research scientist might feel defeated or
completely lost. This is the stage when a researcher would need immense courage and the sense
of conviction. The researcher must learn the art of enduring intellectual hardships. In the words
of Darwin, “It‟s dogged that does it”. In order to cultivate the afore-mentioned three qualities of
a researcher, a fourth one may be added. This is the quality of making statements cautiously.
According to Huxley, the assertion that outstrips the evidence is not only a blunder but a crime
(Thompson, 1975). A researcg analysis of needs and desires of people, and the availability of
revenues, which requires research. Research helps to formulate alternative policies, in addition to
examining the consequences of these alternatives. Thus, research also facilitates the decision-
making of policy-makers, although in itself is not a part of research. In the process, research also
helps in the proper allocation of a country‟s scarce resources. Research is also necessary for
collecting information on the social and economic structure of an economy to understand the
process of change occurring in the country. Collection of statistical information, though not a
routine task, involves various research problems. Therefore, large staff of research technicians or
experts are engaged by the government these days to undertake this work. Thus, research as a
tool of government economic policy formulation involves three distinct stages of operation :-

(i) investigation of economic structure through continual compilation of facts;

(ii) diagnosis of events that are taking place and analysis of the forces underlying them; and

(iii) the prognosis i.e., the prediction of future developments (Wilkinson and Bhandarkar, 1979).

Research also assumes significance in solving various operational and planning problems
associated with business and industry. In several ways, operations research, market research and
motivational research are vital and their results assist in taking business decisions. Market
research refers to the investigation of the structure and development of a market for the
formulation of efficient policies relating to purchases, production and sales. Operational research
relates to the application of logical, mathematical, and analytical techniques to find solution to
business problems, such as cost minimization or profit maximization, or the optimization
problems. Motivational research helps to determine why people behave in the manner they do
with respect to market characteristics. More specifically, it is concerned with the analysis of the
motivations underlying consumer behaviour. All these researches are very useful for business
and industry, and are responsible for business decision-making. Research is equally important to
social scientists for analyzing the social relationships and seeking explanations to various social
problems. It gives intellectual satisfaction of knowing things for the sake of knowledge. It also
possesses the practical utility for the social scientist to gain knowledge so as to be able to do
something better or in a more 12 efficient manner. The research in social sciences is concerned
with both knowledge for its own sake, and knowledge for what it can contribute to solve
practical problems.

Research Process: Research process consists of a series of steps or actions required for
effectively conducting research. The following are the steps that provide useful procedural
guidelines regarding the conduct of research:

(1) Formulating the research problem;

(2) Extensive literature survey;

(3) Developing hypothesis;

(4) Preparing the research design;

(5) Determining sample design;

(6) Collecting data;

(7) Execution of the project;

(8) Analysis of data

; (9) Hypothesis testing;

(10) Generalization and interpretation, and

(11) Preparation of the report or presentation of the results. In other words, it involves the formal
write-up of conclusions

Research Problem: The first and foremost stage in the research process is to select and properly
define the research problem. A researcher should first identify a problem and formulate it, so as
to make it amenable or susceptible to research. In general, a research problem refers to an
unanswered question that a researcher might encounter in the context of either a theoretical or
practical situation, which he/she would like to answer or find a solution to. A research problem is
generally said to exist if the following conditions emerge (Kothari, 1988):

i. There should be an individual or an organisation, say X, to whom the Problem can be

attributed. The individual or the organization is situated in an environment Y, which is governed
by certain uncontrolled variables

ii. There should be at least two courses of action to be pursued, say A1 and A2. These courses of
action are defined by one or more values of the controlled variables. For example, the number of
items purchased at a specified time is said to be one course of action.

iii. There should be atleast two alternative possible outcomes of the said courses of action, say
B1 and B2. Of them, one alternative should be preferable to the other. That is, atleast one
outcome should be what the researcher wants, which becomes an objective.

iv. The courses of possible action available must offer a chance to the researcher to achieve the
objective, but not the equal chance. Therefore, if P(Bj / X, A, Y) represents the probability of the
occurrence of an outcome Bj when X selects Aj in Y, then P(B1 / X, A1,Y) ≠ P (B1 / X, A2, Y).
Putting it in simple words, it means that the choices must not have equal efficiencies for the
desired outcome. Above all these conditions, the individual or organisation may be said to have
arrived at the research problem only if X does not know what course of action to be taken is the
best. In other words, X should have a doubt about the solution. Thus, an individual or a group of
persons can be said to have a problem if they have more than one desired outcome. They should
have two or more alternative courses of action, which have some but not equal efficiency. This is
required for probing the desired objectives, such that they have doubts about the best course of
action to be taken. Thus, the components of a research problem may be summarised as:

i. There should be an individual or a group who have some difficulty or problem.

ii. There should be some objective(s) to be pursued. A person or an organization who wants
nothing cannot have a problem

. iii. There should be alternative ways of pursuing the objective the researcher wants to pursue.
This implies that there should be more than one alternative means available to the researcher.
This is because if the researcher has no choice of alternative means, he/she would not have a

iv. There should be some doubt in the mind of the researcher about the choice of alternative
means. This implies that research should answer the question relating to the relative efficiency or
suitability of the possible alternatives.

v. There should be a context to which the difficulty relates. Thus, identification of a research
problem is the pre-condition to conducting research.

A research problem is said to be the one which requires a researcher to find the best available
solution to the given problem. That is, the researcher needs to find out the best course of action
through which the research objective may be achieved optimally in the context of a given
situation. Several factors may contribute to making the problem complicated. For example, the
environment may alter, thus affecting the efficiencies of the alternative courses of action taken or
the quality of the outcomes. The number of alternative courses of action might be very large and
the individual not involved in making the decision may be affected by the change in environment
and may react to it favorably or unfavorably. Other similar factors are also likely to cause such
changes in the context of research, all of which may be considered from the point of view of a
research problem

Some of the important concepts relating to Research Design are discussed below:

1. Dependent And Independent Variables: A magnitude that varies is known as a variable. The
concept may assume different quantitative values like height, weight, income etc. Qualitative
variables are not quantifiable in the strictest sense of the term. However, the qualitative
phenomena may also be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of the attribute(s)
considered. The phenomena that assume different values quantitatively even in decimal points
are known as „continuous variables‟. But all variables need not be continuous. Values that can be
expressed only in integer values are called „non-continuous variables‟. In statistical terms, they

are also known as „discrete variables‟. For example, age is a continuous variable, whereas the
number of children is a non-continuous variable. When changes in one variable depend upon the
changes in other variable or variables, it is known as a dependent or endogenous variable, and
the variables that cause the changes in the dependent variable are known as the independent or
explanatory or exogenous variables. For example, if demand depends upon price, then demand is
a dependent variable, while price is the independent variable. And, if more variables determine
demand, like income and price of the substitute commodity, then demand also depends upon
them in addition to the price of original commodity. In other words, demand is a dependent
variable which is determined by the independent variables like price of the original commodity,
income and price of substitutes.

2. Extraneous Variables: The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose
of the study but affect the dependent variables, are know researcher, it would be known as an
extraneous variable. The influence caused by the extraneous variable(s) on the dependent
variable is technically called the „experimental error‟. Therefore, a research study should always
be framed in such a manner that the influence of extraneous variables on the dependent
variable/s is completely controlled, and the influence of independent variable/s is clearly evident.

3. Control: One of the most important features of a good research design is to minimize the
effect of extraneous variable(s). Technically, the term „control‟ is used when a researcher designs
the study in such a manner that it minimizes the effects of extraneous variables. The term
„control‟ is used in experimental research to reflect the restrain in experimental conditions.

4. Confounded Relationship: The relationship between the dependent and independent variables
is said to be confounded by an extraneous variable, when the dependent variable is not free from
its effects.

5. Research Hypothesis: When a prediction or a hypothesized relationship is tested by adopting
scientific methods, it is known as research hypothesis. The research hypothesis is a predictive
statement which relates to a dependent variable and an independent variable. Generally, a
research hypothesis must consist of at least one dependent variable and one independent variable.
Whereas, the relationships that are assumed but not to be tested are predictive statements that are
not to be objectively verified, thus are not classified as research hypotheses.

6. Experimental and Non-experimental Hypothesis Testing Research: When the objective of a

research is to test a research hypothesis, it is known as hypothesis-testing research. Such research
may be in the nature of experimental design or non-experimental design. The research in which
the independent variable is manipulated is known as „experimental hypothesis-testing research‟,
whereas the research in which the independent variable is not manipulated is termed as „non-
experimental hypothesis testing research‟. For example, assume that a researcher wants to
examine whether family income influences the school attendance of a group of students, by
calculating the coefficient of correlation between the two variables. Such an example is known
as a non-experimental hypothesis testing research, because the independent variable - family
income is not manipulated here. Again assume that the researcher randomly selects 150 students
from a group of students who pay their school fees regularly and then classifies them into two
sub-groups by randomly including 75 in Group A, whose parents have regular earning, and 75 in
Group B, whose parents do not have regular earning. Assume that at the end of the study, the
researcher conducts a test on each group in order to examine the effects of regular earnings of the
parents on the school attendance of the student. Such a study is an example of experimental
hypothesis-testing research, because in this particular study the independent variable regular
earnings of the parents have been manipulated.

7. Experimental And Control Groups: When a group is exposed to usual conditions in an

experimental hypothesis-testing research, it is known as „control group‟. On the other hand,
when the group is exposed to certain new or special condition, it is known as an „experimental
group‟. In the afore-mentioned example, Group A can be called as control group and Group B as

experimental group. If both the groups, A and B are exposed to some special feature, then both
the groups may be called as „experimental groups‟. A research design may include only the
experimental group or both the experimental and control groups together.

8. Treatments: Treatments refer to the different conditions to which the experimental and control
groups are subject to. In the example considered, the two treatments are the parents with regular
earnings and those with no regular earnings. Likewise, if a research study attempts to examine
through an experiment the comparative effect of three different types of fertilizers on the yield of
rice crop, then the three types of fertilizers would be treated as the three treatments.

9. Experiment: Experiment refers to the process of verifying the truth of a statistical hypothesis
relating to a given research problem. For instance, an experiment may be conducted to examine
the yield of a certain new variety of rice crop developed. Further, Experiments may be
categorized into two types, namely, „absolute experiment‟ and „comparative experiment‟. If a
researcher wishes to determine the impact of a chemical fertilizer on the yield of a particular
variety of rice crop, then it is known as absolute experiment. Meanwhile, if the researcher wishes
to determine the impact of chemical fertilizer as compared to the impact of bio-fertilizer, then the
experiment is known as a comparative experiment.

10. Experimental Unit(s): Experimental units refer to the pre-determined plots, characteristics or
the blocks, to which different treatments are applied. It is worth mentioning here that such
experimental units must be selected with great caution.





1 . Do the firm have proper inventory management for the storage of the products ?

S. no Particulars Respondent Percentage

1. No 3 30 %
2. Yes 7 70%
Total 10 100%

1st Qtr
2nd Qtr


80% of the customers think that there is a proper inventory management and 20% of
the customer think there is no proper inventory management

2. Is proper training given by the company to their employees to know about the
product handling and proper usage to avoid the wastage ?

S.no Particulars Respondent Percentage

1. Yes 6 60%
2. No 4 40%
Total 10 100%


60% of the customers think that perfect training is given regarding handling and usage of
products , 40 % customers are not satisfied.

3. How is the inspection and testing instructions provided by the suppliers to their
personnels for handling and delivering the product ?

S.no. Particulars Respondent Percentage

1. Bad 1 10%
2. Good 3 30%
3. Satisfactory 3 30%
4. very satisfactory 3 30%
Total 10 100%

1st Qtr
2nd Qtr
3rd Qtr
4th Qtr


30% Customer says it is satisfactory,very satisfactory and good , but 10% say it is bad.

4. which product of Ashok Marble have an increasing demand ?

S.no Particulars Respondent Percentage

1. Granite 2 20%
2. Tiles 4 40%
3. Marbles 1 10%
4. Stone 3 30%
Total 10 100%







20% Of the customers are satisfied with Granite and 40% with Tiles and 30% with Stone
and 10% of customer are satisfied with Marbles.

5. How do the firm maintain the quality practice of the products ?

S.no. Particulars Respondent Percentage

1. Simplifying the 1 10%
2. Quality control 1 10%
3. Inspection 3 30%
4. Stock 5 50%
Total 10 100%

1st Qtr
2nd Qtr
3rd Qtr
4th Qtr


50% Of the quality practice is done by stock management , and 30% is done by
inspection , 10% is done by simplifying the product and 10% of quality practice is done
by quality control management.

6. Is Ashok Marble is competing the satisfaction level of customer ?

S.no Particulars Respondent Percentage

1. Yes 8 80%
2. No 2 20%
Total 10 100%

1st Qtr
2nd Qtr


80% Of the customers are satisfied with the service and product of ashok marble and
20% are not satisfied.

7. How the records of the raw materials are maintained ?


1. MANNUAL 5 30%
TOTAL 10 100%

1st Qtr
2nd Qtr


70% of records of raw material are computerized and 30% of records of raw materials are
manually maintained.






 People find the service of Ashok Marble fast and friendly .

 A major section of people consume products of Ashok Marble.
 Low advertisement done.
 Granite , tiles ,marbles and stones are the products which are more loved by the
consumers of the Ashok Marble.
 Consumers are well satisfied with the product of Ashok Marble.
 Ashok Marble has come up with employment opportunities.
 The selection of the suppliers of the product is done on the basis of honest ,
frequent communication and ability to deliver as soon as possible.
 The firm maintain the quality practice of the product by employee training
quality control management.
 The location of the shop is the main advantage.
 People give weightage to all the four factors i.e; quality , taste , price and
 Just in time strategy is followed by the company to increase efficiency and
minimize waste by receiving goods only as they are needed in production
process . this also reduces inventory cost.


1. There is boundation of time.

2. As the customers cannot give the information about the product in their
working hours , therefore it was difficult to collect information in time.






From this analysis it is seen that the satisfaction level about the over – all service does
not depend on response time or price but depends on the level of satisfaction with quality
. it is therefore clear that the customer‟s perception about service level depends on their
perception about quality.

It is also seen that satisfaction level with quality depends on the rejection rates
experienced by the customers. Therefore the company should make efforts to ensure
that the rejection level at the customer end is minimized . this will improve the
customer‟s perception about quality as well as service level.

Since the period of response and price levels do not influence perception about service
level , it is adequate if the company maintains the present level but concentrate its effort
in reducing rejections experienced by the customer.

It is also found that most of the customers are satisfied with the output and working of
Ashok Marble but at the same time due to low production capacity and low marketing
skills the chief aim of the company is still to be achieved.


1. Advertisement must be given more importance.

2. Employment opportunities must be increased.
3. Price should be rescheduled.
4. Marketing strategies should be revised and innovative.
5. Care should be taken to improve the service efficiency that aids to retain the
existing customers.
6. Company has to get periodical feedbacks from all its customers and it can track
them constantly to know their queries.
7. The responses of the customers regarding the level of satisfaction region . the
management must take step to convert these into highly satisfactory ragion.




 Kothari C.R – “ Research methodology”,edition 2nd year 2004.


 www.google .com
 www.wikipedia.org
 www.encyclopedia.com


Details of the Respondent :-

Name –

Address –

Phone no. –

Gender – male[ ] female[ ]

1. Do the firm have proper inventory of raw materials ?

a. Yes
b. No

2. Is proper training given by the company to their employees to know about the
raw materials handling and proper usage to avoid the wastage ?
a. Yes
b. No
3. How is the inspection and testing instructions provided by the suppliers to their
personnels for handling and delivering the product ?

a. Bad
b. Good
c. Satisfactory

d. Very satisfactory

4. Which product of Ashok Marble have an increasing demand ?

a. Granite
b. Tiles
c. Marbles
d. stones

5. How do the firm maintain the quality practice of the products ?

a. Simplifying the product

b. Quality control management
c. Inspection
d. Stock management

6. Is Ashok Marble is competing the satisfaction level of the customers ?

a. yes

b. no

7. How the records of raw materials are maintained ?

a . Mannual

b. computerized